Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Anti-corruption and Addressing Drivers of Corruption

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Evaluation Plan:
2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
Thematic
Planned End Date:
09/2016
Completion Date:
12/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
350,000

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Download document Anticorruption Evaluation-Concept Note 2015.pdf related-document English 390.30 KB Posted 1293
Download document IEO_Anti-Corruption_Eval_2016.pdf report English 4172.34 KB Posted 926
Download document Illustrated Summary -Anti-Corruption-Eval_2016.pdf summary English 2661.42 KB Posted 422
Title Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Anti-corruption and Addressing Drivers of Corruption
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: Thematic
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2016
Planned End Date: 09/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 2.1. Parliaments, constitution making bodies and electoral institutions enabled to perform core functions for improved accountability, participation and representation, including for peaceful transitions
  • 2. Output 2.2. Institutions and systems enabled to address awareness, prevention and enforcement of anti-corruption measures across sectors and stakeholders
  • 3. Output 2.4. Frameworks and dialogue processes engaged for effective and transparent engagement of civil society in national development
  • 4. Output 2.5. Legal and regulatory frameworks, policies and institutions enabled to ensure the conservation, sustainable use, and access and benefit sharing of natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystems, in line with international conventions and national
  • 5. Output 2.6. Legal reform enabled to fight discrimination and address emerging issues (such as environmental and electoral justice
Evaluation Budget(US $): 350,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 350,000
Joint Programme: No
Mandatory Evaluation: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1

Prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. Develop an anti-corruption programme strategy that more explicitly links the UNDP anti-corruption approach to other development programming.

2

Address regional variations in anti-corruption support and prioritize support to regions that are underrepresented.

3

Consider prioritizing support to anti-corruption and governance risk assessments and measurements.

4

Increase support for local-level initiatives to strengthen demandside accountability, particularly concerning access to information and social accountability initiatives.

5

Further strengthen global and regional anti-corruption projects to support country programmes and enable UNDP to contribute to regional and global policy debates and advocacy. Global and regional projects should be used to develop key streams of programme support at the country level.

6

Enhance fund mobilization for anti-corruption support, championing select areas of anti-corruption and accountability initiatives.

7

Strengthen staff capacities at the global and regional levels to address the need for specialized policy and technical services for anti-corruption programming.

1. Recommendation:

Prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. Develop an anti-corruption programme strategy that more explicitly links the UNDP anti-corruption approach to other development programming.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2017/01/27]

UNDP management agrees that the organization should prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. UNDP management will ensure that this is taken into full consideration in developing the draft of the next strategic plan, 2018-2021. The UNDP programme on anti-corruption for development was the first to link anti-corruption with development. Learning from the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) acceleration framework in many countries, UNDP is identifying governance and corruption-related bottlenecks in service delivery. UNDP global, regional and country-level governance and anti-corruption programmes are implementing projects that seek to identify corruption risk assessments in the health, education and water sectors in order to contribute to national development outcomes. With the Seoul Policy Centre we have expanded these risk assessments to the construction sector, and we plan to expand them to the justice and security sectors.

In supporting the sustainable development goals (SDGs), UNDP aims to apply the ‘mainstreaming, acceleration and policy support’ approach (known as ‘MAPS’), which is the common strategy approved by the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) to ensure effective, coherent implementation of the SDG agenda. This should ensure that various targets under goal 16 are integrated into national plans, strategies and budgets, including through a sectoral approach, social accountability initiatives, and the mainstreaming of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption into the development processes. Acceleration will be supported by the use and further elaboration of tools and methodologies (including risk assessment tools) to identify critical constraints and governance or other bottlenecks (including in anti-corruption). UNDP will provide coordinated policy support to countries that will be involved in project implementation, through UNDP global and regional advisers in coordination with UNODC and other partners, particularly in the implementation and mainstreaming of goal 16 and its targets. UNDP is prioritizing ‘clean construction’ and ‘e-procurement’ as an anti-corruption contribution to other goals, such as goal 9 on infrastructure. UNDP has started developing and rolling out a support package to integrate anti-corruption in the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (in Ukraine and Nigeria, for example).

