Final evaluation of the Beyond Bentiu Protection of Civilian Site (PoC) Youth Reintegration Strategy: Creating Conditions for Peaceful Coexistence between Youth Internally Displaced Persons, Returnees and Host Community Members”

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2019-2021, South Sudan
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
04/2020
Completion Date:
12/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
40,000

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Title Final evaluation of the Beyond Bentiu Protection of Civilian Site (PoC) Youth Reintegration Strategy: Creating Conditions for Peaceful Coexistence between Youth Internally Displaced Persons, Returnees and Host Community Members”
Atlas Project Number: 00102663
Evaluation Plan: 2019-2021, South Sudan
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2019
Planned End Date: 04/2020
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Poverty
  • 2. Governance
  • 3. Not Applicable
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.1.2 Marginalised groups, particularly the poor, women, people with disabilities and displaced are empowered to gain universal access to basic services and financial and non-financial assets to build productive capacities and benefit from sustainable livelihoods and jobs
  • 2. Output 2.2.3 Capacities, functions and financing of rule of law and national human rights institutions and systems strengthened to expand access to justice and combat discrimination, with a focus on women and other marginalised groups
  • 3. Output 3.2.1 National capacities strengthened for reintegration, reconciliation, peaceful management of conflict and prevention of violent extremism in response to national policies and priorities
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
SDG Target
  • 16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
  • 16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
  • 4.4 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
Evaluation Budget(US $): 40,000
Source of Funding: Peacbuilding Fund
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 35,000
Joint Programme: Yes
Joint Evaluation: Yes
  • Joint with UN Agencies
  • Joint with IOM
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Boniface Odundo Mr. bonifaceodundo@gmail.com KENYA
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: UNDP, government of South Sudan, PBF, and Civil Society
Countries: SOUTH SUDAN
Lessons
1.

Use of indirect approaches to engage youth as peace builders: In providing startup kits, trainings on livelihood and entrepreneurship to a diverse group of youth from the POC and host communities of Bentiu and Rubkona towns, although they were from different ethnic, religious communities, and political divide most came from economically marginalized backgrounds and faced similar challenges in their communities. Through trainings in basic entrepreneurial and livelihood skills, these young people became more comfortable working together. Initial tensions melted off and cohesions formed. What starts as some little comfort working together are the foundation and building blocks of peaceful coexistence between different groups and communities. In addition to supporting local residents, they provided a positive example of coexistence and resilience in the face of intolerance and violence. Showing them how to foster peace in their communities through action and shared experiences was more effective.


2.

Creation of employment increases the chance for peace: Bringing together divided groups is an approach used by the implementing NGOs - IOM and UNDP. Youth having been trained on the employment skills and the youths working together in businesses, sports and being trained together, the tensions are reduced if not eliminated. The youth are no longer idle and are a source of inspiration and provisions for their families. Their commitment into the livelihood activities draws them away from risky behaviors and vulnerability to participate in conflict.

KII participant “If the youth are unemployed, not civically engaged and out of school disillusioned and hopeless,” he warns, “there is a bigger problem waiting”


3.

Creating space for youth to lead: From the youth led Forum and Union, Youth Center and youth livelihood groups, it is evident that given young peoples’ openness, energy and creativity, they are especially well-positioned to come up with new ideas to address community problems. They can play a vital role in the peace-building process by modeling alternatives to violence and showing that change can be made peacefully. Youth need to be empowered to lead community development and advocacy initiatives so that they can inspire others to action.

“Our voices and action in peace building are heard and within the community’’ KII Youth Forum, “The creation of spaces for youth to express their opinion to decision-makers and broader society ensures that they have the opportunity to be heard too.”

In addition to trainings on theories of conflict resolution, youth were actively engaged in youth in activities that highlight the values of civic activism and peace building. Youth have the drive and capacity39 to truly effect change given the chance.


4.

Successful partnerships strengthen the capacity of projects and interventions to broaden their reach, engage more stakeholders and achieve shared objectives: Partnerships can achieve greater outcomes than individuals or organizations acting alone. Partnerships achieve increased benefits because of shared expertise, skills and resources exhibited.


5.

Knowledge products through comprehensive situational analyses are key to inform the design of integrated peace building programmes that result in greater impacts to the beneficiaries. Use of reliable data to inform project designs results in effective and efficient implementation of interventions with both short and long term impacts to the beneficiaries. An understanding of motivations of young people who do not engage with conflict or deal with conflict in a non-violent manner and a more nuanced and in-depth understanding of the motivations and drivers for young people who do engage in violence. The types of basic education, skill-building and employment opportunities required/available to youth, how youth deal with unemployment and how this may drive youth to conflict-based income and how migration influences youth livelihoods opportunities, or vice versa.


6.

The blending of peace-building or social stability interventions in post−conflict setting with sector−specific programs in livelihood, agriculture, infrastructure development, entrepreneurial skills and capacity development, basic education, economic growth and work skill development and access to justice is more cost effective than investments in stand-alone prevention or mitigation efforts.


7.

Both formal non-formal education programs are powerful innovations through which knowledge and skills are passed to the youths to influence their attitude which would further lead to change in practice. The gradual change in attitude and practice has led the youths to participate fully in peace building and conflict resolution initiatives, non-violence environment, peer and community leadership and civic participation. Gradually, a more responsible youth is being realized.


Findings
1.

The project supported a number of activities that built the capacity of the youth and gave them mandate to be directly involved in leadership and decision-making in conflict prevention and mitigation processes.


Tag: Effectiveness Project and Programme management Crisis prevention Youth

2.

The formation and strengthening of platforms such as peace committees, unity forums and advocacy groups transforms their roles from actors in conflicts to “champions of peace” and positive change agents with skills to transform conflicts.


Tag: Effectiveness Peace Building Promotion of dialogue Security Social cohesion Advocacy

3.

The majority (90%) believed the project was either very relevant or relevant, 8.8% indicated that the project was somehow relevant, while only 1.2% felt that the project was not relevant. Those that believed the project was relevant explained that due to the design and implementation strategies of the project it ensured specific targeting that addressed needs and interests of the beneficiaries.


