Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Anti-corruption and Addressing Drivers of Corruption

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
Thematic
Planned End Date:
09/2016
Completion Date:
12/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
350,000

Share

Document Type Language Size Status Downloads
Download document Anticorruption Evaluation-Concept Note 2015.pdf related-document English 390.30 KB Posted 1596
Download document IEO_Anti-Corruption_Eval_2016.pdf report English 4172.34 KB Posted 1441
Download document Illustrated Summary -Anti-Corruption-Eval_2016.pdf summary English 2661.42 KB Posted 1074
Title Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Anti-corruption and Addressing Drivers of Corruption
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: Thematic
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2016
Planned End Date: 09/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 2.1. Parliaments, constitution making bodies and electoral institutions enabled to perform core functions for improved accountability, participation and representation, including for peaceful transitions
  • 2. Output 2.2. Institutions and systems enabled to address awareness, prevention and enforcement of anti-corruption measures across sectors and stakeholders
  • 3. Output 2.4. Frameworks and dialogue processes engaged for effective and transparent engagement of civil society in national development
  • 4. Output 2.5. Legal and regulatory frameworks, policies and institutions enabled to ensure the conservation, sustainable use, and access and benefit sharing of natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystems, in line with international conventions and national
  • 5. Output 2.6. Legal reform enabled to fight discrimination and address emerging issues (such as environmental and electoral justice
Evaluation Budget(US $): 350,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 350,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Lessons
Findings
1.

Chapter 3 ASSESSMENT OF UNDP CONTRIBUTIONS TO ANTI-CORRUPTION AND ADDRESSING DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION

This chapter analyses UNDP contributions to strengthening national capacities in anticorruption and addressing drivers of corruption and UNDP contributions to global- and regional level debates and advocacy. The analysis in this chapter is structured as follows: Section 3.1 presents the scope and scale of UNDP responses related to anti-corruption and addressing drivers of corruption. Section 3.2 analyses UNDP overall contributions to anti-corruption and addressing drivers of corruption; Section 3.3 analyses contribution to strengthening anti-corruption institutional capacities; Section 3.4 analyses how addressing drivers of corruption, specifically support to accountability and transparency processes, contributed to anti-corruption efforts; and Section 3.5 discusses the contribution of UNDP to global and regional anti-corruption policy debates and advocacy.

3.1 SCOPE AND SCALE OF UNDP RESPONSES RELATED TO ANTICORRUPTION AND ADDRESSING DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION 

Finding 1: Support to targeted anti-corruption initiatives is an emerging area of UNDP support. Overall, addressing drivers of corruption received more attention across country programmes. 


Tag: Efficiency Relevance Government Cost-sharing Anti-corruption

2.

Finding 2: While support to anti-corruption and support to addressing drivers of corruption continues to be an important area of the UNDP governance programme, there was a decrease in the number of initiatives in these areas in a large majority of countries. Considering the enormity of corruption and accountability issues, annual average spending is low for all regions.


Tag: Efficiency Impact Resource mobilization Anti-corruption Operational Efficiency Procurement UN Agencies

3.

Finding 3: About 60 percent of UNDP country programmes supported local-level anticorruption and transparency and accountability activities in addition to national-level initiatives.


Tag: Effectiveness Relevance Sustainability Anti-corruption Civic Engagement e-Governance Human rights Local Governance Public administration reform Rule of law Knowledge management Partnership Country Government

4.

Finding 4: UNDP corporate programme frameworks recognize anti-corruption as key to accelerating sustainable development outcomes. While targeted anti-corruption initiatives were supported, they were of limited scale and scope. 


Tag: Effectiveness Relevance Sustainability Anti-corruption Results-Based Management Capacity Building Advocacy Policy Advisory SDG accelerators

5.

Finding 5. While global and regional anticorruption initiatives received corporate attention, there has been a scaling down of expenditure for such initiatives during the current Strategic Plan period.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Anti-corruption Change Management Country Support Platform Human and Financial resources Agenda 2030 SDG Integration

6.

Finding 6: Resource challenges were more intense in middle- and upper-middle-income countries, which received an even smaller share of regular resources or nothing at all.


Tag: Efficiency Resource mobilization Anti-corruption Human rights Public administration reform Human and Financial resources Multilateral Partners Operational Efficiency Partnership Donor

7.

3.2 CONTRIBUTION TO ANTICORRUPTION AND ADDRESSING DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION

Finding 7: UNDP has taken a pragmatic approach towards facilitating an anti-corruption agenda. While specific anti-corruption initiatives were supported, UNDP has focused more on addressing drivers of corruption, particularly demand-side accountability. 


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Human rights Justice system Local Governance Public administration reform MDGs Ownership Partnership Programme Synergy Country Government

8.

Finding 8: UNDP contribution was more evident in strengthening anti-corruption institutional capacities and policies in three-fourths of the countries where support was provided, and to a lesser extent in enabling anticorruption outcomes.


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Sustainability Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Human rights Parliament Knowledge management Capacity Building

9.

Finding 9: The extent to which accountability and transparency initiatives contributed to anticorruption efforts of the countries varied across initiatives. An explicit anti-corruption focus in accountability and transparency initiatives would have enhanced UNDP contribution. 


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Anti-corruption Civic Engagement e-Governance Local Governance Public administration reform Rule of law Oversight Programme/Project Design Capacity Building

10.

