Independent Country Programme Evaluation: Turkey

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2018-2021, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
12/2019
Completion Date:
12/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

Share

Document Type Language Size Status Downloads
Download document ICPE Turkey Annexes.pdf related-document English 1002.87 KB Posted 192
Download document ICPE Turkey ToR.pdf tor English 551.07 KB Posted 82
Download document ICPE Turkey evaluationBrief.pdf summary English 253.69 KB Posted 53
Download document ICPE_Turkey full report.pdf report English 6419.71 KB Posted 97
Title Independent Country Programme Evaluation: Turkey
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2021, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2019
Planned End Date: 12/2019
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.2.2 Enabling environment strengthened to expand public and private financing for the achievement of the SDGs
  • 2. Output 2.1.2 Capacities developed for progressive expansion of inclusive social protection systems
  • 3. Output 3.1.1 Core government functions and inclusive basic services4 restored post-crisis for stabilisation, durable solutions to displacement and return to sustainable development pathways within the framework of national policies and priorities
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 30,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Elizabeth Wojnar Research Consultant elizabeth.wojnar@undp.org
Subramanyam Divvaakar
Rebecca Roberts
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: TURKEY
Lessons
Findings
1.

Finding 1: UNDP played a catalytic role in both development and SuTP response support at the national and subnational level. UNDP programmes responded to key national and government priorities and were adaptive to the changing context.


Tag: Inclusive economic growth Poverty Reduction Public administration reform SDG Integration Knowledge management Operational Efficiency Partnership Environment Policy Technical Support

2.

Finding 2: UNDP’s support to the coordination of the Turkey Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan, jointly with UNHCR, has been important. Some of the tangible outcomes include significant mobilization of financial resources, strengthened coordination among UN agencies, and facilitation of information exchange for a more coordinated response among various actors. UNDP’s resilience approach and programming spanning the development and humanitarian areas have contributed to a greater sensitivity to broader development and host community challenges underpinning the Syrian crisis. UNDP is strongly positioned to play a key role in a development-centred Syrian crisis response.


Tag: Local Governance Partnership Strategic Positioning Resilience Resource mobilization Coherence Effectiveness Relevance Bilateral partners UN Agencies Coordination

3.

Finding 3: UNDP was successful in establishing strong partnerships with national and subnational government entities, and with other international agencies. Strong partnerships at the subnational level provided opportunities for demonstrating programming models which UNDP fully utilized. There is scope for UNDP to contribute to the overall competitiveness strategy in partnership with other UN agencies. The delinking of the UN Resident Coordinator and the UNDP Resident Representative functions did not have any perceptible impact for the stature and positioning of UNDP in Turkey or the partnerships.


Tag: Public administration reform Climate Change Adaptation Delinking - RR/RC Partnership Relevance Agriculture Bilateral partners Country Government Private Sector Coordination

4.

Finding 4: Synergies within and between programme portfolios are slowly evolving, undermining UNDP’s overall contribution. Despite complementary initiatives, synergies across programme portfolio are yet to be leveraged.


Tag: Local Governance Integration Operational Efficiency Programme Synergy Resilience Challenges Coherence Effectiveness

5.

Finding 5: Funding for a resilience approach remains a challenge, although this is not typical to the Syrian crisis. This impacted UNDP pursuing a resilience agenda in the Syrian crisis response to a greater extent. In addition, mobilization of Syrian crisis response (FRIT2) funding was constrained by UNDP cost-sharing policy. The reluctance of donors to follow earlier agreedcost-recovery rates with the UN at the executive level and lack of flexibility on the UN side reduced considerably UNDP’s opportunities in accessing further funding for its Syrian crisis response programme.


Tag: Business Model Implementation Modality Operational Efficiency Resilience Resource mobilization Challenges Effectiveness Efficiency Donor Operational Services

6.

Finding 6: The ISG portfolio is well-conceptualized and seeks to address the key challenges of Turkey’s economic transition, competitiveness, and employment. UNDP’s successive interventions have resulted in notable contributions to policy processes and institutional capacities in areas critical to Turkey’s competitiveness. Turkey’s macroeconomic challenges of recent years and the economic downturn have impeded the potential for upscaling UNDP’s well-piloted initiatives, which can only be upscaled or sustained with a robust financial ecosystem combining public and commercial financing instruments.


Tag: Capacity Building Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Local Governance Gender Equality Operational Efficiency Project and Programme management Effectiveness Relevance Sustainability Agriculture Country Government Private Sector Policy Advisory

7.

Finding 7: UNDP contributed to the promotion of modern practices enhancing productivity and competitiveness in strategic sectors through a mix of national policy support for the TFP and the establishment of model industrial modernization centres, besides sector level energy efficiency programmes.


Tag: Innovation Operational Efficiency Strategic Positioning Energy Renewable energy Tourism Private Sector Financing Effectiveness Relevance Agriculture Private Sector UNDP Regional Bureaux Policy Advisory Technical Support

8.

Finding 8: UNDP programme support contributed to the development of several inclusive and sustainable value chain models in the South-eastern Anatolia region.


