Final evaluation of the project "Addressing climate change risks to farming systems in Turkmenistan at national and community level"

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Evaluation Plan:
2016-2020, Turkmenistan
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
06/2017
Completion Date:
07/2017
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
15,000

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Title Final evaluation of the project "Addressing climate change risks to farming systems in Turkmenistan at national and community level"
Atlas Project Number: 00059797
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020, Turkmenistan
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 07/2017
Planned End Date: 06/2017
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.3.1 Data and risk-informed development policies, plans, systems and financing incorporate integrated and gender-responsive solutions to reduce disaster risks, enable climate change adaptation and mitigation, and prevent risk of conflict
  • 2. Output 2.4.1 Gender-responsive legal and regulatory frameworks, policies and institutions strengthened, and solutions adopted, to address conservation, sustainable use and equitable benefit sharing of natural resources, in line with international conventions and national legislation
Evaluation Budget(US $): 15,000
Source of Funding: UNDP
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 20,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: Yes
  • Joint with Ministry of Nature Protection, Ministry of Water Economy, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and Development
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Lilit Melikyan International Evaluator lilit.melikyan@yahoo.co.uk ARMENIA
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Nature Protection, Ministry of Water Economy, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economy and Development
Countries: TURKMENISTAN
Lessons
Findings
1.

3. FINDINGS 

3.1. Relevance . 3.1.1. Relevance of the Project 

Turkmenistan ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on July 5, 1995 and the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC in December, 1998. Turkmenistan is also a signatory of Paris Climate Accord. The project was also in line with Government Programs and Strategies valid at the time:

Programme of Agricultural Development to 2030;  The Concept Note for Development of Water Economy to 2030; The National Programme "The Strategy of Economic, Political, and Cultural Development of Turkmenistan Until 2020", which envisages an increase in agricultural production more than 15 times only due to utilisation of the current natural resource and accelerated industrial potential. A considerable proportion of irrigated agricultural lands is planned to be transferred to private sector enterprises (including joint-stock companies, daikhan (farmer) cooperatives and unions), which are expected to introduce more effective and efficient water use technologies and water saving practices; The National Socio-Economic Development Strategy of Turkmenistan to 2030, which pursues the objective of modernization of the water management system and improving water efficiency, as well as increasing water storage capacity; UNFCCC Second National Communication (2011) sets out the projected water deficit under current climatic projections, and outlined a number of policies and measures for the agriculture sector to mitigate impacts, identifying water sector as the most important adaptation priority in Turkmenistan. This document. The I&FF assessment (2010) undertaken by UNDP and the GoT also identified the water sector as the primary area for adaptation investment. It concluded that in addition to ongoing programmes of supply side infrastructure investment and upgrade, it was important to develop an effective demand side response and establish management systems that would result in sustainable use and allocation of increasingly scarce water resources; The GoT five-year water programme, existing at the time, which specifically promoted the more rational use of water; The National Agricultural Strategy, which specifically identified the water requirements to meet state targets for strategic crop production.


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Relevance Policies & Procedures Technology SDG Integration

2.

3.1. Relevance . 3.1.1. Relevance of the Project (continuation)

While the reforms since 2011 have progressed slower than was anticipated (this is addressed in Section 3.2 of this report), the interviews undertaken as part of this evaluation indicated that GoT has come to realise that: a. water is one of the key driving forces for its economic development, and under conditions of increasing scarcity water infrastructure needs to be upgraded to minimize losses to the system; b. there is a need to move to more progressive pricing for irrigation water (process of installing water meters is ongoing); and c. agriculture should be diversified more, with more land now available under longer term lease (more people opting to lease for 39 years) in lead to the introduction of private ownership. Also “The Working Programme for the rational use of water resources in Turkmenistan and enhanced flow of the Karakum River for the period of 2015-2020” was adopted in 2015. So, the project is relevant even today.  

The project was complementing other projects active at the start of the current project e.g.:  UNDP/GEF and GIZ co- supported SLM project under the Ministry of Nature Protection (as it was called then), mentioned in Section 1.1.2 of this report. The AF project is seen as not only being based on SLM but also being complementary to the land management activities under that project, addressing the impact of the water stress on local community farming and pastoral systems. Some of the measures tested by the UNDP-GEF project (such as dune fixation and stabilization, restoration of vegetative cover) remained relevant for the AF project as well and the lessons on best practices from that initiative informed the current UNDP/AF project (see also the next paragraph);  UNDP’s regional Climate Risk Management (CRM) programme for Central Asia; and  EU’s “Support to Further Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development”, latest (at the time) in a series of activities running since 2005 to strengthen capacity within the Ministry of Agriculture (as it was called then). 


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Natural Resouce management Water resources Relevance Programme Synergy

3.

3.1.2. Relevance of the Project design

Project design is rated as Moderately Satisfactory (MS). The rationale for this rating is described in the subsections below. The rationale behind the program design according to the ProDoc There are a number of questions that the GoT faces in its desire to improve water availability from the perspective of climate resilience and cost efficiency for the significant proportion of the rural population that is engaged in small scale agriculture and livestock management. The project sought to assist the Government in responding to these questions in an integrated way. These questions include(d):  What are the impacts of projected climate change on rural agricultural and livestock based communities within Turkmenistan who may not have access to large scale water infrastructure? What are the most effective technologies and management techniques for small scale rural demand management from a cost/benefit perspective, and how do these compare with supply side equivalents? Is it feasible to prioritize measures on a resource and cost efficiency basis? How do these water technologies and management techniques differ in terms of their suitability for different climatic and agricultural profiles within Turkmenistan and where are they best deployed? What are the most suitable delivery mechanisms for the provision, management and maintenance of sustainable water management systems? Can fiscal and billing mechanisms for water delivery be expanded to encourage more rational use of water by larger scale users without affecting poorer populations, thereby resulting in a more equitable allocation of water at a regional or river basin level? How can water and climate change considerations be integrated into agricultural sector and economic development planning, and what tools exist to facilitate this, particularly in relation to sustainability and resilience? Having identified potential solutions, what is the most effective way of scaling up community level best practices to national level, and how can knowledge be captured and replicated within national social development mechanisms?


Tag: Agriculture Livestock Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Water resources Relevance Parliament Rule of law Programme/Project Design Institutional Strengthening Policy Advisory

4.

3.1.2. Relevance of the Project design (continuation)

Component 2: Community-hosed adaptation initiatives Recognizing that Turkmenistan has limited experience with community based adaptation approaches and a historic preference for adopting large scale supply side infrastructure solutions, it was considered vital that the project demonstrates the efficacy (costs and benefits) of the various community scale water adaptation approaches (drip irrigation, harvesting, water points, terracing, intercropping, saksaul planting, irrigation canal improvements etc.), targeting primarily private sector agriculture. The lessons from these regional pilots were to be used not only to inform the legislative reform process relating to land management and water use/pricing falling under the Component 1, but also inform the development of larger scale communal management systems and their integration into the Government's social development and poverty alleviation strategies in Component 3. The majority of AF resources were to be allocated for the implementation of these concrete water and agricultural adaptation interventions at the community level. With the latter point, the project took a bottom-up approach in assessing vulnerability and adaptive capacity in three agro-ecological regions - mountain, desert and oasis (with agro-pastoralist, pastoralist and settled irrigated agriculture practices, respectively) to allow more effective replication. Component 2 used Vulnerability and Capacity Assessments (VCA) at these communities as a basis for (a) the analysis of existing and potential natural resource challenges to the sustainable development of the agro-pastoralist systems and (b) the selection of measures in each – in consultations with the community members - to be supported financially and with technical expertise to help overcome water related limitations to their local productive systems.