Tag: Impact Relevance Project and Programme management

4.

The interventions were effective and made commendable progress towards anticipated outcomes and outputs for all activities including building the youths’ human, social, physical and financial capital thereby empowering the youths.


Tag: Effectiveness Resource mobilization Youth

5.

The project surpassed the target number of males and females participating in social cohesion platforms by 650(108%) and the target parcentage of females by 5%.


Tag: Gender Equality Gender Parity Women's Empowerment Results-Based Management Social cohesion

6.

Through the project, social cohesion and peaceful co-existence was believed to be slowly and gradually being achieved. 58% of the youths interviewed reported reduction of violence among the youth and communities in the POC and host community due to behavior change approaches, conflict prevention and mitigation mechanisms. This indicates the effectiveness of the project.


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Conflict Conflict resolution Crisis prevention Peace Building Security Social cohesion Youth

7.

The project establishment of inter-ethnic gender inclusive peace committees was part of its uniqueness. The committees increased awareness levels of the human rights and case reporting pathways by the youth -70% would report cases of abuse to the UN police at the POC and 65% would do so at the Community High Committee, while outside POC 62% would report cases to the police and the local leadership at 34%. This also indicates that the project relevant and effective.


Tag: Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Human rights Social cohesion

8.

Due to facilitation by IOM and UNDP and the cooperation from the implementing partners, key stakeholders and respondents themselves, the success rate for the interviews was quite high. All the 12 focused group discussions (FGDs) planned were held; 53 key informant interviews (KII) were held against 45 planned. In total the evaluation conducted 309 surveys against 300 planned.

4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents All the face to face interviews were carried out in Bentiu and Rubkona in Northern Liech of Greater Unity State, Host community comprised majority (50%) of the respondents followed by Youth IDPs (48%) and Returnees at 2%. Majority, 55% of the respondents were female while males were 45%, this could have been attributed to the deliberate effort by the project design to include majority of youth female in the activities.

Majority (86%) of the respondents were married, 12% were single, widowed (1%) and divorced were each 1%. The respondents’ level of education was very low since majority (59.0%) had not completed primary education, 13.0% of the respondents completed primary and (13%) secondary education, 5.5% completed primary but did not complete secondary education, and 7.5% completed college while 2.0% did not complete college. In regard to the source of income, majority16,(53.1%) of the respondent’s the informal employment, 35.3% were self-employed, and 8.6% were in formal employment while 3.0% were not employed. Other sources of income included; farming (53.6%), remittance from relatives (17.6%), spouse/parent provision (13.7%), collecting firewood (3.9%) while 11.2% of the respondents had other sources attributed to the project interventions.

4.2 Key Strategies of Peace Through design and implementation, the project endeavored to promote interventions that address the overall goal of preventing conflict and sustaining peace. The evaluation assessment observed that this strategy ensured that the project remained relevant to the specific needs and interest of the different beneficiaries, as well as being effective and sustaining itself against the shocks in the fragile environment. It’s important to note that preventing conflict and sustaining peace are two interrelated concepts and sometimes one strategy can do both. Find below (in 4.2.1 and 4.2.2) how IOM and UNDP, and the implementing partners employed various strategies and interventions to ensure the goal and twin themes of conflict prevention and peace sustenance were emphasized thus enhancing the continued relevance, effectiveness and potential sustainability of the project


Tag: Impact Sustainability Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender Parity Gender-Based Violence Knowledge management Ownership Results-Based Management Conflict resolution Crisis prevention Peace Building Inclusive economic growth Micro-credit Urbanization Capacity Building Displaced People Youth

9.

4.3.1 The project relevance, appropriateness and strategic positioning

The project partners (IOM and UNDP) strategically positioned the project since the conceptualization and design was based on the outcome of the consultation with the youth in and out of the POC, community leaders, and local authorities in Bentiu and Rubkona. The planning, design and implementation of the interventions considered local context which made the implementing partners to understand and support the peacebuilding, livelihoods and capacities of the affected population thereby promoting relevance and appropriateness of the response. Furthermore, the activities were geared towards empowering the youths, transform their perceptions towards aid dependencies and encourage self-reliance through creativity and innovation since the youths are the most at risk of violence and exploitation, including recruitment to organized social groups often aligned around a destructive goal.


Tag: Data and Statistics SDG Integration Youth Relevance Human rights Justice system Rule of law Innovation Partnership Project and Programme management Strategic Positioning UN Agencies Peace Building Security Social cohesion Jobs and Livelihoods

10.

4.3.2 Effectiveness of the Project

Overall, the project was successful and effective in achieving its objectives/results and has made commendable progress towards anticipated outcomes and outputs for all activities. Through assessments, mapping exercises, trainings and cultural interventions, the key youth groups in the Bentiu Protection of Civilian (POC) site and youths in Rubkona and Bentiu towns were brought together. The project design was holistic thus addressing the needs, concerns and interests of different youth while creating platforms for dialogue and opportunities for building bridges and nurturing cohesion. The project was effective in building the youths’ human, social, physical and financial capital thereby empowering the youths. The project was effective through the use market appraisal and assessment studies in building the capacity of Local Service Providers in the market place. The project established inter-ethnic gender inclusivity –integrated youth peace committees from youth IDPs and host community. The 45% women participation among youth peace committees is a significant transformation towards gender equality. The equal representation of females has a disticnt advantage as a real human impact as one of the female member noted: “…I feel empowered, I feel it lies on our shoulders to promote peace for development, now we realize how important is the role of women for peacebuilding…"One of the Women Peace Committee Member. When increased participation of or enhanced voice of women is reported in the project, there are higher chances that that specific gender issues such as GBV and sexual abuse could be discussed and addressed. The gender composition of the trained Peace committes is presented in Figure 2 below;


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender-Based Violence Women's Empowerment Peace Building Social cohesion Jobs and Livelihoods Displaced People Youth

11.