Finding 10: Leveraging synergies across governance projects and other programme areas would have provided UNDP with more entry points to support a country-level anticorruption and accountability agenda. 


Tag: Climate change governance Coherence Relevance Anti-corruption Justice system Health Sector Partnership Programme Synergy Country Government Poverty Reduction

11.

Finding 11: The UNDP governance strategy mentions a number of areas that UNDP will be working in (or intends to work in), but does not distinguish how it would pursue them at the global, regional or country levels. 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Resource mobilization Anti-corruption Local Governance Public administration reform Change Management Donor relations Human and Financial resources Results-Based Management Theory of Change

12.

Finding 12: UNDP brought out publications highlighting the disproportionate impact of corruption on women, but there was little evidence that gender perspectives were analysed and linked to anti-corruption and accountability and transparency support.  


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Anti-corruption Local Governance Public administration reform Integration Programme/Project Design Results-Based Management Theory of Change

13.

3.3 STRENGTHENING NATIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES

ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONS

Finding 13: UNDP support to anti-corruption policies and practices in many instances informed and shaped government programmes and priorities in setting up anti-corruption institutional measures. There were improvements in the anti-corruption policies in countries that UNDP supported.


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Sustainability Local Governance Parliament Public administration reform Human and Financial resources Capacity Building Policy Advisory Technical Support

14.

Finding 14: UNDP had the distinction of being one of the first agencies supporting governments in strengthening governance and building national institutions and capacities.


Tag: Effectiveness Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Local Governance Public administration reform Strategic Positioning Country Government Capacity Building Policy Advisory Technical Support

15.

Finding 15: When support was provided to anti-corruption enforcement agencies in isolation, the outcomes were limited. Effective functioning of one anti-corruption agency depended on collaboration and cooperation with other enforcement agencies and institutions.


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Sustainability Anti-corruption Parliament Public administration reform Rule of law UN Agencies

16.

SUPPORT TO CORRUPTION DATA AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Finding 16: A limitation of UNDP support to anti-corruption surveys and corruption risk assessments is that they were one-off efforts, often reducing their potential as policy tools. 


Tag: Anti-corruption Parliament Public administration reform Country Government Data and Statistics

17.

Finding 17: Corruption data portals were more effective where follow-up measures were in place. 


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Sustainability Anti-corruption Civic Engagement e-Governance Public administration reform Technology Data and Statistics

18.

FACILITATING UNCAC COMPLIANCE

Finding 18: UNDP complemented the normative role of UNODC on UNCAC, facilitating initiatives to further UNCAC implementation.


Tag: Coherence Effectiveness Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Human rights Parliament Public administration reform Knowledge management Partnership Strategic Positioning Country Government Private Sector UN Agencies Capacity Building Policy Advisory Technical Support

19.

SUPPORT TO ANTI-CORRUPTION ADVOCACY

Finding 19: UNDP has supported the role of civil society and NGOs in creating demand for accountable and transparent governance and in raising awareness about corruption.


Tag: Effectiveness Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Public administration reform Partnership Civil Societies and NGOs Country Government Advocacy

20.

3.4 ADDRESSING DRIVERS OF CORRUPTION: STRENGTHENING ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY PROCESSES

STRENGTHENING CIVIL SERVICE PROCESSES

Finding 20: The contribution of UNDP civil service initiatives to enhancing integrity in the functioning of the public sector was not always pronounced. 


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Sustainability Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Public administration reform Programme Synergy Conflict Peace Building Capacity Building

21.

IMPROVING ACCESS TO INFORMATION

Finding 21: UNDP contributions have been important in facilitating local-level access to public information, particularly initiatives that facilitated citizens’ utilization of information to engage in local planning and governance. Improvements in access to information have been more promising in increasing accountability and, to a certain extent, in reducing local level corruption. 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Impact Anti-corruption Civic Engagement e-Governance Human rights Justice system Local Governance Parliament Public administration reform Technology

22.

ENHANCING THE ROLE OF CITIZENS

Finding 22: UNDP contributed to enhancing the role of citizens and community-based organizations in local development planning. The success of such measures, however, depended on whether there were accountability systems in place at the local and other levels and whether local-level initiatives were linked to broader policy processes. In the absence of such linkages, local-level efforts had incremental outcomes and remained one-off or isolated initiatives without much impact on accountability and transparency policies and practices.  


Tag: Water resources Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Human rights Local Governance Health Sector Programme Synergy Results-Based Management Education Inclusive economic growth

23.

SECTOR INTEGRITY INITIATIVES

Finding 23: The UNDP MDG Acceleration Framework provided momentum to initiate efforts to reduce governance risks in key development areas. Such momentum was not sustained to address corruption issues in the social sector, which continues to be an underrepresented area of UNDP support. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Water resources Effectiveness Efficiency Impact Sustainability Global Fund Anti-corruption Local Governance Public administration reform Health Sector MDGs Operational Efficiency Service delivery Education Social Protection Technical Support

24.

Finding 24: In many countries, UNDP provided procurement and fiduciary services to the government in the social and infrastructure sectors. Such opportunities were not effectively used to further integrity measures. 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Anti-corruption Public administration reform Operational Efficiency Procurement Service delivery Capacity Building Social Protection

25.

3.5 FACILITATING GLOBAL AND REGIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION POLICY DEBATES AND ADVOCACY

ENGAGEMENT IN GLOBAL DEBATES AND INITIATIVES

Finding 25: UNDP proactively engaged in global anti-corruption debates and advocacy. UNDP actively participated in the SDG debates and contributed to the SDG 16 agenda.