Component 3: Strengthening communal systems for water delivery. Component 3 sought to implement efficient communal water management systems in the selected regions, through the development of Water User Associations (WUAs) and the integration of communal water practices into wider social safety nets. This was to be preceded by the adoption of the Law on WUAs (drafted with project support), followed by the support to the communities in establishing these WUAs, and their strengthening with mandates and community investment plans in the three identified regions. After these, funds were to be provided to finance at least four (4) water adaptation projects to be designed and implemented by the WUAs (with grants), selected on the basis of potential impact (improvements in water quantity and efficiency), leveraging external government funds where appropriate. Lessons were to be identified and scaled up to the national level. This was to enhance the ability of communities to improve water delivery services, through improved management rights and greater accountability, filling the identified gap in the availability of nontechnological, communal management solutions for water productivity. WUAs were to be supported to develop mechanisms to support water efficiency systems with, for example, seasonal water rationing and more flexible payout mechanisms. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Relevance Local Governance Financial Inclusion Inclusive economic growth

5.

3.1.2. Relevance of the Project design (continuation)

Analysis of water and land use legislation. This analysis concluded that an opportunity exists for the implementation strategies to achieve the stated aim of improved water efficiency and associated increases in agricultural outputs; and. - study on institutional and policy mechanisms within the water sector targeting both upstream and downstream level activities.

The Project approach, as described in the ProDoc includes also the aspects, which are listed below with the descriptions and commentary/assessment of relevance: This primarily means that activities were designed at both national and local levels, but with - A high proportion of funds flowing into capacity building activities and demonstrations of low cost, demand driven resilient technologies and management structures, expected to result in a higher adaptation benefit than an equivalent investment into capital intensive infrastructure. Moreover, the majority of activities were aimed to deliver concrete adaptation benefits to identified communities by implementing “hard” water efficiency and irrigation measures, e.g. improvement of water retention and harvesting techniques for the communities that do not have irrigation services and practice rain-fed agriculture. Because the prospects for development of new water supplies are limited in Turkmenistan, improvements in efficiency are paramount for reliable supplies during the periods of hydrological drought in more arid conditions to be brought about by climate change. For this reason, the focus of the UNDP/AF project, placed on the development of community level water management approaches in those regions where there is significant potential for diversified non-state agriculture, horticulture and livestock management was well justified; 

The focus on increasing the resilience of water resources for the most vulnerable and water-stressed communities in the regions with significant potential for diversified nonstate agriculture, horticulture and livestock management and who are unlikely to benefit from Government's large- scale water supply and storage infrastructure. Despite the increasing realization of water scarcity issues in Turkmenistan, and growing attention to and investments in water infrastructure, many communities that are not directly involved in cash crop production – and this includes the majority of communities residing in three main agroecological zones of Turkmenistan - are unlikely to benefit from large scale investments, experiencing increasing pressure from water shortages, as a result of which their cropping, land and water management practices are often inappropriate (resulting in land salinization, erosion and degradation of natural assets), undermining the resilience of the communities in the context of emerging climate change risks. These pressures are expected to amplify in the near future by prolonged droughts and overall aridification of the climate. Since for them the improvement of water retention and harvesting techniques are critical for long term availability of water, this approach was well justified; 


Tag: Agriculture Drinking water supply Natural Resouce management Water resources Relevance Local Governance Parliament Programme/Project Design Resilience Technology Institutional Strengthening

6.

3.1.2. Relevance of the Project design (continuation)

(b) Well identified need in a study on socioeconomic impact/cost benefit analysis (CBA) of various measures to manage water adaptation, both on the supply and demand side. This was relevant given the prevailing practice of the choice of water management measures within the Government not driven by a resource efficiency or cost- benefit perspective: there is a perception locally that supply side measures represent a high cost response to potential water shortages in the agricultural system. Therefore, the project- financed Socioeconomic impact study was very relevant. It was expected that this study will allow policy makers and communities to prioritize their technology and policy choices based on clear efficiency criteria, set against the cost of potential impacts in the sector. It was also supposed to lead to the application of Integrated Assessment Modelling at a sector level; because of the late adoption of the new Water Code, this expectation did not materialize, but UNDP is planning to pursue this with the other projects.


Tag: Relevance Parliament Policies & Procedures Programme/Project Design Country Government Financial Inclusion Inclusive economic growth

7.

3.1.2. Relevance of the Project design (continuation)

The project design could have been stronger with: a) Better Risk identification and mitigation strategies. Section III.B of the ProDoc includes the project risk assessment. The risk analysis identifies only four risks, two of which are rated as low, and two of which are rated as medium. This is considered a minimum level of risk assessment for a project of this size and complexity. In the Risks Log, (a) the risk pertaining to the timely adoption of the law on WUAs is not mentioned at all; (b) the risk of “Reluctance of decision makers to introduce progressive and differentiated water tariff and policy within project lifetime” is assessed as “medium”; and (c) the only risk related to national policy revision relates to the introduction of progressive tariffs. In addition, the risk management measures are not adequately detailed and comprehensive. The fact that the Inception Report of the project includes an updated risk assessment table, with nine risks identified, more than double the number identified in the project design, is another indication of the risk assessment at the project design being not completely adequate. The current risk monitoring section of the annual Project Performance Report includes 11 identified risks. 


Tag: Relevance Programme/Project Design Risk Management

8.

3.1.2. Relevance of the Project design (continuation)

a) - allocated some land in each of the five provinces on a leasehold basis for growing maize, barley, lucerne and other forage crops with the aim to promote crop rotation and improve soil quality; - begun to invest in high efficiency irrigation technology for water intensive crops, to include (subsoil) drip irrigation systems, mobile sprinklers and waste water drainage and recycling; - organized an International Forum on water technologies, including for the agricultural sector, with a focus on demand side management and efficiency; - at the meetings of the "Council of Elders", in 2009 and 2010, declared the intention to forcefully pursue increased water productivity and expansion of cultivated land. This was triggered by increasing water deficits in the country in the preceding years; and.  expressed commitments (also from the Mejlis) to support the implementation of the project regionally, with the integration of the best practices into national strategies. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Drinking water supply Water resources Relevance Parliament Policies & Procedures Programme/Project Design Technology

9.

3.1.3. Results Framework/Logframe

The Results Framework is overall of good enough quality. The main issue with it is the lack of a well elaborated workplan that would have showed interlinkages/interdependences: the example with the socioeconomic assessment vis a vis the legislative reforms was discussed in the previous Section. A key element of project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) design is the choice of the Results Framework indicators and targets, which should meet “SMART” criteria. The indicators and targets are in the Results Framework of the project are generally in-line with SMART criteria. There are some issues with the indicators (which are mentioned in the parts when the projects progress along these indicators are discussed), e.g. the Outcome indicators being simply compilations of Output indicators. Plus, the indicators are not gender-separated. MTE (see comments in Annex 7 of the MTE) contains assessment of project results indicator-by-indicator), with recommendations. Istanbul Regional Hub was notified about the desirability of the logframe to be modified, but given that the logframe in the PPR is populated corporately, not by the CO. plus the frequent changes in the project management to follow through meant that this recommendation was not implemented. 

