Evaluation of the Impact of UNDP's Disaster Risk Reduction Interventions (2002 - present)

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Title Evaluation of the Impact of UNDP's Disaster Risk Reduction Interventions (2002 - present)
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2009-2013, Bureau for Policy and Programme Support
Evaluation Type: Thematic
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 02/2008
Planned End Date: 07/2009
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Crisis prevention and recovery outcomes in the SP
Evaluation Budget(US $): 200,000
Source of Funding: BCPR
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Philip Buckle, Lezlie Moriniere Team Leader
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: BCPR, CO
Location of Evaluation: Global
Countries:
Comments: Evaluation completed Nov 2009
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 That UNDP urgently and critically recognize new and emerging risks across the world and that these, as well as those perceived and prioritized by communities, may not be ?natural disasters? or hazards. o That DRT in particular and BCPR more generally, be properly resourced to meet any additional workload and responsibilities arising from the acknowledgement of a wider definition of disaster. o This recognition should lead to a review of UNDP policy framework as it relates to disaster risk reduction and strong consideration to reviewing the UNDP mandate as set out in the dated Resolution A/RES/52/12 B (Jan 1998), thereby aligning it with 21st century concepts of hazard, disaster and disaster risk. o This recognition must lead to UNDP advocating, seeking and increasing synergies with new and existing partners to ensure that those risks not falling directly under the UNDP mandate are nevertheless responded to in an integrated manner in ways that contribute to community safety and to the sustainable development of communities.
2 That UNDP focus its attention on integrated risk management beyond disaster management giving greater weight to (disaster) risk reduction within development practice. This will entail: o The alignment of all UNDP climate efforts (DRR and ODP) within a single harmonized effort. o The alignment of risks by their consequences rather than their source hazards. o Giving greater emphasis to incorporating DRR into the principal development sectors (which works to UNDP?s comparative advantage) and moving from a project-based approach to a more strategic one with a focus on deliverables at the local level. o A greater focus on mainstreaming risk reduction into development and in particular more systematically enhancing social support services such as education, health and social security, all of which attenuate disaster impacts (even if these are only advocated for by UNDP). o The close alignment of the early recovery programme and the recovery practice area within DRT, to ensure a coherent and efficient use of resources.
3 That UNDP in planning and developing any Disaster Risk Reduction programme and before funding any activity develop an integrated strategy that: o Is based on risk assessment. o Is linked to relevant development programmes and plans. o Identifies links and interdependencies between structural and non structural DRR elements. o Identifies the order or sequence in which they need to occur. o Identifies how progress/ and effectiveness will be measured, other than under disaster loading.
4 That UNDP review its approach to gender risk reduction programmes and review corporate policy on the basis of empirical evidence confirming that: o Although women may at times be more vulnerable high female vulnerability is derived much more from differential exposure of females to hazards (i.e. risk is a function of three elements: capacity, vulnerability and exposure to hazards or shocks). o Women often have greater capacity and resilience relative to men exposed equally. o Facing imminent hazards, women are exposed differently than men due to their physical location (in or near the home) or social expectations that dictate actions (i.e. their role carers of children, the sick and the elderly).
5 That UNDP systematically foster and capitalize on partnership synergies to enhance integrated risk reduction consistently at all levels across the globe. o This is best practice and needs to be strongly advocated with national governments. o This will involve skill building at country level that directly supports the convening and catalyzing role of UNDP. o UNDP should strengthen an inter-agency approach at country level while finding innovative ways to make sure that civil society is not left out of the DRR network. The UNDAF and One UN processes may be included in vehicles for this to happen. o Evidence calls for the more routine involvement of research institutes, professional associations, the private sector and civil society in DRR. o Cooperative and collaborative agreements must be made into place so that partnerships assure a strategically greater DRR impact. o Partnerships should occur within and across the development sector and should actively involve local engagement.
6 That UNDP routinely and strongly advocate for, and provide technical support to, complete comprehensive risk assessments ensuring that policies, planning and programming priorities at all levels (global, national and local) are derived from the resulting risk assessment evidence. Such risk assessments must always contain capacity assessment and they must be funded to ensure that they are continual processes, to keep pace with changing patterns of hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities. o This applies particularly at national level where UNDP has the strongest and most effective institutional and operational links.
7 That UNDP further explore and expand internal databases assuring the real-time systematic and UNDP system wide identification, collection, analysis and monitoring of all efforts that contribute to disaster risk reduction (scale, funding, personnel, projects, etc.) in all its forms (climate, environment, conflict, recovery, etc.)
8 That UNDP develop a set of DRR outcome measures that reflect actual reduction in risk and which will guide all DRR programming for UNDP, supporting better monitoring and evaluation of UNDP?s overall impact. o It is a corporate imperative of UNDP to identify a suitable way to monitor how well it and its partners are reducing risk and progressively meeting the DRR mandate through time. Such measurement indicators are needed for every DRR measure , other that awaiting the ?acid test? of their performance in response to disaster loading. o The outcome measure is at the macro level (country or higher), above and beyond common M&E input/output, process indicators compared to stipulated project objectives. o Outcome measures will reflect actual and measurable changes in the ?real world.? o The essence of the measure needed is captured by lives saved/deaths reduced and reduced property loss. o The development of outcome measures should support best practice in other DRR entities.
9 That the long-term national presence of UNDP supported by a clear corporate vision for DRR, should provide long-term disaster risk reduction country programmes (at least 5-10 year horizons) that acknowledge the structural nature of risk generation and the complexity of risk reduction. o This long-term strategy will require additional core-funded DRR staff particularly at HQ level. o Sustainable DRR impact within governments and countries will not be achieved until UNDP can sustain the level of their internal DRR efforts and until national governments have fully functional and autonomous DRR programmes, arrangements and legislation. o UNDP staffing should be sustained not only in COs but also in government positions (UNDP funded and other UN funded), but clear exit strategies need to be applied.
10 That UNDP ensure that all programmes have a planned and agreed exit strategy with specific reference to the planned transfer of management responsibility, resources, expertise and knowledge to national governments to ensure sustainability of programme results.
11 That UNDP and BCPR provide a strong lead for ensuring coherence of DRR activities within high-risk countries at national and local levels recognizing that national policy and structures and community programming are co-dependent. o This applies to appropriate and enabling legislation as well as to appropriately resourced, self-sustaining and properly mandated disaster management agencies. o It also requires the deliberate and planned exchange of information between levels.
12 That where local level programmes are undertaken, that these be developed and managed as framework programmes and that lessons derived from them be systematically, actively and purposefully shared in the host country ensuring national ?ownership? of them.
13 That UNDP further develops a corporate image and profile through ensuring that the concept, policy and programming of DRR and related structures be clearly and purposefully enunciated with BCPR and UNDP. This will require that: o That BCPR actively campaign to ensure that UNDP staff members globally are aware of the UNDP mandate, added value and support. o That the RDRA/NDRA structure be strengthened and equipped to more systematically and visibly provide leadership, resourcing, technical assistance and mentoring. That the links between RDRAs, regional ISDR offices and other regional entities be strengthened and supported. o That the global service lines be enhanced, repackaged, aligned and/or promoted sufficiently to ensure coherence and value-added as a suite of support tools for COs or partners. o That UNDP work to develop a consensual culture among staff so that they identify with and are committed to the organization as a whole and not just to particular units.
1. Recommendation: That UNDP urgently and critically recognize new and emerging risks across the world and that these, as well as those perceived and prioritized by communities, may not be ?natural disasters? or hazards. o That DRT in particular and BCPR more generally, be properly resourced to meet any additional workload and responsibilities arising from the acknowledgement of a wider definition of disaster. o This recognition should lead to a review of UNDP policy framework as it relates to disaster risk reduction and strong consideration to reviewing the UNDP mandate as set out in the dated Resolution A/RES/52/12 B (Jan 1998), thereby aligning it with 21st century concepts of hazard, disaster and disaster risk. o This recognition must lead to UNDP advocating, seeking and increasing synergies with new and existing partners to ensure that those risks not falling directly under the UNDP mandate are nevertheless responded to in an integrated manner in ways that contribute to community safety and to the sustainable development of communities.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