4.3.3 Efficiency of the Project

The project got off to a slow start due to some management constraints and unavoidable circumstances (rainy season and bad roads). The implementing organization and local partners’ high staff turnover at the CSOs project management levels slightly affected the timely implementation of the project as new personnel had to be recruited and trained resulting in delays. At the start of the project implementation, one of the key partners, UNDP, did not have a physical presence in the project area at the start of the project. This somehow led to delays in the implementation of the project. This issue was addressed in mid-2018 when UNDP established an office in the area.


Tag: Challenges Efficiency Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Operational Efficiency Civil Societies and NGOs

12.

4.3.4 Real Human Impacts of the Project

Many of the youth in the POC and in Bentiu and Rubkona towns were believed to have engaged in criminal activities due to lack of income-generating opportunities. The project activities have provided new opportunities for the youth in the POC and in Bentiu town to engage in alternative and constructive activities, such as market ready skills training, business modeled youth center, and renovation of schools. The spokesperson for the Youth Union stated: “When youths are not engaged, they will be involved in cattle raiding and gang activities. Engaging youths is preventing criminal activities from spreading in the state. This is a way to reduce violence in the state and in South Sudan.” 


Tag: Impact Gender Parity Gender-Based Violence Human rights Justice system Rule of law Conflict Peace Building Promotion of dialogue Security Social cohesion Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Displaced People Vulnerable Youth

13.

4.3.5 Social Inclusion, Human Rights and Gender Equity

The youths have always been socially excluded group from the necessary opportunities to be active in society. Social inclusion therefore is the extent that individuals, families, and communities are able to fully participate in society and control their own destinies, taking into account a variety of factors related to economic resources, employment, health, education, housing, recreation, culture, and civic engagement. To empower the poor and marginalized people to take advantage of opportunities, the intervention employed a multi-dimensional process aimed at creating conditions which enable full and active participation of both female and male in all aspects of life, including civic, social and economic activities, as well as participation in decision making processes within the youth groups.


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Human rights Justice system Communication Displaced People Peace Building Promotion of dialogue Social cohesion Technology Youth

14.

4.3.6 Partnerships and collaborations

While most partnerships may need formal agreements, such as a contract or a memorandum of understanding, others may only need simple records of commitments and agreements made. It is essential to identify the most appropriate documentation to support the partnership. In this project, partnerships existed at different levels – this was determined by how much resources and information are shared, and the willingness to change activities and increase capacity for a common purpose, or for mutual benefit. The implementing agencies (IOM and UNDP) partnered with local CSOs as IPs, relevant government ministries and departments and other NGOs in order to implement the project.


Tag: Anti-corruption Knowledge management Partnership Project and Programme management Civil Societies and NGOs Country Government UN Agencies Peace Building

15.

4.3.7Sustainability of the Impacts Gained

As in other programs, there is a challenge to sustaining the level of these efforts, as expectations have been raised in terms of infrastructure, trainings, and social opportunities. Project sustainability is ensuring that the institutions or communities supported through projects and the benefits realized are maintained and continued after the end of the project. Ensuring sustainability means making sure that the goals of the project continue to be met through activities that are consistent with the current conditions and development needs of the region, including the needs of the community.

In this section, this evaluation reviews sustainability on the basis of four factors attendant to the sustainability of community projects:


Tag: Sustainability Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Micro-credit Technology Youth

16.

4.4 Challenges

Limited impact of the trainings and civic education - skills capacity, knowledge, understanding and awareness of rights and civic duties increased significantly through the training, to ensure sustained impact on socio-economic gains, citizen identities and social reintegration, training must be extended and expanded to reach more people and embed attitudinal changes already achieved.

Inexperienced youths in small group management - The group model approach for the livelihood components of the project was effective though the size of the groups were large for their lack of experience to maintain the business momentum. Suggestively the groups should be small units to enable effective and efficient management of group affairs and meaningful sharing of gains.

In regards to area context –there was a need to understand the context of the localities of operation by the implementers is key. The rainy season affected the implementation of the project leading to the 6 month no cost extension period. 


Tag: Challenges Effectiveness Knowledge management Education Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

17.

4. 5 Best Practices

For the implementing organizations to leverage youth engagement to shun violence inherent in their communities and to promote reintegration and peaceful co-existence, IOM, UNDP and the IPs (Implementing Partners) employed some best practices through program design and management that gave young people the opportunities they need to become agents of peace. This was through;

a. The design of the program by IOM and UNDP based on researched evidence through knowledge production was a best practice in programming. It guides the implementers in the planning activities from an informed position, tracking and monitoring the outcomes and outputs effectively and maximizes the impacts of gains.; b. The deliberate efforts in developing Peace-building strategies for and with youth, ensuring consistent attention to gender equality and young women’s participation. This ensured implementation of and complementarily with the gender-responsive building within the project. c. Enhanced peace-building knowledge and skills of youth - Through the provision of trainings on Conflict Resolution mechanisms, Dialogue, Conflict Management, Case reporting channels and livelihood and entrepreneurship skills training, youth were able to become more effective change-makers in their communities creating positive impact albeit with the minimal resources. “The youth trainings were content-based on topics such as conflict, peace building, gender,”


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Relevance Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Knowledge management Conflict resolution Peace Building Social cohesion Jobs and Livelihoods Women and gilrs Youth

18.

Continues from Finding 8

4.2.1 Conflict Prevention (continuation)

• Through a strong evidence base design, the project prepared to adapt different implementing options in different security situations and geographical contexts thus increasing potential for efficiency, effectiveness, relevance and sustainability. The design prepared the project to use conflict sensitive mechanisms and “Do No Harm”.

• The documentaries produced on the lives of young male and female IDPs and Host community members to build knowledge and mutual understanding on gender-specific basis for groups created more awareness on gender and ethnic /clan sensitivities thus helping to prevent sexual and GBV, and inter-ethnic conflicts.

• The provision of gender diverse business start-up kits intended to stimulate income generation and economic growth for IDP and Host community members gave the youth opportunities to engage in self-employment re-directing their energies and predisposition to engage in crime or be recruited by militia groups. This intervention had the potential not only to prevent conflicts but sustain peace as well.