There are various statements in the ProDoc about the expected contribution of the Project which are not captured by the Results Framework, e.g.: - integration of communal water practices into wider social safety nets; - linkages between water and potential reforms under the land use masterplan expected to be established; and - application of Integrated Assessment Modelling at a sector level; etc. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Drinking water supply Water resources Local Governance Partnership Quality Assurance Results-Based Management Risk Management Theory of Change

10.

3.2. PROGRESS TOWARD RESULTS: ACHIEVEMENT OF PLANNED OUTPUTS AND CONTRIBUTION TO THE ENVISIONED OUTCOMES

3.2.1. Overall 

The project results thus far and the overall progress towards the expected outcomes is considered satisfactory. Following the initial slow project start-up, significant progress and results have been achieved thereafter leading up to the TE, with another three (3) months to go before the end of the project. The project has a total of 16 indicators, 15 of which are achieved. The remaining one (1) indicator is related to the adoption of the several draft legislation/regulations, which is not in the power of the project to affect and not likely in the very near future (based on the interviews with the local experts). The project has performed well overall, despite the multiple challenges. The key results produced as of July 2017 include: 

- Multiple expert policy recommendations feeding into the adopted in 2016 new Water Code (80 percent of which were accepted as mentioned by the Head of the Environmental Committee of the Mejlis), - Completed community climate vulnerability assessment reports, as well as community investment plans for the three pilot regions; - Completed multiple on-the-ground adaptation measures across the three pilot regions; - Numerous community-level capacity development activities, related to establishing and operationalizing WUGs; - Establishment of eight Water User Groups (WUGs), which in many respects could serve as prototypes of WUA, and at a minimum could provide useful lessons when WUAs are created in the country as part of a larger scale reform agenda; - Concrete positive results through partnerships with other relevant projects, including: (a) cooperation with former Ministry of Water Resources for the reconstruction of the discharge drainage, financed by the state budget; and (b) cooperation with the “Zakhmet” Farmers? Association to introduce modern irrigation methods for winter wheat in 300 hectares, financed by the association. 


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Waste management Effectiveness Partnership Project and Programme management Resilience

11.

3.2.2. Outcome 1: Institutional capacity strengthened to develop climate resilient water policies in agriculture

Component 1 of the project aimed to address the capacity building and reform requirement at national and regional government level to promote evidence- based policy making (particularly integrating climate change projections) in that (a) water management techniques are implemented from a cost benefit perspective with equal focus on supply and demand side approaches, and (b) the value of water is recognized as a commodity through progressive water pricing. It was expected that activities will create the enabling environment that will support effective community level water management and the shift towards Integrated Water Management pursued in the Components 2 and 3, as well as inform land use policy. The results for this Component are assessed as Satisfactory.


Tag: Agriculture Drinking water supply Water resources Effectiveness Parliament Policies & Procedures Country Government Inclusive economic growth Technology Institutional Strengthening Policy Advisory National Institutions

12.

3.2.2. Outcome 1: Institutional capacity strengthened to develop climate resilient water policies in agriculture(continuation)

Indicator 1.1.2: Number of water legislative acts amended based on climate change cost estimations. Target: At least 2 The project provided recommendations and significant inputs to the new Water Code (2016). A Working Group was established to review the draft new Water Code in view of the impacts of climate change on water resources. The project initiated and supported discussions on various topics, related to the package of recommended amendments developed, including those related to: - the concept of "association of water users"; - the rights of water users in relation to the establishment of WUAs / WUGs; - the transition of water management to the basin principle and establishment of basins councils; - the provision of the Cabinet of Ministers the right to transfer on the balance or for the use of the interfarm collector and collector-drainage networks of WUA/WUG; - the competences of state bodies and local authorities related to water resources management; - the norms of the differentiated approach in determining the tariffs for water supply services; - the determination of the legal regime of water protection zones; etc. On October 9, 2016, the Mejlis of Turkmenistan approved the Law on the adoption and enforcement of the new Water Code of Turkmenistan. The newly adopted Water Code includes articles that enable community-based management of water resources by expanding the authority over management of the water resources to WUGs/WUAs. Among other rights, WUGs/WUAs become full-fledged participants of the agricultural sector, able to perform irrigation works and be paid. The Code also stipulates administrative and operations procedures to be put in place by the WUGs/WUAs to ensure their operations and rights. Approximately 80 percent of the recommendations of the project were adopted. Amendments were also drafted to the Law "On Pastures" and adopted by the GoT in 2015: the novelty here was on the allowance to establish Groups of Shepherds in order to improve pasture management and reduce degradation of pastures.


Tag: Agriculture Natural Resouce management Water resources Effectiveness Parliament Knowledge management Policies & Procedures Institutional Strengthening National Institutions

13.

3.2.2. Outcome 1: Institutional capacity strengthened to develop climate resilient water policies in agriculture(continuation)

This evaluation (as well as the MTE) find that there was a need in a more comprehensive reform related to pricing incentives and mechanisms for water usage, with an approach that fully takes into account the inflexibility of farmers' decision-making related to water usage in areas where leaseholders are accountable for delivering centralized state orders for production, and may not have the ability to significantly modify their water management and usage. The lack of such an approach would potentially shift unsustainable pricing burdens to certain segments of the farming population, which would lead to a failed pricing system. There is another important point: until water metering is not well advanced in the country, it is premature to introduce the reforms in water pricing (this was discussed during the Project Board Meeting on January 19, 2017). - The Draft Law on Amendments, additions and changes to the Law on Farmers' (daikhan), initiated to enhance the legislative the basis of the operation of WUGs/WUAs related to water use by WUGs/WUAs, was with the Cabinet of Ministers at the time of the TE with no expectations of being adopted soon. Under this component it was also planned to explore the linkages to the national land use master plan for the agriculture sector, including the farm distribution plan. Working with the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, as well as the Ministry of Economy, the project was supposed to explore the introduction of targets for increased water productivity and measures to achieve these. This did not happen, as at midpoint the strategy was revised and the overly. ambitious nature of this assessed. UNDP is planning the address productivity and consumption control targets with other existing or new projects.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Water resources Parliament Policies & Procedures Institutional Strengthening

14.

3.2.3. Outcome 2: Resilience to climate change enhanced in targeted communities through the introduction of community-based adaptation approaches

In the three typical agro-ecological regions - mountains, desert, and oasis – various and tailored to the specifics of these zones adaptation measures were implemented, necessary for the sustainable development of the varying sectors of the Turkmen agricultural community: from standard irrigated agriculture, to desert and mountain farming. In Nohur (mountainous area) and Sakarchaga (oasis) the total irrigated area has expanded using various hydraulic structures. In addition, in order to fully meet the drinking water needs of the local population, particularly those conducting small-oasis agriculture and animal husbandry in the desert, hydraulic structures were built which stem from traditional methods of accumulating and storing water (wells, sardoba, kaks (rain pits), dams, and reservoirs). In the mountainous region of Nohur, the system of available natural springs was restored, reservoirs were reconstructed, and the area under drip irrigation was enhanced, all of which were necessary for the growth and welfare of local communities.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Water resources Effectiveness Resilience

15.

