Support to Sustainable Transportation System in the City of Belgrade

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Evaluation Plan:
2011-2015, Serbia
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
02/2015
Completion Date:
08/2015
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
16,750

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Title Support to Sustainable Transportation System in the City of Belgrade
Atlas Project Number: 00074551
Evaluation Plan: 2011-2015, Serbia
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 08/2015
Planned End Date: 02/2015
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.4. Scaled up action on climate change adaptation and mitigation across sectors which is funded and implemented
Evaluation Budget(US $): 16,750
Source of Funding: GEF
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 16,750
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Roland Wong Mr.
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title:
Evaluation Type:
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: MSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID:
PIMS Number: 3781
Key Stakeholders: City Secretariat for Transport and the Land Development Agency of Belgrade
Countries: SERBIA
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 MoAEP and the City of Belgrade need to collect transport-related baseline data. While this may already be occurring, the collection of this data is important for the country in its obligations to report GHG emissions to UNFCCC. However, to accelerate the development of MoAEP?s capacity to address transport-related GHG emissions and design of appropriate policies, MoAEP should seek technical assistance from a donor agency on the collection of such data. In addition to the need for collecting more data on public transit and conducting full-fledged travel demand surveys in Belgrade, MoAEP should look at other sustainable transport projects such as the one in Bratislava supported by UNDP-GEF where cameras were setup at the strategic entry points into the City to get a profile of vehicle types being operated in Bratislava City. This data along with fuel sales data for Bratislava were calibrated against a COPERT model setup for Bratislava to provide a reasonable estimate of GHG emissions for the City. These approaches will assist MoAEP in designing transport-related policies, and provide valuable baseline data on which future transport interventions can be compared against to assess their impact on transport-related GHG emissions.
2 Recommendation 2: Institutional strengthening and funding are required to accelerate City?s learning pace of EU standards for sustainable urban transport and the preparation of SUTPs/SUMPs. Technical assistance from a donor agency is required to sensitize City technical personnel to incorporate GHG emission reductions in their strategic and design documents for improving urban transport in Belgrade. This may include the procurement and training in the use of modernized tools for planning sustainable transport measures such as Aimsun Microsimulation (www.aimsun.com), a software for computerizing traffic models that will inform the development of a SUTP/SUMP and other emerging infrastructure level interventions. The presentation of outputs from this type of software can be visually-friendly and allow stakeholders to clearly see the causes of traffic congestion and proposed measures to mitigate that may lead to accelerated approvals. It can also be used to demonstrate the impact of traffic volumes versus differing land uses which can affect and inform integration of urban land use and transport policies
3 Recommendation 3: Future assistance to Belgrade on SUT measures should focus on the following activities: Equipping all buses with fuel consumption gauges to support fleet skills for eco-driving; Synchronization of signals and priority signalling for public transit; Improving public transit services to Old City along with support for park-and-ride transit facilities in outlying areas. This will provide Belgrade citizens with an alternate means of transport from the suburbs into the Old City; and Pedestrianization of Old Belgrade to facilitate NMV modes of transport and a corresponding reduction in cars and road congestion; Improving MRV capacities within the City and MoAEP on monitoring GHG and other emissions related to urban transport in Belgrade (this would be consistent with the directions plotted by the Second National Communications for Serbia).
4 Recommendation 4: To sustain the development and operation of SUT measures in Belgrade, future assistance should also focus on identification of other revenue streams through an integrated ?green cities approach? that will assist the Municipal Government in public transport subsidies. This could consist of a review of municipal expenditures to identify opportunities for municipal operational cost efficiencies. This could be achieved through a holistic approach to green urban development that may entail development of programmes for energy efficiency for municipal facilities (such as municipal buildings, water treatment plant and street lighting), renewable energy development (such as waste-to-energy and wind and solar generation facilities), district heating efficiencies, reducing water consumption, promotion of green construction and building materials, surface water management, and green infrastructure (i.e. urban parks forests and wetlands), all of which can provide cost savings to municipal operating budgets, and partial relief from subsidies into public transport. Realized municipal cost reductions may free up budgets that could augment infrastructure or operational funding for sustainable transport systems.
5 Recommendation 5: The time for GEF Projects between approval and implementation needs to be minimized to reduce the risks of reduced project influence. The STB Project suffered from a lag of 2 to the 3 years between the actual Project design (2008-09) and actual implementation (February 2011 Inception Workshop). While the Project was approved for implementation in March 2010, actual implementation did not commence until November 2010 February 2011 when a number of the original Project activities were already being implemented without Project assistance. As such, Project activities were changed to address their 2011 priorities in sustainable transport. This 13-month delay was due to the long process of recruiting a Project Manager. Improvements need be made to minimize the duration of the recruitment process for project personnel that should include pre-screening of candidates
6 Recommendation 6: GEF should re-consider investment of its resources for sustainable transport projects under USD 2.0 million and less than 5 years in duration. If the purpose of GEF funds is to reduce transport-related GHG emissions, amounts less than USD 2.0 million have a higher risk of not achieving such a result. The risks are higher that there is insufficient time and fiscal resources to improve public transit services or to develop sustainable transport infrastructure such as a dedicated bus lanes, prioritized signalling for public transit vehicles, and a cycling network. The STB Project underwent significant changes at the Inception Workshop to transform the Project with overly ambitious targets (to be achieved within 4 years) to a Project with activities that could be supported by the USD 950,000 budget but with the possibility of having considerably less impact. By scaling down the activities, the STB Project was able to achieve its objectives within a 4-year period, if the effective Project period was considered to be November 2010, the start date of the PM to December 2014. The GHG reductions of these scaled-down activities, however, were small. If GEF wishes to have a sustainable transport project with more ambitious GHG reduction targets, a project with more resources and more time (more than 5 years) will be required.
1. Recommendation: MoAEP and the City of Belgrade need to collect transport-related baseline data. While this may already be occurring, the collection of this data is important for the country in its obligations to report GHG emissions to UNFCCC. However, to accelerate the development of MoAEP?s capacity to address transport-related GHG emissions and design of appropriate policies, MoAEP should seek technical assistance from a donor agency on the collection of such data. In addition to the need for collecting more data on public transit and conducting full-fledged travel demand surveys in Belgrade, MoAEP should look at other sustainable transport projects such as the one in Bratislava supported by UNDP-GEF where cameras were setup at the strategic entry points into the City to get a profile of vehicle types being operated in Bratislava City. This data along with fuel sales data for Bratislava were calibrated against a COPERT model setup for Bratislava to provide a reasonable estimate of GHG emissions for the City. These approaches will assist MoAEP in designing transport-related policies, and provide valuable baseline data on which future transport interventions can be compared against to assess their impact on transport-related GHG emissions.
Management Response: [Added: 2015/10/28]