UNDP is making every possible effort to stabilize and even increase UNDP's funding base for Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery (DRR). Ensuring financial sustainability is a priority for BCPR. Along with conflict prevention and recovery, disaster risk reduction will greatly benefit from the recent decision to double BCPR?s share of the 2010-2011 UNDP core Biennial Support Budget, which will free up additional programmatic and advocacy work, and increase staffing for the Disaster Risk Reduction team. Following a strategic review undertaken in 2009, BCPR has launched an effort to strengthen its donor base and reach out to new donors, notably in the Arab world. This effort has started to bear fruit through renewed and increased donor funding commitments. DRR will be a principal beneficiary of this improving donor commitment. UNDP believes that Article 16 of UN General Assembly resolution A/RES/52/12 B, UNDP Executive Board Decision DP/2001/4 on UNDP?s Role in Crisis and Post Crisis Situations, and DP/2007/43 approving the UNDP 2008-2011 Strategic Plan (now extended till 2013) provide an adequate framework for UNDP to help programme countries, at their request, address disaster-related capacity issues, including slow onset disasters. A formal review of UNDP disaster risk reduction mandate is therefore not necessary. BCPR/DRT is also working on a new Policy Note on DRR that will that will provide policy guidance to UNDP and its country offices.. This Policy Note will be based on two evaluations of UNDP's work in DRR, a stakeholder workshop, e-discussion and supplementary research on ecosystems, the economic case for DRR and the conflict-disaster interface. UNDP is already very active in building partnerships for DRR and will seek to strengthen existing partnerships and establish new ones including with International Finance Institutions, UN agencies and other ISDR system members, including donors. In this effort, BCPR will draw on the recommendations of the working group on Partnerships established following the BCPR Strategic review.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Five temporary Disaster Risk Reduction positions will be made permanent. One additional position is being established to help BCPR address climate risk management.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT Chief in cooperation with BCPR Human Resources and Senior Management 2010/12 Completed Staff positions requested, established and filled. History
1.2 Literature review and applied research on the economic case for DRR and the use of ecosystems for DRR as inputs to the UNDP DRR Policy Note.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT policy cluster 2010/12 Completed Included in DRT 2010 work plan History
1.3 Draft and submit papers by the working groups on partnership and finance to BCPR senior management for decisions.
[Added: 2010/04/27]
BCPR Working Groups on Partnership and Finance 2010/04 Completed
1.4 Conflict Disaster interface knowledge product (describes and explores interaction between disasters and conflict).
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT Policy Cluster 2010/07 Completed Near-final draft History
2. Recommendation: That UNDP focus its attention on integrated risk management beyond disaster management giving greater weight to (disaster) risk reduction within development practice. This will entail: o The alignment of all UNDP climate efforts (DRR and ODP) within a single harmonized effort. o The alignment of risks by their consequences rather than their source hazards. o Giving greater emphasis to incorporating DRR into the principal development sectors (which works to UNDP?s comparative advantage) and moving from a project-based approach to a more strategic one with a focus on deliverables at the local level. o A greater focus on mainstreaming risk reduction into development and in particular more systematically enhancing social support services such as education, health and social security, all of which attenuate disaster impacts (even if these are only advocated for by UNDP). o The close alignment of the early recovery programme and the recovery practice area within DRT, to ensure a coherent and efficient use of resources.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