Tag: Capacity Building Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Innovation Operational Efficiency Sustainability Effectiveness Relevance Agriculture Civil Societies and NGOs Technical Support

9.

Finding 9: UNDP’s role in implementing large IFAD projects has consisted largely of administrative support, which does not reflect UNDP’s potential to add value to strategy and design drawing on its experience in similar interventions.


Tag: Programme Synergy Challenges Effectiveness Agriculture Rural development UN Agencies Operational Services

10.

Finding 10: UNDP support to Turkey’s tourism sector, developing a strategy at the national level and institutional and ecosystem capacity at the subnational level, demonstrated the potential of private sector partnerships for innovative sustainable local tourism models.


Tag: Capacity Building Local Governance Innovation Project and Programme management Sustainability Effectiveness Relevance Private Sector Policy Advisory Technical Support

11.

Finding 11: Lessons from UNDP-supported community tourism initiatives point to the key role of decentralized (regional and local) structures to develop context-specific strategies and blueprint for sustainable tourism, incorporating investment and financing modalities to attract the right profile of partners and capital. There is scope for UNDP to prioritize tourism as a sector for its private sector competitiveness engagements and improve complementarities between its livelihoods and economic development programmes with its tourism-supported initiatives.


Tag: Jobs and Livelihoods Local Governance Business Model Programme Synergy Private Sector Financing Challenges Effectiveness Relevance Country Government Coordination Technical Support

12.

Finding 12: UNDP played a key role in bridging the knowledge and trust deficit between corporate business and civil society actors, facilitating social initiatives for impact and enabling knowledge networks, international visibility and credibility to these initiatives. These engagements have the potential to transform into SDG-based initiatives. While there are successes in private sector engagement, it has been mostly in management of corporate social responsibility initiatives.


Tag: Capacity Building Local Governance SDG Integration Business Model Knowledge management Project and Programme management Effectiveness Relevance Civil Societies and NGOs Private Sector Coordination Technical Support

13.

Finding 13: UNDP’s support to platforms to coordinate and accelerate private sector engagement in the SDGs has potential but needs more systematic engagement. 


Tag: SDG Integration Innovation Knowledge management Project and Programme management Strategic Positioning Effectiveness Relevance Country Government International Financial Institutions Private Sector Coordination Policy Advisory Technical Support

14.

Finding 14: Private sector focus of the country office, the regional hub, and the global centre provide opportunities for greater engagement to support Turkey’s development cooperation strategy.


Tag: Inclusive economic growth Technology Business Model Implementation Modality Challenges Effectiveness Private Sector UNDP Independent Offices UNDP Regional Bureaux Policy Advisory Technical Support

15.

Finding 15: UNDP support to infrastructure development and service delivery has been critical for both host communities and the Syrian population. The development approach to strengthening services, rather than a humanitarian approach of substituting services, has the potential for positive long-term outcomes, contributing to strengthening the capacities of the municipalities.


Tag: Capacity Building Poverty Reduction Local Governance Procurement Service delivery Resilience Waste management Effectiveness Impact Relevance Country Government Operational Services Technical Support

16.

Finding 16: UNDP’s income-generation support to the Syrian crisis can further anchor in medium-term processes building on UNDP’s existing programmes, partnerships, and expertise in providing viable income-generation approaches for wider use. Some of the challenges are beyond the UNDP programme scope, relating to enabling policy environment and short funding windows.


Tag: Capacity Building Jobs and Livelihoods Local Governance Partnership Project and Programme management Resilience Challenges Efficiency Relevance Civil Societies and NGOs Country Government Private Sector Technical Support

17.

Finding 17: Support to ISKUR assumes importance in the context of facilitating Syrian refugees’ engagement in the labour market. There is scope for greater engagement in strengthening the institutional capacities of ISKUR. 


Tag: Jobs and Livelihoods Social Protection Refugees Resilience Coherence Effectiveness Efficiency Coordination Technical Support

18.

Finding 18: Building on its long partnerships, UNDP’s governance support entailed key priority areas identified in the 10th NDP and complemented ongoing efforts by the Government and international agencies. National-level institutional support contributed to government efforts in establishing and strengthening government entities and processes. UNDP also contributed to efforts to address institutional demands the Syrian crisis brought to the fore. Limited engagement in larger governance reforms agenda is understandable, given the high capacities of government institutions. Preference for engagement with UNDP in certain governance areas of governance was evident.


Tag: Technology e-Governance Public administration reform Human and Financial resources Partnership Procurement Challenges Coherence Effectiveness Sustainability Bilateral partners Country Government Operational Services Technical Support

19.

Finding 19: UNDP responded to capacity gaps in legal aid services complementing initiatives by the Government and other actors. Legal aid access for vulnerable sections continues to be a challenge due to lack of institutionalized mechanisms. Given the extensive capacity needs in legal aid services, stronger engagement with the government entities focused on addressing structural issues is critical.


Tag: Capacity Building Technology Human rights Justice system Rule of law Knowledge management Service delivery Peace Building Refugees Resilience Challenges Coherence Effectiveness Impact Country Government Coordination Technical Support

20.