Several UNDP-GEF projects are supporting the UNFCCC reporting of Serbia, while enhancing the national capacities in establishing a system for the preparation of national GHG inventory. Within the Serbia?s First Biennial Update Report project, the Information System for automatic categorization of vehicles in calculating air pollutants and GHG emissions was developed, in order to improve vehicle database for the application of the COPERT 4 model. Developed information system was delivered to Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, a national responsible agency for the preparation of GHG inventories. Within the SUTP project activities the report on ?Quantification of the GHG impact of the sustainable transport interventions in the City of Belgrade? was produced. The main objectives of the report were to estimate the city of Belgrade GHG emissions for the period 2006 ? 2012, to develop a dynamic baseline emissions scenario for the period 2013 - 2020, and to estimate the direct and indirect mitigation impact of the project components.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Supporting the UNFCCC reporting of Serbia a. Preparation of Second National Communications and b. Preparation of Biennial Update Reports
[Added: 2015/10/28] [Last Updated: 2016/01/14]
Project Manager 2015/12 Completed
Information System for automatic categorization of vehicles in calculating air pollutants and GHG emissions
[Added: 2015/10/28]
Project Manager 2015/06 Completed
2. Recommendation: Recommendation 2: Institutional strengthening and funding are required to accelerate City?s learning pace of EU standards for sustainable urban transport and the preparation of SUTPs/SUMPs. Technical assistance from a donor agency is required to sensitize City technical personnel to incorporate GHG emission reductions in their strategic and design documents for improving urban transport in Belgrade. This may include the procurement and training in the use of modernized tools for planning sustainable transport measures such as Aimsun Microsimulation (www.aimsun.com), a software for computerizing traffic models that will inform the development of a SUTP/SUMP and other emerging infrastructure level interventions. The presentation of outputs from this type of software can be visually-friendly and allow stakeholders to clearly see the causes of traffic congestion and proposed measures to mitigate that may lead to accelerated approvals. It can also be used to demonstrate the impact of traffic volumes versus differing land uses which can affect and inform integration of urban land use and transport policies
Management Response: [Added: 2015/10/28]

