Joint Programme on Charcoal

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Evaluation Plan:
2018-2020, Somalia
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
02/2020
Completion Date:
03/2020
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
55,992

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Title Joint Programme on Charcoal
Atlas Project Number: 00085377
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2020, Somalia
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 03/2020
Planned End Date: 02/2020
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Resilience
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 3.3.1 Evidence-based assessment and planning tools and mechanisms applied to enable implementation of gender-sensitive and risk-informed prevention and preparedness to limit the impact of natural hazards and pandemics and promote peaceful, just and inclusive societies
SDG Goal
  • Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
  • Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
SDG Target
  • 1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
Evaluation Budget(US $): 55,992
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 22,803
Joint Programme: Yes
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Giorgio Brandolini Evaluator gv.brandolini@gmail.com
Mukhtar Mohamoud Evaluator newaccessconsulting@gmail.com SOMALIA
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: SOMALIA
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1

Revision of the Programme strategy to concentrate resources on (a) the creation of institutional capacities of coordination of the Charcoal policy with other policies and interventions and (b) the integration of the awareness raising campaign with the demonstration actions.

- the creation of institutional capacities of coordination of the Charcoal policy with other policies and interventions, by supporting the MoLFR political advocacy capacities (participation to coordination meetings, networks, events, etc. concerning energy, environmental, reforestation policies, etc.; elaboration, presentation, dissemination of policy papers presenting the challenges of Charcoal production),

- the integration of the awareness raising campaign with the demonstration actions, by establishing champions (e.g., promotion of alternative technologies in schools and hospitals) and intensifying the spread of the materials on alternative energy sources and efficient charcoal production; the collaboration with other initiatives should be sought to disseminate lessons learnt across a broader public.

Such approach is essential to integrate the impact of the individual actions with the creation of the political engagement and people’s consensus on the Charcoal policy. Such as re-directing of the strategy should be mainstreamed through the coordination / communication actions forecast for the production of the Charcoal act. It shifts the emphasis of the Programme implementation toward the creation of capacities at the policy making level and the strengthening of the interaction with complementary policies and interventions. Its awareness raising component has to be reshaped to exploit champions and lessons learnt of the demonstration projects.

A greater emphasis on the integration between the Charcoal and Energy policies should consider the incentives to invest in the infrastructures for the distribution of LPG.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Strengthen the reforestation component of the Programme by designing its continuation after its conclusion. The restoration of the rangeland vegetation has to be articulated through a fully-fledged sector strategy that considers the different purposes and conditions of community-forestry, commercial tree plantations and rangeland conservation. This action is broader than the Programme scope and requires the mobilization of new partners and extra resources.

Tree plantations and rangeland reserves are justified by the creation of a large biomass that supplies the export market and preserves soil, water and the environment in critically endangered biosystems. These should be offered the opportunity to invest in public reforestation initiatives (combining commercial plantations with forest areas protection) to ensure the access to licit sources of charcoal. The MoLFR has to swiftly design and promote this action to exploit the favorable political and commercial situation created by their enforcement of the charcoal ban by the Gulf states.

Community forestry is justified by the supply of charcoal and other rangeland products (timber, wild fruits, honey, etc.) for the local consumption of charcoal. These actions require the NGOs collaboration with Somali agricultural institutions in supporting the rural communities’ livelihood diversification. This will be an incentive to the stabilization of Somalia through the communities’ engagement in the conservation of the rangeland resources.

A greater emphasis on the integration between the charcoal and reforestation policies – a core field of the MoLFR action and where it has greater chances of producing a long-term impact - should consider the economic incentives for each stakeholder in investing in the expansion of the rangeland biomass

 

3

The simplification of the disbursement procedure has to be completed by the strengthening of monitoring and reporting system. As there is little value in revisiting the midterm indicators, it would be preferable to perform the assessment of the Somali Environmental institutional capacities as well as of the stakeholders of the demonstration projects. The baseline on the local capacities is a critical indicator to measure the programme immediate outcome, impact and potential sustainability.

It will also contribute during the revision of the programme strategy including: (a) the elaboration of a plan for the creation of capacities supporting the Charcoal policy connection with other relevant existing policies (b) the systematization of information and elaboration of an awareness raising campaign exploiting champions and lessons learnt, (c) the elaboration of a proposal for the transfer of remote sensing based capacities to the Somali institutions through Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), programme in  Addis Ababa / IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) services in Nairobi , and (d) the elaboration and promotion among Gulf states of a proposal for funding reforestation in the Jubaland along the priorities mentioned above. The (e) action is inside the European Union funded activities of the mentioned entities in support of the Horn of Africa governments, i.e. that the mobilization of funds relies greatly on the political willingness of the federal government and federal member states.

