Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Anti-corruption and Addressing Drivers of Corruption

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Evaluation Plan:
2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
Thematic
Planned End Date:
09/2016
Completion Date:
12/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
350,000

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Download document Anticorruption Evaluation-Concept Note 2015.pdf related-document English 390.30 KB Posted 868
Download document IEO_Anti-Corruption_Eval_2016.pdf report English 3528.22 KB Posted 425
Download document Illustrated Summary -Anti-Corruption-Eval_2016.pdf summary English 2661.42 KB Posted 151
Title Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Anti-corruption and Addressing Drivers of Corruption
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: Thematic
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2016
Planned End Date: 09/2016
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 2.1. Parliaments, constitution making bodies and electoral institutions enabled to perform core functions for improved accountability, participation and representation, including for peaceful transitions
  • 2. Output 2.2. Institutions and systems enabled to address awareness, prevention and enforcement of anti-corruption measures across sectors and stakeholders
  • 3. Output 2.4. Frameworks and dialogue processes engaged for effective and transparent engagement of civil society in national development
  • 4. Output 2.5. Legal and regulatory frameworks, policies and institutions enabled to ensure the conservation, sustainable use, and access and benefit sharing of natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystems, in line with international conventions and national
  • 5. Output 2.6. Legal reform enabled to fight discrimination and address emerging issues (such as environmental and electoral justice
Evaluation Budget(US $): 350,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 350,000
Joint Programme: No
Mandatory Evaluation: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1

Prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. Develop an anti-corruption programme strategy that more explicitly links the UNDP anti-corruption approach to other development programming.

2

Address regional variations in anti-corruption support and prioritize support to regions that are underrepresented.

3

Consider prioritizing support to anti-corruption and governance risk assessments and measurements.

4

Increase support for local-level initiatives to strengthen demandside accountability, particularly concerning access to information and social accountability initiatives.

5

Further strengthen global and regional anti-corruption projects to support country programmes and enable UNDP to contribute to regional and global policy debates and advocacy. Global and regional projects should be used to develop key streams of programme support at the country level.

6

Enhance fund mobilization for anti-corruption support, championing select areas of anti-corruption and accountability initiatives.

7

Strengthen staff capacities at the global and regional levels to address the need for specialized policy and technical services for anti-corruption programming.

1. Recommendation:

Prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. Develop an anti-corruption programme strategy that more explicitly links the UNDP anti-corruption approach to other development programming.

Management Response:

UNDP management agrees that the organization should prioritize support to addressing corruption risks to development. UNDP management will ensure that this is taken into full consideration in developing the draft of the next strategic plan, 2018-2021. The UNDP programme on anti-corruption for development was the first to link anti-corruption with development. Learning from the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) acceleration framework in many countries, UNDP is identifying governance and corruption-related bottlenecks in service delivery. UNDP global, regional and country-level governance and anti-corruption programmes are implementing projects that seek to identify corruption risk assessments in the health, education and water sectors in order to contribute to national development outcomes. With the Seoul Policy Centre we have expanded these risk assessments to the construction sector, and we plan to expand them to the justice and security sectors.

In supporting the sustainable development goals (SDGs), UNDP aims to apply the ‘mainstreaming, acceleration and policy support’ approach (known as ‘MAPS’), which is the common strategy approved by the United Nations Development Group (UNDG) to ensure effective, coherent implementation of the SDG agenda. This should ensure that various targets under goal 16 are integrated into national plans, strategies and budgets, including through a sectoral approach, social accountability initiatives, and the mainstreaming of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption into the development processes. Acceleration will be supported by the use and further elaboration of tools and methodologies (including risk assessment tools) to identify critical constraints and governance or other bottlenecks (including in anti-corruption). UNDP will provide coordinated policy support to countries that will be involved in project implementation, through UNDP global and regional advisers in coordination with UNODC and other partners, particularly in the implementation and mainstreaming of goal 16 and its targets. UNDP is prioritizing ‘clean construction’ and ‘e-procurement’ as an anti-corruption contribution to other goals, such as goal 9 on infrastructure. UNDP has started developing and rolling out a support package to integrate anti-corruption in the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (in Ukraine and Nigeria, for example).

