Joint Programme on Youth Employment

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Evaluation Plan:
2018-2020, Somalia
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
12/2019
Completion Date:
12/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
56,000

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Title Joint Programme on Youth Employment
Atlas Project Number: 00085376
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2020, Somalia
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2019
Planned End Date: 12/2019
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Energy
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 3.5.1 Energy access re-established for crisis-affected populations, with a focus on gender-sensitive, risk-informed and sustainable recovery
SDG Goal
  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  • Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries
SDG Target
  • 1.1 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
  • 10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
Evaluation Budget(US $): 56,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 56,000
Joint Programme: Yes
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Ahmed Hared Abdi National Consultant Ahmed.Hared@gmail.com SOMALIA
Ibrahim Mohamed Hassan Lead Evaluator Ibrahim.Mohamed@gmail.com SOMALIA
Conisia Shumba Lead Evaluator Conisia.shumba@gmail.com
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: SOMALIA
Lessons
Findings
1.

CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS

4.1 REACH AND PROCESS INDICATORS – OUTCOMES

Table 3 shows a summary of all beneficiaries reached by the JPYES program; all the interventions and activities by each PUNO; and all the geographical areas/regions. All the youth beneficiaries are gender disaggregated. The program reached a total of 12577 direct beneficiaries of which 7580 were male and 4998 were female. UNDP worked with an additional 1545 indirect beneficiaries in a variety of activities, including youth awareness campaigns, Youth Day celebrations, as indicated in detail in ANNEX 9. The scope of the evaluation report does not allow a detailed description of all the activities and interventions done by each PUNO, as its focus is on evaluation of the outcome of the activities and their impact on beneficiaries according to the TOR. 


Tag: Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Knowledge management Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

2.

4.3 JOBS CREATED THROUGH THE JPYES PROGRAM

Before discussing job creation and employment figures it is necessary to define some terms that will be used in this report. Definition 1: for the purposes of this evaluation report all jobs created from the CFW intervention were classified as short-term jobs, and all jobs created as a result of enterprise training, value chain training, and skills development were regarded as long-term jobs. This is because when a person has been skilled – that skill is for life. The person can be employed for a short time, but they will be able to get another job. Definition 2: job creation is when a new job has been created from a new enterprise created or expanded. Definition 3: employment is when the program intervention has enabled the trainee to be employed. In this evaluation report if any of Definition 2 and 3 happened, it was considered as a job created. 

4.3.1 SHORT-TERM JOBS CREATED THROUGH THE REHABILITATION AND CFW INTERVENTION

According to the Annual Plan June 2019 the cumulative number of CFW jobs created was 19600 and the cumulative number of youths trained was 10499. From discussions with the Program Coordinator, Said Osman, the evaluation team understood that there were Drought Response CFW beneficiaries that were reported in the Annual reports but were not captured in the databases. The reason for this was that databases were not operational until two years after the program had started. Efforts by the Program Coordinator to reconcile these beneficiaries into the database were unsuccessful. The evaluation team also tried to analyse these figures and found them incoherent and inconsistent, and not adding up with other records. The evaluation analysis and assessment used the numbers submitted by the heads of agencies. This challenge highlights a gap in the monitoring and evaluation system for the program, and the lack of dedicated personnel to perform this function. It was reported to the evaluation team that the bulk of the CFW beneficiaries recorded in the Annual Report were drought response beneficiaries. Drought response was done by FAO and UNDP. According to FAO the drought response funding was about $4.2 Million, and this amount was part of the program budget of $32.8 Million.


Tag: Fishery Country Government Private Sector UN Agencies Jobs and Livelihoods Data and Statistics

3.

CHAPTER 5: ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

5.1 EFFICIENCY

5.1.1 ACHIEVEMENT OF PROGRAM TARGETS – PROGRAM BENEFICIARIES

From Table 5 below, the JPYES did not achieve the target goals in terms of the number of jobs created based on the targets calculated from the actual budget of $32.8 million. Achievement of Outcome 1 was 23%; achievement of Outcome 2 was at 29%; and Outcome 3 was at 38%, and the overall performance was 34%. The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs commented the program performance: “JPYES was designed to create employment, but they did not create employment as anticipated.” 

5.1.2 BUDGET EXPENDITURE VERSUS ACHIEVEMENT OF OUTCOMES

Table 6 above shows the total funds received by each PUNO as at June 2019. From Table 7 above, the overall JPYES cost per job created was $3000. FAO had highest cost per job created of $5 954 followed by UNIDO at $5 859 per job created. ILO had the lowest cost per job created of $1 319 followed by UNDP at $2 218 per job created. These figures give a broad initial assessment of use of resources. It was supplemented by calculations of training costs per person shown in Table 8 below.

The cost of creating one job, or of getting one person employed, depends on many factors; the type of job; the quality of the job; whether the job is short term or long term; the sustainability of the job; whether it is a high investment or low investment business; the job sector, the country, the enabling environment, whether it is in a conflict or peaceful zone, and many other factors. As a result, the cost of creating a job can vary from less than $500 per job to more than $50 000 per job. Jobs which require large capital and machinery investment are expensive jobs to create. Davido Robalino from the World Bank gives the example that setting up a coffee-shop in the United States can cost between $80 000 and $250 000, and employs between three and seven people, meaning each job would cost between $25,000 and $35,000. These figures are high compared to the much lower costs per job of between $500 and $3,000 per job that is usually associated with active labor market programs such as training, job search assistance, wage subsidies, or public works. The types of JPYES jobs and businesses would be in the lower ranges of less than $500 to around $3000 per job, considering the type and quality of jobs created, and levels of financial inputs involved.


Tag: Efficiency UN Agencies Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Reduction

4.

CHAPTER 6: REASONS FOR PROGRAM LOW PERFORMANCE

This chapter analyzes the reasons why the JPYES did not reach its targets.

6.1 CAPACITY BUILDING GAPS IN MOLSA

MOLSA was the key government partner in the JPYES Program, with the responsibility to co-coordinate and co-manage program implementation with UN management structures. This required MOLSA to be capacitated in program management and financial administration. The JPYES had a capacity building budget of $1,109,140 to develop the technical, coordination, M&E capacities, and leadership roles at the federal and regional levels. Interviews with KIIs indicated that the capacity of government was still low at the time of evaluation. At the Garowe Conference in 14-17 July 2019, the government outlined the following skills gaps in MOLSA: low technical capacity to coordinate and manage the JPYES due to lack of basic knowledge and skills in program management, coordination, reporting skills and financial management. 


Tag: Effectiveness Knowledge management Country Government UN Agencies Capacity Building Jobs and Livelihoods Technical Support

5.

6.2 COORDINATION AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES

The evaluation team observed a variety of management challenges and complexities within the PUNOs; between MOLSA and PUNOs; and between MOLSA and line ministries. The complexities are discussed and analysed below: 

6.2.1 INDIVIDUALISM OF PUNOS

KIIs with different PUNOs revealed that there was deep-seated individualism in most PUNOs, where each PUNO has implemented the JPYES according to its own understanding, mandate and ways of working. Each PUNO is set in its own ways, and understandably so since each has its own mandate and focus. However, the whole idea of a joint program is willingness to work together to achieve a common goal, synergies, resource utilization efficiencies, and to avoid duplication of effort. When these are not maximized, the fundamental purpose of a joint programme is nullified. And this is what happened to the JPYES programme.

The Garowe Conference puts it this way; “Partnership working in YES Phase-l has failed due to many UN agencies working in silo (isolation). There have been documented contradictions, duplications, overlaps of activities between different agencies in this Joint Programme. The mid-term evaluation has reported that UN agencies have not worked in collaboration with each other and to their competitive advantage. This also highlights that the coordination mechanism is not efficient.” PUNOs were given money to create employment for youth. Some PUNOs mentioned during the evaluation interviews that when the funds were released to them, there was no clear direction on what to do with the money. The programme design was not clear, and there was no clear mandate what to do with the money. Each PUNO therefore had to design a youth employment programme according to their own understanding, mandate and strategy. PUNOs preferred receiving funding that has a specific plan and a ready strategy. It is easier to follow a plan from the program. Lack of such plans and designs reflects gaps at programme coordination and management level. 

The individualism of the PUNOs made it very difficult to coordinate efforts. In most cases each PUNO designed and implemented its own programs, through its own partners, and reached its own beneficiaries. The JPYES was called a “joint programme” yet there has been no joint programming in it. It was a nominal joint programme. There was no synchronization of activities and efforts where one agency builds onto the work that has been done by another agency, and there was no sharing of ideas between agencies. There was no desire by these agencies to synergize their efforts. However, UNDP and FAO worked jointly in the Fish Value Chain in Berbera, Bossaso and Kismayo, and ILO, UNDP, and FAO worked jointly in the Fish Value Chain in Puntland. One of the outstanding effects of the individualism of PUNOs was extensive overlapping of the skills trainings. In Kismayo, for an example, all PUNOs were reported to be offering same or similar courses to beneficiaries. Some of the stakeholders interviewed mentioned that there is a perceived conflict of interest in the JPYES management system where UNDP is responsible for the overall coordination and management of the program and yet, on the other hand, the same agency is also an implementing agency.


Tag: Challenges Coherence Joint UN Programme Partnership Programme Synergy Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management UN Agencies Coordination

6.