Finding 20: Institutional capacity support provided by UNDP accelerated development and adoption of a code of ethics by the Court of Cassation and measures to strengthen judicial transparency.


Tag: Capacity Building Anti-corruption Justice system Rule of law Country Support Platform Knowledge management Effectiveness Impact Relevance Technical Support

21.

Finding 21: UNDP initiatives support policy analysis, streamlining systems, and local governance models to strengthen local administration and operation capacities. While it is too early to assess their outcomes, the initiatives will be central to the efforts of Turkey as it moves forward with the local administration reform processes. Consolidation of UNDP initiatives in local service delivery and other municipal level work is critical for strengthening UNDP’s role and contribution in local administration reforms processes.


Tag: Capacity Building Disabilities e-Governance Local Governance Public administration reform Project and Programme management Service delivery Coherence Effectiveness Efficiency Bilateral partners Country Government Policy Advisory Technical Support

22.

Finding 22: Clearing mines is closely linked to integrated border management in Turkey, making sustainable national capacity in mine action critical. Uniquely positioned to provide this support, UNDP contributed to Turkey’s efforts to build institutional capacity to plan, manage, coordinate mine action and fulfil commitments to the Anti-personnel Mine Ban Treaty. A major contribution of UNDP’s long-term support is strengthening the capacities of the Turkish Mine Action Centre (TURMAC).


Tag: Capacity Building Human rights Rule of law Mine Action Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Quality Assurance Security Effectiveness Impact Sustainability Country Government Coordination Operational Services Policy Advisory Technical Support

23.

Finding 23: UNDP has been catalytic in its interventions, enabled legal frameworks, filled capacity gaps, and provided models with potential for upscaling. The Government considers UNDP experience and networks a value addition in strengthening environmental governance.


Tag: Public administration reform Innovation Partnership Project and Programme management Energy Environment Policy Government Cost-sharing Resource mobilization Effectiveness Impact Sustainability Civil Societies and NGOs Country Government Private Sector UN Agencies Policy Advisory Technical Support

24.

Finding 24: UNDP’s technical support to timely preparation of Turkey’s National Communication (NC) and Biennial Reports (BR), has been important for the country to fulfil its international commitments (including the recent 7th NC and 3rd BR).


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Gender Mainstreaming Integration Partnership Country Government Coordination Policy Advisory Technical Support

25.

Finding 25: UNDP has contributed to promoting an integrated forest management approach, for improving biodiversity and holistically dealing with forest fires. Greater awareness and buy-in of the integrated approach still need to be ensured at different levels of implementation for the achievement of long-term environmental outcomes. 


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Natural Disaster Mainstreaming, Acceleration and Policy Support (MAPS) SDG Integration Project and Programme management Biodiversity Ecosystem based adaption Effectiveness Relevance Forestry Policy Advisory Technical Support

26.

Finding 26: UNDP contribution has been important in addressing POPs legacies and clean-up of associated POPs and chemical pollutant contaminated sites.


Tag: Multilateral Partners Project and Programme management Global Environment Facility fund Private Sector Financing UN Agencies Technical Support

27.

Finding 27: The NEEAP is a further attestation of the Government’s commitment to energy efficiency. UNDP has made useful contributions towards enabling policy and regulatory framework for energy efficiency in industrial and commercial establishments, institutional mechanisms for energy measurement, and successful pilots for efficiency improvement in industrial areas. Initiatives found strong national ownership, including private sector contributions.


Tag: Technology Knowledge management Energy Environment Policy Global Environment Facility fund Effectiveness Relevance Country Government Private Sector UN Agencies Policy Advisory Technical Support

28.

Finding 28: Strong government commitment and investments and industry co-financing were key features in UNDP’s energy efficiency and renewable energy projects. This enabled the introduction of new practices and models, in-field measurement and energy efficiency studies, solar micro-irrigation systems, EnerPhit Certification, biomass fuel production and financial support programmes.


Tag: Innovation Multilateral Partners Policies & Procedures Energy Environment Policy Global Environment Facility fund Government Cost-sharing Private Sector Financing Coherence Effectiveness Impact Agriculture Policy Advisory Technical Support

29.

Finding 29: While energy efficiency initiatives are successful and provide useful models, the lack of financial mechanisms remains a huge challenge. Macro-economic conditions, downturn and tight liquidity and high-interest rates impede the uptake of energy conservation measures in enterprises. A missing link between the lessons from the subnational level and national policy is reducing UNDP contribution.


Tag: Local Governance Energy Challenges Effectiveness Efficiency Country Government Technical Support

30.

Finding 30: There has been a concerted effort to mainstream gender equality and women’s empowerment (GEWE) in UNDP programmes during the country programme period. An improvement in the mainstreaming of GEWE has been seen across programme areas, in addition to specific interventions targeting improving women’s livelihood and services.