4

The execution of these activities may take up to two year. The revision of the Programme plan is justified by the need to create the conditions for the sustainability of the Charcoal policy.

The revision of the Plan of activities of the PROSCAL should explore the opportunity of a no-cost extension agreement based on (a) the revised strategy aimed at the creation of capacities, raising of awareness and coordination with complementary policies and interventions and (b) the unspent Programme budget. These changes are the conditions that will ensure the change of pace and mobilization of the PROSCAL resources to make possible the implementation of the Charcoal policy country wide.

Management Response Documents
1. Recommendation:

Revision of the Programme strategy to concentrate resources on (a) the creation of institutional capacities of coordination of the Charcoal policy with other policies and interventions and (b) the integration of the awareness raising campaign with the demonstration actions.

- the creation of institutional capacities of coordination of the Charcoal policy with other policies and interventions, by supporting the MoLFR political advocacy capacities (participation to coordination meetings, networks, events, etc. concerning energy, environmental, reforestation policies, etc.; elaboration, presentation, dissemination of policy papers presenting the challenges of Charcoal production),

- the integration of the awareness raising campaign with the demonstration actions, by establishing champions (e.g., promotion of alternative technologies in schools and hospitals) and intensifying the spread of the materials on alternative energy sources and efficient charcoal production; the collaboration with other initiatives should be sought to disseminate lessons learnt across a broader public.

Such approach is essential to integrate the impact of the individual actions with the creation of the political engagement and people’s consensus on the Charcoal policy. Such as re-directing of the strategy should be mainstreamed through the coordination / communication actions forecast for the production of the Charcoal act. It shifts the emphasis of the Programme implementation toward the creation of capacities at the policy making level and the strengthening of the interaction with complementary policies and interventions. Its awareness raising component has to be reshaped to exploit champions and lessons learnt of the demonstration projects.

A greater emphasis on the integration between the Charcoal and Energy policies should consider the incentives to invest in the infrastructures for the distribution of LPG.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/04/21] [Last Updated: 2020/04/21]

Management Response: Agreed

The revision of program strategy to accommodate further enhance institutional capacities, harmonization of environment and energy policies as well promoting demonstrative/innovative action-oriented awareness raising is well noted. The Programme will build on the recommendations and lessons learnt of the evaluation to achieve synergy and results across all the three components.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Revision of the program strategy
[Added: 2020/04/21] [Last Updated: 2020/10/08]
Programme 2020/09 Completed The revision of the Programme strategy has been completed and approved by head of PUNOS. The revised strategy is fully aligned with the current National Development Plan (NDP9) and incorporates the relevant actions of the MTR recommendations History
2. Recommendation:

Strengthen the reforestation component of the Programme by designing its continuation after its conclusion. The restoration of the rangeland vegetation has to be articulated through a fully-fledged sector strategy that considers the different purposes and conditions of community-forestry, commercial tree plantations and rangeland conservation. This action is broader than the Programme scope and requires the mobilization of new partners and extra resources.

Tree plantations and rangeland reserves are justified by the creation of a large biomass that supplies the export market and preserves soil, water and the environment in critically endangered biosystems. These should be offered the opportunity to invest in public reforestation initiatives (combining commercial plantations with forest areas protection) to ensure the access to licit sources of charcoal. The MoLFR has to swiftly design and promote this action to exploit the favorable political and commercial situation created by their enforcement of the charcoal ban by the Gulf states.

Community forestry is justified by the supply of charcoal and other rangeland products (timber, wild fruits, honey, etc.) for the local consumption of charcoal. These actions require the NGOs collaboration with Somali agricultural institutions in supporting the rural communities’ livelihood diversification. This will be an incentive to the stabilization of Somalia through the communities’ engagement in the conservation of the rangeland resources.

A greater emphasis on the integration between the charcoal and reforestation policies – a core field of the MoLFR action and where it has greater chances of producing a long-term impact - should consider the economic incentives for each stakeholder in investing in the expansion of the rangeland biomass

 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/04/21] [Last Updated: 2020/04/21]

Management Response: Agreed

Reforestation and sustainable rangeland management can be developed as a standalone project. Somalia can access resources from the global funds, bilateral  donors, private sector and diaspora which can support reforestation activities by adopting ecosystem-based approach and engaging local communities.

There are also other projects that are targeted at resilience building, improving rangelands and natural resource management (NRM). Environment Institutions and MOLFR can be further supported to take the lead in coordinating reforestation activities and their sustainability.   