Tag: Effectiveness Anti-corruption Civic Engagement e-Governance Local Governance Knowledge management Partnership Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Agenda 2030 SDG Integration

26.

Finding 26: UNDP did not leverage its extensive country-level governance programme to address the linkages between anti-corruption and development, an area that continues to be underrepresented in global debates and efforts.  


Tag: Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Human rights Knowledge management MDGs Partnership Programme Synergy Advocacy Policy Advisory Mainstreaming, Acceleration and Policy Support (MAPS)

27.

FACILITATING REGIONAL ANTI-CORRUPTION DEBATES

Finding 27: UNDP prioritized partnerships with regional intergovernmental bodies, which enabled a more structured approach to regional engagement in the Africa region.


Tag: Natural Resouce management Effectiveness Impact Anti-corruption Parliament Knowledge management Partnership Country Government UNDP Regional Bureaux Capacity Building Advocacy Coordination Technical Support

28.

Finding 28: UNDP regional programmes made important contributions by linking regional actors with global networks and by facilitating cooperation with international organizations.


Tag: Coherence Effectiveness Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Human rights Knowledge management Partnership UN Agencies UNDP Regional Bureaux Promotion of dialogue Capacity Building Coordination

Recommendations
1

Prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. Develop an anti-corruption programme strategy that more explicitly links the UNDP anti-corruption approach to other development programming.

The SDGs present opportunities for UNDP to reaffirm the value and significance of UNDP commitments to anti-corruption and accountable governance. To enhance UNDP contributions to addressing development–corruption linkages, UNDP should develop an anticorruption strategy that explicitly links these efforts to UNDP governance and development programmes and its support to countries in attaining the SDGs. 

UNDP support to the implementation of the UNCAC has been important in terms of enabling basic national frameworks. It is time to move beyond basic UNCAC compliance initiatives towards more concrete anti-corruption measures,including enforcement measures and those that address specific drivers of corruption.

UNDP should strategically address corruption risks to development in its country programming. Taking forward the MDG Acceleration Framework initiative, UNDP should develop a sectoral focus to its anti-corruption support. UNDP should identify key thematic areas where it will make development and corruption linkages more explicit, and should make explicit its willingness to support governments in their efforts to address corruption in service delivery. Greater efforts should be made to use development programme areas as entry points to further promote sectoral anti-corruption and accountability measures; such efforts should be initiated in the current programme.

There is a need for concerted anti-corruption initiatives in key development sectors, which require partnerships, for instance, in the provision of health, education, water and sanitation. Within the ambit of SDG processes, UNDP should develop global partnerships in sector-specific anti-corruption initiatives.

All anti-corruption support efforts at the global, regional and country levels should address gender-related aspects, as this continues to be a weak area of UNDP support.

2

Address regional variations in anti-corruption support and prioritize support to regions that are underrepresented.

Anti-corruption programme support is relevant across all regions, yet anti-corruption and accountability-related support are not adequately pursued in all regions. UNDP should review the global scope of its anti-corruption and accountability support and place increased emphasis on regions that have been underrepresented in this work. Considering the scale of the anticorruption and accountability and transparency challenges facing many countries, UNDP support for improved access to information and modernized public administration systems and to sectoral anticorruption efforts remains critical. 

3

Consider prioritizing support to anti-corruption and governance risk assessments and measurements.

UNDP should accelerate its efforts to support the measurement of anti-corruption progress as part of the SDG 16 monitoring initiative. It should support sector-specific anti-corruption initiatives to effectively diagnose governance and institutional risk and capacity issues. Robust tools for measuring and analysing governance risk are critical in setting priorities, understanding what works, raising awareness and furthering reforms. In sectors where there is overlapping support from multiple organizations, UNDP should initiate partnerships to carry out joint periodic sector integrity assessments. 

UNDP should revisit its anti-corruption and accountability-related data gathering tools and techniques. UNDP should be more strategic in supporting anti-corruption and transparency related advocacy and awareness-raising data generation. Rather than perception surveys, UNDP should facilitate developing and using practical and applicable corruption risk assessment and monitoring tools.

4

Increase support for local-level initiatives to strengthen demandside accountability, particularly concerning access to information and social accountability initiatives.

Transparent and accountable service delivery at the local level continues to pose challenges. UNDP made a significant contribution to advancing national- and local-level demandside accountability through its support to access to information and citizen participation mechanisms in local development. Moving forward, UNDP should focus on providing viable models to enhance accountability at the local level, foster improved local public administration processes and better service delivery, and increase the scope of its local-level anti-corruption initiatives.

5

Further strengthen global and regional anti-corruption projects to support country programmes and enable UNDP to contribute to regional and global policy debates and advocacy. Global and regional projects should be used to develop key streams of programme support at the country level.

Global and regional anti-corruption projects have added value beyond what UNDP accomplishes through its country programmes. UNDP should consider allocating additional resources to global and regional anti-corruption projects. While it is important to support Country Offices in national institutional capacity development, consider using global and regional projects to promote new approaches and sectoral anti-corruption initiatives. Global and regional projects should be leveraged to meet the programming needs of middle-income countries.

6

Enhance fund mobilization for anti-corruption support, championing select areas of anti-corruption and accountability initiatives.