• By youth from the POC and host communities forming business and entrepreneurship groups, participating in joint sports and cultural activities effectively ensured breaking of barriers and tension. 


Tag: Relevance Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Communication Knowledge management Ownership Programme/Project Design Conflict resolution Crisis prevention Inclusive economic growth Capacity Building Displaced People Women and gilrs Youth

19.

4.3.1 The project relevance, appropriateness and strategic positioning (continues from finding 9)

The SDGs aim to significantly reduce all forms of violence, and work with governments and communities to end conflict and insecurity. Promoting the rule of law and human rights are key to this process, as is reducing the flow of illicit arms and strengthening the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance. It is on this premise that the Beyond Bentiu project becomes relevant to IOM and UNDP as the UN agencies.

In regards to the relevance of the project intervention to the needs of the youth and the general populace, majority (90%) said the project was either very relevant or relevant, 8.8% indicated that the project was somehow relevant, while only 1.2% felt that the project was not relevant as presented in Figure 1 below. On probing further, it turned out that for some the project was ‘relevant’ because it addressed their immediate concerns and needs for safety, security and acceptance; for others it was ‘relevant’ because it gave hope for employment and livelihoods; yet for others it was relevant because it built their capacity to once again play important roles in society and regain self-worth. This shows the relevance and strategic positioning of the project in meeting the safety and security needs of the beneficiciaries by creating a peaceful condition in a fragile environment.


Tag: Relevance Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Human rights Rule of law Communication Strategic Positioning Conflict resolution Peace Building Social cohesion Jobs and Livelihoods Data and Statistics SDG Integration Youth

20.

4.3.2 Effectiveness of the Project (Contintinuation from Finding 10)

The survey, however, confirmed that majority (89.6%) of the youth IDPs (52% female) were willing to return to their original homes, an indication that they believe on the peace process and coexistance with other community members as presented in the Figure 3 below. The willingness to return has been informed or influenced by social cohesion and interdependencies created by the project interventions. However, other than peace and cohesion, it may have been informed by factors between the different community groups. It could, for instance, be informed by reduction in the activities of armed militia groups and availability of basic services and livelihood opportunities in their homes of origin and desire for family reunion. Conflict Analysis by IOM found out how the different groups of youth including women, girls, poor and disabled among the clans of Nuer were affected by the conflict in Unity State. The main findings of the study, which could be relevant to this final evaluation is that reduction in reported incedents of conflicts could be due to dynamics at the national level i.e R-ARCSS. The evaluation established that there is reported reduction of violence among the youth and communities in the POC and Host community due to behavior change approaches and conflict mitigation mechanisms. Through GBV and Conflict resolution trainings, youths are able to solve cases within the community. This also became evident when the youths were asked if they had witnessed conflict in their area in the past 18 months, majority (58%) said they had not witnessedany conflict in the past 18 months while 42% said they had witnessed conflict in their area in the past 18 months as presented in Figure 4 below. Further, 67% of the youths who indicated that they had witnessed a conflict in their areas in the last 18 months said that they were solved while only 1.8% indicated that the conflicts could not be resolved as presented in Figure 5 below:


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender-Based Violence Women's Empowerment Knowledge management Results-Based Management Conflict resolution Disabilities Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Reduction Displaced People Youth

21.

4.3.4 Real Human Impacts of the Project (continuation from Finding 12)

The rehabilitation of Liech primary school is reported to have provided opportunities for more outof-school pupils, including girls affected by negative cultural beliefs, to enroll and pursue education in the target area. The school has also provided opportunities for youthful graduates to teach on a voluntary basis thus a chance to acquire the much-needed experience. Liech Primary School Deputy Head teacher reported that the school has to deal with the sudden increase in number of pupils since the school was rehabilitated by UNDP.

”we are now able to buy uniforms and buy learning materials for our children to learn without interruptions”… women FGD participants. The youths have taken lead in determining their destiny through youth leadership, which is an explicit process of youth development that focuses on their individual and development of their personal skills (such as self-awareness, self-esteem, confidence, motivation) and social skills (including building relationships, working in groups, and organizational capacities) to guide, direct or influence others and serve as a role model. In this conflict-affected setting, youth leadership has taken on additional dimensions; the youths have gained essential personal skills such as empathy, tolerance and non-discrimination, as well as more societal and political skills in reconciliation and negotiation.Hope and confidence have been built among the youth and community at large and they are taking meaningful roles - leadership structures in government, leading Peace Coordination Forums, taking up jobs in NGOs. Among those who participated in job placements, a number of youths found permanent employment by the end of the project interventions. Youth are gradually seen as assets – at the community and other levels. Indeed, youth across board youth are finding innovative ways to shape their lives and surroundings. …I am an example of a youth leader in the government, this was possible through the trainings and capacity building by the agencies through the Youth Union which I was a chairperson then… says the KII participant.  When inclusion of different communities, genders and age is promoted in the participation of peacebuilding activities, it may lead to specific targeting and tailor made solutions to issues affecting different groups within the population. If youth are capacitated to assume leadership and decision making roles within the peace project, they bring their experiences as victims and perpetrators understand of the issues and better solutions are found.


Tag: Impact Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender-Based Violence Women's Empowerment Human rights Justice system Communication Knowledge management Policies & Procedures Peace Building Education Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

22.

4.3.4 Real Human Impacts of the Project (continuation from Finding 12)

Traditional justice and reconciliation - Traditional approaches to justice and reconciliation often focus on the psycho-social and spiritual dimensions of violent conflicts. Traditional approaches are also often inclusive, with the aim of reintegrating parties on both sides of the conflict into the community. An important component is public cleansing ceremonies, undertaken as an integral step in healing community relationships.