6.3 THE ABSENCE OF A PROGRAM MANAGEMENT UNIT

A joint program of 5 UN agencies, the FGS, and FMS requires a strong program management unit (PMU) – a team of experts in joint program programming, management, coordination and implementation. The need for such a strong PMU should have been evident at programme design. The complexities of managing this multifaceted combination of different organisations necessitated that management effort be poured into achieving and soliciting buy-in and collaboration with PUNOs to find common ground and to find effective ways of working jointly in the JPYES. Such efforts would have achieved mutuality, cooperation, synergy, and unity of purpose. PUNOs should have focused on a common goal and the benefits of achieving common success as a team of UN agencies. There was an oversight in this respect, and it led to further complications and setbacks during the JPYES implementation.

In some areas there was a shortage of program staff on the ground during implementation. A notable example of this situation was in Berbera and Bossaso where the evaluation team noticed that FAO does direct implementation by working directly with beneficiaries. At the same time there was only one key FAO staff member, and when he was not there, the program was at a standstill. There was a limited M&E capacity that could have done routine checking of the program progress across PUNOs to identify gaps and advise on corrective action during implementation. A budget allocation of US$425,395.89 for program coordination and management functions is less than the annual salary of one coordinator per year, which is about $450 000 for a P3 or P4 position. In this this case the program did not budget sufficient funds for the program management, and this should be corrected in the next phase. The PMU personnel budget of about $1.8 to $2.0 million should be included in the program budget and fundraising. With a strong PMU in place, a lot of the program inefficiencies and ineffectiveness highlighted by all stakeholders could have been avoided.


Tag: Challenges Effectiveness Efficiency Human and Financial resources Joint UN Programme Project and Programme management UN Agencies Jobs and Livelihoods Data and Statistics

7.

6.5 DELAYS IN DISBURSEMENT OF FUNDS DURING IMPLEMENTATION

All stakeholders – PUNOs, government, MOLSA, partners in the regions, and beneficiaries – mentioned that a key problem in the JPYES was that the funding flow was very slow and intermittent, with long periods of waiting in between. The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs, Mr. Sadik Warfa had this to say on the issue of delays in releasing money for program implementation; “We agree that paperwork is needed in procurement and financial management, but there is too much red-tape. We need quick action in program implementation. The UN takes too long to process money for program implementation, when we request for money. There is need to cut this short in order to increase effectiveness and efficiency of the program. UNDP has the most rigid system of all UN agencies that MOLSA has dealt with – UNDP is especially very slow in expediting our requests for money. ILO red tape is much better than UNDP. Sweden and Italy donors are much better – they gave us US$400,000 to rehabilitate the MOLSA offices.” In saying this, the minister was referring to day-to-day financial management matters during implementation of the program. 

FAO and UNIDO funds were allocated to another UN agency by mistake, and this caused implementation delays. UNIDO was more affected by this delay than FAO, because only a small portion of FAO funding came in 2019. This is why both FAO and UNIDO were still implementing at the time of evaluation, when the program was supposed to have been completed. UNDP was also still implementing at the time of evaluation due to delayed funding release from donors. The government also complained about slow release of funding and how it negatively affected implementation. In fact, this complaint echoes throughout the programme management system and structures – and it is a major setback for program implementation. Other PUNOs reported having to wait for over three months before funding arrives. Such financial and fund disbursement gaps caused delays in implementation of the program and made it difficult to plan activities. The program suffered from delayed funding release from the donors, which affected implementation and causes delays in completion of the program.


Tag: Efficiency Donor relations Operational Efficiency Programme/Project Design Bilateral partners UN Agencies

8.

CHAPTER 7: IMPACT ASSESSMENT - EFFECTIVENESS

7.1 REHABILITIATION OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND ASSETS THROUGH CASH FOR WORK 7,236 beneficiaries participated in the CFW programme, and this section presents findings from the beneficiary impact assessment, focusing on the impact of the intervention on beneficiaries. Three PUNOs implemented the rehabilitation of infrastructure and assets through the CFW intervention – FAO, UNDP and ILO did rehabilitation of assets mainly through cash for work, although in some cases there was no cash for work accompanying rehabilitation of structures. Some of the ILO CFW beneficiaries could not be located for interviews because some of the ILO partners who were engaged in 2015 had closed down. 

7.1.1 AGE AND GENDER MAINSTREAMING The average age of respondents was 25; varying between 21 and 31 years. The data showed a mode of 24 years, meaning majority of the beneficiaries were 24 years old. This means that the CFW intervention targeted the youth. The majority of the program beneficiaries were single (57.6%). There was almost an equal number of males (51.5%) to females (48.5%). Average household size was 7, and the mode was 7.

7.1.2 IMPACT OF THE CFW INTERVENTION 75.76% of the beneficiaries were not employed before they were registered for CFW. 66.67% of the respondents reported that the CFW activities improved their access to employment and income levels. 67% of the respondents reported that they had received training from the CFW intervention in the following areas: hygiene and city beautification, neighbourhood watch, report writing, governance, data collection and research, CV development, self-improvement, and rehabilitation of structures.

7.1.3 IMPACT ON INCOMES OF BENEFICIARIES 61% of the beneficiaries mentioned that they did not have an income before the CFW. The CFW wages ranged from US$180-200 USD per month with an average of US$200 per month and mode of US$200. 76% of the beneficiaries reported that they were satisfied with the wage they received in relation to the tasks they performed. 24% were not satisfied and they mentioned that the amounts were not enough to cater for households needs, and that the tasks were hard and in risky environments like Mogadishu. The security context was risky coupled with long working hours with very minimum staff welfare considerations. Some beneficiaries descried the fact that payment of wages would be delayed such that often, they had to multi-task to cover the income gaps. The average income of beneficiaries who had income before CFW activities was US$112. The CFW had a definite positive impact on the incomes of the beneficiaries. The beneficiary survey showed that 42.6% of the money was used for starting a business, 26.2% was used for food purchases. 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Impact Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Country Government UN Agencies Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Urbanization

9.

7.2 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION 3,328 beneficiaries participated in the Skills Development programme, and this section presents findings from the beneficiary impact assessment, focusing on the impact of the intervention on beneficiaries. All the 5 PUNOs implemented the Skills Development intervention in different sectors. 

7.2.1 GENDER AND AGE 54.3% of the respondents were female and 45.7 were male. The youngest beneficiary was 16 years old and the eldest was 70 years old. The mean age was 25 years, and mode was 23. 57.28% of respondents were single. The targeting of the youth was good. Average household size was 7, and the mode was 8.

7.2.2 IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF BENEFICIARIES 39.39% of respondents reported that they got a job as a result of the training from the JPYES program. This tells us that less than 50% of respondents trained became employed. This figure is lower than 50%, and it could mean that there are problems with the types of training courses that were offered or there are other problems that limit employment of the trainees. From Table 12 below, UNHABITAT had the highest proportion of respondents (14.55%) who reported that they had a job as a result of skills training from the program followed by UNDP and UNIDO (8.48%) of respondents reporting that they had jobs as a result of training. This is shown in Table 12 below. Table 12: Respondents who got employed after training by the program. 78.87% of respondents mentioned that they had a choice on the training courses that they received. The highest proportion of respondents who had a choice of courses was 38.97% from UNHABITAT respondents, followed by 20.66% UNDP respondents. This is shown in Table 13 below.Table 13: Respondents who had a choice on training courses. Of the 39.39% who got jobs after being trained by the JPYES, (Table 12), 48.00% got employed after 2-5 months, and 39.00% got employed after less than 2 months. This is shown in Table 14 below. Table 14: Time taken to get employed after training.


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Knowledge management Private Sector UN Agencies Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Reduction

10.

7.3 THE FISH VALUE CHAIN INTERVENTION

749 beneficiaries participated in the Value Chain Development in the Fish Value Chain. This section presents findings from the beneficiary impact assessment, focusing on the impact of the intervention on beneficiaries. Three PUNOs implemented the Fish Value Chain intervention – FAO, UNDP and ILO.

7.3.1 AGE AND HOUSEHOLD SIZE The average age of respondents was 27, the mode was 25, minimum was 19 and maximum was 40. Youth was well targeted. Average household size was 7, and the mode was 7.

7.3.2 IMPACT ON EMPLOYMENT STATUS 74.07% of trainees had a choice on what to be trained on. All respondents mentioned that the training content was good. 96% said the training was relevant to the fishing businesses and context. The training intervention improved skills and employment status. 25.93% of respondents had businesses before the Program. 51.17% had fisheries businesses before the program. This concurs with information in the FAO database. 71.44% of those who had skills before the program had skills in fisheries. 48.15% started a business after the training from the program. 62.96% of respondents said the program did not improve their access to productive assets. Impact of intervention on employment status The program interventions improved the employment status of respondents in different ways as shown in the Table 21. This confirms what is in the FAO training database, hence it confirms data in the database.

Impact on income The average monthly gross income was US$193.00, and the average business costs per month were US$139.00. Hence, the average monthly profit was US$54.00. This level of profit per month is very small and it indicates that these are micro businesses. 68% of respondents indicated that their incomes increased because of the program’s intervention. The respondents mentioned that they had not yet been linked to markets both in Bossaso and Berbera. FAO buys their dried fish and markets it. In Bossaso, it was observed that the fish processing groups use their cold chain equipment to do other forms of income-generating activities such as making of ice creams during seasons when there is no fish. There is a six months period when there is no fish in the sea and hence no fishing activities. Fish businesses suffer during these periods.