Tag: Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Local Governance Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Integration Knowledge management Policies & Procedures Project and Programme management Resilience Effectiveness Private Sector UNDP Independent Offices Policy Advisory Technical Support

Recommendations
1

UNDP is strongly positioned to support resilience programme models to address Turkey’s development gaps as well as the Syrian crisis response. UNDP should continue its programming emphasis to address regional inequalities and disparities in development, and drawing on its well-tested programme models, it should continue facilitating long-term solutions to the Syrian crisis. 

The approach and themes in the ISG portfolio are well thought through and UNDP should continue this engagement. UNDP should consider engaging in efforts to strengthen the enabling environment for the competitiveness agenda at the subnational level. This is essential to take further several successful UNDP pilots with potential for replication and upscaling. Within the overall competitiveness assessments, the critical importance of effective management of the external sector, and the finance and investment climate needs specific attention, as these areas impact all sectors of the national economy and impede competitiveness gains in strategic sectors: agriculture, efficient and clean energy, and tourism. While other actors are more specialized in this area, UNDP has strong justification as a knowledge integrator and disseminator to collaborate with specialized agencies working on macroeconomic resilience. 

UNDP in Turkey is uniquely positioned to leverage its existing ISG programme models to provide support to sustainable job creation, rather than support on the labour supply side. Building on its programme models in the ISG area, UNDP should support initiatives with a longer-term focus aimed  at providing more sustainable income and employment generation options.

UNDP has an important niche in environmental governance. Given the challenges in financing for energy efficiency models it promoted, UNDP should pursue a two-pronged strategy of policy advocacy as well as assess market potential, particularly engagement of the private sector. Greater synergy between the energy efficiency portfolio should be forged (completed, ongoing, and pipeline initiatives) for a more coherent engagement in the sector, in particular, competitiveness, energy security, resource efficiency, and renewable energy.

Despite the limited space for governance engagement, UNDP has been successful in establishing strong partnerships across institutions. Moving forward, UNDP should consolidate its core governance support by building on its municipal level engagement and local administration reform support. UNDP should consider stronger engagement in e-governance and digitalization, priority areas for Turkey.

2

UNDP should respond appropriately to opportunities to support Turkey’s development cooperation and the indigenization of Turkish technology and development models in LDCs and lower MICs. The UNDP country office and the IICPSD should have a well-coordinated strategy to play a greater and concerted role in this area. 

UNDP has the advantage of a tripartite partnership with Turkey, at country, regional, and global programmes levels. This provides opportunities for facilitating Turkey’s LDC engagement building on the current country level engagements to share programme models, knowledge, and expertise. Programme models UNDP promoted in the area of energy efficiency, renewable energy, competitiveness, organic agriculture, and community tourism offer viable practices for sharing with other countries. 

There is a need for further clarity on the role of the country office, and IICPSD, particularly the role the policy centre would play; there should be a greater distinction between IICPSD activities from that of those of country office. While IICPSD should have a greater focus on providing strategies and technical support, the country office and the regional hub should play a greater role in the facilitation of Turkey’s LDC cooperation.

3

UNDP has taken measures to accelerate its private sector engagement beyond corporate social responsibility and use its subnational presence to facilitate private sector partnerships in development and Syrian crisis response. Such efforts should be sustained and further accelerated using a diverse set of tools to engage private sector appropriately. UNDP should prioritize development areas for a more concerted private sector engagement with commensurate resource investments to implement appropriate tools.

UNDP is well-positioned to enable a stronger engagement with Turkey’s private sector for accelerating the sustainable development agenda and resilient approaches to the Syrian crisis. UNDP should focus more at the subnational level where it has well-tested programme models and strong partnerships with Development Agencies and municipal governments. UNDP should explore a mix of tools, both financial and nonfinancial, flexible tools that are fit for the purpose that can maximize the impacts of partnership at the Development Agencies and municipal levels. Similarly, it should explore the possibility of establishing integrator platforms to engage the private sector at the subnational level in selected themes. 

As outlined in Recommendation 2, UNDP should strategize to engage Turkey’s private sector in development support to LDCs, a key agenda of Turkey’s LDC cooperation. There is considerable scope across UNDP programme areas to engage the private sector more effectively, bringing Turkish knowledge, intellectual capital and technological innovations into instruments of development cooperation for LDCs and other lower MICs.
 

4

Given the upper MIC status of Turkey, working on substantive policy spaces are bound to be limited in the area of governance. Based on its partnerships, UNDP is well-positioned to support Turkey in its local administration reform efforts. UNDP over the years provided policy support and has piloted several subnational programme models across its portfolio that can inform local administration reform processes. UNDP should leverage on its work for a more coherent engagement in this area. 

UNDP programme models should move towards more focused engagement and consolidation for policy impact. UNDP has established strong partnerships at the RDA and municipal levels and has a robust working relationship with the national agencies. Building on programme models that are successful at the subnational level, UNDP should engage in policy advocacy in the areas of competitiveness, energy efficiency, service delivery, and local administration reforms. 