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Full scale reforestation programs
[Added: 2020/04/21] [Last Updated: 2021/09/29]
Ministry (MoLFR) 2021/09 Completed “As part of the initiatives to support a full-scale reforestation in Somalia, the Next Generation Charcoal Programme has been initiated. Also, the relevant government institutions have been linked with potential donors including Sweden, Norway, Denmark and UK. As such, the government of Norway is in the process of signing a 3-year agreement with the MPTF to provide funding to the current phase and the next generation program. Full-scale reforestation progarmme is part of next generation charcoal Programme. Further, the current project strategy supports policy reforms on charcoal production and trade. The national charcoal policy and national forestry policies are available with federal government of Somalia. Both policies will complement each other to tackle the demand side of charcoal and promote its strategic priorities for forestry through regional and national planning to enhance the role of forests as carbon sinks and to adapt forestry to climate change. Similarly, community forestry is supported by the project to strengthen the communities’ engagement in the conservation of the rangeland resources. Six (6) new tree nurseries were established in partnership with ministries of environment at the federal member states. These nurseries will contribute to reforestation activities in the country by enhancing the availability of seedlings, distribution and community engagements to restore degraded rangelands. Furthermore, PROSCAL has a full synergy with thematic portfolios projects and programmes. Through these complementarities, the Integrated Water resource management project is undertaking rehabilitation of rangelands and ecosystem restoration while the United Nations Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS) is contributing to the reforestation activities by dropping seedballs using drones.” History
3. Recommendation:

The simplification of the disbursement procedure has to be completed by the strengthening of monitoring and reporting system. As there is little value in revisiting the midterm indicators, it would be preferable to perform the assessment of the Somali Environmental institutional capacities as well as of the stakeholders of the demonstration projects. The baseline on the local capacities is a critical indicator to measure the programme immediate outcome, impact and potential sustainability.

It will also contribute during the revision of the programme strategy including: (a) the elaboration of a plan for the creation of capacities supporting the Charcoal policy connection with other relevant existing policies (b) the systematization of information and elaboration of an awareness raising campaign exploiting champions and lessons learnt, (c) the elaboration of a proposal for the transfer of remote sensing based capacities to the Somali institutions through Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES), programme in  Addis Ababa / IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) services in Nairobi , and (d) the elaboration and promotion among Gulf states of a proposal for funding reforestation in the Jubaland along the priorities mentioned above. The (e) action is inside the European Union funded activities of the mentioned entities in support of the Horn of Africa governments, i.e. that the mobilization of funds relies greatly on the political willingness of the federal government and federal member states.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/04/21]

Management Response: Partially Agreed

The challenge of fund disbursement was one-off issue that affected only the second tranche of the EU funds. Joint reporting mechanism already exists. MPTF joint programing has the advantages of avoiding multiple reporting and reduces the transaction costs.

FAO-SWALIM has initiated trainings and skills transfer for the national counterparts while linking them up with regional mandated institutions is being discussed at strategic level.  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Simplifications of the MPTF funds and revisions on the Programme Result Framework
[Added: 2020/04/21] [Last Updated: 2020/10/08]
PUNOS, MoLFR and Donors 2020/06 Completed The simplification of funds by the MPTF donors agreed at a high-level virtual meeting. More so, Distribution of new allocation from Sweden as 60% to UNDP (alternative energy and capacity building) and 40% to (alternative livelihoods). Additionally, the revised and completed Programme result framework is part of the approved programme strategy reflected above. The revised result framework is fully aligned with the recommendations of the Midterm Evaluation and available findings History
4. Recommendation:

The execution of these activities may take up to two year. The revision of the Programme plan is justified by the need to create the conditions for the sustainability of the Charcoal policy.

The revision of the Plan of activities of the PROSCAL should explore the opportunity of a no-cost extension agreement based on (a) the revised strategy aimed at the creation of capacities, raising of awareness and coordination with complementary policies and interventions and (b) the unspent Programme budget. These changes are the conditions that will ensure the change of pace and mobilization of the PROSCAL resources to make possible the implementation of the Charcoal policy country wide.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/04/21]

Management Response: Agreed

The two year no cost extension to the program is well noted. The Programme will enhance the coordination mechanisms for the implementation of the Charcoal Policy while building on the recommendations of the Mid Term Evaluation to create the conditions necessary for the sustainability of the Charcoal policy.

More so, efforts will be made to mobilize additional resources and conduct the impact assessment of PROSCAL to inform a new phase of the program that builds on PROSCAL and in line with the newly developed Somalia’s National Development Plan (NDP9). The new phase will also be aligned with the UN Strategic Framework Somalia to be formulated.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Extension of the Programme to support the implementation and sustainability of the Charcoal Policy
[Added: 2020/04/21] [Last Updated: 2020/10/08]
PUNOS and Programme Steering Committee (PSC) 2020/08 Completed A two years no cost extension has been signed on 26 Aug 2020 by the UN head (DSRSG/RC/HC) and the FGS lead Ministry (MoLFR). The official PROSAL end date is 31 March 2022. History

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