Impact on business sustainability The major challenges to fish businesses are; lack of startup capital; lack of equipment; lack of customers; seasonal lack of fish; dry fish is a new product and program beneficiaries are not sure of a market for it. 65.38% of beneficiaries do not have savings to sustain the fish business. This is an indication of low sustainability of businesses. The fish value chain analysis commissioned by UNDP assessed the other aspects of the value chain but lacks the market assessment of both fresh fish and dried fish. 


Tag: Fishery Effectiveness Impact Gender Equality Women's Empowerment UN Agencies Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Reduction

11.

7.6 A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERVENTIONS

Impact of intervention on income earnings The Skills Development intervention had the highest monthly incomes, followed by CFW. The Fish Value Chain intervention has the lowest income earnings per month. Impact of intervention on quality of life Table 35: Impact of the three interventions on beneficiary quality of life.

7.6.1 DISCUSSION ON THE FISH VALUE CHAIN IMPACT ON BENEFICIARIES The low impact of the Fish Value Chain on beneficiaries’ lives warrants a discussion and explanations. According to the FAO head of agency John Purvis, the Fish Value Chain focused its support on the poor communities and IDPs, according to the PSC meeting of December 2016. This explains the micro-level nature of the fish businesses. The seasonality of the fish business in these areas also explains the low levels of business activities during the time of evaluation. Beneficiaries in Berbera had not yet started making business transactions at the time of evaluation. (Table 34 & Table 35 & Figure 6)

The low impact of the Fish Value Chain intervention on beneficiaries indicated by the beneficiary survey results, was unexpected, because the fish value chain has potential to generate good incomes for the beneficiaries and produce greater positive impact on the Somali people. The Chinese people and other countries make billions of dollars from fishing along the Somali coastline. The government and the ministry of fisheries are aware of this vast potential and they are looking to see it exploited for the benefit of the Somali people. Some of these concerns have been raised in the PSC meeting minutes of 2018. In the PSC meeting of April 2018, the Minister said: “I do not believe any value chains has been implemented as yet.” Per: “For Phase 2, we need to rethink the value chains. We need productive dialogue with private sector. And support the Ministry to lead.” Minister: “We need other technical Ministries to be involved such as Ministry of fisheries and agriculture.” The Minister further said: “A market scan will help us develop Phase 2 rather than grounding our hopes in the value chains. The value chain programme has been focusing on short-term goals.” Minister: “…The value chains were not our core objective but the means to create jobs… We know that the value chain approach has not been adhered to. YES needs to move away from CFW as well.” 


Tag: Fishery Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Reduction

12.

CHAPTER 8: THE GOOD PRACTICES OF THE JPYES PROGRAM

8.1 STRATEGIC

8.1.1 STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT TO THE NDP AND NSF

It is evident that the JPYES Program was introduced through consultation with the relevant stakeholders in Somalia including all levels of governments, line ministries, and the private sector. The program was designed to match the Somalia National Development Plan (NDP) 2017- 2019 benchmarks, and to target the youth who suffer very high unemployment rates as described in the introduction section of this report. The evaluation team assessed the strategic alignment of the JPYES Program to Somalia national development goals through interviews with senior government officials in Somalia and Somaliland.


Tag: Coherence Impact Strategic Positioning Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Reduction

13.

8.1.2 GENDER AND INCLUSION IN THE JPYES PROGRAM

The average female to male proportion for all the beneficiaries is 36% to 64%. The target in the Program Document is 30%, and in this respect the JPYES achieved gender mainstreaming above the target. FAO, UNDP, and UNHABITAT had female inclusion rates of 40%, 46% and 55% respectively, which are all above the program target of 30%. UNIDO and ILO achieved female inclusion rates of 21% and 20% female respectively, which are below the Program Document target of 30%. Both ILO and UNIDO had training interventions in the construction sector that is traditionally male dominated, with low women participation.

According to Koshin Garane, the National JPYES Program Coordinator, “The Gender office promoted equal access to employment for both young men and women throughout the JPYES beneficiary selection and implementation. In some locations and interventions, there were more women participating than men. Gender was definitely addressed, but the other marginalised and vulnerable groups – disabled, ethnic, and clan issues were not addressed. The program was designed to target large groups of young people, and these are found in towns not in rural areas. In addition, most rural areas are inaccessible to program implementers due to security issues”.

According to Minister Hinda Jama Hersi, Somaliland’s MESAF, “In Somaliland the Gender office sits in the MESAF, therefore gender equality is MESAF mandate. In addition, as a woman minister, I ensured that the gender inclusion principles are adhered to in the program. For example, the 30 Fish Value Chain beneficiaries in Berbera are divided 15:15 male: females, thus achieving 50% gender mainstreaming. The 50% women inclusion principle was also adhered to in the FAO CFW programme. In some locations, there were more women participating than men. Also marginalised and poor people were considered and included in the program. The fisheries program targeted the poor coastal families. Disabled youths were included in programs wherever they could be functional.”

From the beneficiary survey data, there was an almost equal number of males (51.5%) to females (48.5%). The respondents mentioned that the training stipends given to trainees were equal for females and males at US$112.00 per month for Skills Development training. CFW was paid at an average of US$200 per month per person and there was no difference between male and female participants. 

Heavy workloads Majority of the young women reported that it was hard for them to get time to manage their professional training. Young women mentioned limited access to capital, mobility restrictions and socio-cultural limitations, and heavy workloads as the main challenges for them to access professional training. 

Mobility and freedom of movement 74.53% of respondents were able to move freely to do their business outside and away from their homesteads. 78.77% were free to travel in public places and to training centres. It seems that there are no mobility issues in general. However, respondents mentioned these dangers to mobility of both young women and men: armed conflict, explosions, robberies at night, rape and human rights violation, and target killings by criminals. 81.82% of respondents mentioned that the program has improved their mobility in the following ways: they are able to run their businesses on a daily basis; the program has enabled them to visit other areas of town and country; they can go around looking for jobs freely; and increased chances of visiting other areas. For some young women, the program gave them an opportunity to go outside their homes and improved their engagements with people outside their homes. 

Restrictions to young women’s mobility affected their training in the following ways: they could not walk alone for long distances, and if courses were too far away, they could not access them. Walking for long distances caused them to arrive late at training sessions, and as a result, they could not attend some training sessions. Women cannot walk at night. However, in the following towns, there are no mobility restrictions – Baidoa, Kismayo, Bossaso and Somaliland. Some young women had to work at home before going for training, and by the time they get to training, they are very tired and could not concentrate. There were personal risks due to the security situation and other social ills that restrict young women’s mobility. Understanding the mobility limitations of young women was crucial for the JPYES program, because if young women are restricted in movement culturally, they would not be able to participate in the program activities. In addition, these findings are valuable for future programing.

The JPYES Program contributed positively to the problem of mobility restrictions in these ways: it gave special considerations for young women to attend the training; the instructors understood and knew sociocultural norms of the country, and they made it easy for the young women to attend and complete their training despite the challenges. Instructors waited for female trainees to arrive late, and they would repeat the missed lessons. This was well appreciated by the trainees. Sensitivity and extra efforts to accommodate the women’s socio-cultural context was a good practice that should continue in future programs.


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

14.

8.2 RELEVANCE

A national employment program targeting the youth is undoubtedly relevant to the Somalia context with over 70% youth unemployment rate. According to Koshin Garane, the National Program Coordinator in MOLSA, “The JPYES is the most relevant of all programs in Somalia.” Minister Hinda Jama Hersi, Somaliland MESAF, said of JPYEP’s relevance, “The program is very relevant to the Somaliland NDP and NSF. However, in Somaliland, the program intervention did not address the root causes of youth unemployment problems that were identified. Not all communities appreciated the relevance of the JPYEP intervention.” Esther Njuguma of SIDA said; “The JPYES program is relevant to Somalia, the original program proposal is very good. The program has had a positive impact on the communities through short-term jobs created – young men and women have been employed, and youth are now more active in the economy, and they have developed a positive attitude and volunteerism. CFW is good for short-term cash injection to the youth, and into the economy. The JPYES had to transform the short-term CFW drought response interventions into long-term jobs. There have been many short-term jobs created – there is a need for more long-term job creation interventions.” Yusuf Salad Warsame, Labour Technical Advisor MOLSA, said that, “The country needs long-term sustainable interventions which seem to be beyond the mandates of the UN agencies. The UN agencies seem to be limited only to short-term interventions.” 


Tag: Relevance Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Implementation Modality Ownership Partnership Country Government UN Agencies Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

15.

8.4 SUSTAINABILITY

Sustainability was evaluated in terms of the ability of the government to continue with the program after it has ended; and the ability of the government to sustain and continue to run and maintain all program assets.

8.4.1 SUSTENANCE AND MAINTENANCE OF PROGRAM ASSETS BY LOCAL MUNICIPALITIES

The evaluation team observed that there is a strong plan in place with all local municipalities to continue maintaining and sustaining all the structures and buildings and roads that were constructed during the program life cycle. For example, in Berbera, ILO built a road and the Berbera municipality has a commitment letter to maintain and repair the road. UNDP built 2 fish processing centres in Berbera, and the municipality of Berbera has a maintenance and repair plan in place for that, which includes hygiene, water and electricity supply. The municipality of Berbera will sustain all the utilities, and it already has a yearly budget for that. 