UNDP is already implementing this recommendation. DRR is a sub-practice within the overall UNDP practice area of Crisis Prevention and Recovery. UNDP will continue expanding and strengthening its DRR country programs focusing, in the DRR case, on risks to development associated with natural hazards. UNDP will intensify its efforts to unify and align its work on climate-related risks to development. BCPR and the UNDP Bureau for Development Policy's Energy and Environment Group (BDP/EEG), which works on Climate Change Adaptation (CCA), have taken a number of steps in this direction, including: ? a report and recommendations to the executive office on measures for integrating UNDP's work on DRR and CCA ? a BCPR-BDP retreat and memo concerning joint work on climate risk management (CRM), backed by quarterly progress reporting to BCPR's and BDP's Directors ? expansion of a joint program to assess country CRM capacity ? joint country missions and jointly designed CRM country programmes ? joint policy work on mainstreaming CRM into UN country programs through UN Development Assistance Frameworks (CCA/UNDAFs). UNDP, in close collaboration with the UN Development Operations Coordination Office (DOCO) and other UN sister organizations, is also very active on integrating disaster risks into development sectors and processes through the DRT Global Mainstreaming Initiative (GMI). The GMI provides technical assistance on governance aspects of DRR and has a strong component related to the inclusion of DRR into the CCA/UNDAFS. Following this recommendation, these services will be expanded to additional countries. In the area of post-disaster recovery, BCPR will build on on-going work to increase capacity for the implementation of Post Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNA). One output of the PDNA is a recovery framework which guides recovery programming. The recovery framework covers both early and longer term recovery and reconstruction measures and provides a vision for longer term development including reduced risks of future disasters. UNDP is leading the effort to develop and apply the PDNA methodology with the World Bank and European Commission. A recent BCPR-wide review also made a strong case for the integration of early and longer term recovery within BCPR. A working group has been formed to make recommendations to BCPR senior management on this issue. An ongoing assessment of the recent Haiti PDNA process will provide more lessons for UNDP?s partnerships with other agencies and partners in post-disaster assessments and recovery.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Expand Global Mainstreaming Initiative activities on integrating DRR into development plans and CCA/UNDAF processes to additional countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT in collaboration with the UN system Staff College and DOCO 2010/06 Completed History
2.2 Implement recommendations from UNDP Executive Office-led process to integrate BCPR's and BDP's work on CRM along with those from the BCPR-BDP retreat. Expand the CRM capacity assessment program to additional countries. Joint missions and program development on a regional basis.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/BCPR and EEG/BDP 2010/12 Completed BDP-EEG/BCPR collaboration agreement approved in January 2010 History
2.3 Revise PDNA guidelines and implement PDNA training and related recovery capacity development activities in high risk countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT recovery cluster 2010/06 Completed History
2.4 Complete BCPR working group report on strengthening work on recovery.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]
2.4 Complete working group report on strengthening work on recovery as part of implementing the recommendations of the BCPR strategic review. 2010/04 Completed
3. Recommendation: That UNDP in planning and developing any Disaster Risk Reduction programme and before funding any activity develop an integrated strategy that: o Is based on risk assessment. o Is linked to relevant development programmes and plans. o Identifies links and interdependencies between structural and non structural DRR elements. o Identifies the order or sequence in which they need to occur. o Identifies how progress/ and effectiveness will be measured, other than under disaster loading.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/04/27]