As Chair of the UNDG and coordinator of the United Nations resident coordinator system, UNDP is coordinating with nine other United Nations organizations to provide training to field staff on integrating anti-corruption into United Nations programming processes such as the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). UNDP, with other United Nations partners, aims to integrate anti-corruption into national plans and development processes, including those related to the SDGs through UNDAFs and other country-level United Nations programmes and projects. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Ensure that prioritization of support to addressing corruption risks to development is taken into full consideration in the process of developing the draft of the UNDP strategic plan, 2018-2021. Bureau for Policy and Programme Support (BPPS), Executive Office 2017/12 Initiated
1.2 Make sure anti-corruption is a part of the MAPS approach and other support packages developed to support the SDG agenda. BPPS 2017/03 Overdue-Initiated
2. Recommendation:

Address regional variations in anti-corruption support and prioritize support to regions that are underrepresented.

Management Response:

UNDP management agrees with the recommendation that UNDP should address regional variations in anti-corruption support in a development context. UNDP will analyse these variations and prepare recommendations for relevant actions to be taken to address them in its regional and country level anti-corruption programming. Full coverage of all regions will depend on the availability of sufficient financial resources.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. In collaboration with the regional bureaus and hubs, prepare analysis of the regional variations in anti-corruption support in a development context, and recommendations to address those variations. BPPS, in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2017/12 Initiated
2.2. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices in regions that are underrepresented in the area of anti-corruption support. BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs and regional bureau 2018/12 Initiated
2.3. Mobilize resources from development partners to secure additional policy and programme support for the regions where there is high demand for anti-corruption programming but limited resources. BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs and regional bureau 2017/12 Initiated
3. Recommendation:

Consider prioritizing support to anti-corruption and governance risk assessments and measurements.

Management Response:

UNDP management agrees with the recommendation that UNDP should support anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement. UNDP acknowledge that there have been many diagnostics, surveys, assessments and other measurements by various partners and academia. The challenge is to ensure coordination among partners, acceptance of such assessments and the data behind them by national policymakers, and their proper use for policy reform. UNDP experience has shown that most anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement do not translate into policy, for reasons that include lack of political commitment, limited resources for follow-up, and lack of sustainability plans. To strengthen anti-corruption measurement and provide guidance on the use of the right indicators for measuring and monitoring corruption, UNDP published a User’s Guide to Measuring Corruption and Anti-corruption in 2015.

To strengthen efforts to support anti-corruption and governance integrity diagnostics and measurement, UNDP will:    

     (a) Coordinate with other partners to standardize the corruption measurement methodologies to support the more effective use of anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement;

     (b) Ensure sustainability of projects from integrity assessment to policy reforms by securing buy in from the governments and bringing together various stakeholders from the onset of the project implementation; and

     (c) Maximize the use of information and communication technology (ICT) and social media to strengthen feedback mechanisms and solve the governance corruption-related bottlenecks in the service delivery. UNDP will seek government cost sharing to make sure that the ICT pilots are scaled up and sustained.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1. Within the context of UNDP work on the SDG indicators (particularly for goal 16). Review and update UNDP tools and instruments supporting anti-corruption and governance diagnostics and measurement. BPPS (Oslo Governance Centre – OGC – in particular), in cooperation with regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices and other relevant partners (such as UNODC and the Praia City Group) 2017/12 Initiated
3.2. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices in relation to anti-corruption and governance integrity diagnostics and measurement. BPPS (OGC in particular), in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2018/12 Initiated
4. Recommendation:

Increase support for local-level initiatives to strengthen demandside accountability, particularly concerning access to information and social accountability initiatives.

Management Response:

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation. During the last eight years, UNDP contributed to anti-corruption and addressed drivers of corruption by strengthening its engagement with youth, women’s groups, communities, and many local-level civil society actors and non-government organizations, to raise the demand side of accountability. UNDP will continue its engagement with various civil society actors such as the Transparency International, Integrity Action and the Huairou Commission (the international organization of grassroots women’s networks) at the global level, while continuing its engagement with national and local-level civil society organizations (CSOs), youth and women’s group, communities, and non-governmental organizations to strengthen service delivery, budgets and infrastructures, and the monitoring of corruption. UNDP will include government and non-governmental actors to make sure that there is a two-way dialogue contributing to an effective feedback mechanism that produces tangible results from the increase in demand-side accountability.