The use of both formal non-formal education programs is a powerful innovation through which knowledge and skills are passed to the youths to influence their attitude which would further lead to change in practice. The gradual change in attitude and practice has led the youths to participate fully in peace building and conflict resolution initiatives, non-violence environment, peer and community leadership and civic participation. Establishment of inter-ethnic gender inclusivity in the youth peace committees from youth IDPs and host community which have culminated into 47% women participation among the integrated youth peace committees is a significance transformation towards gender equality. Equally improved is the increased awareness levels of the human rights and case reporting pathways by the youth -70% would report cases of abuse to the UN police at the POC and 65% would do so at the Community High Committee, while outside POC 62% would report cases to the police and the local leadership at 34%.


Tag: Impact Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender-Based Violence Justice system Rule of law Conflict resolution Peace Building Promotion of dialogue Jobs and Livelihoods Displaced People Women and gilrs Youth

23.

4.3.7Sustainability of the Impacts Gained (Continues from Finding 15)

ii) Social Sustainability Social sustainability is the social support and acceptability, community commitment, social cohesion; ownership. It involves communities, local government and households’ capacity to accept and own the outcomes of the project in ways that are sustainable. There is a good component of social sustainability in this project – social cohesion – the project capitalises on the unifying factors, including community peaceful co-existence through sports, arts and trainings, jointly targeting youth groups inside and outside the POC. One of the good examplesof the unifying factor which would ensure social sustainability is the Youth United for Green and Clean Bentiu.Formation of community structures are key to social sustainability of this project. The community structures formed include: The construction of Youth Centers which is a beehive of activities by the youths, rehabilitation of Liech Primary school, market stalls, Peace Working Group in Bentiu to make informed decisions on behalf of all peace-builidng actors in the State, the Youth Forum in the POC and the Youths Union in Bentiu. The formation of Community High Committee (CHC) as a leadership structure within the POC is an indication of a strong commitment that has enabled youth from POC to go out. The youth round tables and partners equal enagment in cinsulation before and during the projects increased trust and local ownership. 


Tag: Environmental impact assessment Impact Sustainability Conflict resolution Social cohesion Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Capacity Building Technical Support Displaced People Women and gilrs Youth

Recommendations
1

The project should be up scaled and replicated in conflict hot spots in the country with the concept of Youth Centre as a focus to promote integration and social cohesion among the communities. Youth centers are often the most local arm of national youth policy implementation. With regards to the gaps and factors that exists, the diversity across the 3 regions of South Sudan (Upper Nile, Equatoria and Bar el Ghazal), as well as across urban and rural areas.

2

The youth have become respected mediators of conflict prevention and there is a need to continue building youth capacity in conflict resolution and leadership skills, and more practical-focused areas such as advocacy and project management.

3

Livelihoods and resource access can both connect and divide youth. It is important to find creative ways to bring youth together through entrepreneurship engagement. These interventions should seek, where possible, to build on youth’ own capacities and coping mechanisms in such a way that promotes self-reliance and helps them to be able to better manage shocks related to conflict, livelihood loss and food insecurity.

4

The development agencies should collaborate and develop working partnerships with the government and all peace-building stakeholders to promote intergenerational exchange. Rather than working with youths in isolation, peace-building projects seeking the engagement of youths should also include children, parents and elders as this will ensure continuity through

5

Break the culture of gender inequality among young people is a critical key component to forging peaceful futures. Peacebuilding and conflict resolution initiatives at both National and local levels are predominantly led by men while women are disproportionately represented. Development professionals can help achieve this, by identifying local partners and creating platforms to amplify young women’s voices. Target the grass roots and top-level policymakers simultaneously and implementing organizations to work in partnerships so that each plays to their strengths. Longer-term, process-based initiatives are needed to transform power structures, particularly patriarchal moral and social orders and notions of “hyper-masculinity,” which in South Sudan are heavily impacted by bride wealth-based local economies to reduce on the drivers of conflicts.

6

5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations are based on the findings of this evaluation:

1. The impact of the project is great and with the availability of funds, the project should be up scaled and replicated in conflict hot spots in the country with the concept of Youth Centre as a focus to promote integration and social cohesion among the communities. Youth centers are often the most local arm of national youth policy implementation. With regards to the gaps and factors that exists, the diversity across the 3 regions of South Sudan (Upper Nile, Equatoria and Bar el Ghazal), as well as across urban and rural areas. This should be coupled with a synthesis research and analysis of youth in South Sudan. In addition, the Development actors in close collaboration with the Government, or vise visa, should make a more deliberate effort in targeting the hard to reach youths in the cattle camps with the peace messages, behavior change communication and life skill trainings as this will help in getting into dialogue with these category of youths in order to influence the disarmament process which is a key to a relatively stable peace.

2. The youth have become respected mediators of conflict prevention and there is a need to continue building youth capacity in conflict resolution and leadership skills, and more practical-focused areas such as advocacy and project management.

3. Break the culture of gender inequality among young people is a critical key component to forging peaceful futures. Peace-building and conflict resolution initiatives at both National and local levels are predominantly led by men while women are disproportionately represented. Development professionals can help achieve this, by identifying local partners and creating platforms to amplify young women’s voices. Target the grass roots and toplevel policymakers simultaneously, and implementing organizations to work in partnerships so that each plays to their strengths. Longer-term, process-based initiatives are needed to transform power structures, particularly patriarchal moral and social orders and notions of “hyper-masculinity,” which in South Sudan are heavily impacted by bride wealth-based local economies to reduce on the drivers of conflicts.

4. Livelihoods and resource access can both connect and divide youth. It is important to find creative ways to bring youth together through entrepreneurship engagement. These interventions should seek, where possible, to build on youth’ own capacities and coping mechanisms in such a way that promotes self-reliance and helps them to be able to better manage shocks related to conflict, livelihood loss and food insecurity.

5. Youth also need to be supported to develop their own priorities for peace, which is yet another way to help to combat feelings of exclusion and disenfranchisement and provide youth with a sense of empowerment outside of violence and crime. Youth programming should enhance the voices and perspectives of the youth who are actually implicated in ongoing violence, whether in the form of criminality (youth gangs), or rural insecurity (cattle youth militia). Involving armed and criminalized youth is imperative to ensuring ownership over norms and processes that encourage peace and wider societal transformational, which is particularly critical when considering their exclusion from national-level agreements, as well as political and community structures.