Work will be undertaken to address this recommendation in two areas: 1) through the development of a comprehensive UNDP Programming Guide for Disaster Risk Reduction, which addresses the points raised by the recommendation, and 2) through intensification of work on disaster risk assessment.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 Finalize the Programming Guide on Disaster Risk Reduction.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2014/02/13]
DRT 2013/06 Completed
3.2 Initiate recovery planning and capacity development activities in high risk countries pre-disaster.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT 2010/12 Completed Included in BCPR 2010 work plan History
3.3 Create and apply a methodology for assessing necessary conditions in high risk countries for initiating a DRR programmes of varying degrees of complexity.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (CADRI) 2010/12 Completed Planned History
4. Recommendation: That UNDP review its approach to gender risk reduction programmes and review corporate policy on the basis of empirical evidence confirming that: o Although women may at times be more vulnerable high female vulnerability is derived much more from differential exposure of females to hazards (i.e. risk is a function of three elements: capacity, vulnerability and exposure to hazards or shocks). o Women often have greater capacity and resilience relative to men exposed equally. o Facing imminent hazards, women are exposed differently than men due to their physical location (in or near the home) or social expectations that dictate actions (i.e. their role carers of children, the sick and the elderly).
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

A 2007 study by the London School of Economics concluded, after studying 141 countries that have experienced disasters over a 20-year period, that in countries where women?s socio-economic status was low, after disasters women?s life expectancies have dropped much more than those of men. These research findings, which are derived from empirical experience of 141 countries, clearly demonstrate that women often face higher disaster-related mortality risk than men. UNDP therefore recognizes the particular importance of reducing the exposure of women to natural hazards. Through its programmes UNDP engages women in risk assessment exercises and ensures that risk assessment methodologies adequately capture social and gender issues. It is extremely important to ensure that women are involved in monitoring early warning systems and also that early warning systems are tailored to the needs of the women. To be effective, early warning information must reach and be relevant to women. It is also important to equip women with skills such as swimming and rescue to ensure that the risks they face are reduced. Women also often have greater capacity and resilience relative to men exposed equally. UNDP recognizes this and recognizes the need to use women as agents of change. The evaluation finding reiterates the importance of working with both men and women post disaster on mental health issues- we should not assume that men are strong and they do not need support. Similarly it reiterates that importance of recognizing the resilience of women and engaging them in post disaster recovery efforts (livelihoods, habitat, climate risk management and so on) and nurturing them as leaders. Facing imminent hazards, women are exposed differently than men due to their physical location (in or near the home) or social expectations that dictate actions (i.e. their role as carers of children, the sick and the elderly). This evaluation finding suggests that any livelihood opportunities post disaster should ensure that support for women?s caring role is provided so that they can benefit from the opportunities or participate in need assessment exercises. The BCPR/DRT will communicate UNDP's work on gender more effectively by publishing and distributing easily accessible printed material showcasing gender-sensitive DRR practices. DRT will also translate a publication developed with the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat on gender and DRR into Arabic and French. The DRT works to ensure that UNDP staff?s awareness on the UNDP Eight Point Agenda on Gender Equality is enhanced and that they are familiar with existing gender and DRR resources by dedicating one session on gender in all UNDP regional DRR Community of Practice meetings. The DRT is also developing a customizable Gender and DRR training module that will become part of the overall UNDP DRR training curriculum. Work is currently underway on the next version of the PDNA guidelines, which will include a revised, more mainstreamed gender focus, in which the gender material is incorporated into each of the guidelines' sectoral chapters.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 Publish and widely disseminate leaflet on gender approach and related activities of the DRT.
[Added: 2010/04/27]
DRT policy and programme cluster 2010/02 Completed
4.2: Develop a training module on Gender and DRR.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT policy and programme cluster 2010/12 Completed History
4.3: Translate UNDP UNISDR IUCN book on Making Disasters Gender Friendly in Arabic and French and disseminate to appropriate UNDP COs.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT policy and Programme cluster 2010/12 Completed History
4.4 Strengthen gender focus in the Global Risk Identification Programme guidelines and training courses .
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT policy and programme cluster 2010/12 Completed History
4.5 Incorporate a methodology for assessing gender-sensitive recovery needs in the guidelines for Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA).
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT policy and programme cluster 2010/06 Completed History
4.6: Have a session on gender in every DRR meeting Community of Practice.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT policy and program cluster 2010/11 Completed History
5. Recommendation: That UNDP systematically foster and capitalize on partnership synergies to enhance integrated risk reduction consistently at all levels across the globe. o This is best practice and needs to be strongly advocated with national governments. o This will involve skill building at country level that directly supports the convening and catalyzing role of UNDP. o UNDP should strengthen an inter-agency approach at country level while finding innovative ways to make sure that civil society is not left out of the DRR network. The UNDAF and One UN processes may be included in vehicles for this to happen. o Evidence calls for the more routine involvement of research institutes, professional associations, the private sector and civil society in DRR. o Cooperative and collaborative agreements must be made into place so that partnerships assure a strategically greater DRR impact. o Partnerships should occur within and across the development sector and should actively involve local engagement.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