The mayor of Bossaso said, “When UNDP phases out, the municipality will take over maintenance and repair of all the fish processing centres. We have this program in our financial planning. We will take care of all utilities and conflict management in the IDPs.” UNDP did entrepreneurship skills development youth fisherfolks, in collaboration with the Municipality of Bossaso, and FAO in Bossaso.

In Baidoa, UNDP constructed an 800-seater community hall and constructed a bridge. ILO rehabilitated a road. The bridge and the road are very good and efficient and effective, and positively impacted on the economic growth in the areas. The municipality of Baidoa committed to ensure the sustenance and maintenance of all these program assets. Commitment of municipalities to sustain and maintain the program assets was demonstrated by their full participation in the program in all the cities visited by the evaluation team. This is a positive point for the JPYES, which should be nurtured and promoted and acknowledged and appreciated and supported financially. This is a good practice sustainability plan and it is consistent with the government’s strong ownership of the JPYES Program. 

Municipalities are not in the National Steering Committee. Mayors of different cities do not attend the National Steering Committee meetings and they expressed that they need to be included in this meeting since the municipalities support and sustain the program after donors have left. As such, municipalities should be deeply involved and included in the National Steering Committee meetings of the JPYES Program. since the greater part of the program is urban based. Local municipalities are custodians of everything that happens in the JPYES, hence they must be well informed about the program. This is a coordination and communication gap, which should be closed. Going forward, the mayors of cities need to be more included and involved in the program management and steering committees since they play a critical role in the JPYES Program.


Tag: Efficiency Sustainability Local Governance Rule of law Ownership Country Government Jobs and Livelihoods Youth Technical Support

16.

8.5 EFFECTIVENESS AT BENEFICIARY LEVEL

The Skills Development intervention impacted 4862 beneficiaries who were trained in professional skills, life skills, entrepreneurship, renewable energy, construction, and many other skills. The intervention created 3711 jobs. The youth beneficiaries were satisfied with the intervention, and they highly valued the training courses. The intervention improved their skill levels, employment status by getting jobs, and by starting their own businesses. The beneficiaries earned incomes averaging US$383 per month. The program improved the beneficiaries’ quality of life. In addition, this intervention improved the beneficiaries’ social networks, confidence, mobility, and self-efficacy. Most young female beneficiaries stated that the Skills Development intervention improved their mobility.

Rehabilitation of Infrastructure and Assets through the Cash for Work intervention created short term jobs for 7236 beneficiaries. It was well received and highly valued by youth beneficiaries in that it gave them short-term employment and an average income of US$200 per month. The rehabilitated roads, streetlights, buildings and youth centres were relevant and much needed assets and infrastructure for economic development, and they stimulated economic activities. The CFW intervention was effective to the beneficiaries, and it impacted positively and significantly on their incomes and quality of life. CFW is a good short-term emergency intervention, and the Somalia context now requires more of the long-term interventions. 

The Fish Value Chain intervention impacted 749 beneficiaries and created 739 jobs. This intervention improved skills of beneficiaries in fisheries and created employment but did not make a significant impact on beneficiary incomes and their quality of life. This matter has been discussed at length in section 7.3.4 and will not be repeated here.


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

Recommendations
1

Recommendation 1. The principles of joint programming should be embraced by participating agencies, and agreed upon, before program implementation commences to avoid complications and conflicts during program implementation. The program should be run following the joint programming principles for the effective coordination.

2

Recommendation 2. Capacities development of key government partners should be prioritized to enable the government to perform their roles in program implementation, coordination and oversight at all levels.

3

Recommendation 3.The capacities of the concerned technical ministries should be developed, so that they will be able to contribute to provide their technical support to the programming effectively – this should be integral part of the planned activities and adequate resources are to be allocated.

4

Recommendation 4. Capacity development of relevant government departments in legal labour frameworks and statistics should be continued in the next phase as it enables government to address employment issues at a national and macro-level – and to involve other relevant sectors, e.g. the private sector, to participate.

5

Recommendation 5. The joint programme should have an effective Programme Management Unit (PMU), with allocation of adequate resources, that will have both programme management and coordination functions, following the RMB principles.

6

Recommendation 6. It will maximize the benefits of the investments, when the supports to skills and enterprise development, such as needs analysis, building training facilities, establishing TVET legal frameworks and certification, providing tailored trainings considering the needs of both employees and employers, job placement, apprenticeship programs, enterprise development, legal frameworks for labour and employment, are interlinked in an integrated way.

7

Recommendation 7. Women and men participation ratio in programme should be 50:50 (not 30:70) as per the corporate standard; and women must be given equal opportunities in economic participation.

8

Recommendation 8. The value chain development should follow the value chain principles in a strategic way and focus on productive sectors that have high employment generation potential as well as the markets. The value chain programs should not only be limited to micro-enterprises, but to involve medium enterprises as well.

9

Recommendation 9. Any deviation from the original Theory of Change of the joint programme should be agreed by all partners and documented; and the project document is to be amended accordingly and timely.

10

Recommendation 10. The JPYES Program Document did not specify the roles and responsibilities of different ministries. This created opportunities of inter-ministerial misunderstandings over leadership and responsibilities, as well as ownership of the program. It is therefore recommended that in the next phase the roles of the different line ministries be clarified and agreed upon.

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EXTRAXT SECTION FROM THE REPORT - 'RECOMMENDATIONS AND LEASON LEARNED' PG. 49-55.

CHAPTER 9: RECOMMENDATIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT

From the analysis in Chapter 8, the following are the good practices of the JPYES Program:

9.1 STRATEGIC

9.1.1 STRATEGY AND DESIGN OF THE PROGRAM

The JPYES strategy was aligned and relevant to the Somalia context and to NDP 8. This is a strength of the JPYES Program. There is no question about the relevance and strategic alignment of the program to the national context.

9.1.2 GENDER MAINSTREAMING The evaluation team observed that gender was very well mainstreamed in the JPYES Program. This is a good practice of the program, and it is recommended that the next phase of the program should build on this pillar. However, ILO and UNIDO will need to improve the gender mainstreaming component of their programming in the next phase, by deliberately and consciously including trainings that are relevant to women. Women should be given equal access to both training and employment opportunities between men and women. Donors are particularly interested to see this happening.

9.1.3 YOUTH BENEFICIARY TARGETING The JPYES targeted youth beneficiaries very well. This is a good practice it is recommended that this should be continued in the next phase of the program.

9.2 NATIONAL OWNERSHIP The government ownership is clearly demonstrated by MOLSA’s full participation and support of the program, at all levels. Stakeholder participation and support is evident by their participation in the program. The local municipalities in all the regions visited by the evaluation team demonstrated their readiness and willingness to maintain and sustain the JPYES Program assets. This is a good practice of the program and it is recommended that it should be continued and enhanced in the next phase. It is further recommended that the mayors of municipalities be involved and included in both the National and the Regional Steering Committee meetings so that they are well informed about the details of program implementation and where they fit in and where their role is required. The youth beneficiaries own this program and support it fully as indicated in the impact assessment. The youth communities support the program and they own the program.  

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9.3 RELEVANCE

The relevance of a programme is linked to its design and strategy. In this respect, the JPYES was relevant to the national strategies and needs of the country. However, the government observations were that some components of the intervention did not fully address the root causes of youth unemployment. This could be a symptom of the absence of pre-implementation participatory needs analysis, and market assessments done with the youth and the government. Both the youth and the government should be able to define their needs. The government should be able to highlight the needs of the employers. The private and public sectors and international organisations should be involved in the labour market analysis as employers. Training courses should be designed based on the needs of these employers – thereby addressing the identified and agreed upon root causes of youth unemployment. Job creation cannot happen in isolation; it is a national problem and should involve all the key stakeholders in the different sectors. 

It is, therefore, recommended that the next phase should do an employment sector-wide needs analysis that involves and includes all possible employers. The employers should highlight the skills they need, and they should commit to employing some of the graduates from the training programmes. Training interventions designed and implemented after such inclusive needs’ analyses enable programme designers to better tailor-make their programmes to the needs of the beneficiaries. Such an approach results in demand-driven interventions and avoids the prescriptive and supply-driven intervention strategies. Such an approach would address the root causes of unemployment in the country.

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9.4 ADDRESSING INEFFICIENCY

9.4. CAPACITY BUILDING OF GOVERNMENT

The JPYES Program Document did not specify the roles and responsibilities of different ministries in an employment program. This created opportunities of inter-ministerial misunderstandings over leadership and responsibilities, as well as ownership of the program. It is therefore recommended that in the next phase the roles of the different line ministries be clarified and agreed upon and documented upfront.

It is recommended that in the next phase of the program, capacity building of the government should be prioritized, and this should be done consistently and diligently. This enables the government to play its role in implementation both effectively and efficiently, thereby reducing the management and coordination burden on the UN management team. The government is the key partner in oversight, coordination and implementation, and the program management should technically empower the government so that it does its role effectively. The absence of government capacity placed a huge management and coordination burden on the UN management team. This could have contributed to the inefficiencies and delays mentioned by all involved in the implementation processes and structures. Such a situation should be avoided at all cost in the next phase. Capacity development of government should be set as a measurable target and output that will be evaluated and monitored throughout the program life cycle. 