As Chair of the UNDG and coordinator of the United Nations resident coordinator system, UNDP is coordinating with nine other United Nations organizations to provide training to field staff on integrating anti-corruption into United Nations programming processes such as the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). UNDP, with other United Nations partners, aims to integrate anti-corruption into national plans and development processes, including those related to the SDGs through UNDAFs and other country-level United Nations programmes and projects. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Ensure that prioritization of support to addressing corruption risks to development is taken into full consideration in the process of developing the draft of the UNDP strategic plan, 2018-2021.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
Bureau for Policy and Programme Support (BPPS), Executive Office 2017/12 Completed Reflected in the UNDP strategic plan 2018-2021
1.2 Make sure anti-corruption is a part of the MAPS approach and other support packages developed to support the SDG agenda.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/03/29]
BPPS 2018/12 Completed Anti-corruption is integrated in MAPS approach. Online course on integration of anti-corruption in SDGs being developed.
2. Recommendation:

Address regional variations in anti-corruption support and prioritize support to regions that are underrepresented.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2017/01/27]

UNDP management agrees with the recommendation that UNDP should address regional variations in anti-corruption support in a development context. UNDP will analyse these variations and prepare recommendations for relevant actions to be taken to address them in its regional and country level anti-corruption programming. Full coverage of all regions will depend on the availability of sufficient financial resources.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. In collaboration with the regional bureaus and hubs, prepare analysis of the regional variations in anti-corruption support in a development context, and recommendations to address those variations.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS, in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2019/06 Initiated
2.2. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices in regions that are underrepresented in the area of anti-corruption support.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs and regional bureau 2019/06 Initiated In Bhutan, the ACPIS global project supports building capacity of the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) of Bhutan since 2017. ACPIS supports the ACC to institutionalise anti-corruption and integrity measures in the country through developing human resources capacity of the ACC, building special investigative capacity and establishing institutional motivation scheme. The initiative will be completed in December 2018. In Myanmar, since 2017, UNDP supported the Anti-Corruption Commission to undertake an Anti-Corruption Infrastructure Assessment which includes recommendations on improving regulatory frameworks, procedures and measures to improve integrity in Myanmar. This assessment prompted the development of a White Paper, “A Strategic Anti-Corruption Roadmap for Myanmar” which has been submitted through the ACC to the President’s Office for consideration. Furthermore, UNDP has supported Myanmar in the process of developing a four-year Civil Service Reform Strategic Action Plan to promote a more ethical and inclusive civil service. More information can be found here: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/myanmar/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2017/07/10/myanmar-launches-reform-plan-to-promote-more-ethical-and-inclusive-civil-service.html In Indonesia, ACPIS supports Indonesia’s National Strategy on Anti-Corruption, in partnership with Bappenas with KSP and KPK. The project provides targeted support to the formulation of a new national anti-corruption strategy, which puts in place an effective monitoring and evaluation framework to ensure tangible impact on the fight against corruption in Indonesia.
2.3. Mobilize resources from development partners to secure additional policy and programme support for the regions where there is high demand for anti-corruption programming but limited resources.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/03/29]
BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs and regional bureau 2018/12 Completed Anti-Corruption for Peaceful and Inclusive Societies Global Programme mobilized $5mln from DFAT for 2016-2020
3. Recommendation:

Consider prioritizing support to anti-corruption and governance risk assessments and measurements.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2017/01/27]

UNDP management agrees with the recommendation that UNDP should support anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement. UNDP acknowledge that there have been many diagnostics, surveys, assessments and other measurements by various partners and academia. The challenge is to ensure coordination among partners, acceptance of such assessments and the data behind them by national policymakers, and their proper use for policy reform. UNDP experience has shown that most anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement do not translate into policy, for reasons that include lack of political commitment, limited resources for follow-up, and lack of sustainability plans. To strengthen anti-corruption measurement and provide guidance on the use of the right indicators for measuring and monitoring corruption, UNDP published a User’s Guide to Measuring Corruption and Anti-corruption in 2015.