One of the main objectives of UNDP initiatives will be to strengthen social accountability in the health, education, water, infrastructure, justice and security and other relevant sectors to contribute to attainment of the SDGs. Measures will include:

(a) Continue UNDP partnership with Transparency International and other global partners to raise the global demand for social accountability;

(b) At the national and local level, work with civil society actors and the private sector to promote and scale up successful initiatives on open data, access to information, and procurement transparency in service delivery at the local level;

(c) Continue to support the monitoring of budgets, expenditure and services by civil society and the community, including through the adoption of new technologies to monitor services;

(d) Strengthen women’s networks to improve transparency and accountability in service delivery by scaling up successful local and national-level initiatives; and

(e) Provide support to youth networks for their innovative social accountability projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1. Provide capacity-building and advisory support to country offices on how the country-level projects could enhance their engagement in social accountability, including monitoring and oversight related to the SDGs. BPPS and regional hubs 2018/12 Initiated
4.2. Provide capacity-building support to national and local-level youth and women’s groups, CSOs and community organizations on how they could work together with government authorities to monitor services, budgets and infrastructures. BPPS and regional hubs 2018/12 Initiated
4.3. Continue UNDP engagement in knowledge, advocacy and partnership to integrate anti-corruption into local development and urban governance agenda, including through work on open data, open budgeting and open contracting as part of the ‘smart cities’ initiative. BPPS and regional hubs (with relevant partners) Regional Bureau for Eastern Europe (on open data in particular) 2018/12 Initiated
5. Recommendation:

Further strengthen global and regional anti-corruption projects to support country programmes and enable UNDP to contribute to regional and global policy debates and advocacy. Global and regional projects should be used to develop key streams of programme support at the country level.

Management Response:

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation. UNDP will consider opportunities for strengthening anti-corruption components in existing global and regional governance programmes and initiatives. In line with this recommendation, UNDP has rolled out the ‘Anti-corruption for Peaceful and Inclusive Societies’ global project (known as ‘ACPIS’) to continue UNDP global policy and programme support on anti-corruption.

The new UNDP funding windows (such as the window on governance for peaceful and inclusive societies) will be used as an opportunity for UNDP to allocate funding to global, regional and country-level anti-corruption initiatives.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1. Integrate global and regional anti-corruption targets in the results and resources frameworks of the UNDP’s new strategic plan, global and regional programmes. BPPS, in cooperation with regional hubs and regional bureaus 2017/12 Initiated
5.2. Continue mobilizing more resources for UNDP global and regional anti-corruption initiatives and working together with other relevant partners for joint global and regional activities on anti-corruption. BPPS, the Bureau for External Relations and Advocacy (BERA) and regional hubs (with partners) 2018/12 Initiated
6. Recommendation:

Enhance fund mobilization for anti-corruption support, championing select areas of anti-corruption and accountability initiatives.

Management Response:

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation, while noting the challenges resulting from the high degree of dependence on a handful of donors to its global anti-corruption programme. UNDP will intensify its partnership development efforts and diversify the donor base when mobilizing resources for supporting anti-corruption and governance interventions, focusing particularly on multilateral development banks, the private sector, and donor agencies.

The roll-out of the ACPIS global project, 2016-2020, is an opportunity for donor partners to contribute specifically to UNDP anti-corruption work. The new UNDP funding windows (such as the window on governance for peaceful and inclusive societies) also provide an opportunity for interested donor partners to provide pooled, flexible funding through which they can support implementation of the UNDP strategic plan. The objective of the funding windows is to improve the quality of non-core funding to UNDP, promote more integrated programming, and respond to emerging issues. The windows are intended to help UNDP and its partners align around common goals to support country-focused efforts to achieve the SDGs. 

UNDP will: (a) Work with UNODC and other United Nations partners to design joint programmes/projects on anti-corruption and governance integrity; (b) Continue to brief donor partners on UNDP plans to implement goal 16 and mainstream it into other goals (this will help to mobilize additional resources in support of the SDGs); and (c) Brief donor partners on the UNDP approach, niche and priorities regarding anti-corruption and its global, regional and country-level projects and activities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1. Develop resource mobilization and partnership strategy, emphasizing the importance of anti-corruption and addressing the drivers of corruption in the context of implementing, measuring and monitoring the SDGs. BPPS, in cooperation with BERA and regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2017/12 Initiated
6.2. Showcase innovative responses to corruption, including tools for openness, use of open data and technologies that are of particular interest to some donors and partners BPPS, in cooperation with BERA and regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2017/12 Initiated
7. Recommendation:

Strengthen staff capacities at the global and regional levels to address the need for specialized policy and technical services for anti-corruption programming.

Management Response:

UNDP management fully agrees with the recommendation, while recognizing that an expansion of capacities is dependent on additional resources. UNDP will ensure that relevant capacities in support of development and implementation of anti-corruption programming are maintained and strengthened to the extent possible and pending the mobilization of additional resources.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1. Ensure that designated capacities for anti-corruption programming are in place in country offices, regional service centres and headquarters to advise and support other practices to design, monitor, implement and evaluate anti-corruption programmes BPPS, in cooperation with respective regional hubs, regional bureaus and country offices 2017/12 Initiated

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