6. To ensure sustainability and knowledge management, the youth should be supported and encouraged to form local peace networks across the country and join the existing local or international youth-led networks for peace building initiatives focused on international advocacy for youth participation in peace building and strengthening the capacity as youth peace building organizations in the form of training series, long-term partnerships and publications. Ensure the framework for youth engagement focusing on organizational factors, physical space, mobilization and exposure. The young people should also be encouraged to learn about national or regional peace priorities while helping them work toward their own peace priorities. Use of modern avenues of communication and networking. The development agencies should collaborate with relevant authorities and communication organizations to embrace the use of information and communication technology (ICT) In peace-building initiatives. Most youths in South Sudan, own mobile phones and easily access internet and pass messages through these phones. A free SMSbased platform through which youths can express their views on what is happening in their communities can also offer some promising spaces of expression for meaningful youth participation in peace building.

7. There is need for more support for the youths by the International NGOs and effective and well established local CSOs to create greater impact in peace building. There is a need to give the youth access to the mentors, facilitators, educational programs and networks that can hone their conflict resolution and leadership skills, and more practical-focused areas such as advocacy and project management. Provision of training and mentorship programmes to the existing in-country youth networks and facilitating youth connections at individual and organizational levels, ideas, challenges and best practices in peace-building can be shared to enhance individual and youth group capacities to handling conflicts. Further, as recognition of the positive role youths play in peace-building grows, the government and development actors should help in the operationalization of guidelines on the UN Guiding Principles on Young People’s Participation in Peace-building, South Sudan National Action Plan 2015 and Strategy on Youth Policy in peace and help the youth to apply the principles

8. The development actors should embrace continued participatory mentorship, capacity building and strengthened monitoring and evaluation systems for the participating youths. UNICEF’s U-report https://www.internetworldstats.com/africa.htm#ss The low literacy levels by most of the youthsdemandforregular and continued skills mentorship and empowerment for peace building impacts and sustainability of the livelihood gains. Coupled with lack of financial support, the youth peace-building activities often have very limited provision for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of their work and therefore impeding the visibility and sustainability of their initiatives. But beyond increased financial support, innovative approaches that encourages youth active role to evaluate the impact of youth engagement in conflict resolution must be used – particularly those that build on qualitative evidence and participative approaches.

9. Peace building activities need to consider how to link local-level and national-level processes so that grass roots peace efforts effectively reinforces developments at the national level, while at the same time providing a buffer against the negative impacts of elite competition. As other research on peacebuilding in South Sudan has pointed out, mapping the connections between national and local interests can provide windows into the kind of longer-term change that is needed, allowing people to overcome long-standing grievances, many of which stem to previous episodes of civil war in what is now South Sudan. In this project, dynamics at the national level remain a big threat to the peace building gains made.

10. Just as reconciliation and social cohesion are important moving forward, so too is broader transitional justice that acknowledges and addresses peoples’ grievances. This entails thinking about linking youth and peacebuilding programmes to access to justice programmes, as well as other processes that serve as a form of recognition for the harm done, such as symbolic reparations. 

11. Longer-term, process-based initiatives are needed to transform power structures, particularly patriarchal moral and social orders and notions of “hyper-masculinity,” which in South Sudan are heavily impacted by bride wealth-based local economies. Significantly, inclusivity is key to countering the otherwise exclusionary and discriminative processes that have been characteristic of attempts to broker peace in South Sudan. Inclusivity cannot be done simply by bringing people together. Peace activities must, of necessity, seek to bring together youth from different clans/communities, as well as female and male genders and also focus on the power structures that inhibit meaningful participation in different processes in the first instance. Engaging men and community leaders through both gender and inter-generational dialogues can help in dismantling some of the structures that exclude both male and female youth. Finally, the development agencies should collaborate and develop working partnerships with the government and all peace-building stakeholders to promote intergenerational exchange. Rather than working with youths in isolation, peace-building projects seeking the engagement of youths should also include children, parents and elders as this will ensure continuity through sharing of rich information and experiences. 

1. Recommendation:

The project should be up scaled and replicated in conflict hot spots in the country with the concept of Youth Centre as a focus to promote integration and social cohesion among the communities. Youth centers are often the most local arm of national youth policy implementation. With regards to the gaps and factors that exists, the diversity across the 3 regions of South Sudan (Upper Nile, Equatoria and Bar el Ghazal), as well as across urban and rural areas.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2020/11/08]

UNDP appreciates the recommendation and will work with relevant actors on having the project scaled up and replicated in conflict hotspots with the concept of Youth Centre as a focus to promote integration and social cohesion among the communities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct consultations with relevant agencies, government ministries and relevant stakeholders/ partners on the need to up- scale and replicate programme to conflict hotspot for promotion of integration and social cohesion.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/10 Completed UNDP Peace and community cohesion project renovated youth center in Yei and used to upscale the contribution of youth in the peace building and social cohesion in the area (Yei Youth Center Report attached). Additionally the project is expanded to Upper Nile and Warrap states and replicated most of the lessons from the previous locations ( reference is made on Page 18 and 36 of the attached PaCC 2021 Q1 report). History
Conduct a needs assessment in noted areas for expansion of the program.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/12 Completed UNDP peace and community cohesion project conducted conflict assessment that informed the project planning and decision making. The project used the information to upscale the intervention to Upper Nile and Warrap states. History
Get endorsement and disseminate the assessment report for looking for more funds.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/12 Completed UNDP shared the conflict assessment reports to Sweden to solicit more funds for the newly included locations for Peace and Community Cohesion Project interventions. History
2. Recommendation:

The youth have become respected mediators of conflict prevention and there is a need to continue building youth capacity in conflict resolution and leadership skills, and more practical-focused areas such as advocacy and project management.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2020/11/08]