To strengthen efforts to support anti-corruption and governance integrity diagnostics and measurement, UNDP will:    

     (a) Coordinate with other partners to standardize the corruption measurement methodologies to support the more effective use of anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement;

     (b) Ensure sustainability of projects from integrity assessment to policy reforms by securing buy in from the governments and bringing together various stakeholders from the onset of the project implementation; and

     (c) Maximize the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and social media to strengthen feedback mechanisms and solve the governance corruption-related bottlenecks in the service delivery. UNDP will seek government cost sharing to make sure that the ICT pilots are scaled up and sustained.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1. Within the context of UNDP work on the SDG indicators (particularly for goal 16). Review and update UNDP tools and instruments supporting anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
BPPS (Oslo Governance Centre – OGC – in particular), in cooperation with regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices and other relevant partners (such as UNODC and the Praia City Group) 2017/12 Completed The guide to measuring corruption for SDG 16.5.1 and 16.5.2 finalized together with UNODC.
3.2. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices in relation to anti-corruption and governance integrity diagnostics and measurement.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/03/29]
BPPS (OGC in particular), in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2018/12 Completed 7 country level projects supported by global ACPIS programme
4. Recommendation:

Increase support for local-level initiatives to strengthen demandside accountability, particularly concerning access to information and social accountability initiatives.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2017/01/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation. During the last eight years, UNDP contributed to anti-corruption and addressed drivers of corruption by strengthening its engagement with youth, women’s groups, communities, and many local-level civil society actors and non-government organizations, to raise the demand side of accountability. UNDP will continue its engagement with various civil society actors such as the Transparency International, Integrity Action and the Huairou Commission (the international organization of grassroots women’s networks) at the global level, while continuing its engagement with national and local-level civil society organizations (CSOs), youth and women’s group, communities, and non-governmental organizations to strengthen service delivery, budgets and infrastructures, and the monitoring of corruption. UNDP will include government and non-governmental actors to make sure that there is a two-way dialogue contributing to an effective feedback mechanism that produces tangible results from the increase in demand-side accountability.

One of the main objectives of UNDP initiatives will be to strengthen social accountability in the health, education, water, infrastructure, justice and security and other relevant sectors to contribute to attainment of the SDGs. Measures will include:

(a) Continue UNDP partnership with Transparency International and other global partners to raise the global demand for social accountability;

(b) At the national and local level, work with civil society actors and the private sector to promote and scale up successful initiatives on open data, access to information, and procurement transparency in service delivery at the local level;

(c) Continue to support the monitoring of budgets, expenditure and services by civil society and the community, including through the adoption of new technologies to monitor services;

(d) Strengthen women’s networks to improve transparency and accountability in service delivery by scaling up successful local and national-level initiatives; and