Petrus van de Pol, JPLG Program Manager, shared the following; capacity building of government is important, and this has been an evolving process which started with training government in very simple things and putting basic systems in place like HR hiring systems and financial administration systems. Basic courses were designed for all states. Training is localized in order to meet the specific local needs of government staff. JPLG developed these basic courses for government staff piloted them and validated them. These courses were different for each state because their needs and levels were different. The program designed courses that are not foreign to government staff; but courses they could relate with and which were relevant to their needs for the effective program implementation. 

Capacity building for government is to start small and allow the training and capacity building process to evolve until it reaches the level of formalization when the situation allows and suits the local institutions. For example, in Somaliland the financial management systems are now in place, therefore JPLG can give a budget allocation to Somaliland and assign a consultant to help them manage their own funds. In SWS systems are not yet in place, therefore there is need to hand hold them until they are ready to manage their own funds and manage their own budgets. During capacity building stages trust building is essential by letting the government trainees try to do things by themselves but the program, should handhold and assist them. Coaching and mentoring should be done by giving them a chance to use the systems that the program is developing with them and for them.

9.4.2 LABOUR POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION The labour policy and legal framework development and the national labour survey update should be continued in the next phase. Capacity development of government personnel involved with these functions should continue. This development enables the government to be involved and engaged with the private sector and to influence the direction of employment creation at a national level. 

9.4.3 ESTABLISH A ROBUST PMU The analysis identified that the lack of a robust PMU led to management, coordination, financial administration, and monitoring gaps and problems. These managerial gaps and problems affected the JPYES Program’s performance negatively leading to failure to achieve the stipulated outcomes and targets. The recommendation is that in the next phase, the program should establish a strong PMU that can manage, monitor, coordinate, and administer all the complexities of a joint program of this nature. The PMU must be well resourced with professional experts. The PMU should have the following personnel: a Programme Manager, a Deputy Manager, an M&E Specialist, and a Finance and Administration Officer. The recommendation is that the full costs of such a PMU should be assessed and budgeted for adequately in the next phase. A lesson learned is that a strong PMU should be able to performance manage the PUNOs. Performance targets should be set for each PUNO and should be constantly monitored during the program implementation phases. The PUNO targets should be clear and directly linked to funds allocated and disbursed to it. The PUNOs must be accountable to the PMU financially and performance wise. 

9.4.4 ESTABLISH A JOINT PROGRAM DATA CAPTURING AND MONITORING SYSTEM The analysis identified that lack of a joint data capturing, and monitoring system resulted in missing data and vital program information from the beginning of the program, which affected the evaluation of the program. The recommendation is that the next phase should have a functional data capturing and monitoring system from the beginning of the program. This can be resolved by having a program Monitoring and Evaluation unit within the PMU.

9.4.5 ESTABLISH A ROBUST FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT UNIT WITHIN THE PMU Within the PMU, there should be a program financial management and administration person who ensures that the financial matters of the program are addressed with clear understanding and sensitivity that the success of any program depends on an efficient money disbursement system. This was lacking in the JPYES, and it caused inefficiencies in implementation. Establishment of this unit within the PMU should avoid similar problems in the implementation of the next phase. The PMU should be strong in Result Based Management (RBM) principles of program management – planning, monitoring, reporting, and management. The PMU should be able to performance manage the participating agencies and government and ensuring that program targets are achieved timeously. Fund disbursement should be linked to target outputs and there should be a continuous monitoring and evaluation process throughout program implementation. This is essential to be incorporated in the next phase program design. There should be dedicated officials assigned within PMU to work closely with the government counterparts to build their capacities and support implementation, coordination and management of program activities as well as quality assurance in a daily basis. Ideally, the PMU could be set up within the lead ministry, in order to facilitate transfer of skills and knowledge and competencies from PMU to the government coordination ministries. In the Somalia context this may be difficult, but alternative ways to accomplish this could be evaluated and different options could be explored.

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9.4.5 AVOID DEVIATION FROM THE ORIGINAL PROGRAMME STRATEGY

From the JPYES, the lesson learned is that a deviation from the original programme design while outcomes and targets remain the same, leads to disastrous results, and that it is a recipe for failure to achieve the target outcomes. Therefore, in the next phase, deviation from the original strategy should be avoided. One of the key functions of the recommended PMU is to ensure that the programme design and goals are well communicated and workshopped throughout the program implementation structures and partners. The whole program management structure – from top to bottom – should be on the same page – as to the priorities of the program, and what the program has been designed to achieve as well as the donor expectations. The program M&E person should ensure that targets are being achieved in accordance with the funds disbursed for activities. This will avoid surprises of unfulfilled targets during evaluation time. Programme evaluations should be part of the programme implementation processes, and the recommendations should be embraced and incorporated into the programme. 

9.4.6 THE VALUE CHAIN APPROACH The value chain development should be focused in productive sectors that have high employment generation potential, and ready markets that can absorb all productions. The value chain programs should not be limited to micro-enterprise level. They should be medium enterprises that can generate employment for other unemployed people. Such enterprises should be able to generate meaningful incomes for the beneficiaries fast. The next phase should refrain from programs that take long to bring income to beneficiaries as this is discouraging to the participants. The value chain approach has specific characteristics, principles, and benefits that were not evident in the Renewable Energy and Construction interventions of the JPYES Program. As such, these could not qualifyto be classified as value chains. The value chain approach is one of several market systems approaches to economic development. The value chain approach seeks to understand the firms that operate within a specific industry – from input suppliers to end market consumers; the support needed for chain actors that provide technical, business and financial services to the industry; and the business environment in which the industry operates. The value chain approach has the following distinctive features, simultaneously emphasizing all of these features: a market system perspective; a focus on end markets; the importance of relationships and transforming them; targeting leverage points; and involving and empowering the private sector.

An analysis of all the actors and sectors within the value chain system is critical in order to identify the part of the value chain where there are bottlenecks to competitiveness or growth. Failure to recognize and incorporate the implications of the full range of constraints within the value chain system will generally lead to limited, short-term impact or even counter-productive results. A thorough and rigorous market analysis of the end markets should be the first step in value chain analysis. If the market is not certain or is not big enough to absorb all the product – there is no need to recommend that product for further development, because it will only lead to failure, particularly for small scale development programs. Market development is a costly exercise and most development programs cannot afford spending the limited program financial resources in market development. This is why value chain approaches emphasize market analysis and identification of interventions that offer a competitive advantage to program beneficiaries. Although private companies can take such risks, it is difficult for development agencies to take on such risks. The goal of the value chain approach is to enable private-sector stakeholders to act on their own behalf: to upgrade their firms and collectively create a competitive value chain that contributes to economic growth and achieve poverty reduction. The value chain analysis and strategy development process should therefore be participatory and should engage and include all chain actors. The role of the donor and implementing partner is to facilitate and support implementation of the competitiveness strategy by the private sector in a way that ensures achievement of development objectives – economic growth and poverty reduction. A critical procedure of the value chain approach – local market analysis - was not adhered to in the JPYES Program and, as a result, the Fish Value Chain struggled. Going forward, all the value chain principles should be adhered to before implementation commences.

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9.4.7 EMBRACE THE JOINT PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

The levels of individualism within the JPYES partners were of such a great magnitude that they require special attention. According to the German Development Institute (2013)8, Joint Programming (JP) is an effort to improve the coordination of different organisations and entities and countries with the aim to better streamline aid delivery at the country level. JP aims to improve the effective and efficient delivery of aid by reducing fragmentation of donor aid programmes and programs. Built into most joint programmes is the aim to increase partner country ownership by basing its JP documents and strategies on national development strategies. Joint Programming is a collaborative approach where organisations come together to define a common vision, a strategic agenda and a management structure, in order to address the ‘grand challenges’ facing the country. This presents a number of platforms and opportunities for UN agencies to work on joint programming interventions. Challenges like high unemployment are considered to be beyond the scope and resources of any one INGO or UN organisation to tackle and a coordinated approach helps to address such challenges.

All the partners to a joint program like the JPYES should understand and appreciate the logic behind joint programming. This takes training, workshopping and continuous dialogue on this matter until all partners understand and agree on the benefits of joint programming. Such efforts should iron out individualistic inclinations that were prevalent in the JPYES partners, and which hindered the ability to benefit from efficiencies of synergy. Organisational fears about joint programming should be discussed openly and deliberated upfront before engagement and implementation. If an organisation is not willing to participate jointly in a joint programme, then such an organisation should be excused from joint programme initiatives. A key success to joint programming is having organisations that are willing and able to work jointly to achieve common programme goals. Joint programming results in cost saving and hence it enhances the financial efficiency of the joint programme. For these reasons, it is recommended that the next phase of the program develop a strong joint approach throughout its implementing structures, in order to reap the benefits of joint programming such as streamlining the massive complex and costly management structures; cost saving through reducing PUNO duplication of costs; and achievement of common goals efficiently and effectively. 