As a way to open more funding avenues, the UNDP fund mobilization approach should consider taking into account opportunities to link anti-corruption and accountability and transparency to social services and development sectors. 

7

Strengthen staff capacities at the global and regional levels to address the need for specialized policy and technical services for anti-corruption programming.

A structural review of UNDP has consolidated institutional arrangements and streamlined staff positions at headquarters and regional hubs. Given UNDP commitments to SDG 16 and the global anti-corruption agenda, it is critical that UNDP have adequate staff capacities at the global and regional levels. Staff capacities at the regional hubs are critical to supporting smaller Country Offices. Consider increasing staff with anti-corruption expertise at headquarters and regional hubs. 

1. Recommendation:

Prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. Develop an anti-corruption programme strategy that more explicitly links the UNDP anti-corruption approach to other development programming.

The SDGs present opportunities for UNDP to reaffirm the value and significance of UNDP commitments to anti-corruption and accountable governance. To enhance UNDP contributions to addressing development–corruption linkages, UNDP should develop an anticorruption strategy that explicitly links these efforts to UNDP governance and development programmes and its support to countries in attaining the SDGs. 

UNDP support to the implementation of the UNCAC has been important in terms of enabling basic national frameworks. It is time to move beyond basic UNCAC compliance initiatives towards more concrete anti-corruption measures,including enforcement measures and those that address specific drivers of corruption.

UNDP should strategically address corruption risks to development in its country programming. Taking forward the MDG Acceleration Framework initiative, UNDP should develop a sectoral focus to its anti-corruption support. UNDP should identify key thematic areas where it will make development and corruption linkages more explicit, and should make explicit its willingness to support governments in their efforts to address corruption in service delivery. Greater efforts should be made to use development programme areas as entry points to further promote sectoral anti-corruption and accountability measures; such efforts should be initiated in the current programme.

There is a need for concerted anti-corruption initiatives in key development sectors, which require partnerships, for instance, in the provision of health, education, water and sanitation. Within the ambit of SDG processes, UNDP should develop global partnerships in sector-specific anti-corruption initiatives.

All anti-corruption support efforts at the global, regional and country levels should address gender-related aspects, as this continues to be a weak area of UNDP support.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2020/06/27]

UNDP management agrees that the organization should prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. UNDP management will ensure that this is taken into full consideration in developing the draft of the next strategic plan, 2018-2021. The UNDP programme on anti-corruption for development was the first to link anti-corruption with development. Learning from the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) acceleration framework in many countries, UNDP is identifying governance and corruption-related bottlenecks in service delivery. UNDP global, regional and country-level governance and anti-corruption programmes are implementing projects that seek to identify corruption risk assessments in the health, education and water sectors in order to contribute to national development outcomes. With the Seoul Policy Centre we have expanded these risk assessments to the construction sector, and we plan to expand them to the justice and security sectors.

In supporting the sustainable development goals (SDGs), UNDP aims to apply the ‘mainstreaming, acceleration and policy support’ approach (known as ‘MAPS’), which is the common strategy approved by the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) to ensure effective, coherent implementation of the SDG agenda. This should ensure that various targets under goal 16 are integrated into national plans, strategies and budgets, including through a sectoral approach, social accountability initiatives, and the mainstreaming of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption into the development processes. Acceleration will be supported by the use and further elaboration of tools and methodologies (including risk assessment tools) to identify critical constraints and governance or other bottlenecks (including in anti-corruption). UNDP will provide coordinated policy support to countries that will be involved in project implementation, through UNDP global and regional advisers in coordination with UNODC and other partners, particularly in the implementation and mainstreaming of goal 16 and its targets. UNDP is prioritizing ‘clean construction’ and ‘e-procurement’ as an anti-corruption contribution to other goals, such as goal 9 on infrastructure. UNDP has started developing and rolling out a support package to integrate anti-corruption in the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (in Ukraine and Nigeria, for example).

As Chair of the UNDG and coordinator of the United Nations resident coordinator system, UNDP is coordinating with nine other United Nations organizations to provide training to field staff on integrating anti-corruption into United Nations programming processes such as the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). UNDP, with other United Nations partners, aims to integrate anti-corruption into national plans and development processes, including those related to the SDGs through UNDAFs and other country-level United Nations programmes and projects. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Ensure that prioritization of support to addressing corruption risks to development is taken into full consideration in the process of developing the draft of the UNDP strategic plan, 2018-2021.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
Bureau for Policy and Programme Support (BPPS), Executive Office 2017/12 Completed Reflected in the UNDP strategic plan 2018-2021 History
1.2 Make sure anti-corruption is a part of the MAPS approach and other support packages developed to support the SDG agenda.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/03/29]
BPPS 2018/12 Completed Anti-corruption is integrated in MAPS approach. Online course on integration of anti-corruption in SDGs being developed. History
2. Recommendation:

Address regional variations in anti-corruption support and prioritize support to regions that are underrepresented.

Anti-corruption programme support is relevant across all regions, yet anti-corruption and accountability-related support are not adequately pursued in all regions. UNDP should review the global scope of its anti-corruption and accountability support and place increased emphasis on regions that have been underrepresented in this work. Considering the scale of the anticorruption and accountability and transparency challenges facing many countries, UNDP support for improved access to information and modernized public administration systems and to sectoral anticorruption efforts remains critical. 