3.2.3. Outcome 2: Resilience to climate change enhanced in targeted communities through the introduction of community-based adaptation approaches (continuation)

Output 2.1: At least 4,000 agri-pastoralists of the Nohur mountainous region develop and implement water harvesting and saving techniques (such as slope terracing, small rainwater collection dams, contour and stone bunds, planting pits, tillage, mulching) to improve soil moisture levels - Indicator 2.1.1: water harvesting and saving techniques demonstrated/tested in targeted Nohur area. Target: At least one water harvesting technique and saving measure

In Nohur the project has supported the construction of small-scale dams as watering points for livestock, which generally benefit all of the communities, whose herds use the range area where the water points are, which may equal 4,000 people or greater. However, the project is also supporting specific irrigation measures and techniques, such as drip irrigation and water storage tanks, in one specific village in the region, which will have a benefit for the approximately 1,000 people in that village. Summary of concrete adaptation measures completed in Nohur is presented in Table 8


Tag: Agriculture Agriculture co-operatives Agriculture land resouces Livestock Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Water resources Effectiveness Resilience Technology

16.

3.2.3. Outcome 2: Resilience to climate change enhanced in targeted communities through the introduction of community-based adaptation approaches (continuation)

Output 2.3. At least 20,000 farmers in the Sakarchaga area benefit from improved irrigation services through the introduction of canal level, localized management practice - Indicator 2.3.1: Canal level management tested and demonstrated in targeted Sakarchaga area. Target: at least one measure 

The oasis area has a broad and diversified network of irrigation canals and drainage systems. However, due to its condition, there were large losses of water for the irrigation of crops. As a result, the problems of secondary salinization and waterlogging of irrigated lands were exacerbated. The project helped to reconstruct the drainage systems, construct and repair water regulating facilities, introducing laser levelling of the fields to decrease water wastage, restoring wastelands, etc (see Table 10). In particular: ? 16 water control structures were manufactured and installed, and two water control structures were repaired. These facilities allow the uniform provision of water to about 2,392 ha of irrigated land. Total savings of irrigation water is expected to be more than 10 percent, taking into account the limits of irrigation water for cotton and wheat. - The establishment of a tree nursery has facilitated activities aimed at reforestation, and landscaping around homes and schools. This contributed to a marked increase in the total area of forest plantations around irrigated fields. More than 4,500 different types of trees and shrubs, both decorative and fruit-bearing were planted. These measures are projected to increase the income of local communities by around 20 percent. Water control structures will help to evenly and fairly distribute irrigation water among communities, which in turn will to improve water use efficiency and increase revenue for tenants and farmers in the Sakarchaga pilot region. 


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Water resources Effectiveness

17.

3.2.3. Outcome 2: Resilience to climate change enhanced in targeted communities through the introduction of community-based adaptation approaches (continuation)

Contribution to Outcome - Outcome Indicator 2. 1: Number of community based adaptation solutions implemented at the local level upon project closure. Target - At least one water harvesting technique and saving measure implemented in Nohur region to benefit 4,000 agri-pastoralists by end of 2014 - At least two watering points established in Karakum region to benefit 8,000 farmers and pastoralists by end of 2014 - Set of at least three agronomic measures (terracing, intercropping, saksaul planting) implemented in at least 3 communities by end of 2014. To start with, this should not be an outcome indicator; it is an output indicator by nature. The bullet points below summarize the deliverables under Component 2 along the lines of the specified outcome indicators: - More than one water harvesting technique (10 dams with water reservoirs) and saving measures (e.g. drip irrigations systems covering 23 ha) were implemented in Nohur project region which benefited more than 4,000 agri-pastoralists; - More than two watering points (15 wells, 13 sardobs with 60 m3 capacity, 4 sardobs with 500 m 3 capacity, kaks, sand dune fixation works with saksaul planting on 10 ha, etc.) established in Karakum region, benefitting10,545 farmers and pastoralists (more than the planned 8000); and - Collector drainage irrigation improvement measures implemented in the Sakarchaga project region (cleaning of 31.5 km farm collector) was completed by the end of 2015, reclaiming 50 ha of abandoned lands. 16 water regulating devices were installed. 1 ha local nursery was built for the replication of fruit and other trees to reduce wind erosion, water loss from evaporation, and subsoil water level. 5 km of new drainage collector was built to reduce soil salinity and increase yields by removing subsoil salty water. All these measures are located in the territory of the Farmers Union Zahmet of Sakarchaga District. The abovementioned set of adaptation measures is estimated to benefit more than 20,000 people (with some repeated beneficiaries from various project activities) by end of the project. It is estimated be around 2145) (see later in the text in Table 14) - This set of measures includes more than three agronomic measures (terracing, intercropping, saksaul planting) implemented in 3 communities.  


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Water resources Effectiveness Resilience

18.

3.2.4. Outcome 3: Community-managed water delivery services introduced to benefit over 30000 farmers and pastoralists in 3 agro ecological zones 

After it became clear that the draft Law on WUAs is not likely to be adopted, the project shifted to supporting the formation of WUGs, which could be viewed as prototypes of WUAs in some ways, see.The project sought to create a model of the public structure responsible for water management at the local level in the country. While there are questions with some of the WUGs that the project has worked with and the model overall, this has also provided a good learning that should feed into theongoing (albeit slowly) reform processes of water sector management in rural areas. It has been observed that the presence of WUGs have improved community-based water management principles at the local level. But there are challenges related to WUGs (related to their capacity and funding) as well as of external nature (lack of water metering and adequate pricing as well as the existence of other community based organizations engaged in water management). Only time will show whether the WUGs are viable. The results for this Outcome are assessed as Moderately Satisfactory


Tag: Agriculture Agriculture co-operatives Agriculture land resouces Agriculture water resources Climate Change Adaptation Water resources Effectiveness Policies & Procedures Service delivery Institutional Strengthening

19.

3.2.4. Outcome 3: Community-managed water delivery services introduced to benefit over 30000 farmers and pastoralists in 3 agro ecological zones (continuation)

The progress in enhancing the capacities of these community organizations to improve water management is uneven. There is: ? greater progress in Nohur, where a strong commitment was observed among the members. Here the WUG members do not own land and irrigated farming accounts for 30 percent of the income that provides the means of subsistence for their families. Therefore, their association is more akin to a Cooperative of Agricultural Producers, with strong incentive to working together; ? some progress in Karakum, with less progress in one of the WUGs, where the residents are predominantly engaged in livestock. In Karakum, members the WUGs do not own land and irrigated agriculture is not an important component that provides means of subsistence for their families. Therefore, these WUGs will be more viable as Associations of pasture users; and ? good progress in Sakarchaga, but this is the case more recently. Initially there were challenges, as forming WUGs here involved complex community-level changes in terms of modifying the Daikhan level water management decision-making process, in coordination with the relevant government institutions. Plus, the local water management system in Sakarchaga is the most structured, as in this region the land use is almost entirely dominated by individual farmer leaseholders working in cultivated agriculture, primarily producing cotton and wheat for the state orders. Thus, it is not surprising that more significant effort was required to introduce modified systems for water management, such as the WUAs and WUGs. 