An example of cost saving from Joint Programming approach is in PUNO overhead costs. Individual PUNOs had a finance person, an M&E person, and a program manager for the JPYES. This means that there were 15 staff members working for the JPYES from different PUNOs. If there was a joint JPYES PMU - only 4 people would be required. Petrus van de Pol, JPLG Program Manager shared the following: “The JPLG is a successful program in Phase 3, and donors like it. It is composed of 5 UN agencies – UNDP, UNICEF, UNHABITAT, ILO and UNCDF. It has been operational since 2008. There is specific division of labour where each UN agency plays a specific role. This avoids agencies stepping on each other’s toes and duplication of efforts. UNICEF focuses on civic participation mobilisation; UNCDF focuses on public finance provision; ILO focuses on public procurement processes; UNHABITAT focuses on urban planning, and UNDP focuses on the legal aspects.” From this example, the solution is not necessarily to reduce the number of participating UN agencies, but to streamline their functions and roles according to their areas of specialty and mandates. In the next phase the roles of each PUNO should be clearly outlined, agreed upon and documented, including the targets and outcomes and funding expectations.

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9.5 EFFECTIVENESS

Skills development is an essential component of employment creation programming, and this should be continued in the next phase of the program. All interventions that support skills development including building training facilities, establishing TVET legal frameworks and certification, training, job placements centres, apprenticeship programs, enterprise development, legal frameworks for labour and employment – the full package of skills development is important in employment programming. The lesson learnt from the JPYES program is that the skills development approach used had positive impact on beneficiaries. There is however, the need to do pre-implementation needs analysis in order to tailor-make training to the needs of both employees and employers.

CFW can be used where there is need for rehabilitation of structures, but Somalia needs long-term job creation interventions much more. The Value Chain Development requires a thorough analysis. The evaluation team is of the opinion that the fisheries sector offers great potential for high value business enterprises, medium enterprises, and longterm sustainable jobs. 

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9.6 INTENDED AND UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF THE JPYES PROGRAM

9.6.1 THE POSITIVE UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF JPYES INTERVENTIONS

The beneficiary survey respondents mentioned the following unintended positive effects of the JPYES program: skills development courses have increased youth mobility by enabling beneficiaries to travel to other areas where they could not go before. It has also improved communication with other people. Trained beneficiaries are now looking for other training courses online to improve their education – it opened up their minds and avenues to acquire more education. One of them said that, “Starting my own business has reduced violence within my family.” Some of the money received from the training stipend was used to bear the adverse effects of drought. Community members were very supportive of the youth programme and some of them also wanted to be part of the program. Through all the JPYES interventions, beneficiaries were able to access and network with local government personnel, and with each other, and they got to know parts of town they previously did not know. Beneficiaries reported improved report writing skills. Some beneficiaries reported that they now have a better understanding of the environment and benefits of keeping their environment clean and hygienic.

9.6.2 NEGATIVE UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF JPYES INTERVENTIONS

There were conflicts within cooperative groups formed during training. Beneficiaries from the CFW intervention mentioned delayed payment of incentives and associated inconveniences. Though they also mentioned that the short-term employment opportunity gave them hope and respect by peers, this was only short lived. Some beneficiaries mentioned that they worked during or until the evening, which presented safety and security issues to them and also causing strains within family setups. In all the interactions between the evaluation team with the KIIs, partners, and beneficiaries in all the geographical locations visited, no one mentioned clan issues. 

1. Recommendation:

Recommendation 1. The principles of joint programming should be embraced by participating agencies, and agreed upon, before program implementation commences to avoid complications and conflicts during program implementation. The program should be run following the joint programming principles for the effective coordination.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

The PUNOs did not manage to work jointly during the implementation of planned activities, as the activities implemented were not joint initiatives, except some fishery initiatives undertaken jointly by UNDP and FAO. This is relevant to all the joint programmes and will, if implemented, improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the implementation. Since the JPYES will be ending on 31st December 2019, UNDP will ensure that the recommendation is taken into consideration in other joint programmes, that are under planning stage or ongoing.  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. description activities, then specifics as needed (a). The principles of joint programming should be agreed and incorporated in the design of 2nd generation employment programme by the PUNOs
[Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable History
2. Recommendation:

Recommendation 2. Capacities development of key government partners should be prioritized to enable the government to perform their roles in program implementation, coordination and oversight at all levels.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

In order to coordinate the JP effectively, the government counterparts are to be supported to develop their capacities at all levels. In JPYES project document, this was not reflected clearly and no resources were allocated. However, in the 4th quarter of 2017, the PUNOs allocated 3% of the resources and then increased further, upon the PSC’s endorsement. Since the JPYES will come to an end on 31st Dec 2019, UNDP and other PUNOs will ensure that the oversight and coordination mechanism, led by the government, is part of the joint programme; and adequate resources are allocated to it.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. description activities, then specifics as needed (a). The capacity development of the coordinating authorities is to be highlighted clearly and adequate resources are to be allocated for its effective function for the 2nd generation of employment programme.
[Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable History
3. Recommendation:

Recommendation 3.The capacities of the concerned technical ministries should be developed, so that they will be able to contribute to provide their technical support to the programming effectively – this should be integral part of the planned activities and adequate resources are to be allocated.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

Considering the Somali context where the capacities of the ministries are limited, this recommendation is relevant. In JPYES, UNDP and other PUNOs implemented its most of the planned activities through NGOs and private sector, where the line technical ministries provided their oversight role which was considerably minimal. Capacity development of technical ministries is critical for the sustainability of the interventions. Since the JPYES will come to an end on 31st December 2019, UNDP and other PUNOs will ensure that this recommendation is taken into consideration in other programmes and projects. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Integrate capacity development of relevant technical ministries in the planned activities of the 2nd generation employment programme/project.
[Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable History
4. Recommendation:

Recommendation 4. Capacity development of relevant government departments in legal labour frameworks and statistics should be continued in the next phase as it enables government to address employment issues at a national and macro-level – and to involve other relevant sectors, e.g. the private sector, to participate.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

Although some activities were implemented at the last phase of JPYES implementation, institutionalization and capacity development of government institutions was not emphasized. The design of 2nd generation of employment programme has already taken into consideration of this.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Incorporate the institutional capacity development in labour market information management in the 2nd generation employment programme design
[Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable History
5. Recommendation:

Recommendation 5. The joint programme should have an effective Programme Management Unit (PMU), with allocation of adequate resources, that will have both programme management and coordination functions, following the RMB principles.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

In JPYES implementation period, although the JPYES project document says PMU to set up, it did not materialize and ended up with a Programme Coordination Unit, run by a Coordinator, supported by a UNDP Project Team, with very limited or no responsibility of overall programme management. There was also vacancy of the Coordinator position for a longer period. As a result, it did not coordinate or provide overall management support to the JP effectively and efficiently.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Develop the agreed upon TOR on PMU and include in the 2nd generation of employment programme proposal, with adequate resources
[Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not applicable History
6. Recommendation:

Recommendation 6. It will maximize the benefits of the investments, when the supports to skills and enterprise development, such as needs analysis, building training facilities, establishing TVET legal frameworks and certification, providing tailored trainings considering the needs of both employees and employers, job placement, apprenticeship programs, enterprise development, legal frameworks for labour and employment, are interlinked in an integrated way.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

This recommendation is relevant and a good practice, identified from the UNDP-supported YES interventions in fishery and solar sectors. The relevant interventions that lead to employment creation should be designed and implemented in an integrated way to ensure the creation of decent and productive employment opportunities for the young people. This needs to be taken into consideration in the 2nd generation employment programme.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Design the relevant interventions of employment creation in an integrated way in the 2nd generation employment programme proposal
[Added: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable
7. Recommendation:

Recommendation 7. Women and men participation ratio in programme should be 50:50 (not 30:70) as per the corporate standard; and women must be given equal opportunities in economic participation.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

Although UNDP’s participation of women and men ratio was 54:46, the women participation was considerably low in some PUNOs. This is why, the overall women participation rate in JPYES stands at 40%, although the JPYES project document says that at least 30% women is to participate in the JPYES. JPYES team has taken action to consider this recommendation in the design of the 2nd generation employment programme.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Include women and men participation ratio: 50:50 in the design of the 2nd generation employment programme.
[Added: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable
8. Recommendation:

Recommendation 8. The value chain development should follow the value chain principles in a strategic way and focus on productive sectors that have high employment generation potential as well as the markets. The value chain programs should not only be limited to micro-enterprises, but to involve medium enterprises as well.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

This is correct. Although JPYES, as per the project document, was expected to undertake value chain development following the relevant principles, but it could not comply much. PUNOs undertook their planned activities, especially skills development activities in different sectors, without following the standard value chain development steps – such as analysis of the sectors, identification of specific product/s, identification and prioritization of problems, design and implement the strategy and action plan, track the progress on addressing the selected problems. There were some positive steps taken by UNDP and FAO in fish value chain development during the JPYES implementation. In the 2nd generation employment programme, this needs to be considered.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Include value chain initiatives, following the standard principles, in high potential employment generation sector/s.
[Added: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable
9. Recommendation:

Recommendation 9. Any deviation from the original Theory of Change of the joint programme should be agreed by all partners and documented; and the project document is to be amended accordingly and timely.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

This recommendation is noted and applied during the programme implementation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
9.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Amend to the project document, if there is any changes to the original project document.
[Added: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable
10. Recommendation:

Recommendation 10. The JPYES Program Document did not specify the roles and responsibilities of different ministries. This created opportunities of inter-ministerial misunderstandings over leadership and responsibilities, as well as ownership of the program. It is therefore recommended that in the next phase the roles of the different line ministries be clarified and agreed upon.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2020/11/12]

At the initial stage of the programme implementation, there were misunderstandings of the relevant ministries occurred over the roles and responsibilities in the JPYES programme, and these were resolved through the consultation process. It will be ensured that the 2nd generation employment programme includes the relevant ministries at all levels as well as their roles and responsibilities, agreed by them.