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2020/06/27]

UNDP management agrees with the recommendation that UNDP should address regional variations in anti-corruption support in a development context. UNDP will analyse these variations and prepare recommendations for relevant actions to be taken to address them in its regional and country level anti-corruption programming. Full coverage of all regions will depend on the availability of sufficient financial resources.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. In collaboration with the regional bureaus and hubs, prepare analysis of the regional variations in anti-corruption support in a development context, and recommendations to address those variations.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2019/07/18]
BPPS, in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2019/06 Completed UNDP organized two recent regional community of practice (CoP) meeting on anti-corruption for the Europe and CIS region and the Asia-Pacific region. These CoP meetings were jointly organized by BPPS and regional bureaus to take stock of regional trends and variation on anti-corruption and come up with the regional-specific priorities for the #NextGenAntiCorruption. In the Arab states, the Anti-corruption in Arab States regional project has embarked on its second phase based on the findings of extensive consultations with stakeholders across the region, and also drawing on achievements made and lessons learned during the first phase. History
2.2. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices in regions that are underrepresented in the area of anti-corruption support.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2019/07/18]
BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs and regional bureau 2019/06 Completed The action has been completed. Specific examples include: In Bhutan, the ACPIS global project supports building capacity of the Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) of Bhutan since 2017. ACPIS supports the ACC to institutionalise anti-corruption and integrity measures in the country through developing human resources capacity of the ACC, building special investigative capacity and establishing institutional motivation scheme. The initiative was completed in December 2018. In Myanmar, since 2017, UNDP supported the Anti-Corruption Commission to undertake an Anti-Corruption Infrastructure Assessment which includes recommendations on improving regulatory frameworks, procedures and measures to improve integrity in Myanmar. This assessment prompted the development of a White Paper, “A Strategic Anti-Corruption Roadmap for Myanmar” which has been submitted through the ACC to the President’s Office for consideration. Furthermore, UNDP has supported Myanmar in the process of developing a four-year Civil Service Reform Strategic Action Plan to promote a more ethical and inclusive civil service. More information can be found here: http://www.mm.undp.org/content/myanmar/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2017/07/10/myanmar-launches-reform-plan-to-promote-more-ethical-and-inclusive-civil-service.html In Indonesia, ACPIS supports Indonesia’s National Strategy on Anti-Corruption, in partnership with Bappenas with KSP and KPK. The project provides targeted support to the formulation of a new national anti-corruption strategy, which puts in place an effective monitoring and evaluation framework to ensure tangible impact on the fight against corruption in Indonesia. UNDP Istanbul Regional Hub has provided capacity-building and advisory support to the UNDP COs in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, fYR Macedonia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. http://www.eurasia.undp.org/content/rbec/en/home/blog/2017/12/18/When-it-comes-to-ending-corruption-is-there-a-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel-.html History
2.3. Mobilize resources from development partners to secure additional policy and programme support for the regions where there is high demand for anti-corruption programming but limited resources.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/03/29]
BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs and regional bureau 2018/12 Completed Anti-Corruption for Peaceful and Inclusive Societies Global Programme mobilized $5mln from DFAT for 2016-2020 History
3. Recommendation:

Consider prioritizing support to anti-corruption and governance risk assessments and measurements.

UNDP should accelerate its efforts to support the measurement of anti-corruption progress as part of the SDG 16 monitoring initiative. It should support sector-specific anti-corruption initiatives to effectively diagnose governance and institutional risk and capacity issues. Robust tools for measuring and analysing governance risk are critical in setting priorities, understanding what works, raising awareness and furthering reforms. In sectors where there is overlapping support from multiple organizations, UNDP should initiate partnerships to carry out joint periodic sector integrity assessments. 

UNDP should revisit its anti-corruption and accountability-related data gathering tools and techniques. UNDP should be more strategic in supporting anti-corruption and transparency related advocacy and awareness-raising data generation. Rather than perception surveys, UNDP should facilitate developing and using practical and applicable corruption risk assessment and monitoring tools.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2020/06/27]

UNDP management agrees with the recommendation that UNDP should support anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement. UNDP acknowledge that there have been many diagnostics, surveys, assessments and other measurements by various partners and academia. The challenge is to ensure coordination among partners, acceptance of such assessments and the data behind them by national policymakers, and their proper use for policy reform. UNDP experience has shown that most anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement do not translate into policy, for reasons that include lack of political commitment, limited resources for follow-up, and lack of sustainability plans. To strengthen anti-corruption measurement and provide guidance on the use of the right indicators for measuring and monitoring corruption, UNDP published a User’s Guide to Measuring Corruption and Anti-corruption in 2015.

To strengthen efforts to support anti-corruption and governance integrity diagnostics and measurement, UNDP will:    

     (a) Coordinate with other partners to standardize the corruption measurement methodologies to support the more effective use of anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement;

     (b) Ensure sustainability of projects from integrity assessment to policy reforms by securing buy in from the governments and bringing together various stakeholders from the onset of the project implementation; and

     (c) Maximize the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and social media to strengthen feedback mechanisms and solve the governance corruption-related bottlenecks in the service delivery. UNDP will seek government cost sharing to make sure that the ICT pilots are scaled up and sustained.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1. Within the context of UNDP work on the SDG indicators (particularly for goal 16). Review and update UNDP tools and instruments supporting anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
BPPS (Oslo Governance Centre – OGC – in particular), in cooperation with regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices and other relevant partners (such as UNODC and the Praia City Group) 2017/12 Completed The guide to measuring corruption for SDG 16.5.1 and 16.5.2 finalized together with UNODC. History
3.2. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices in relation to anti-corruption and governance integrity diagnostics and measurement.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/03/29]
BPPS (OGC in particular), in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2018/12 Completed 7 country level projects supported by global ACPIS programme History
4. Recommendation:

Increase support for local-level initiatives to strengthen demandside accountability, particularly concerning access to information and social accountability initiatives.