UNDP has been very active these last years in building partnerships and synergies within UN and non UN organizations. The One UN pilot countries have demonstrated the determination ?to act as one? at country level. This positive experience will now be expanded. Furthermore, DRR is now a full element of the Resident Coordinators' (RC) Terms of Reference. In its 2010-2012 logical framework BCPR has committed to building comprehensive, multi-year, multi-stakeholder DRR programs in 15 high risk countries. These programs will be modeled after the one-UN cases that have already been implemented in Mozambique and Pakistan. This model is now being initiated in Nepal, involving International Finance Institutions, UN agencies and civil society in support of the government . UNDP will work through the RC system to put these types of comprehensive programs in place in high risk countries. The DRT is also working to establish technical partnerships with specialized institutions active in various areas of DRR. BCPR has signed agreements with two such partners, the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center and the International Institute for Sustainable Development, for the implementation of a Climate Risk Management Technical Assistance Support Project. Other such partnerships are on-going through the DRT Global Risk Identification Programme and are being developed in the areas of gender, DRR mainstreaming and capacity development.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 Identification of countries through intra-UNDP consultations.
[Added: 2010/04/27]
BCPR Senior Management and UNDP regional bureaus 2010/03 Completed Included in BCPR MYRF 2010-2012
5.2 Consultation with RCs, governments and partners in selected countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT and BCPR Programme and Operations Support Cluster 2010/09 Completed In DRT 2010 workplan History
5.3 Formulation of comprehensive, multi-stakeholder programme frameworks in high risk countries including with private sector, research institutions and civil society together with interagency cooperation at country level.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT 2011/12 Completed In BCPR 2010-2012 MYRF and DRT 2010 work plan History
5.4 Establishment of institutional technical partnerships in the areas of risk identification, climate risk management, gender, mainstreaming and governance.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT 2011/07 Completed In DRT 2010 workplan History
6. Recommendation: That UNDP routinely and strongly advocate for, and provide technical support to, complete comprehensive risk assessments ensuring that policies, planning and programming priorities at all levels (global, national and local) are derived from the resulting risk assessment evidence. Such risk assessments must always contain capacity assessment and they must be funded to ensure that they are continual processes, to keep pace with changing patterns of hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities. o This applies particularly at national level where UNDP has the strongest and most effective institutional and operational links.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

UNDP is strongly committed to evidence-based DRR development and programme development which takes full account of disaster risks. The Global Risk Identification Programme (GRIP) has developed a risk assessment service package for comprehensive risk assessments that addresses all the aspects mentioned in the recommendation. The application of this package, as a whole or the elements selected by the countries based on their needs, helps the countries to: 1) Learn from their disaster history and monitor DRR progress through the establishment of National Disaster Observatories 2) Understand the magnitude, characteristics and causes of their risk, identify possible solutions and develop DRR baselines. This information, together with the one provided by the Disaster Observatories is used to delineate evidence-based National DRM Master Plans with measurable, realistic goals. 3) Perform local and sectoral risk assessments to support effective actions to actually reduce the risks 4) Build local capacity, both technical and institutional, to ensure local ownership of results and sustainability and replicability of risk assessment processes. To achieve this, all the work is done by local institutions, authorities and experts. Currently, the GRIP is already supporting about 30 countries at different stages of the UNDP project implementation cycle, from providing overall vision to assisting with monitoring and review. The 2010 work plan includes the establishment of new Disaster Observatories in at least three countries, the initiation of National Risk Assessments in two countries and the implementation of systematic inventories and of existing information and capacities in at least five countries. Additionally, and in collaboration with various partners within and outside the system, GRIP is developing standards and quality control mechanisms to improve disaster loss data collection and analysis. Finally, and aligned with the recommendation of coordinating work, it has to be mentioned that GRIP is supporting risk assessment activities included in One-UN Country Programmes in Mozambique, Pakistan and Nepal.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1 Establishment of National Disaster Observatories in three countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/GRIP 2011/12 Completed In GRIP 2010 workplan History
6.2 Preparation of National Risk Assessments in two countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/GRIP 2011/12 Completed In GRIP 2010 workplan History
6.3 Implementation of systematic inventories and evaluations for risk assessment in at least five countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/GRIP 2010/12 Completed In GRIP 2010 workplan History
6.4 Development of standards, interoperability protocols and quality control mechanisms to improve disaster loss data collection and analysis.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/GRIP, in collaboration with CRED, Munich-Re, La Red, ADRC, ISDR Secretariat 2010/12 Completed Included in GRIP 2010 work plan History
6.5 Capacity building in all the GRIP supported countries to ensure sustainability of risk assessment processes.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/GRIP, in collaboration with CADRI, UNITAR 2010/12 Completed Included in GRIP 2010 work plan History
6.6 Following risk assessments, capacity assessment will be conducted to identify the gaps in addressing the identified risks.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/GRIP, CADRI 2010/12 Completed Included in CADRI 2010 work plan History
7. Recommendation: That UNDP further explore and expand internal databases assuring the real-time systematic and UNDP system wide identification, collection, analysis and monitoring of all efforts that contribute to disaster risk reduction (scale, funding, personnel, projects, etc.) in all its forms (climate, environment, conflict, recovery, etc.)
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