Breaking programme and project silos is fundamental to enhancing UNDP contribution to local administration reform processes. UNDP should have a deliberate approach to overcoming programme silos within/between programme areas and themes. Similarly, the consolidation of programme areas will strengthen UNDP’s response and improve contribution to policy processes. UNDP should identify key themes for a consolidated engagement. 

There is greater scope to leverage partnerships at the national and local level for policy engagement. With the restructuring of government institutions, finding the balance between national-level engagement and implementation support at the decentralized levels calls for the more effective articulation of UNDP value-added in both areas.
 

5

UNDP has made considerable progress in strengthening gender mainstreaming in UNDP programme and operations. This momentum should be sustained to enhance GEWE-related programme outcomes. 

UNDP should continue the ongoing measures to address gaps in GEWE mainstreaming identified by the Gender Seal. For more targeted interventions, UNDP should build partnerships to boost the scale and scope of initiatives.

6

The 3RP mechanism evolved stronger over the past two years. Given the protracted nature of the crisis, UNDP should revisit the form and the purpose of 3RP and its engagement in Turkey. 

Given the government emphasis on development approach to addressing Syrian crisis issues, and limited acceptance of 3RP framework by key donors and IFIs, the scope and purpose of UNDP’s engagement in 3RP needs to be revisited. There should be a greater focus on/use of initiatives that demonstrate a holistic approach to humanitarian challenges rather than investments in coordination mechanism. 

Issues such as larger humanitarian programme windows that are now sidling into development programme windows and their implications for resilience need wider discussion among humanitarian agencies and donors. Given its notable engagement and coordinating role in the 3RP, UNDP should take a leadership role in facilitating such strategic discussions, in collaboration with other UN agencies and donors.
 

7

UNDP should clarify its SDG integrator role to national actors and donors. Building on the momentum of the Accelerator lab and initiatives such as the B4G, UNDP should explore developing signature solutions that would be used in Turkey as well as applied in LDC support of Turkey.

UNDP should outline areas where UNDP can provide integrator platforms at the national and subnational level. Given the Turkey context, there should be a more structured engagement of the private sector in specific SDG activities. Lessons from initiatives such as the Global Compact will be important for enabling a more structured and well-coordinated platform.
 

8

Despite a shared responsibility of cost-sharing agreements with the UN, UNDP headquarters should review the corporate cost-recovery policy to enable greater resource mobilization for sustaining UNDP’s engagement in Turkey. Considering the funding challenges faced by UNDP in an upper-middle-income country like Turkey, the country office should adopt strategies to further diversify its funding mechanisms. An issue beyond UNDP fund mobilization strategy is the urgent need for donor response to funding efforts to promote humanitarian and development linkages. 

UNDP headquarters should revisit the policy of the cost-recovery changes, and explore the possibility of a more realistic slab distinguishing programme support versus operations support, and small-scale versus large-scale programmes. Headquarters should strategically engage in fund mobilization involving specific streams such as EU funding at scale for the Syrian crisis response in Turkey. While the country office has been successful in mobilizing programme resources, it should explore non-traditional donor funding opportunities to ensure continued support in strategies programmatic areas. The challenge in responding to Syrians in Turkey as well as Lebanon and Jordan, with the high refugee influx, is that there is a need for simultaneous humanitarian and development support. As this and other evaluations point out, donors and relevant actors should discuss how to ensure that humanitarian and development needs are correctly targeted for more sustainable humanitarian and development outcomes.

1. Recommendation:

UNDP is strongly positioned to support resilience programme models to address Turkey’s development gaps as well as the Syrian crisis response. UNDP should continue its programming emphasis to address regional inequalities and disparities in development, and drawing on its well-tested programme models, it should continue facilitating long-term solutions to the Syrian crisis. 

The approach and themes in the ISG portfolio are well thought through and UNDP should continue this engagement. UNDP should consider engaging in efforts to strengthen the enabling environment for the competitiveness agenda at the subnational level. This is essential to take further several successful UNDP pilots with potential for replication and upscaling. Within the overall competitiveness assessments, the critical importance of effective management of the external sector, and the finance and investment climate needs specific attention, as these areas impact all sectors of the national economy and impede competitiveness gains in strategic sectors: agriculture, efficient and clean energy, and tourism. While other actors are more specialized in this area, UNDP has strong justification as a knowledge integrator and disseminator to collaborate with specialized agencies working on macroeconomic resilience. 

UNDP in Turkey is uniquely positioned to leverage its existing ISG programme models to provide support to sustainable job creation, rather than support on the labour supply side. Building on its programme models in the ISG area, UNDP should support initiatives with a longer-term focus aimed  at providing more sustainable income and employment generation options.

UNDP has an important niche in environmental governance. Given the challenges in financing for energy efficiency models it promoted, UNDP should pursue a two-pronged strategy of policy advocacy as well as assess market potential, particularly engagement of the private sector. Greater synergy between the energy efficiency portfolio should be forged (completed, ongoing, and pipeline initiatives) for a more coherent engagement in the sector, in particular, competitiveness, energy security, resource efficiency, and renewable energy.