There are other community water management structures in place which deal with the allocation of water in the community, but it is expected by the project team that the WUGs will further support the efficient use of water at the farm level in the areas under their jurisdiction. The project documents indicate plans going back to 2016 to „upgrade' the WUGs into proper WUAs. For this to happen, however, there needs to be water measurement and adequate pricing in place, The WUAs are viable if they are established clearly on water basin principles and on irrigated land. Whether the WUGs willtransform into WUAs will depend on many factors, some of which were mentioned. For now, it is important for UNDP to monitors the developments and perhaps provide some limited support to these eight (8) WUGs in the form of tools (maps, books, etc) to boost their chances of sustainability (see Chapter 6 on Recommendations). 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Water resources Effectiveness Service delivery

20.

3.2.4. Outcome 3: Community-managed water delivery services introduced to benefit over 30000 farmers and pastoralists in 3 agro ecological zones (continuation)

Output 3.3: At least 6 projects funded up to a total of $400,000 through WUAs and associated community groups - Indicator 3.3.1: Number and value of projects through the WUAs. Target: At least 6 projects of a total budget of US$400,000. Based on the identified needs, and after receiving training on proposal writing, the WUGs developed and approved plans for further implementation of adaptation measures in the settlements. The measures funded were selected from a shortlist of 12 project proposals by the WUG members with the active participation of Archins and heads of daikhan associations. Projects were selected on the basis of their potential to: (a) improve the delivery of water services; (b) leverage funding under government social protection or other funding mechanisms, and (c) operate sustainably over time. Table 12 describes the potential types of projects that the WUGs were invited to submit (left hand site) and the actual (right hand site) funded initiatives. This is a second level of activity following the initial direct project-implemented adaptation measures under Outcome 2, with the difference being that under Outcome 3 funding was channelled through the WUGs as grants to let them learn fund management in practice. At the time of writing this TE report, this work was in progress. With the project closing in September 2017, the plan was to see these completed in July 2017. The funded measures complemented the main adaptation measures funded through Component 2. In addition, the WUGs received some support in the form of renovation of their office spaces: now they all have it (in Nohur it is provided free of charge by one of the WUG members, in Sakarchaga and Karakum it is provided by the local administration). The plan was to finance at least 4 projects up to a total of US$400,000 with the expected local co-funding of US$100,000. These plans materialized but the expectation that WUGs will build upon existing government social protection plans, and any emerging activities did not. 


Tag: Agriculture Agriculture water resources Water resources Effectiveness Knowledge management Policies & Procedures Service delivery

21.

3.2.4. Outcome 3: Community-managed water delivery services introduced to benefit over 30000 farmers and pastoralists in 3 agro ecological zones (continuation)

? Indicator: 3.4.2: Number of lessons learned included in the ALM and other knowledge networks Target: At least three lessons learned

There was a wide-spread dissemination of project results on UNDP and ALM and other networks. There were many articles, press releases, reports, and other document, which in many ways constitute lessons learned. Only in 2016 there were 10 such articles on ALM website. The cooperation with other initiatives and participation in their activities (e.g. UNDP CRM in Turkmenistan), as well as national events (such as the National seminar dedicated to the International Environment Day on June 5, 2014 as well as participation in International Agricultural Exhibition-Fair in December 2016) provided more opportunities to share the lessons learnt. There were also exchanges of experience among the pilot regions/joint training: the representatives of four communities from other regions participated in Nohur-based trainings, for example. 


Tag: Agriculture water resources Water resources Effectiveness Service delivery

22.

3.2.4. Outcome 3: Community-managed water delivery services introduced to benefit over 30000 farmers and pastoralists in 3 agro ecological zones (continuation)

At least 6 associations have clear mandates, institutional capacities and skills to manage and deliver water services to the target communities by end of 2013 [NB: the other indicators are the same as output indicators discussed earlier] As mentioned earlier the project ended up working more closely with 8 WUGs. At least 6 of these have emerged as rather strong community groups, which have largely contributed to improved community-based water management principles at the local level. They engage in joint planning, management, decision-making and management of hydraulic structures (farm drainage collectors, local dams with water reservoirs, wells, sardobs, kaks and etc.). The project team developed a number of training modules targeting local communities/WUG members. This included training on writing funding proposals, as mentioned. Apart from that, during 2013 - 2016 20 training sessions were conducted for them in three pilot regions of the project (Karakum, Nohur and Sakarchaga), covering, inter alia, the following topics (see Annex 7 for the Schedule of the training courses): adapting to climate change; organizational development of local water users; organization of water user groups and building partnerships; assessment of local needs and needs of water users in planning of local adaptation measures; establishment and management of WUGs; conflict resolution, and development of adaptation projects. Leaseholders and team leaders of brigades of daikhan associations, shepherds chekene, bayars, mirabs, Archins of gengeshes, heads of livestock farms, private farmers, agronomists, hydraulic engineers and other water users participated in these trainings. On average, 30 people participated in each training, around 500 overall. Several key results ensued: - increased general awareness of water users about climate change and water; - further meetings of the participants with local population to share the knowledge gained; - identification of leaders and activists willing to participate directly in project activities; and- members of the WUG Management Committees - identifying clearly the goals, objectives, functions, and the rules of operation of the WUGs in agreement with the chairmen of the daikhan associations (these took some time in Sakarchaga); - working out approaches and methods of establishment of partnerships between WUGs and other Government agencies in the field of water use; - conducting joint assessment of local water users' needs; and - meeting regularly to discuss issues related to adaptation activities and other issues. 


Tag: Agriculture water resources Climate Change Adaptation Water resources Effectiveness Service delivery Institutional Strengthening

23.

3.3. Contribution to Long term objectives

The project has made an important contribution to all 3 expected outcomes and impact despite challenges, with, in particular: (a) significant contribution to the adoption of the new Water Code; (b) innovative technical solutions for climate change adaption of agriculture; and (c) WUG model as a prototype of WUA already operating improved water management practise in selected locations 

Contribution to improved water management practices at national and local levels strengthened in the context of climate change risks induced water scarcity to farming systems in Turkmenistan The adaptation measures increased the interest and knowledge of local communities on general topics related to climate change and concepts of WUA/WUGs. In addition, a series of training events also contributed to increasing the motivation of water users to participate in decision making processes. They expressed interest in providing contribution to the project in each pilot region in a form of labour (see Section 3.4.3). In addition, during the implementation of adaptation measures representatives of local communities both men and women (60 and 40 percent respectively, on average) actively participated. Local communities formed groups of water users that participate in decision making related to water supply management locally with an adaptation angle. The WUG model has emerged as a prototype of WUA, already operating improved water management practise in selected locations, some of these WUGs, in particular those which operate in irrigated areas, have a potential to become WUAs, if the reforms in water sector and in land management progress soon. The adoption of the new Water Code, to which the project contributed significantly, is already a major step in that direction


Tag: Agriculture water resources Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Environment Policy Effectiveness Technology

24.