UNDP notes the recommendation of the evaluation and will work with the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport and other peacebuilding partners to identify areas of collaboration for upscaling youth interventions and trainings in conflict resolution and peacebuilding.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct consultations with the MoCYS, beneficiary civil service institutions, peace actors and youth on building capacity in conflict resolution.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/10 Completed UNDP Youth Employment and Empowerment Project works in close collaboration and partnership with Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport and consultation is held at various level for collaboration and joint project intervention ( reference is made on page 26 of the attached report). History
Conduct a needs assessment in noted areas for expansion of the program.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/10 Completed UNDP Youth Employment and Empowerment Project conducted different assessment to align the project intervention to the needs and market options in the project location. Labor market assessment and value chain study are attached as reference. History
Get endorsement and disseminate the assessment report for looking for more funds.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/12 Completed UNDP YEEP project used the above attached assessment reports inform the project planning, for instance to prioritize youth skill needed in the market and design training curriculum ( plumbing and computer training curriculum is attached). In addition the project used the assessment finds to solicit funding. History
3. Recommendation:

Livelihoods and resource access can both connect and divide youth. It is important to find creative ways to bring youth together through entrepreneurship engagement. These interventions should seek, where possible, to build on youth’ own capacities and coping mechanisms in such a way that promotes self-reliance and helps them to be able to better manage shocks related to conflict, livelihood loss and food insecurity.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2020/11/08]

UNDP appreciates the recommendation and will work on finding innovative and creative ways to bring together youths through entrepreneurship and livelihoods skills capacity building.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct consultations with relevant agencies, government ministries and relevant stakeholders/ partners on the need to promote livelihoods skills capacity building and entrepreneurship among youth including programming.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/10 Completed YEEP project engaged government, particularly the Ministry of Youth Culture and Sport and other stakeholders during the YEEP Prodoc design and the implementation of youth empowerment interventions ( reference is made on page 26 and 27 of the attached report) History
Develop, share, and implement program strategy for engagement.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/06]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/10 Completed YEEP project designed standard training and vocational skill curriculum, in consultation with government partners, that is used to guide the trainings in the VCT center constructed by the project ( Basic automotive training curriculum is attached for reference). History
4. Recommendation:

The development agencies should collaborate and develop working partnerships with the government and all peace-building stakeholders to promote intergenerational exchange. Rather than working with youths in isolation, peace-building projects seeking the engagement of youths should also include children, parents and elders as this will ensure continuity through

Management Response: [Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2020/11/08]

UNDP appreciates the recommendation and will work with relevant agencies, government ministries and relevant peacebuilding stakeholders to promote intergenerational exchange and include cross section of all community members (children, youth, parents and elders)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct consultations with relevant agencies, government ministries and relevant stakeholders/ partners on the need to promote intergenerational exchanges including programming.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/05]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/10 Completed The Peace and Community cohesion project conducted different community stakeholders consultation to involve youth in peace building interventions. Youth are one of the major targets in PaCC II project and, among other, Intergenerational dialogue is one of the key intervention by which youth involves in conflict resolution together with community elders ( Reference is made on page 6 of the attached report). History
Develop, share, and implement program strategy for engagement.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/06]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/12 Completed UNDP Peace and Community Cohesion project commenced a youth subculture study to understand the situation of youth so as to include them in peace building and conflict resolution intervention. The study design and launching is done together with key partners, including government counterparts ( the youth study is attached for reference) History
5. Recommendation:

Break the culture of gender inequality among young people is a critical key component to forging peaceful futures. Peacebuilding and conflict resolution initiatives at both National and local levels are predominantly led by men while women are disproportionately represented. Development professionals can help achieve this, by identifying local partners and creating platforms to amplify young women’s voices. Target the grass roots and top-level policymakers simultaneously and implementing organizations to work in partnerships so that each plays to their strengths. Longer-term, process-based initiatives are needed to transform power structures, particularly patriarchal moral and social orders and notions of “hyper-masculinity,” which in South Sudan are heavily impacted by bride wealth-based local economies to reduce on the drivers of conflicts.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2020/11/08]

UNDP appreciates the recommendation and will work with relevant agencies, government ministries, relevant peacebuilding stakeholders and policymakers to bridge the gender gaps by creating platforms and partnerships that amplify women’s voices.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct consultations with relevant agencies, government ministries and relevant stakeholders/ partners on the linkages needed to reinforce gender mainstreaming and equity at both local and national level with respect to peacebuilding.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/06]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/10 Completed UNDP Peace and Community Cohesion and Access to Justice did various consultation with respective stakeholders to integrate gender issues and bring women in the process of peace and security sectors. For instance A2J initiated the discussion and supported the design of different laws such as Family law, Anti GBV laws and the like. History
Conduct an in- depth gender analysis/ assessment to identify gender gaps and how best they can be addressed particularly on transforming power structures.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/06]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/12 Completed UNDP supported the implementation of the national action plan (NAP) on women peace and security (UNSCR 1325) by producing an analysis on the gender requirement in R-ARCSS for the implementation of the 35% gender provision ( Analysis report attached). In addition Study on the Traditional and Changing role of Gender and Women in South Sudan (Attached) conducted which informed PaCC project engendering peace process ( output three of the project). History
Develop, share, and implement program strategy for engagement.
[Added: 2020/08/02] [Last Updated: 2021/08/06]
Senior Programme Advisor/Project Management Specialist 2020/12 Completed The projects ( PaCC, A2J and YEEP) UNDP gender mainstreaming guideline during the project cycle and the gender advisor of the CO provided support for the implementation. For instance gender consideration is reported in periodic reports that align with UNDP gender mainstreaming guideline ( reference is made on Page 20 of the attached report) History
6. Recommendation:

5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations are based on the findings of this evaluation:

1. The impact of the project is great and with the availability of funds, the project should be up scaled and replicated in conflict hot spots in the country with the concept of Youth Centre as a focus to promote integration and social cohesion among the communities. Youth centers are often the most local arm of national youth policy implementation. With regards to the gaps and factors that exists, the diversity across the 3 regions of South Sudan (Upper Nile, Equatoria and Bar el Ghazal), as well as across urban and rural areas. This should be coupled with a synthesis research and analysis of youth in South Sudan. In addition, the Development actors in close collaboration with the Government, or vise visa, should make a more deliberate effort in targeting the hard to reach youths in the cattle camps with the peace messages, behavior change communication and life skill trainings as this will help in getting into dialogue with these category of youths in order to influence the disarmament process which is a key to a relatively stable peace.