Transparent and accountable service delivery at the local level continues to pose challenges. UNDP made a significant contribution to advancing national- and local-level demandside accountability through its support to access to information and citizen participation mechanisms in local development. Moving forward, UNDP should focus on providing viable models to enhance accountability at the local level, foster improved local public administration processes and better service delivery, and increase the scope of its local-level anti-corruption initiatives.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2020/06/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation. During the last eight years, UNDP contributed to anti-corruption and addressed drivers of corruption by strengthening its engagement with youth, women’s groups, communities, and many local-level civil society actors and non-government organizations, to raise the demand side of accountability. UNDP will continue its engagement with various civil society actors such as the Transparency International, Integrity Action and the Huairou Commission (the international organization of grassroots women’s networks) at the global level, while continuing its engagement with national and local-level civil society organizations (CSOs), youth and women’s group, communities, and non-governmental organizations to strengthen service delivery, budgets and infrastructures, and the monitoring of corruption. UNDP will include government and non-governmental actors to make sure that there is a two-way dialogue contributing to an effective feedback mechanism that produces tangible results from the increase in demand-side accountability.

One of the main objectives of UNDP initiatives will be to strengthen social accountability in the health, education, water, infrastructure, justice and security and other relevant sectors to contribute to attainment of the SDGs. Measures will include:

(a) Continue UNDP partnership with Transparency International and other global partners to raise the global demand for social accountability;

(b) At the national and local level, work with civil society actors and the private sector to promote and scale up successful initiatives on open data, access to information, and procurement transparency in service delivery at the local level;

(c) Continue to support the monitoring of budgets, expenditure and services by civil society and the community, including through the adoption of new technologies to monitor services;

(d) Strengthen women’s networks to improve transparency and accountability in service delivery by scaling up successful local and national-level initiatives; and