In 2007-2009, the DRT undertook to completely document UNDP's global DRR project portfolio. This analysis revealed that UNDP has on-going DRR programs in over 50 countries with annual expenditures averaging USD 120 million. From this analysis, the DRT is now producing a set of project summaries documenting each DRR country program. These briefs have been drafted after contacting each and every country office and will soon be published on the UNDP website. The country-level project data, briefs and results reports (see recommendation 8, below) will form a comprehensive UNDP-wide DRR project database that the DRT will use to advocate for UNDP's work on DRR and to steer the UNDP DRR sub-practice. In 2010 the DRT will work with BDP/EEG expand this analysis to include Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) projects implemented by UNDP. This will give UNDP and external audiences a comprehensive view of UNDP's total portfolio on climate risk management. The combined portfolio will be used to integrate UNDP's work on climate risk management overall. The DRT will also prepare a database of all UNDP DRR practitioners at the country, regional and global levels. This database will be used to develop internal UNDP DRR capacity and to facilitate networking and mutual support across UNDP country offices. The DRT is currently developing a pilot Content Management System (CMS) for training materials and to create a repository for learning resources on DRR. The CMS will facilitate learning networking, knowledge sharing and workshop delivery. BCPR has developed a system through sharepoint for managing its Business Process for Funds Allocation. The sharepoint system creates a repository of project documents which will include all UNDP DRR projects which have received BCPR funding to be accessed by all BCPR staff. The DRT is actively working to make all signed UNDP DRR projects accessible through the internet via UNDP's public website.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1 Finalize the UNDP DRR project portfolio analysis for 2009 and update project database, including project briefs.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT Programme cluster 2010/05 Completed History
7.2 Initiate country programme results synthesis and analysis.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT Programme Cluster 2010/06 Completed In DRT 2010 work plan History
7.3 Initiate joint DRR and CCA portfolio review and analysis.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT with BDP/EEG 2010/06 Completed In DRT 2010 work plan History
7.4 Complete UNDP DRR practitioners roster database.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT programme cluster 2010/05 Completed History
7.5 Complete the BCPR CMS Training System on DRR.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT programme cluster, CADRI 2010/05 Completed History
7.6 Officially launch sharepoint system and provide staff training.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
BCPR Programme and Operations Support Cluster 2010/12 Completed System up for testing and in use History
7.7. UNDP project documents and summaries available on the UNDP website
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT and BCPR external relations 2010/09 Completed History
8. Recommendation: That UNDP develop a set of DRR outcome measures that reflect actual reduction in risk and which will guide all DRR programming for UNDP, supporting better monitoring and evaluation of UNDP?s overall impact. o It is a corporate imperative of UNDP to identify a suitable way to monitor how well it and its partners are reducing risk and progressively meeting the DRR mandate through time. Such measurement indicators are needed for every DRR measure , other that awaiting the ?acid test? of their performance in response to disaster loading. o The outcome measure is at the macro level (country or higher), above and beyond common M&E input/output, process indicators compared to stipulated project objectives. o Outcome measures will reflect actual and measurable changes in the ?real world.? o The essence of the measure needed is captured by lives saved/deaths reduced and reduced property loss. o The development of outcome measures should support best practice in other DRR entities.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/04/27]