UNDP CO initiated Climate-Smart Urban Development (CSUD) concept in Serbia, which will harness wider application of the innovative information and communication technology (ICT) to enable and spearhead innovation and productivity gains in city services, in particular by improving the ability to collect, manage and share large data sets and to integrate ICT into existing city management systems, as well as to support the implementation of low-carbon activities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Climate Smart Urban Development in Serbia a. the PIF for the GEF 6 programming cycle has been drafted and submitted to the GEF Sec.
[Added: 2015/10/28] [Last Updated: 2018/09/04]
Project Manager 2015/12 Completed History
3. Recommendation: Recommendation 3: Future assistance to Belgrade on SUT measures should focus on the following activities: Equipping all buses with fuel consumption gauges to support fleet skills for eco-driving; Synchronization of signals and priority signalling for public transit; Improving public transit services to Old City along with support for park-and-ride transit facilities in outlying areas. This will provide Belgrade citizens with an alternate means of transport from the suburbs into the Old City; and Pedestrianization of Old Belgrade to facilitate NMV modes of transport and a corresponding reduction in cars and road congestion; Improving MRV capacities within the City and MoAEP on monitoring GHG and other emissions related to urban transport in Belgrade (this would be consistent with the directions plotted by the Second National Communications for Serbia).
Management Response: [Added: 2015/10/28]

UNDP CO initiated Climate-Smart Urban Development concept in Serbia, which will harness wider application of the innovative information and communication technology (ICT) to enable and spearhead innovation and productivity gains in city services, in particular by improving the ability to collect, manage and share large data sets and to integrate ICT into existing city management systems, as well as to support the implementation of low-carbon activities. In addition, Climate Smart Urban Development Challenge Programme and Challenge Prize would be established to support concrete innovative solutions in urban areas to reduce GHG emissions and trigger low carbon development. Sustainable transport has been considered to be one of the priority topics within this new initiative.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Climate Smart Urban Development in Serbia a. the PIF for the GEF 6 programming cycle has been drafted and submitted to the GEF Sec.
[Added: 2015/10/28] [Last Updated: 2018/09/04]
Project Manager 2015/12 Completed Planned project will include the City of Belgrade, as well as other Serbian municipalities. History
Preparation of National Communications and Biennial Update Reports
[Added: 2015/10/28] [Last Updated: 2016/01/14]
Project Manager 2015/12 Completed
4. Recommendation: Recommendation 4: To sustain the development and operation of SUT measures in Belgrade, future assistance should also focus on identification of other revenue streams through an integrated ?green cities approach? that will assist the Municipal Government in public transport subsidies. This could consist of a review of municipal expenditures to identify opportunities for municipal operational cost efficiencies. This could be achieved through a holistic approach to green urban development that may entail development of programmes for energy efficiency for municipal facilities (such as municipal buildings, water treatment plant and street lighting), renewable energy development (such as waste-to-energy and wind and solar generation facilities), district heating efficiencies, reducing water consumption, promotion of green construction and building materials, surface water management, and green infrastructure (i.e. urban parks forests and wetlands), all of which can provide cost savings to municipal operating budgets, and partial relief from subsidies into public transport. Realized municipal cost reductions may free up budgets that could augment infrastructure or operational funding for sustainable transport systems.
Management Response: [Added: 2015/10/28]

UNDP CO initiated Climate-Smart Urban Development concept in Serbia, which will harness innovations for climate-smart urban development and supporting their further development and mainstreaming, within so-called CSUD challenge programme and Challenge Prize concept. Challenge programme will have clear definition of the challenges around specific public service (e.g. district heating, public transport, waste management, energy supply, lighting, etc), which has to be improved, while at the same time secure clear climate benefits (GHG emission reduction). The priority areas (initially up to three), for which the challenge program should invite proposals, will be identified in co-operation with the municipalities that have expressed their interest to participate in the program implementation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Climate Smart Urban Development in Serbia a. the PIF for the GEF 6 programming cycle has been drafted and submitted to the GEF Sec.
[Added: 2015/10/28] [Last Updated: 2018/09/04]
Project Manager 2015/12 Completed Planned project will include the City of Belgrade, as well as other Serbian municipalities. History
5. Recommendation: Recommendation 5: The time for GEF Projects between approval and implementation needs to be minimized to reduce the risks of reduced project influence. The STB Project suffered from a lag of 2 to the 3 years between the actual Project design (2008-09) and actual implementation (February 2011 Inception Workshop). While the Project was approved for implementation in March 2010, actual implementation did not commence until November 2010 February 2011 when a number of the original Project activities were already being implemented without Project assistance. As such, Project activities were changed to address their 2011 priorities in sustainable transport. This 13-month delay was due to the long process of recruiting a Project Manager. Improvements need be made to minimize the duration of the recruitment process for project personnel that should include pre-screening of candidates
Management Response: [Added: 2015/10/28]