3.4. Overall effectiveness of project management

3.4.1. Efficiency

The overall efficiency rating of the project is satisfactory. The project has applied good adaptive management and has secured US$660,000 in co-financing, when zero co-financing was originally foreseen (see Section 3.4.3). The project management arrangements are working well, and the project has applied an appropriate partnership approach overall. Financial and work planning had issues, however. Readiness and delays Based on the approval date of December 2011, the project would have been expected to begin substantive activities in the 1st quarter of 2012, but they did not begin until the 2nd quarter of 2013 (the project had disbursed just over 5 percent of the budget by May 2013). This was mostly due to theinability to receive registration as a foreign assistance project until April 2013, which made it impossible to open a project bank account and avoid tax implications

The project passed through the project development phase relatively quickly, going from the first stages of development to approval by the AF Board in less than 18 months. This may have contributed to the apparent lack of readiness to start implementation immediately upon approval, although this may partly have been due to the fact that this was the first AF project in Turkmenistan. However, it is standard practice for AF as well as UNDP projects to be able to start implementation within a few months of final approval, even in many countries with challenging contexts, One lesson from the experience of this project is that UNDP and government partners need to prepare prior to final project approval for immediate ramp-up of human resources and any necessary formal agreements or arrangements, such as registration of the project as a foreign assistance project (see Chapter 5 on Lessons Learnt). Already at midterm, due to problems with project start-up following approval, the project lagged behind by around a year compared to the originally planned schedule. The delay had not had significant negative effects on the project's ability to achieve its expected outcomes, because the onthe ground activities were rapidly being brought up to speed. The project still needed an extension in 2016, in part due to external reasons (in particular the fact that the new Water Code was not adopted until 2016 and there was a lack of clarity whether the draft Law on WUAs would be adopted or not). The project was extended in 2016 by one year. After the midterm, the project continued with higher levels of disbursement, but that happened in a rather unbalanced way (see Section 3.4.3). 


Tag: Agriculture water resources Climate Change Adaptation Effectiveness Efficiency Partnership Policies & Procedures Country Government

25.

3.4.1. Efficiency(continuation)

There are several examples of good adaptive management. In particular; - One notable adaptive management measure is the approach the project took towards implementing the WUA approach in the three pilot regions, with turning to the WUGs model. It must be mentioned that this was not a straightforward process. At mid-term, given that local farm systems in Turkmenistan are managed by farmers' associations, or “Daikhans”, the project wanted to avoid setting up new civil society or community-based organizations that would overlap with Daikhan associations, so the idea then was to (a) develop the capacity of Daikhan associations to operate as WUAs, including proposing modifications to the relevant national legislation to allow transfer of water management to Daikhans; and (b) given that each Daikhan is further divided into “brigades” of farmers, leveraging brigades as WUGs. After midterm, this changed and at the time of the TE, the WUGs had various relations to daikhan association, as was shown in Figure 6. If the risk that the Law on WUAs might not pass in the project lifetime was appropriately recognized at the onset, and fallback options were developed as part of the mitigation strategy, the project would have avoided the loss of time while the appropriate model of the WUGs was sought; and ? Regarding the data availability/accessibility issues, the only practical option is to conduct project specific surveys where data is required. For example, data for VCA assessment were collected by national and international experts from the local population of the three project regions. There were a few adjustments to project activities, which were programmatically convincing but with negative consequences on the budget. Applying internationally recognized models to assess the benefits of the selected adaptation measures was the initiative of the 2nd Project manager: this brought in the necessary international cutting edge expertise and rigor, but had consequences for the budget.


Tag: Agriculture water resources Climate Change Adaptation Efficiency Operational Efficiency Partnership Policies & Procedures

26.

3.4.1. Efficiency(continuation)

Communication To ensure wider outreach, UNDP Turkmenistan website, ALM website and national newspapers regularly published articles on effective implementation of new innovative adaptive technologies by the project. The project has produced a documentary film in partnership with one of the state TV companies, which was being edited at the time of the evaluation. The project has produced brochures on the adaptation measures, focusing on technical aspects, but the National Coordinator was put in charge of the dissemination and hence, during the evaluation it was not, for example, clear whether all the welayats, and more specifically their agronomists received these. The brochures and booklets were distributed however during field visits, trainings and workshops (which had representation from different welayats), as well as other events and initiatives that the project was involved (e.g. during the Agricultural Exhibition-Fair in December 2016, where project had a booth to showcase project achievements). 


Tag: Efficiency Operational Efficiency Partnership Project and Programme management Results-Based Management

27.

3.4.3. Finance and co-finance (continuation)

The project management budget was exceeded, which is connected with the one-year extension of the project (see Table 16) but also due to over-hiring of project local consultants and staff (needed to oversee the expanded measures under Component 2). In fact, by 2016 the planned project management budget was already spent. Note that the M&E budget represents 2.1 percent of the budget total, though this amount is drawn from the other components. Figure 7 shows AF project planned, revised and actual disbursements by year, Actual disbursements have kept up with the level of disbursements planned in the revised budget, in particular in 2016, so the issue is in the lack of planned balance to ensure that there is an appropriate level of funding for the important activities across outcomes.  

Cost effectiveness Available data and resources do not allow for assessing the cost effectiveness of the project and its separate components systematically. The only aspect where there is data available concerns the adaptation measures per se, UNDP Turkmenistan./AF (2016) Study on socioeconomic impacts of adaptation measures concluded that they are cost effective based on the CBA, It could also be conjectured that the fact that a large part of legal, socioeconomic and environmental studies were conducted by a group of local experts means that the results with regards to their work were achieved in a cost effective manner. 


Tag: Agriculture water resources Climate Change Adaptation Environment Policy Efficiency Government Cost-sharing

28.

3.4.4. Monitoring systems

Monitoring systems are rated as Satisfactory. The planned M&E activities from the ProDoc (in Section III.C on M&E) include the inception workshop and report, monthly and annual progress reports, annual meetings of the project board, independent external mid-term and final evaluations, and annual audits. The M&E Plan is assessed as meeting UNDP and AF minimum standards of good practice design for project monitoring and evaluation by explicitly stating responsible parties, budgets and timeframes for monitoring and evaluation activities. The project?s M&E activities have been implemented generally in line with the plan outlined in the ProDoc. The Project Board has met at least once per year. The MTE was carried out at the approximate mid-point of the project (slightly after the originally planned mid-point for time, but prior to the mid-point for disbursement). The M&E framework could have been of better quality (the less than adequate nature of some of the indicators was discussed in the previous Chapter), much more informative, involve key partners, stakeholders and especially beneficiaries in the target locations, e.g. tracking the actual use of the provided adaptation measures, yields and sales, etc. In the same vein, this project was ideally suited for having rigorous impact evaluation with control groups. The use of the results framework/logframe as a management tool was at a basic level and could have been better: in that case the need to ensure the balance between disbursements between the Components could have been more apparent. Regular inspections, technical control and support for the implementation of the agreed investment activities have also been performed. 


Tag: Efficiency Monitoring and Evaluation Results-Based Management Risk Management Theory of Change

29.