BCPR has already decided to seriously strengthen its monitoring and evaluation functions. Following a BCPR-wide review, BCPR has established a working group to make recommendations to senior management on how to improve monitoring and evaluation of UNDP's crisis prevention and recovery-related project results. In addition to this Outcome Evaluation, another evaluation of UNDP's work on DRR at the country level will be completed in 2010. Between the two evaluations the outcomes of UNDP work on DRR will be carefully analyzed in about 21 countries. BCPR will use the results of these evaluations to improve UNDP's DRR-related outcome indicators and as a baseline for future monitoring. The DRT will also synthesize and analyze the results of project completion reporting from UNDP country-level DRR work. These results are available on-line in UNDP's results based reporting platform. The expected outcome of the ISDR Hyogo Framework for Action is a substantial reduction in disaster-related losses. To assist with tracking this outcome, the UNDP-led Global Risk Identification Programme (GRIP) will assist in the establishment of national disaster loss observatories in high risk countries. These observatories will assist countries in tracking and reporting on disaster-related mortality and economic losses. Tools and guidelines for implementing these observatories are also being produced.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1 Completion of the BCPR working group report on improving monitoring and evaluation as part of implementating the recommendations of the BCPR Strategic Review.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]
BCPR working group on monitoring and evaluation 2010/04 Completed
8.2 Completion of 2010 UNDP evaluation of country level DRR results.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
UNDP evaluation office 2010/05 Completed History
8.3 Synthesis and analysis of UNDP DRR project completion report results.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT programme cluster 2010/12 Completed In DRT 2010 workplan History
8.4 Tools and guidelines for expansion of GRIP-supported national level disaster loss observatories into additional countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/GRIP in cooperation with the Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters 2011/12 Completed In GRIP 2010 workplan History
9. Recommendation: That the long-term national presence of UNDP supported by a clear corporate vision for DRR, should provide long-term disaster risk reduction country programmes (at least 5-10 year horizons) that acknowledge the structural nature of risk generation and the complexity of risk reduction. o This long-term strategy will require additional core-funded DRR staff particularly at HQ level. o Sustainable DRR impact within governments and countries will not be achieved until UNDP can sustain the level of their internal DRR efforts and until national governments have fully functional and autonomous DRR programmes, arrangements and legislation. o UNDP staffing should be sustained not only in COs but also in government positions (UNDP funded and other UN funded), but clear exit strategies need to be applied.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/04/27]

In line with the recommendation, experience has shown that sustained multi-year efforts are needed to build substantial DRR capacity in high risk countries. Most UNDP country projects are government implemented. Within the context of these projects it is the responsibility of the governments to appoint and pay the salaries of government staff. In some cases, however, additional staff funded by UNDP projects work with and alongside government in government facilities. To promote the formation of such long-term strategies and comprehensive national projects in high risk countries, BCPR will strengthen two programs. In 2010-2011 BCPR will complete recruitment of Senior Regional Disaster Reduction Advisors for each of the five UNDP regions. BCPR will also assist UNDP country offices to expand the number of National Disaster Reduction Advisors in high risk countries, in some cases jointly with the World Bank. These staff will play a primary role in promoting the formation of comprehensive, multi-year, multi-stakeholder country programmes with clear exit strategies per recommendation 5, above. Following a BCPR-wide review, BCPR is also re-examining the use of Strategic Partnership Frameworks as vehicles for long-term country support. BCPR has commissioned a working group on country level support that will examine this issue.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
9.1 Senior Regional Disaster Reduction Advisors recruited (Bangkok)
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT and BCPR Programme and Operations Support Cluster 2010/07 Completed History
9.2 Expansion of National Disaster Reduction Advisor programme into additional countries
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT Programme cluster 2011/12 Completed In DRT 2010 workplan History
9.3 Completion of BCPR working group report on country-level support as a follow-up to the recommendations of the BCPR Strategic Review.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]
BCPR working group on country-level support 2010/04 Completed
10. Recommendation: That UNDP ensure that all programmes have a planned and agreed exit strategy with specific reference to the planned transfer of management responsibility, resources, expertise and knowledge to national governments to ensure sustainability of programme results.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

Experience has shown that building DRR capacity requires long term engagement. Over time, UNDP-supported DRR programs have tended to grow in size and sophistication as government capacity increases. BCPR will use the on-going process of reviewing and documenting UNDP's global DRR portfolio (recommendation 7) to assess the extent to which UNDP's projects include adequate exit/transition strategies. A programming guide for developing UNDP DRR programs will include guidance on exit strategies as well. Increasingly UNDP and BCPR are addressing the question of country prioritization. This will help BCPR in determining the countries in which it should scale up its support versus those in which support should be phased out.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
10.1 DRR programming guide to contain guidance on exit strategies based on country experiences
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT Programme Cluster 2010/06 Completed History
10.2 Completion of UNDP and BCPR country prioritization exercise
[Added: 2010/04/27]
UNDP and BCPR Sr. Management 2010/04 Completed
11. Recommendation: That UNDP and BCPR provide a strong lead for ensuring coherence of DRR activities within high-risk countries at national and local levels recognizing that national policy and structures and community programming are co-dependent. o This applies to appropriate and enabling legislation as well as to appropriately resourced, self-sustaining and properly mandated disaster management agencies. o It also requires the deliberate and planned exchange of information between levels.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/04/27]