UNDP CO initiated Climate-Smart Urban Development concept in Serbia in mid-2015, while the beginning of the project implementation is planned for the beginning of 2016. In the project preparation process various groups of stakeholders are included from the beginning ad project is being developed in direct consultations with municipalities as final beneficiaries of the project outcomes. The objective of the proposed project is to promote climate-smart urban development, but rather than defining the detailed technical and other solutions upfront, it seeks to actively engage citizens, CSOs, public and business communities to come up with new and innovative ideas on how to contribute to this in practice and to jointly develop, finance and implement these ideas further. This would secure wide acceptance of the project activities which would be defined based on needs of concrete mucnicipalities, while at the same time, solutions would be offered in partnerships between stakeholders at local level. Moreover, the project will, in the implementation phase, have a stepwise approach in seeking to achieve its objective. This stepwise approach should minimize the management risks and would secure gradual scaling up of the activities while at the same time securing adequate time management. First, the project will build up the capacity and assist participating municipalities to mainstream ICT into city management systems and to put in place digital inventories and tools to gather data, monitor actions and also make this information easily accessible by the public. Secondly, the project will develop and launch a more comprehensive challenge program for climate smart urban development (CSUD), eventually as a part of the new Green Fund planned by the Government, as an innovative mechanism to source solutions for low-carbon activities and to coach and support otherwise their further development and testing. Pre-screening of the possible project personnel and implementing entities would be done as they are trained for the challenge concept and as their capacities are being improved to become ready for partnerships for innovative solutions. Finally, the project will monitor and evaluate the impact of the supported activities and backstop their replication and mainstreaming, including, as applicable, further development of the national legal and regulatory framework in order to create an enabling environment for the identified climate-smart solutions and for encouraging innovation in urban management in general.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Preparation of the project: Climate Smart Urban Development in Serbia a. the PIF for the GEF 6 programming cycle has been drafted and submitted to the GEF Sec.
[Added: 2015/10/28] [Last Updated: 2016/01/14]
Project Manager 2015/11 Completed
6. Recommendation: Recommendation 6: GEF should re-consider investment of its resources for sustainable transport projects under USD 2.0 million and less than 5 years in duration. If the purpose of GEF funds is to reduce transport-related GHG emissions, amounts less than USD 2.0 million have a higher risk of not achieving such a result. The risks are higher that there is insufficient time and fiscal resources to improve public transit services or to develop sustainable transport infrastructure such as a dedicated bus lanes, prioritized signalling for public transit vehicles, and a cycling network. The STB Project underwent significant changes at the Inception Workshop to transform the Project with overly ambitious targets (to be achieved within 4 years) to a Project with activities that could be supported by the USD 950,000 budget but with the possibility of having considerably less impact. By scaling down the activities, the STB Project was able to achieve its objectives within a 4-year period, if the effective Project period was considered to be November 2010, the start date of the PM to December 2014. The GHG reductions of these scaled-down activities, however, were small. If GEF wishes to have a sustainable transport project with more ambitious GHG reduction targets, a project with more resources and more time (more than 5 years) will be required.
Management Response: [Added: 2015/10/28]

UNDP CO initiated Climate-Smart Urban Development concept in Serbia with the overall indicative budget of 10 million USD for the five-year project (out of which USD 2.0 million would come from the GEF resources and the rest would be co-financing on behalf of UNDP, the Government and other stakeholders);

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Preparation of the project: Climate Smart Urban Development in Serbia a. the PIF for the GEF 6 programming cycle has been drafted and submitted to the GEF Sec.
[Added: 2015/10/28] [Last Updated: 2016/01/14]
Project Manager 2015/12 Completed

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