Despite the limited space for governance engagement, UNDP has been successful in establishing strong partnerships across institutions. Moving forward, UNDP should consolidate its core governance support by building on its municipal level engagement and local administration reform support. UNDP should consider stronger engagement in e-governance and digitalization, priority areas for Turkey.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will continue mainstreaming resilience in all its programs and operations as well as supporting Governmental efforts in line with its harmonization strategy as well as its promotion of best practices in the international arena. UNDP will ensure humanitarian-development linkages are established both in Strategic documents such as the new UNSDCF and CPD but also at the programmatic level through engaging different portfolios to maximize the impact of resilience-based development interventions.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. UNDP with its extensive experience and knowledge in the field of resilience especially its leading role in the area of Syrian crisis response will maintain its coordination and programmatic capacities to support the Government in its efforts on harmonization, social cohesion and livelihoods, as well as municipal service delivery responding to the Syria crisis in Turkey.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated
1.2. UNDP’s strong existing experiences to support local socio-economic development/reducing regional and local disparities in least developed regions will be further expanded and utilized to meet the needs of most vulnerable through a resilience-based development approach.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated UNDP has clearly addressed its lead role on resilience in framework of 3RP and its programmatic response to “Risk-informed, sustainable economy and environment” and “durable solutions to displacement” in its new CPD.
1.3. UNDP will strengthen its SDG integrator offer to UN system in Turkey through provision of its well-tested, scalable models for local socio-economic development with a strong environmental focus and rely on its solid partnerships at local, regional and national levels to catalyse new, innovative solutions
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management TeamUNDP CO Programme Unit , 2025/12 Initiated UNDP has clearly indicated its SDG integrator role within the new UNSDCF through provision of well tested models on local socio-economic development
2. Recommendation:

UNDP should respond appropriately to opportunities to support Turkey’s development cooperation and the indigenization of Turkish technology and development models in LDCs and lower MICs. The UNDP country office and the IICPSD should have a well-coordinated strategy to play a greater and concerted role in this area. 

UNDP has the advantage of a tripartite partnership with Turkey, at country, regional, and global programmes levels. This provides opportunities for facilitating Turkey’s LDC engagement building on the current country level engagements to share programme models, knowledge, and expertise. Programme models UNDP promoted in the area of energy efficiency, renewable energy, competitiveness, organic agriculture, and community tourism offer viable practices for sharing with other countries. 

There is a need for further clarity on the role of the country office, and IICPSD, particularly the role the policy centre would play; there should be a greater distinction between IICPSD activities from that of those of country office. While IICPSD should have a greater focus on providing strategies and technical support, the country office and the regional hub should play a greater role in the facilitation of Turkey’s LDC cooperation.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP CO will facilitate promotion and dissemination of Turkey’s innovative and technology-based development solutions to LDCs in order to transfer best practices. In order to do this, UNDP CO will engage with IRH and IICPSD to establish a more coordinated and clarified working modality.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. UNDP will extend its cooperation with the Government of Turkey to leverage the opportunities to support Turkey’s development cooperation through transfer of technology-based solutions for key development challenges to LDCs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit, UNDP Turkey Accelerator Lab 2023/12 Initiated UNDP has initiated its formal partnership with UN Technology Bank for LDCs to replicate SDG accelerator programme of Government and UNDP Turkey in context of two LDCs, namely Uganda and Bangladesh.
2.2 UNDP CO will seek to come up with a strategy on how to get better engaged with the IRH and the IICPSD in a more coordinated way in order to promote Turkish technology and development models in LDCs and MICs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team 2023/12 Not Initiated
3. Recommendation:

UNDP has taken measures to accelerate its private sector engagement beyond corporate social responsibility and use its subnational presence to facilitate private sector partnerships in development and Syrian crisis response. Such efforts should be sustained and further accelerated using a diverse set of tools to engage private sector appropriately. UNDP should prioritize development areas for a more concerted private sector engagement with commensurate resource investments to implement appropriate tools.

UNDP is well-positioned to enable a stronger engagement with Turkey’s private sector for accelerating the sustainable development agenda and resilient approaches to the Syrian crisis. UNDP should focus more at the subnational level where it has well-tested programme models and strong partnerships with Development Agencies and municipal governments. UNDP should explore a mix of tools, both financial and nonfinancial, flexible tools that are fit for the purpose that can maximize the impacts of partnership at the Development Agencies and municipal levels. Similarly, it should explore the possibility of establishing integrator platforms to engage the private sector at the subnational level in selected themes. 