(e) Provide support to youth networks for their innovative social accountability projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices on how the country-level projects could enhance their engagement in social accountability, including monitoring and oversight related to the SDGs.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2019/07/18]
BPPS and regional hubs 2019/06 Completed The actions has been completed, noting that capacity-building and advisory services continue. Examples include: The RBAS Regional Hub has provided capacity building and advisory support to the Country Offices in Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia. UNDP Istanbul Regional Hub has conudcted workshops and seminars for UNDP COs as well as for national stakeholders on how to strengthen integirty on central as well as on sub-national levels and in private and state-owned enterprizes. example: http://www.eurasia.undp.org/content/rbec/en/home/blog/2017/9/5/Creating-Islands-of-Integrity-around-the-Black-Sea.html A key focus area of the UNDP ACPIS project is to support countries to integrate anti-corruption solutions in service delivery (such as health, education, water and infrastructure, justice and security) to mitigate corruption risks to accelerate progress to achieve 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Furthermore, the programme also supports integration of UNCAC and anti-corruption measures in national development processes, including the mainstreaming anti-corruption in the SDGs at national and sub-national levels to prevent and tackle corruption. As part of UNDP’s objective to increase knowledge on how corruption and development is interlinked, as well as enhancing capacity on how to integrate anti-corruption measures across the sustainable development goals of the 2030 Agenda, UNDP, with the support from UNSSC, has developed an online course on “Anti-Corruption in the Context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. The objective of the online course is to enhance the knowledge of development professionals, regional bodies and national governments on the interlinkages between anti-corruption and sustainable development to integrate anti-corruption measures in SDG processes, plans and reporting. The course modules covers areas such as integrating anti-corruption in national sustainable development strategies and methodologies to integrate anti-corruption in the monitoring and measuring of the SDGs. The course was rolled out in the beginning of 2019. History
4.2. Provide capacity-building support to national and local-level youth and women’s groups, CSOs and community organizations on how they could work together with government authorities to monitor services, budgets and infrastructures.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2019/07/18]
BPPS and regional hubs 2019/06 Completed The action has been completed, noting that capacity-building continues. Specific examples: The RBAS Regional Hub is providing related capacity building and advisory support to local youth groups in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Tunisia, as well as to CSOs in those countries in addition to Morocco. UNDP Ukraine has been supporting the Integrity Solutions Social Innovation Camp which has gathered 14 youth teams to brainstorm and refining their ideas how to tackle corruption practices at the local level.http://www.ua.undp.org/content/ukraine/en/home/presscenter/articles/2018/young-activists-to-implement-innovative-anti-corruption-solution.html. In Kosovo* UNDP has been supporting the work of brave journalists who are dedicated to uncovering the truth and bringing to light stories that impact everyone. http://www.ks.undp.org/content/kosovo/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2018/12/11/undp-awards-the-anti-corruption-journalism-price-2018.html * References to Kosovo shall be understood to be in the context of Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999). In Ukraine UNDP supported local women activists to monitor financial asset declarations of high-ranking public officials in Luhansk region: https://undpukraine.exposure.co/corruption-in-the-eyes-of-women In the Philippines, UNDP ACPIS project supports DevelopmentLIVE since 2017, a mobile phone application which allows citizens to monitor and provide feedback on their local development projects. It provides a dashboard for the national government to oversee citizen satisfaction of local infrastructure projects related to the SDGs. Using this dashboard, they are able to compare citizen satisfaction reports to local government progress reports, as well as identify geographic hotspots in service delivery on a geographic information system (GIS) map. DevLIVE has already been pilot tested in 76 municipalities to monitor the implementation of local infrastructure projects including local access roads, evaluation centres, and water facilities. For the national rollout of the platform, For the roll out, DevLIVE will reach another 10 local governments in December 2018, and continue across 1,300 municipalities in 2019. (See: https://pia.gov.ph/news/articles/1012848 and http://caraga.dilg.gov.ph/main/index.php/news/445-pilot-lgus-in-caraga-trained-on-development-live-devlive-platform) In November 2018, the Philippine Department of Budget and Management, as well as the Department for the Interior and Local Government successfully launched DevLIVE at the Open Government Partnership (OGP). DevLIVE will now be included as a government commitment in the forthcoming OGP national action plan. See: https://www.manilatimes.net/ph-budget-secretary-launches-new-government-app/469621/ In Bhutan, UNDP ACPIS supported in establishment of Youth and Business Integrity Clubs. Since 2017, Youth Integrity Clubs have been piloted across 4 schools to advocate values of integrity to students and staff of schools. Through campaigns, awareness programs, and invitation of guest speakers to share experiences, the youth club members have been key drivers of change in promoting principles of transparency, accountability and integrity in the administration and management of schools and the community. This initiative will be continued in 2019 and the ACC Bhutan will establish the Youth Integrity Clubs in additional 6 schools. The ACPIS-supported private sector integrity program Business Integrity Initiative of Bhutan (BIIB) was introduced to promote ethical business and healthy competition in Bhutan. BIIB has been successful in fostering positive responsible for stakeholders including private companies, many of which have signed the Corporate Integrity Pledge and led advocacy campaigns using media outreach. In Thailand, ACPIS supports an education project, in partnership with the National Anti-Corruption Commission (NACC). This project improved integrity education in Thailand, and provided technical support to NACC on a variety of issues including the review and development of mandatory integrity curriculum for students at university level throughout the country. With support from UNDP, an anti-corruption curriculum for different age groups in line with the objectives of the National Anti-Corruption Strategy has been developed. History
4.3. Continue UNDP engagement in knowledge, advocacy and partnership to integrate anti-corruption into local development and urban governance agenda, including through work on open data, open budgeting and open contracting as part of the ‘smart cities’ initiative.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2019/07/18]
BPPS and regional hubs (with relevant partners) Regional Bureau for Eastern Europe (on open data in particular) 2019/12 Completed The action has been completed, while knowledge management, advocacy and establishment of partnerships to integrate anti-corruption efforts into local development and urban governance agendas continue. Examples include: The RBAS Regional Hub has developed, tested and peer reviewed the "Conceptual Framework on Corruption Risk Assessment at Sectoral Level" (http://undp-aciac.org/publications/F%20Advance%20Copy%20of%20CF%20for%20CRA%20at%20Sectoral%20Level.pdf), which has been officially taken on so far by at least 6 countries (Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Tunisia, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia) and two international organizations (WHO and WCO) in relation to the health and customs sectors. UNDP Istanbul Regional Hub thgrough Romania MFA-funded regional project has been supporting municipalities in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine to identify corruption risks and develope anti-corruption action-plans. http://www.eurasia.undp.org/content/rbec/en/home/blog/2017/12/18/When-it-comes-to-ending-corruption-is-there-a-light-at-the-end-of-the-tunnel-.html and http://www.eurasia.undp.org/content/rbec/en/home/blog/2017/9/5/Creating-Islands-of-Integrity-around-the-Black-Sea.html History
5. Recommendation:

Further strengthen global and regional anti-corruption projects to support country programmes and enable UNDP to contribute to regional and global policy debates and advocacy. Global and regional projects should be used to develop key streams of programme support at the country level.

Global and regional anti-corruption projects have added value beyond what UNDP accomplishes through its country programmes. UNDP should consider allocating additional resources to global and regional anti-corruption projects. While it is important to support Country Offices in national institutional capacity development, consider using global and regional projects to promote new approaches and sectoral anti-corruption initiatives. Global and regional projects should be leveraged to meet the programming needs of middle-income countries.

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2020/06/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation. UNDP will consider opportunities for strengthening anti-corruption components in existing global and regional governance programmes and initiatives. In line with this recommendation, UNDP has rolled out the ‘Anti-corruption for Peaceful and Inclusive Societies’ global project (known as ‘ACPIS’) to continue UNDP global policy and programme support on anti-corruption.