(e) Provide support to youth networks for their innovative social accountability projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices on how the country-level projects could enhance their engagement in social accountability, including monitoring and oversight related to the SDGs.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS and regional hubs 2019/06 Initiated The RBAS Regional Hub has provided capacity building and advisory support to the Country Offices in Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia. A key focus area of the UNDP ACPIS project is to support countries to integrate anti-corruption solutions in service delivery (such as health, education, water and infrastructure, justice and security) to mitigate corruption risks to accelerate progress to achieve 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Furthermore, the programme also supports integration of UNCAC and anti-corruption measures in national development processes, including the mainstreaming anti-corruption in the SDGs at national and sub-national levels to prevent and tackle corruption. As part of UNDP’s objective to increase knowledge on how corruption and development is interlinked, as well as enhancing capacity on how to integrate anti-corruption measures across the sustainable development goals of the 2030 Agenda, UNDP, with the support from UNSSC, has developed an online course on “Anti-Corruption in the Context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. The objective of the online course is to enhance the knowledge of development professionals, regional bodies and national governments on the interlinkages between anti-corruption and sustainable development to integrate anti-corruption measures in SDG processes, plans and reporting. The course modules covers areas such as integrating anti-corruption in national sustainable development strategies and methodologies to integrate anti-corruption in the monitoring and measuring of the SDGs. The course will be rolled out in the beginning of 2019.
4.2. Provide capacity-building support to national and local-level youth and women’s groups, CSOs and community organizations on how they could work together with government authorities to monitor services, budgets and infrastructures.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS and regional hubs 2019/06 Initiated The RBAS Regional Hub is providing related capacity building and advisory support to local youth groups in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia, as well as to CSOs in those countries in addition to Morocco. In the Philippines, UNDP ACPIS project supports DevelopmentLIVE since 2017, a mobile phone application which allows citizens to monitor and provide feedback on their local development projects. It provides a dashboard for the national government to oversee citizen satisfaction of local infrastructure projects related to the SDGs. Using this dashboard, they are able to compare citizen satisfaction reports to local government progress reports, as well as identify geographic hotspots in service delivery on a geographic information system (GIS) map. DevLIVE has already been pilot tested in 76 municipalities to monitor the implementation of local infrastructure projects including local access roads, evaluation centres, and water facilities. For the national rollout of the platform, For the roll out, DevLIVE will reach another 10 local governments in December 2018, and continue across 1,300 municipalities in 2019. (See: https://pia.gov.ph/news/articles/1012848 and http://caraga.dilg.gov.ph/main/index.php/news/445-pilot-lgus-in-caraga-trained-on-development-live-devlive-platform) In November 2018, the Philippine Department of Budget and Management, as well as the Department for the Interior and Local Government successfully launched DevLIVE at the Open Government Partnership (OGP). DevLIVE will now be included as a government commitment in the forthcoming OGP national action plan. See: https://www.manilatimes.net/ph-budget-secretary-launches-new-government-app/469621/ In Bhutan, UNDP ACPIS supported in establishment of Youth and Business Integrity Clubs. Since 2017, Youth Integrity Clubs have been piloted across 4 schools to advocate values of integrity to students and staff of schools. Through campaigns, awareness programs, and invitation of guest speakers to share experiences, the youth club members have been key drivers of change in promoting principles of transparency, accountability and integrity in the administration and management of schools and the community. This initiative will be continued in 2019 and the ACC Bhutan will establish the Youth Integrity Clubs in additional 6 schools. The ACPIS-supported private sector integrity program Business Integrity Initiative of Bhutan (BIIB) was introduced to promote ethical business and healthy competition in Bhutan. BIIB has been successful in fostering positive responsible for stakeholders including private companies, many of which have signed the Corporate Integrity Pledge and led advocacy campaigns using media outreach. In Thailand, ACPIS supports an education project, in partnership with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (NACC). This project improved integrity education in Thailand, and provided technical support to NACC on a variety of issues including the review and development of mandatory integrity curriculum for students at university level throughout the country. With support from UNDP, an anti-corruption curriculum for different age groups in line with the objectives of the National Anti-Corruption Strategy has been developed.
4.3. Continue UNDP engagement in knowledge, advocacy and partnership to integrate anti-corruption into local development and urban governance agenda, including through work on open data, open budgeting and open contracting as part of the ‘smart cities’ initiative.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS and regional hubs (with relevant partners) Regional Bureau for Eastern Europe (on open data in particular) 2019/12 Initiated The RBAS Regional Hub has developed, tested and peer reviewed the "Conceptual Framework on Corruption Risk Assessment at Sectoral Level" (http://undp-aciac.org/publications/F%20Advance%20Copy%20of%20CF%20for%20CRA%20at%20Sectoral%20Level.pdf), which has been officially taken on so far by at least 6 countries (Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Tunisia, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) and two international organizations (WHO and WCO) in relation to the health and customs sectors.
5. Recommendation:

Further strengthen global and regional anti-corruption projects to support country programmes and enable UNDP to contribute to regional and global policy debates and advocacy. Global and regional projects should be used to develop key streams of programme support at the country level.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2017/01/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation. UNDP will consider opportunities for strengthening anti-corruption components in existing global and regional governance programmes and initiatives. In line with this recommendation, UNDP has rolled out the ‘Anti-corruption for Peaceful and Inclusive Societies’ global project (known as ‘ACPIS’) to continue UNDP global policy and programme support on anti-corruption.