As outlined in Recommendation 2, UNDP should strategize to engage Turkey’s private sector in development support to LDCs, a key agenda of Turkey’s LDC cooperation. There is considerable scope across UNDP programme areas to engage the private sector more effectively, bringing Turkish knowledge, intellectual capital and technological innovations into instruments of development cooperation for LDCs and other lower MICs.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will mobilize private sector more effectively to orient the eco-system actors to provide solutions to SDG achievement in the form of innovative financing frameworks, impact investing, joint work with other UN agencies as well as continued dialogue and research.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1. Partnerships across government, local authorities, private sector and civil society, and action through inclusive platforms at national and local level with the involvement of all relevant actors will be at the centre of UNDP’s work in its new CPD
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated
3.2. Based on the prioritization of the areas for sustained private sector engagements by Business for Goals Platform (B4Gs) (May 2019), UNDP CO will execute research, studies and dialogues to transform the private sector’s role from the conventional approach of supporting the economic development to more inclusive and elaborated public-private partnerships for the achievement of SDGs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2023/12 Initiated UNDP Turkey and UNCT has been utilizing the Business for Goals Platform to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemics on the economy through extensive networks of business partners in Turkey and by participating to the CBI Global Network discussions. During the COVID-19 crisis, a daily coordination mechanism has been established by CBI Turkey /Business for Goals Platform.
3.3. UNDP CO will seek the support of the Government of Turkey and the IICPSD to strengthen the impact investment ecosystem and establish a task force that brings together the investors and businesses for financing SDGs at national and subnational levels.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2023/12 Not Initiated UNDP in cooperation with UNIDO and UN Women and with technical assistance of IICPSD designed a joint programme on Impact Investment to strengthen the ecosystem in Turkey and support the local socio-economic development efforts on the ground.
4. Recommendation:

Given the upper MIC status of Turkey, working on substantive policy spaces are bound to be limited in the area of governance. Based on its partnerships, UNDP is well-positioned to support Turkey in its local administration reform efforts. UNDP over the years provided policy support and has piloted several subnational programme models across its portfolio that can inform local administration reform processes. UNDP should leverage on its work for a more coherent engagement in this area. 

UNDP programme models should move towards more focused engagement and consolidation for policy impact. UNDP has established strong partnerships at the RDA and municipal levels and has a robust working relationship with the national agencies. Building on programme models that are successful at the subnational level, UNDP should engage in policy advocacy in the areas of competitiveness, energy efficiency, service delivery, and local administration reforms. 

Breaking programme and project silos is fundamental to enhancing UNDP contribution to local administration reform processes. UNDP should have a deliberate approach to overcoming programme silos within/between programme areas and themes. Similarly, the consolidation of programme areas will strengthen UNDP’s response and improve contribution to policy processes. UNDP should identify key themes for a consolidated engagement. 

There is greater scope to leverage partnerships at the national and local level for policy engagement. With the restructuring of government institutions, finding the balance between national-level engagement and implementation support at the decentralized levels calls for the more effective articulation of UNDP value-added in both areas.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will employ a two-tiered approach in addressing issues related to governance: firstly via engaging central government institutions to uphold principles of governance and secondly by promoting participation, transparency and accountability at the local level to increase local government capacities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1. UNDP will utilize the long-lasting experience and know-how in strengthening central level institutions in line with key principles of governance at a time when state institutions are being transformed in line with the newly introduced executive presidency system.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated Both the new UNSDCF and the new CPD adopts governance as cross-cutting issue for structural transformation as well as a standalone priority on effective and modern governance systems.
4.2. UNDP will accelerate its efforts on strengthening local service delivery and local governance mechanisms based on principles of participation, transparency and accountability in scope of all its interventions supporting the local authorities.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit, UNDP CO Accelerator Lab 2025/12 Initiated
5. Recommendation:

UNDP has made considerable progress in strengthening gender mainstreaming in UNDP programme and operations. This momentum should be sustained to enhance GEWE-related programme outcomes. 

UNDP should continue the ongoing measures to address gaps in GEWE mainstreaming identified by the Gender Seal. For more targeted interventions, UNDP should build partnerships to boost the scale and scope of initiatives.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will accelerate its efforts to promote gender quality in all programmes and operations by improving human resource capacity at CO and also by improving gender mainstreaming in its strategic documents guiding all UNDP interventions.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.2. Gender Seal process for upgrading the certification will be completed and a full-time gender adviser will be recruited.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit, Gender Analyst 2020/12 Initiated The CO has been informed by the Global GES Team to be a candidate for Gold certification in February 2020. The GES mission will pay a virtual monitoring visit to UNDP Turkey CO in October 2020. The recruitment of Gender Advisor position was advertised and recruitment has been finalized. She is on board since June 2020.
5.3. UNDP jointly with UN Women will lead the development of a joint UN strategy on gender equality and its mainstreaming in the work of private sector for concerted efforts in the field.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2020/12 Initiated
5.1. Upcoming UN Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) and UNDP CPD will be prepared in a comprehensive manner to highlight interlinkages between all programmatic areas and will integrate gender as an embedded crosscutting action.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2020/04 Completed Gender has been made a cross-cutting issue both in the narrative and in the RRF of the new CPD where outcomes and outputs are clearly sex disaggregated and gender sensitive.
6. Recommendation:

The 3RP mechanism evolved stronger over the past two years. Given the protracted nature of the crisis, UNDP should revisit the form and the purpose of 3RP and its engagement in Turkey. 