The new UNDP funding windows (such as the window on governance for peaceful and inclusive societies) will be used as an opportunity for UNDP to allocate funding to global, regional and country-level anti-corruption initiatives.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1. Integrate global and regional anti-corruption targets in the results and resources frameworks of the UNDP’s new strategic plan, global and regional programmes.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
BPPS, in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2017/12 Completed Integrated History
5.2. Continue mobilizing more resources for UNDP global and regional anti-corruption initiatives and working together with other relevant partners for joint global and regional activities on anti-corruption.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2019/07/18]
BPPS, the Bureau for External Relations and Advocacy (BERA) and regional hubs (with partners) 2019/06 Completed The action has been completed and is ongoing. Examples from RBAS and RBEC include: The RBAS Regional Hub is working to mobilize resourcs for its regional anti-corruption initiatives and has submitted proposals to the Siemens Integrity Initiative and KOICA, and is working on proposals for the European Union and SIDA. It has also mobilized resources in 2018 from the Government of Kuwait and is making progress to do the same with the Government of Saudi Arabia in 2019. UNDP Istanbul Regional Hub has expanded its local integirty work to cover also Armenia and fYR Macedonia with the support of Principality of Lichtenstein. History
6. Recommendation:

Enhance fund mobilization for anti-corruption support, championing select areas of anti-corruption and accountability initiatives.

As a way to open more funding avenues, the UNDP fund mobilization approach should consider taking into account opportunities to link anti-corruption and accountability and transparency to social services and development sectors. 

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2020/06/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation, while noting the challenges resulting from the high degree of dependence on a handful of donors to its global anti-corruption programme. UNDP will intensify its partnership development efforts and diversify the donor base when mobilizing resources for supporting anti-corruption and governance interventions, focusing particularly on multilateral development banks, the private sector, and donor agencies.

The roll-out of the ACPIS global project, 2016-2020, is an opportunity for donor partners to contribute specifically to UNDP anti-corruption work. The new UNDP funding windows (such as the window on governance for peaceful and inclusive societies) also provide an opportunity for interested donor partners to provide pooled, flexible funding through which they can support implementation of the UNDP strategic plan. The objective of the funding windows is to improve the quality of non-core funding to UNDP, promote more integrated programming, and respond to emerging issues. The windows are intended to help UNDP and its partners align around common goals to support country-focused efforts to achieve the SDGs. 

UNDP will: (a) Work with UNODC and other United Nations partners to design joint programmes/projects on anti-corruption and governance integrity; (b) Continue to brief donor partners on UNDP plans to implement goal 16 and mainstream it into other goals (this will help to mobilize additional resources in support of the SDGs); and (c) Brief donor partners on the UNDP approach, niche and priorities regarding anti-corruption and its global, regional and country-level projects and activities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1. Develop resource mobilization and partnership strategy, emphasizing the importance of anti-corruption and addressing the drivers of corruption in the context of implementing, measuring and monitoring the SDGs.
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2019/07/18]
BPPS, in cooperation with BERA and regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2019/06 Completed As a resource mobilization and partnership strategy, UNDP, in consultation with Sida and Norad, have developed a new project proposal titled “UNDP-donor joint technical assistance for strengthening national capacities to integrate anti-corruption in SDGs". This proposal aims to bring together various donor and programme partners to engage on anti-corruption and address the drivers of corruption in the context of implementing, measuring and monitoring the SDGs. History
6.2. Showcase innovative responses to corruption, including tools for openness, use of open data and technologies that are of particular interest to some donors and partners
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2018/12/19]
BPPS, in cooperation with BERA and regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2018/12 Completed Other than its innovative work on adatping risk management to the particularities of corruption and its manfestation at sectoral level (see 4.3), and the ensuing success in the health sector, that is being documented, by WHO and UNDP, the RBAS Regional Hub has also successfully supported the testing of Behavioural Insights and the use of social incentives to reduce transactional bribery in maternity sections in public hospitals in Morocco, and is now considering options to scale up thsi work and expand it to other sectors. This is also being documented for formal publication. UNDP IRH has recently launched an interactive digital platform (https://corruptionfreecities.org/) and the Guide (https://corruptionfreecities.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Guide-To-Corruption-Free-Local-Government-preview-.pdf) to Corruption-Free Local Government. With our support municipalities of Kutaisi (Georgia) (https://corruptionfreecities.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/KUTAISI-A-C-PLAN-.pdf) and Straseni (Moldova) (https://corruptionfreecities.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/STRASENI-A-C-PLAN-.pdf) have carried out corruption risk assessments and adopted the Anti-Corruption Action-Plans. History
7. Recommendation:

Strengthen staff capacities at the global and regional levels to address the need for specialized policy and technical services for anti-corruption programming.

A structural review of UNDP has consolidated institutional arrangements and streamlined staff positions at headquarters and regional hubs. Given UNDP commitments to SDG 16 and the global anti-corruption agenda, it is critical that UNDP have adequate staff capacities at the global and regional levels. Staff capacities at the regional hubs are critical to supporting smaller Country Offices. Consider increasing staff with anti-corruption expertise at headquarters and regional hubs. 

Management Response: [Added: 2016/12/22] [Last Updated: 2020/06/27]

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation, while recognizing that an expansion of capacities is dependent on additional resources. UNDP will ensure that relevant capacities in support of development and implementation of anti-corruption programming are maintained and strengthened to the extent possible and pending the mobilization of additional resources.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1. Ensure that designated capacities for anti-corruption programming are in place in country offices, regional service centres and headquarters to advise and support other practices to design, monitor, implement and evaluate anti-corruption programmes
[Added: 2017/01/27] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2017/12 Completed Capacity at the global and regional level sufficient to support countries. History

Latest Evaluations

Contact us

1 UN Plaza
DC1-20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Tel. +1 646 781 4200
Fax. +1 646 781 4213
erc.support@undp.org