 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
10.1 description activities, then specifics as needed (a). Identify the relevant ministries to be involved in the programme at all levels, based on the planned interventions and mention the roles and responsibilities of the identified ministries clearly in the 2nd generation employment programme proposal
[Added: 2019/12/30] [Last Updated: 2019/12/31]
JPYES Coordination 2019/12 Completed Not Applicable History
11. Recommendation:

EXTRAXT SECTION FROM THE REPORT - 'RECOMMENDATIONS AND LEASON LEARNED' PG. 49-55.

CHAPTER 9: RECOMMENDATIONS AND LESSONS LEARNT

From the analysis in Chapter 8, the following are the good practices of the JPYES Program:

9.1 STRATEGIC

9.1.1 STRATEGY AND DESIGN OF THE PROGRAM

The JPYES strategy was aligned and relevant to the Somalia context and to NDP 8. This is a strength of the JPYES Program. There is no question about the relevance and strategic alignment of the program to the national context.

9.1.2 GENDER MAINSTREAMING The evaluation team observed that gender was very well mainstreamed in the JPYES Program. This is a good practice of the program, and it is recommended that the next phase of the program should build on this pillar. However, ILO and UNIDO will need to improve the gender mainstreaming component of their programming in the next phase, by deliberately and consciously including trainings that are relevant to women. Women should be given equal access to both training and employment opportunities between men and women. Donors are particularly interested to see this happening.

9.1.3 YOUTH BENEFICIARY TARGETING The JPYES targeted youth beneficiaries very well. This is a good practice it is recommended that this should be continued in the next phase of the program.

9.2 NATIONAL OWNERSHIP The government ownership is clearly demonstrated by MOLSA’s full participation and support of the program, at all levels. Stakeholder participation and support is evident by their participation in the program. The local municipalities in all the regions visited by the evaluation team demonstrated their readiness and willingness to maintain and sustain the JPYES Program assets. This is a good practice of the program and it is recommended that it should be continued and enhanced in the next phase. It is further recommended that the mayors of municipalities be involved and included in both the National and the Regional Steering Committee meetings so that they are well informed about the details of program implementation and where they fit in and where their role is required. The youth beneficiaries own this program and support it fully as indicated in the impact assessment. The youth communities support the program and they own the program.  

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/09] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]

Recommendation accepted

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment
[Added: 2021/09/02]
JPYES Coordination 2021/09 Completed
12. Recommendation:

9.3 RELEVANCE

The relevance of a programme is linked to its design and strategy. In this respect, the JPYES was relevant to the national strategies and needs of the country. However, the government observations were that some components of the intervention did not fully address the root causes of youth unemployment. This could be a symptom of the absence of pre-implementation participatory needs analysis, and market assessments done with the youth and the government. Both the youth and the government should be able to define their needs. The government should be able to highlight the needs of the employers. The private and public sectors and international organisations should be involved in the labour market analysis as employers. Training courses should be designed based on the needs of these employers – thereby addressing the identified and agreed upon root causes of youth unemployment. Job creation cannot happen in isolation; it is a national problem and should involve all the key stakeholders in the different sectors. 

It is, therefore, recommended that the next phase should do an employment sector-wide needs analysis that involves and includes all possible employers. The employers should highlight the skills they need, and they should commit to employing some of the graduates from the training programmes. Training interventions designed and implemented after such inclusive needs’ analyses enable programme designers to better tailor-make their programmes to the needs of the beneficiaries. Such an approach results in demand-driven interventions and avoids the prescriptive and supply-driven intervention strategies. Such an approach would address the root causes of unemployment in the country.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/09] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]

recommendation accepted

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment.
[Added: 2021/09/02]
JPYES Coordination 2021/09 Completed These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment. History
13. Recommendation:

9.4 ADDRESSING INEFFICIENCY

9.4. CAPACITY BUILDING OF GOVERNMENT

The JPYES Program Document did not specify the roles and responsibilities of different ministries in an employment program. This created opportunities of inter-ministerial misunderstandings over leadership and responsibilities, as well as ownership of the program. It is therefore recommended that in the next phase the roles of the different line ministries be clarified and agreed upon and documented upfront.

It is recommended that in the next phase of the program, capacity building of the government should be prioritized, and this should be done consistently and diligently. This enables the government to play its role in implementation both effectively and efficiently, thereby reducing the management and coordination burden on the UN management team. The government is the key partner in oversight, coordination and implementation, and the program management should technically empower the government so that it does its role effectively. The absence of government capacity placed a huge management and coordination burden on the UN management team. This could have contributed to the inefficiencies and delays mentioned by all involved in the implementation processes and structures. Such a situation should be avoided at all cost in the next phase. Capacity development of government should be set as a measurable target and output that will be evaluated and monitored throughout the program life cycle. 

Petrus van de Pol, JPLG Program Manager, shared the following; capacity building of government is important, and this has been an evolving process which started with training government in very simple things and putting basic systems in place like HR hiring systems and financial administration systems. Basic courses were designed for all states. Training is localized in order to meet the specific local needs of government staff. JPLG developed these basic courses for government staff piloted them and validated them. These courses were different for each state because their needs and levels were different. The program designed courses that are not foreign to government staff; but courses they could relate with and which were relevant to their needs for the effective program implementation. 

Capacity building for government is to start small and allow the training and capacity building process to evolve until it reaches the level of formalization when the situation allows and suits the local institutions. For example, in Somaliland the financial management systems are now in place, therefore JPLG can give a budget allocation to Somaliland and assign a consultant to help them manage their own funds. In SWS systems are not yet in place, therefore there is need to hand hold them until they are ready to manage their own funds and manage their own budgets. During capacity building stages trust building is essential by letting the government trainees try to do things by themselves but the program, should handhold and assist them. Coaching and mentoring should be done by giving them a chance to use the systems that the program is developing with them and for them.

9.4.2 LABOUR POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT INTERVENTION The labour policy and legal framework development and the national labour survey update should be continued in the next phase. Capacity development of government personnel involved with these functions should continue. This development enables the government to be involved and engaged with the private sector and to influence the direction of employment creation at a national level. 

9.4.3 ESTABLISH A ROBUST PMU The analysis identified that the lack of a robust PMU led to management, coordination, financial administration, and monitoring gaps and problems. These managerial gaps and problems affected the JPYES Program’s performance negatively leading to failure to achieve the stipulated outcomes and targets. The recommendation is that in the next phase, the program should establish a strong PMU that can manage, monitor, coordinate, and administer all the complexities of a joint program of this nature. The PMU must be well resourced with professional experts. The PMU should have the following personnel: a Programme Manager, a Deputy Manager, an M&E Specialist, and a Finance and Administration Officer. The recommendation is that the full costs of such a PMU should be assessed and budgeted for adequately in the next phase. A lesson learned is that a strong PMU should be able to performance manage the PUNOs. Performance targets should be set for each PUNO and should be constantly monitored during the program implementation phases. The PUNO targets should be clear and directly linked to funds allocated and disbursed to it. The PUNOs must be accountable to the PMU financially and performance wise. 

9.4.4 ESTABLISH A JOINT PROGRAM DATA CAPTURING AND MONITORING SYSTEM The analysis identified that lack of a joint data capturing, and monitoring system resulted in missing data and vital program information from the beginning of the program, which affected the evaluation of the program. The recommendation is that the next phase should have a functional data capturing and monitoring system from the beginning of the program. This can be resolved by having a program Monitoring and Evaluation unit within the PMU.

9.4.5 ESTABLISH A ROBUST FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT UNIT WITHIN THE PMU Within the PMU, there should be a program financial management and administration person who ensures that the financial matters of the program are addressed with clear understanding and sensitivity that the success of any program depends on an efficient money disbursement system. This was lacking in the JPYES, and it caused inefficiencies in implementation. Establishment of this unit within the PMU should avoid similar problems in the implementation of the next phase. The PMU should be strong in Result Based Management (RBM) principles of program management – planning, monitoring, reporting, and management. The PMU should be able to performance manage the participating agencies and government and ensuring that program targets are achieved timeously. Fund disbursement should be linked to target outputs and there should be a continuous monitoring and evaluation process throughout program implementation. This is essential to be incorporated in the next phase program design. There should be dedicated officials assigned within PMU to work closely with the government counterparts to build their capacities and support implementation, coordination and management of program activities as well as quality assurance in a daily basis. Ideally, the PMU could be set up within the lead ministry, in order to facilitate transfer of skills and knowledge and competencies from PMU to the government coordination ministries. In the Somalia context this may be difficult, but alternative ways to accomplish this could be evaluated and different options could be explored.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/09] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]

Recommendation accepted

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment.
[Added: 2021/09/02] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]
JPYES Coordination 2021/09 Canceled These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment. History
14. Recommendation:

9.4.5 AVOID DEVIATION FROM THE ORIGINAL PROGRAMME STRATEGY

From the JPYES, the lesson learned is that a deviation from the original programme design while outcomes and targets remain the same, leads to disastrous results, and that it is a recipe for failure to achieve the target outcomes. Therefore, in the next phase, deviation from the original strategy should be avoided. One of the key functions of the recommended PMU is to ensure that the programme design and goals are well communicated and workshopped throughout the program implementation structures and partners. The whole program management structure – from top to bottom – should be on the same page – as to the priorities of the program, and what the program has been designed to achieve as well as the donor expectations. The program M&E person should ensure that targets are being achieved in accordance with the funds disbursed for activities. This will avoid surprises of unfulfilled targets during evaluation time. Programme evaluations should be part of the programme implementation processes, and the recommendations should be embraced and incorporated into the programme. 