3.4.7. Management Arrangements

Management arrangements are rated as Satisfactory. Project management arrangements seem to have worked well, including the role of the PIU and the Board. The Project Board consists of the representatives of all the relevant Ministries , Parliament (Mejlis), the National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna, local authorities and local communities. The model in the UNDP Turkmenistan CO of having a PIU, which provides administrative and financial support to multiple projects appears to be a strong one for efficient project management. However, the fact that UNDP CO had introduced a Procurement Plan according to which every tender should be initiated at least four months in advance of the starting date of planned activity might have contributed to the challenges that the project had to face, since it had to catch up on the delays after the lengthy inception phase. In addition, the fact that the adaptation measures were funded via tenders also posed a challenge and, in hindsight, might have been better to provide grants (see Chapter 5 on Lessons Learnt)

3.4.8. Quality of implementation and execution support -The quality of Execution support and Implementation support are both rated as Satisfactory

UNDP Oversight and Implementation Support On the whole, UNDP has been strongly supportive of the project, has helped negotiate implementation issues, and has worked to solve issues that have arisen. For example, UNDP CO undertook additional efforts to address the project registration issue, when it became clear that a solution was not imminent – in January 2012 UNDP sought meetings with the relevant government bodies, and the issue was resolved by April 2013. In addition, UNDP CO played a very important role in elevating the importance of the adoption of the new Water Code. In addition, the CO has supported the project to ensure good reporting and project outreach through the UNDP website as well as project?s adaptive management, and has worked through the necessary project budget revisions. As project implementing agency, UNDP shares in the responsibility for both the project successes and results achieved, and the implementation challenges faced. This includes the start-up issues indicated earlier, as well as over-delivery under Component 2 at the expense of Component 3. One factor that may have contributed to the long timeframe for the project to get started was that there was turnover among the environment staff at the UNDP CO in the time after project approval.


Tag: Efficiency Sustainability Oversight Ownership Project and Programme management Results-Based Management

30.

3.5. Potential for Sustainability, replication and scaling up

3.5.1. Sustainability potential of the project enabling factors and risks 

Sustainability potential of the project Overall, the likelihood of Sustainability of Results is rated as Moderately Likely (L)/MS. Effective implementation of adaptation measures increased the interest and commitment of the local beneficiaries in the sustainable management of the adaptation measures that they are now benefitting from. This was facilitated by their active involvement in adaptation planning and investment processes; and the fact that they are better informed now about the risks and climate vulnerability The local beneficiaries are not only more committed but also more able to manage the adaptation system sustainably, by developing workplans and implementing them, due to the extensive training they received and also due to the benefits of belonging to the WUGs (e.g. in the form of benefitting from the improved water distribution based on pre-agreed Annual Water Distribution Plan). 

The fact that the supported adaptation measures are demand driven and the observations from the field indicate that the WUG members genuinely care about the provided measures and these will be looked after and maintained. Still there is a need for easy to use guides and manuals for the provided infrastructure (see Chapter 6 on Recommendations). Sand fixation measures helped to save houses and small gardens from drifting sands, This and the successful implementation of the adaptation measures helped to create additional jobs and income, and even contribute to reduced migration to the cities. For example, in Sakarchaga Pilot Region, the Project helped to clean drainage collectors, which contributed to reduction of salinity of soils by keeping farmers in remote areas of the Target Farmers Union Zahmet. The evidence of water saving (estimated between 10 and 20 percent) and the potential of using saved water for additional income (NB: committed/promised by local Government to provide additional lands for growing crops with saved water) is creating more motivation for the residents in Sakarchaga Pilot Region to stay and get engaged with agricultural production and get involved in the WUGs. Better water management helps to improve the soil productivity (nutrients not washed away, subsoil salty water not raised to the surface of soil, etc.) and prevent desertification of fertile lands in addition to increased yield and income. These are contributing factors to the argument that there will be people living in the pilot areas to maintain the provided adaptation infrastructure and they will have the interest and means to contribute financially to the maintenance.


Tag: Impact Sustainability Partnership Country Government Donor International Financial Institutions

31.

3.5. Potential for Sustainability, replication and scaling up - 3.5.1. Sustainability potential of the project enabling factors and risks (continuation)

Risks to sustainability

Financial and economic risks: These risks to sustainability are considered moderately likely. The financial risks to sustainability are slightly different in each of the three pilot regions, because in each region the project has supported different types of demonstration activities. In Nohur, demonstration activities include construction of small dams, and investments in modern irrigation technologies. Once constructed, dams are likely to require little maintenance. Drip irrigation systems, however, frequently need replacement parts and materials. Based on information collected during the evaluation mission, it appears that the community in Nohur has the commitment and the means to maintain the capital investments supported by the project. In the Karakum region the project is supporting wells, sardobs, and other types of traditional water management infrastructure. These require maintenance but little additional ongoing investment, although diesel generators are often used to run pumps to circulate water, which do require some financial investment for maintenance. In Sakarchaga some water control devices have been installed; these also require some maintenance but little ongoing investment. Overall, the financial risks do not seem to be high. It would have been desirable to see some financial support from Daikhan Associations in support of Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs but no such cases have been registered so far. At the same time, given that WUGs are not separate juridical entities, the assets provided by the project are on the balance sheets of the daikhan associations, and hence, they bear at least formal responsibility of providing O&M services/cover costs. It will be important to monitor the developments to see how are these factors playing out in the future. For now, the farmers cover the O&M costs: for example, in Nohur, the WUG members reflected that they collect money regularly to pay the Mirabs (persons looking after the structures) and to pay for repairsif and when needed. The other aspect of financial sustainability relates to the larger picture of water management in the country, and the proposed tariff regime that the project aims to introduce. The financial risk to sustainability is whether the tariff regime (proposed by the project or whatever version of it is going to be adopted) will ultimately lead to an improved management or not.


Tag: Environmental impact assessment Sustainability Risk Management Inclusive economic growth

32.

Mainstreaming

The evaluation report is required to address the extent to which the project has successfully mainstreamed such UNDP priorities as MDGs/SDGs, poverty alleviation, improved governance, and gender. The principle of UNDAF and CPAP linkages, as well as links to MDGs/SDGs have been addressed under relevance, in Section 3.1.1. The principle of disaster risk reduction and climate change mitigation/adaptation is covered throughout this report, as it is the primary focus of the project. The remaining principles are addressed below. 

Poverty-Environment Nexus / Sustainable Livelihoods: This principle is clearly addressed through the project?s work to ensure that climate resilient sustainable livelihoods are supported and strengthened in each of the three pilot regions. There is a direct link to the poverty-environment nexus as communities with higher levels of poverty are less resilient to climate change. At the same time, addressing poverty requires careful attention to environmental sustainability, as some means to addressing poverty for climate change adaptation can have harmful environmental effects, which actually exacerbate the negative effects of climate change. One example is the approach of expanding watering points for livestock, which can lead to greater numbers of livestock, which can contribute to issues such as overgrazing and erosion. 

Gender Equality/Mainstreaming: The project included gender related issues among the ToRs for project local coordinators, such as “Facilitate the establishment of a gender sensitive Community Steering Committee (CSC) ensuring that a fair process is adopted to agree the CSC members are a good representative of the community” and “Promote principles of equal gender representation in decision-making processes, and advocate for gender empowerment”. Strangely, the results framework does not have gender sensitive indicators, however. The revised WUG Regulations made the participation of at least 30 percent women in all three Management Committees a requirement. This helped to involve female members of the WUGs in decision making on every step. Women, were actively engaged in the implementation of all project activities. As a result, the project team noticed during meetings with them that women not only are active participants in the WUGs (especially in Sakarchaga, as was witnessed during the visit there under this evaluation) but that also concentrate their attention on improving the social conditions of life (construction of kindergartens), thus proving some link to social safety nets. They also suggested solving the problems of utilization of household waste, which is very relevant, especially in the deserts.  