The new UNDP funding windows (such as the window on governance for peaceful and inclusive societies) will be used as an opportunity for UNDP to allocate funding to global, regional and country-level anti-corruption initiatives.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1. Integrate global and regional anti-corruption targets in the results and resources frameworks of the UNDP’s new strategic plan, global and regional programmes.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
BPPS, in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2017/12 Completed Integrated
5.2. Continue mobilizing more resources for UNDP global and regional anti-corruption initiatives and working together with other relevant partners for joint global and regional activities on anti-corruption.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS, the Bureau for External Relations and Advocacy (BERA) and regional hubs (with partners) 2019/06 Initiated The RBAS Regional Hub is working to mobilize resourcs for its regional anti-corruption initiatives and has submitted proposals to the Siemens Integrity Initiative and KOICA, and is working on proposals for the European Union and SIDA. It has also mobilized resources in 2018 from the Government of Kuwait and is making progress to do the same with the Government of Saudi Arabia in 2019.
6. Recommendation:

Enhance fund mobilization for anti-corruption support, championing select areas of anti-corruption and accountability initiatives.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2017/01/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation, while noting the challenges resulting from the high degree of dependence on a handful of donors to its global anti-corruption programme. UNDP will intensify its partnership development efforts and diversify the donor base when mobilizing resources for supporting anti-corruption and governance interventions, focusing particularly on multilateral development banks, the private sector, and donor agencies.

The roll-out of the ACPIS global project, 2016-2020, is an opportunity for donor partners to contribute specifically to UNDP anti-corruption work. The new UNDP funding windows (such as the window on governance for peaceful and inclusive societies) also provide an opportunity for interested donor partners to provide pooled, flexible funding through which they can support implementation of the UNDP strategic plan. The objective of the funding windows is to improve the quality of non-core funding to UNDP, promote more integrated programming, and respond to emerging issues. The windows are intended to help UNDP and its partners align around common goals to support country-focused efforts to achieve the SDGs. 

UNDP will: (a) Work with UNODC and other United Nations partners to design joint programmes/projects on anti-corruption and governance integrity; (b) Continue to brief donor partners on UNDP plans to implement goal 16 and mainstream it into other goals (this will help to mobilize additional resources in support of the SDGs); and (c) Brief donor partners on the UNDP approach, niche and priorities regarding anti-corruption and its global, regional and country-level projects and activities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1. Develop resource mobilization and partnership strategy, emphasizing the importance of anti-corruption and addressing the drivers of corruption in the context of implementing, measuring and monitoring the SDGs.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS, in cooperation with BERA and regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2019/06 Initiated
6.2. Showcase innovative responses to corruption, including tools for openness, use of open data and technologies that are of particular interest to some donors and partners
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/17]
BPPS, in cooperation with BERA and regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2018/12 Completed Other than its innovative work on adatping risk management to the particularities of corruption and its manfestation at sectoral level (see 4.3), and the ensuing success in the health sector, that is being documented, by WHO and UNDP, the RBAS Regional Hub has also successfully supported the testing of Behavioural Insights and the use of social incentives to reduce transactional bribery in maternity sections in public hospitals in Morocco, and is now considering options to scale up thsi work and expand it to other sectors. This is also being documented for formal publication.
7. Recommendation:

Strengthen staff capacities at the global and regional levels to address the need for specialized policy and technical services for anti-corruption programming.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2017/01/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation, while recognizing that an expansion of capacities is dependent on additional resources. UNDP will ensure that relevant capacities in support of development and implementation of anti-corruption programming are maintained and strengthened to the extent possible and pending the mobilization of additional resources.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1. Ensure that designated capacities for anti-corruption programming are in place in country offices, regional service centres and headquarters to advise and support other practices to design, monitor, implement and evaluate anti-corruption programmes
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2017/12 Completed Capacity at the global and regional level sufficient to support countries.

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