BCPR is increasingly assisting UNDP country offices to develop two-tiered DRR country programs, in which national policy and strategy work is complemented with applied DRR on the ground at the local level in selected high risk districts. Examples include in Madagascar, Mozambique, Sudan, Egypt and Uzbekistan. The level of decentralization of decision making processes is a decision of the governments of the sovereign countries where the organization works. UNDP country offices often work with governments to promote consultative decentralization processes. BCPR will seek to expand the number of country programs with this two tiered system. One output of BCPR's 2010-2012 logical framework is devoted to achieving this for the purposes of building post-crisis/disaster recovery capacity simultaneously at national and local levels. In addition to the work at the BCPR and country office levels, two DRT services lines are active in addressing this recommendation: the Global Mainstreaming Initiative (GMI) and the Climate Risk Management (CRM) service line. The GMI is working on promoting good legislative systems and decentralization processes and the CRM is supporting community based climate risk management.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
11.1 Expansion of BCPR-supported DRR projects at country level which incorporate two tiered (local and national) approach
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
BCPR 2010/07 Completed History
11.2 Pilot community based CRM in some countries
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
BCPR and BDP/EEG 2010/07 Completed History
11.3 Expand GMI work on governance and decentralization to additional countries.
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT Policy Cluster 2010/08 Completed History
12. Recommendation: That where local level programmes are undertaken, that these be developed and managed as framework programmes and that lessons derived from them be systematically, actively and purposefully shared in the host country ensuring national ?ownership? of them.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

Unless there are over-riding considerations to the contrary, UNDP DRR programs are implemented through the National Execution modality, meaning that a government ministry or department is in charge of project execution. Whether National or Direct Execution, UNDP's DRR programs are designed to develop capacity within government at the national and/or local levels as well as within civil society. As described in the response to recommendation 11, above, BCPR is increasingly assisting UNDP country offices to develop two-tiered DRR country programs, in which national policy and strategy work is complemented with applied DRR on the ground at the local level in selected high risk districts. These projects are designed so as to involve both national and local-level stakeholders and levels of government precisely so that national level actors can subsequently work with local administrations in additional high risk localities to implement appropriate DRR measures.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
12.1 Systematically document the results of local-national integration and the up-scaling of local level risk management work as part of the portfolio review and BCPR-wide effort to improve monitoring and evaluation of crisis prevention and recovery projects (see responses to recommendations 7 and 8).
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT and BCPR 2011/12 Completed History
13. Recommendation: That UNDP further develops a corporate image and profile through ensuring that the concept, policy and programming of DRR and related structures be clearly and purposefully enunciated with BCPR and UNDP. This will require that: o That BCPR actively campaign to ensure that UNDP staff members globally are aware of the UNDP mandate, added value and support. o That the RDRA/NDRA structure be strengthened and equipped to more systematically and visibly provide leadership, resourcing, technical assistance and mentoring. That the links between RDRAs, regional ISDR offices and other regional entities be strengthened and supported. o That the global service lines be enhanced, repackaged, aligned and/or promoted sufficiently to ensure coherence and value-added as a suite of support tools for COs or partners. o That UNDP work to develop a consensual culture among staff so that they identify with and are committed to the organization as a whole and not just to particular units.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/02/10] [Last Updated: 2010/05/17]

The response to this recommendation includes measures previously identified in response to recommendations 1 (a UNDP policy note on DRR), 3 (a UNDP Programming Guide on Disaster Risk Reduction) and 9 (strengthening the RDRA/NDRA network). The DRT will expand its NDRA/RDRA orientation program to ensure that all in-coming NDRAs and RDRAs received the full orientation. The DRT will also increase enrollment of UNDP staff working in the DRR area in its DRR overview course and in-depth trainings on gender, climate risk management, mainstreaming, risk identification and recovery. DRT technical service line work will be integrated at the country level along the lines described in response to recommendation 5 concerning the promotion of comprehensive, multi-stakeholder, multi-year programmes which cover all five priority areas identified in the ISDR Hyogo Framework for Action. The links between UNDP CO and regional bureaus and the ISDR regional offices will be clarified. The DRT chaired the Steering Committee for the recent evaluation of the ISDR Secretariat. This evaluation has clarified the ISDR Secretariat's role within the larger ISDR system and will strengthen the relationship at both HQ and regional level. The ISDR Interagency group, in which UNDP participates, has recently resumed its work and will be discussing this recommendation soon. The DRT will develop and implement a communication strategy to position UNDP in the DRR area and to communicate internally within UNDP the practices and lessons that constitute sound DRR programming. This strategy will be used for external and internal advocacy. As part of this effort BCPR and DRT staff will seek to meet with representatives from 10 countries on the margins of Executive Board meetings.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
13.1 Finalize and implement the DRT communication strategy
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT 2010/07 Completed History
13.2 Increased number of DRR overview course participants and participants in in-depth trainings in key UNDP DRR programmatic thematic areas
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT 2010/06 Completed In DRT 2010 workplan History
13.3 All new RDRAs and NDRAs receive orientation training
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT 2010/05 Completed History
13.4 Increased participation of UNDP DRR practitioners in community of practice meetings
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT/POSC 2011/12 Completed In 2010 DRT work plan History
13.5 Publish the evaluation report, programming guide, policy note, portfolio analysis, country briefs and other relevant policy documents
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT 2010/05 Completed History
13.6 Provide input to Management response of ISDR Secretariat Evaluation
[Added: 2010/04/27] [Last Updated: 2016/03/18]
DRT policy cluster 2010/05 Completed History

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