2. The youth have become respected mediators of conflict prevention and there is a need to continue building youth capacity in conflict resolution and leadership skills, and more practical-focused areas such as advocacy and project management.

3. Break the culture of gender inequality among young people is a critical key component to forging peaceful futures. Peace-building and conflict resolution initiatives at both National and local levels are predominantly led by men while women are disproportionately represented. Development professionals can help achieve this, by identifying local partners and creating platforms to amplify young women’s voices. Target the grass roots and toplevel policymakers simultaneously, and implementing organizations to work in partnerships so that each plays to their strengths. Longer-term, process-based initiatives are needed to transform power structures, particularly patriarchal moral and social orders and notions of “hyper-masculinity,” which in South Sudan are heavily impacted by bride wealth-based local economies to reduce on the drivers of conflicts.

4. Livelihoods and resource access can both connect and divide youth. It is important to find creative ways to bring youth together through entrepreneurship engagement. These interventions should seek, where possible, to build on youth’ own capacities and coping mechanisms in such a way that promotes self-reliance and helps them to be able to better manage shocks related to conflict, livelihood loss and food insecurity.

5. Youth also need to be supported to develop their own priorities for peace, which is yet another way to help to combat feelings of exclusion and disenfranchisement and provide youth with a sense of empowerment outside of violence and crime. Youth programming should enhance the voices and perspectives of the youth who are actually implicated in ongoing violence, whether in the form of criminality (youth gangs), or rural insecurity (cattle youth militia). Involving armed and criminalized youth is imperative to ensuring ownership over norms and processes that encourage peace and wider societal transformational, which is particularly critical when considering their exclusion from national-level agreements, as well as political and community structures.

6. To ensure sustainability and knowledge management, the youth should be supported and encouraged to form local peace networks across the country and join the existing local or international youth-led networks for peace building initiatives focused on international advocacy for youth participation in peace building and strengthening the capacity as youth peace building organizations in the form of training series, long-term partnerships and publications. Ensure the framework for youth engagement focusing on organizational factors, physical space, mobilization and exposure. The young people should also be encouraged to learn about national or regional peace priorities while helping them work toward their own peace priorities. Use of modern avenues of communication and networking. The development agencies should collaborate with relevant authorities and communication organizations to embrace the use of information and communication technology (ICT) In peace-building initiatives. Most youths in South Sudan, own mobile phones and easily access internet and pass messages through these phones. A free SMSbased platform through which youths can express their views on what is happening in their communities can also offer some promising spaces of expression for meaningful youth participation in peace building.

7. There is need for more support for the youths by the International NGOs and effective and well established local CSOs to create greater impact in peace building. There is a need to give the youth access to the mentors, facilitators, educational programs and networks that can hone their conflict resolution and leadership skills, and more practical-focused areas such as advocacy and project management. Provision of training and mentorship programmes to the existing in-country youth networks and facilitating youth connections at individual and organizational levels, ideas, challenges and best practices in peace-building can be shared to enhance individual and youth group capacities to handling conflicts. Further, as recognition of the positive role youths play in peace-building grows, the government and development actors should help in the operationalization of guidelines on the UN Guiding Principles on Young People’s Participation in Peace-building, South Sudan National Action Plan 2015 and Strategy on Youth Policy in peace and help the youth to apply the principles

8. The development actors should embrace continued participatory mentorship, capacity building and strengthened monitoring and evaluation systems for the participating youths. UNICEF’s U-report https://www.internetworldstats.com/africa.htm#ss The low literacy levels by most of the youthsdemandforregular and continued skills mentorship and empowerment for peace building impacts and sustainability of the livelihood gains. Coupled with lack of financial support, the youth peace-building activities often have very limited provision for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of their work and therefore impeding the visibility and sustainability of their initiatives. But beyond increased financial support, innovative approaches that encourages youth active role to evaluate the impact of youth engagement in conflict resolution must be used – particularly those that build on qualitative evidence and participative approaches.

9. Peace building activities need to consider how to link local-level and national-level processes so that grass roots peace efforts effectively reinforces developments at the national level, while at the same time providing a buffer against the negative impacts of elite competition. As other research on peacebuilding in South Sudan has pointed out, mapping the connections between national and local interests can provide windows into the kind of longer-term change that is needed, allowing people to overcome long-standing grievances, many of which stem to previous episodes of civil war in what is now South Sudan. In this project, dynamics at the national level remain a big threat to the peace building gains made.

10. Just as reconciliation and social cohesion are important moving forward, so too is broader transitional justice that acknowledges and addresses peoples’ grievances. This entails thinking about linking youth and peacebuilding programmes to access to justice programmes, as well as other processes that serve as a form of recognition for the harm done, such as symbolic reparations. 

11. Longer-term, process-based initiatives are needed to transform power structures, particularly patriarchal moral and social orders and notions of “hyper-masculinity,” which in South Sudan are heavily impacted by bride wealth-based local economies. Significantly, inclusivity is key to countering the otherwise exclusionary and discriminative processes that have been characteristic of attempts to broker peace in South Sudan. Inclusivity cannot be done simply by bringing people together. Peace activities must, of necessity, seek to bring together youth from different clans/communities, as well as female and male genders and also focus on the power structures that inhibit meaningful participation in different processes in the first instance. Engaging men and community leaders through both gender and inter-generational dialogues can help in dismantling some of the structures that exclude both male and female youth. Finally, the development agencies should collaborate and develop working partnerships with the government and all peace-building stakeholders to promote intergenerational exchange. Rather than working with youths in isolation, peace-building projects seeking the engagement of youths should also include children, parents and elders as this will ensure continuity through sharing of rich information and experiences. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/02] [Last Updated: 2020/11/08]

Key Actions:

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