9.4.6 THE VALUE CHAIN APPROACH The value chain development should be focused in productive sectors that have high employment generation potential, and ready markets that can absorb all productions. The value chain programs should not be limited to micro-enterprise level. They should be medium enterprises that can generate employment for other unemployed people. Such enterprises should be able to generate meaningful incomes for the beneficiaries fast. The next phase should refrain from programs that take long to bring income to beneficiaries as this is discouraging to the participants. The value chain approach has specific characteristics, principles, and benefits that were not evident in the Renewable Energy and Construction interventions of the JPYES Program. As such, these could not qualifyto be classified as value chains. The value chain approach is one of several market systems approaches to economic development. The value chain approach seeks to understand the firms that operate within a specific industry – from input suppliers to end market consumers; the support needed for chain actors that provide technical, business and financial services to the industry; and the business environment in which the industry operates. The value chain approach has the following distinctive features, simultaneously emphasizing all of these features: a market system perspective; a focus on end markets; the importance of relationships and transforming them; targeting leverage points; and involving and empowering the private sector.

An analysis of all the actors and sectors within the value chain system is critical in order to identify the part of the value chain where there are bottlenecks to competitiveness or growth. Failure to recognize and incorporate the implications of the full range of constraints within the value chain system will generally lead to limited, short-term impact or even counter-productive results. A thorough and rigorous market analysis of the end markets should be the first step in value chain analysis. If the market is not certain or is not big enough to absorb all the product – there is no need to recommend that product for further development, because it will only lead to failure, particularly for small scale development programs. Market development is a costly exercise and most development programs cannot afford spending the limited program financial resources in market development. This is why value chain approaches emphasize market analysis and identification of interventions that offer a competitive advantage to program beneficiaries. Although private companies can take such risks, it is difficult for development agencies to take on such risks. The goal of the value chain approach is to enable private-sector stakeholders to act on their own behalf: to upgrade their firms and collectively create a competitive value chain that contributes to economic growth and achieve poverty reduction. The value chain analysis and strategy development process should therefore be participatory and should engage and include all chain actors. The role of the donor and implementing partner is to facilitate and support implementation of the competitiveness strategy by the private sector in a way that ensures achievement of development objectives – economic growth and poverty reduction. A critical procedure of the value chain approach – local market analysis - was not adhered to in the JPYES Program and, as a result, the Fish Value Chain struggled. Going forward, all the value chain principles should be adhered to before implementation commences.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/09] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]

Recommendation accepted

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment.
[Added: 2021/09/02]
JPYES Coordination 2021/09 Completed These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment. History
15. Recommendation:

9.4.7 EMBRACE THE JOINT PROGRAMMING APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT

The levels of individualism within the JPYES partners were of such a great magnitude that they require special attention. According to the German Development Institute (2013)8, Joint Programming (JP) is an effort to improve the coordination of different organisations and entities and countries with the aim to better streamline aid delivery at the country level. JP aims to improve the effective and efficient delivery of aid by reducing fragmentation of donor aid programmes and programs. Built into most joint programmes is the aim to increase partner country ownership by basing its JP documents and strategies on national development strategies. Joint Programming is a collaborative approach where organisations come together to define a common vision, a strategic agenda and a management structure, in order to address the ‘grand challenges’ facing the country. This presents a number of platforms and opportunities for UN agencies to work on joint programming interventions. Challenges like high unemployment are considered to be beyond the scope and resources of any one INGO or UN organisation to tackle and a coordinated approach helps to address such challenges.

All the partners to a joint program like the JPYES should understand and appreciate the logic behind joint programming. This takes training, workshopping and continuous dialogue on this matter until all partners understand and agree on the benefits of joint programming. Such efforts should iron out individualistic inclinations that were prevalent in the JPYES partners, and which hindered the ability to benefit from efficiencies of synergy. Organisational fears about joint programming should be discussed openly and deliberated upfront before engagement and implementation. If an organisation is not willing to participate jointly in a joint programme, then such an organisation should be excused from joint programme initiatives. A key success to joint programming is having organisations that are willing and able to work jointly to achieve common programme goals. Joint programming results in cost saving and hence it enhances the financial efficiency of the joint programme. For these reasons, it is recommended that the next phase of the program develop a strong joint approach throughout its implementing structures, in order to reap the benefits of joint programming such as streamlining the massive complex and costly management structures; cost saving through reducing PUNO duplication of costs; and achievement of common goals efficiently and effectively. 

An example of cost saving from Joint Programming approach is in PUNO overhead costs. Individual PUNOs had a finance person, an M&E person, and a program manager for the JPYES. This means that there were 15 staff members working for the JPYES from different PUNOs. If there was a joint JPYES PMU - only 4 people would be required. Petrus van de Pol, JPLG Program Manager shared the following: “The JPLG is a successful program in Phase 3, and donors like it. It is composed of 5 UN agencies – UNDP, UNICEF, UNHABITAT, ILO and UNCDF. It has been operational since 2008. There is specific division of labour where each UN agency plays a specific role. This avoids agencies stepping on each other’s toes and duplication of efforts. UNICEF focuses on civic participation mobilisation; UNCDF focuses on public finance provision; ILO focuses on public procurement processes; UNHABITAT focuses on urban planning, and UNDP focuses on the legal aspects.” From this example, the solution is not necessarily to reduce the number of participating UN agencies, but to streamline their functions and roles according to their areas of specialty and mandates. In the next phase the roles of each PUNO should be clearly outlined, agreed upon and documented, including the targets and outcomes and funding expectations.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/09] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]

Recommendation accepted

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment
[Added: 2021/09/02]
JPYES Coordination 2021/09 Completed These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment History
16. Recommendation:

9.5 EFFECTIVENESS

Skills development is an essential component of employment creation programming, and this should be continued in the next phase of the program. All interventions that support skills development including building training facilities, establishing TVET legal frameworks and certification, training, job placements centres, apprenticeship programs, enterprise development, legal frameworks for labour and employment – the full package of skills development is important in employment programming. The lesson learnt from the JPYES program is that the skills development approach used had positive impact on beneficiaries. There is however, the need to do pre-implementation needs analysis in order to tailor-make training to the needs of both employees and employers.

CFW can be used where there is need for rehabilitation of structures, but Somalia needs long-term job creation interventions much more. The Value Chain Development requires a thorough analysis. The evaluation team is of the opinion that the fisheries sector offers great potential for high value business enterprises, medium enterprises, and longterm sustainable jobs. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/09] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]

Recommendation accepted

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment
[Added: 2021/09/02]
JPYES Coordination 2021/09 Completed
17. Recommendation:

9.6 INTENDED AND UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF THE JPYES PROGRAM

9.6.1 THE POSITIVE UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF JPYES INTERVENTIONS

The beneficiary survey respondents mentioned the following unintended positive effects of the JPYES program: skills development courses have increased youth mobility by enabling beneficiaries to travel to other areas where they could not go before. It has also improved communication with other people. Trained beneficiaries are now looking for other training courses online to improve their education – it opened up their minds and avenues to acquire more education. One of them said that, “Starting my own business has reduced violence within my family.” Some of the money received from the training stipend was used to bear the adverse effects of drought. Community members were very supportive of the youth programme and some of them also wanted to be part of the program. Through all the JPYES interventions, beneficiaries were able to access and network with local government personnel, and with each other, and they got to know parts of town they previously did not know. Beneficiaries reported improved report writing skills. Some beneficiaries reported that they now have a better understanding of the environment and benefits of keeping their environment clean and hygienic.

9.6.2 NEGATIVE UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF JPYES INTERVENTIONS

There were conflicts within cooperative groups formed during training. Beneficiaries from the CFW intervention mentioned delayed payment of incentives and associated inconveniences. Though they also mentioned that the short-term employment opportunity gave them hope and respect by peers, this was only short lived. Some beneficiaries mentioned that they worked during or until the evening, which presented safety and security issues to them and also causing strains within family setups. In all the interactions between the evaluation team with the KIIs, partners, and beneficiaries in all the geographical locations visited, no one mentioned clan issues. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/09] [Last Updated: 2021/11/08]

Recommendation accepted

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
These recommendations will be taken forward in the development of future programmes on youth economic empowerment.
[Added: 2021/09/02]
YPYES Coordination 2021/09 Completed

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