Given the government emphasis on development approach to addressing Syrian crisis issues, and limited acceptance of 3RP framework by key donors and IFIs, the scope and purpose of UNDP’s engagement in 3RP needs to be revisited. There should be a greater focus on/use of initiatives that demonstrate a holistic approach to humanitarian challenges rather than investments in coordination mechanism. 

Issues such as larger humanitarian programme windows that are now sidling into development programme windows and their implications for resilience need wider discussion among humanitarian agencies and donors. Given its notable engagement and coordinating role in the 3RP, UNDP should take a leadership role in facilitating such strategic discussions, in collaboration with other UN agencies and donors.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will continue engaging and leading 3RP actors to expand humanitarian programme windows into development programmes and showcase the long-term value added of 3RP interventions to donor community and IFIs to create stronger collaboration and partnership.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1. UNDP will continue to lead the 3RP together with UNHCR and provide strategic advice to Syria Response Group (relevant heads of agencies) and the Resident Coordinator to further evolve the overall support provided to the Government of Turkey.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team UNDP CO Management Team, Syria Crisis Response and Resilience Team 2020/12 Initiated
6.2 In line with the changes in the scale and impact of the Syrian crisis in Turkey, UNDP will scale up efforts to expand cooperation with other development actors providing support to the Government of Turkey, including with IFIs, to ensure complementarity of efforts.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, Syria Crisis Response and Resilience Team 2020/12 Initiated
7. Recommendation:

UNDP should clarify its SDG integrator role to national actors and donors. Building on the momentum of the Accelerator lab and initiatives such as the B4G, UNDP should explore developing signature solutions that would be used in Turkey as well as applied in LDC support of Turkey.

UNDP should outline areas where UNDP can provide integrator platforms at the national and subnational level. Given the Turkey context, there should be a more structured engagement of the private sector in specific SDG activities. Lessons from initiatives such as the Global Compact will be important for enabling a more structured and well-coordinated platform.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will illustrate its SDG integration offer by firmly integrating it in strategic documents such as CPD and enhance its support to Government for a stronger South-south cooperation for technology transfer and promote innovative methods via the utilization of Accelerator Lab.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1. UNDP will offer SDG integration and signature solutions for the implementation of the new National Development Plan through its new CPD and its integrated support in UNSDCF.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2020/12 Initiated In new CPD of UNDP Turkey, UNDP’s integration offer to UNCT was reflected along the lines of policy response on SDGs and its coordination mechanism; resilience approach in humanitarian-development nexus, private sector partnerships and platform way of working. UNDP Accelerator Lab’s innovative and fast solutions in urbanization and COVID-19 response was also stressed.
7.2. UNDP will enhance its South-South and triangular cooperation efforts of the Government in prioritized areas of development, including but not limited to humanitarian-development nexus, technological transformation, agricultural development, etc.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated
7.3. UNDP CO Accelerator Lab will promote working models from Turkey via its Accelerator lab network in LDCs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit, UNDP CO Accelerator Lab 2025/12 Initiated UNDP has initiated its formal partnership with UN Technology Bank for LDCs to replicate SDG accelerator programme of Government and UNDP Turkey in context of two LDCs, namely Uganda and Bangladesh. The cooperation is also exemplary in knowledge and experience sharing among the Lab network.
8. Recommendation:

Despite a shared responsibility of cost-sharing agreements with the UN, UNDP headquarters should review the corporate cost-recovery policy to enable greater resource mobilization for sustaining UNDP’s engagement in Turkey. Considering the funding challenges faced by UNDP in an upper-middle-income country like Turkey, the country office should adopt strategies to further diversify its funding mechanisms. An issue beyond UNDP fund mobilization strategy is the urgent need for donor response to funding efforts to promote humanitarian and development linkages. 

UNDP headquarters should revisit the policy of the cost-recovery changes, and explore the possibility of a more realistic slab distinguishing programme support versus operations support, and small-scale versus large-scale programmes. Headquarters should strategically engage in fund mobilization involving specific streams such as EU funding at scale for the Syrian crisis response in Turkey. While the country office has been successful in mobilizing programme resources, it should explore non-traditional donor funding opportunities to ensure continued support in strategies programmatic areas. The challenge in responding to Syrians in Turkey as well as Lebanon and Jordan, with the high refugee influx, is that there is a need for simultaneous humanitarian and development support. As this and other evaluations point out, donors and relevant actors should discuss how to ensure that humanitarian and development needs are correctly targeted for more sustainable humanitarian and development outcomes.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will continue its efforts for diversification of the donor base as well as accelerated fund-raising so that humanitarian-development linkages are firmly established

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1. UNDP will continue its efforts for diversification of the donor base, with a portfolio-based approach to further ensure a programme financial sustainability beyond 2020, through new partnerships with IFIs, the Government, private sector and bilaterals.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team , UNDP CO Programme Team 2025/12 Initiated
8.2. UNDP will advocate for an accelerated donor response to fund efforts that promote humanitarian and development linkages.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Team 2025/12 Initiated

Latest Evaluations

Contact us

1 UN Plaza
DC1-20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Tel. +1 646 781 4200
Fax. +1 646 781 4213
erc.support@undp.org