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Integration Inclusive economic growth Poverty Reduction Institutional Strengthening Data and Statistics National Institutions Private Sector

33.

Mainstreaming

Capacity Development: The project is working to strengthen the capacity for efficient and effective water management in Turkmenistan at both the community and national levels. The project has held multiple community training events in each of the three pilot regions, related to climate change adaptation and water management approaches. At the national level, the project is supporting systemic capacity development, through strengthening water management policies and regulations. The project has few activities related to specific capacity development of national water management institutions, however. 

Improved governance/Rights-based Approach: all project activities are considered to be implemented under a rights-based approach, as the project is respecting traditional systems and rights, while attempting to enhance the efficiency of water management. 


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Mainstreaming Human rights Institutional Strengthening

34.

3.5.2. The potential for replication and scaling up

The positive results of implemented adaptation measures in all three pilot regions have expanded the number of participating and supporting the continuation of the project in general and morespecifically, replicating it elsewhere in the country. There is some evidence of the neighbouring Etraps getting interested but the concern is that the same level of interest is not as yet emanating from communities further away, pointing to the acute need in sharing the experience with all the communities: this should indeed be the role of the government through an extension service but in Turkmenistan such service is non-existent. It is important that at least UNDP, having invested significant resources into these adaptation schemes, documents all the lessons learnt as well as compiles booklets/brochures which will feature both the technical information and socioeconomic impact related data and disseminates these widely, together with the Guides developed (see Chapter 6 on Recommendations). Additionally, the Government could be supported in strengthening its agricultural extension services (see Chapter 6 on Recommendations)


Tag: Sustainability Communication Knowledge management Partnership Institutional Strengthening South-South Cooperation

Recommendations
1

For UNDP: 

Publish and disseminate case studies on the most innovative adaptation measures, combining the technical descriptions and socioeconomic impact forecast

2

For UNDP: 

Publish and disseminate easy- to- use instructions on the Operation and management (O&M) of the adaptation measures introduced to the communities

3

For UNDP: 

Develop, publish and disseminate Lessons Learnt: one was published on technical side of the adaptation measures; the case studies (combining the technical and socioeconomic impact related information in separate brochures, as in Recommendation No2) could be the 2nd; and the 3rd one should be on the institutional aspects of the WUGs

4

For UNDP: 

Finalize the editing of the video documentary about the project and arrange the airing

5

For UNDP: 

Conduct presentation(s) (could be in a format of one well-structured conference) ensuring the participation of the stakeholders not yet actively engaged, especially from the welayats not covered by the project

6

For UNDP: 

Conduct high-level discussions with the Government over linking the project results and national investment plans, field trips, and alike

7

For UNDP: 

Complete the last round of the research initiated in Sakarchaga (b) initiate the last round of the socioeconomic impact analysis to capture late benefits and (c) complete the training on the two models (FAO and USDA) for the engaged parties: carry out these by linking these to the UNDP’s new CRL project. Transfer the equipment purchased for the research in Sakarchaga to the CRL project

8

For UNDP: 

Translate the manuals for simulation exercises based on FAO AquaCrop and USDA NRCS SURFACE methodologies into Turkmen language, as was planned and hand it over to the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, as well as the State Agrarian University.  Carry out this recommendation by linking it to the new CRL project

9

For UNDP: 

Strengthen the information base (resource centres) for the pilot WUGs – to increase their chances of sustainable operations. Monitor the developments around the WUGs. Carry out this recommendation by linking it to the new CRL project

10

For UNDP: 

Utilize in full the opportunities for additional partnerships with the: (a) EU, GIZ, WB: to support the government in strengthening the agricultural extension services; (b) GIZ project on water basin management in Mary region and (c) FAO – the newly starting regional project on climate change adaptation, to share the accumulated experience and best practices 

11

For UNDP: 

Seek further funding from the international organizations to support transformative national and sectoral policy reform in state crops sector for scaling-up climate-resilient agriculture, and improved enforcement of water and land use regulations, coupled with accelerated wide-scale dissemination of water saving and resilient farming technologies and practices among smallholder farmers and state-run collective associations.

12

For the Government of Turkmenistan 

 Link the project results with the national investment plans, field trips, and alike, promoting replication; 

13

For the Government of Turkmenistan 

Analyze the experience with the WUGs and take into account in the plans to introduce WUAs in Turkmenistan 

14

For the Government of Turkmenistan

Formulate clear and time bound program for reforming rural water sector management linking it to land reform 

1. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Publish and disseminate case studies on the most innovative adaptation measures, combining the technical descriptions and socioeconomic impact forecast

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

UNDP CO will publish case studies on the most innovative adaptation measures implemented in the framework of this project and will make sure that these materials will be appropriately utilized in existing and potential environment/water related projects supporting climate resilient livelihoods of local communities. Moreover, UNDP will work closely with national partners, namely the State Committee of Turkmenistan on environment protection and land resources and Ministry of Agriculture and Water economy, to disseminate materials through their structures at national and local levels.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. Support publishing the booklets/infographics describing technical description and socio-economic impact of adaptation measures in the framework of existing SCRL project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2018/03/16]
UNDP CO, Environment Portfolio 2018/03 Completed Design of user friendly info-graphics on adaptation measures with technical description and socio-economic impact were prepared and will be published in the framework of SCRL project. Update 16/03/2018: User friendly info-graphics and brochures were published in the framework of SCRL project and were disseminated in the pilot project sites of the environment portfolio. History
1.2. Disseminate the produced materials through structures of the national partners of the project at national and local levels
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2018/03/16]
Environment Portfolio, national partners 2018/03 Completed All materials produced within the framework of the project were discriminated to national and local partners. History
2. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Publish and disseminate easy- to- use instructions on the Operation and management (O&M) of the adaptation measures introduced to the communities

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

2.1 Publish user friendly brochures related to adaptation measures in the framework of existing SCRL project ;

2.2 Disseminate the produced materials through structures of the national partners of the project at national and local levels

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. Publish user friendly brochures related to adaptation measures in the framework of existing SCRL project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2018/03/16]
UNDP Environment Portfolio 2018/03 Completed Design of user friendly infographics on adaptation measures with technical description and socio-economic impact were prepared and will be published in the framework of SCRL project. Updated 16/03/2018: Material related to adaptation measures were published in the framework of SCRL project. History
2.2. Disseminate the produced materials through structures of the national partners of the project at national and local levels
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2018/09/05]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, national partners 2018/12 Completed Materials were disseminated to local communities History
3. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Develop, publish and disseminate Lessons Learnt: one was published on technical side of the adaptation measures; the case studies (combining the technical and socioeconomic impact related information in separate brochures, as in Recommendation No2) could be the 2nd; and the 3rd one should be on the institutional aspects of the WUGs

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

Best practices and lessons learnt will be developed and disseminated in the framework of existing SCRL project and future potential environment related projects. The information will also be used for building a larger proposal on upscaling nationwide water and land management practices.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1. Develop and publish user friendly technical description and socio-economic impact of adaptation measures in the framework SCRL project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2018/09/05]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, AF Project team, SCRL Project team 2018/05 Completed Design of user friendly infographics on adaptation measures with technical description and socio-economic impact were prepared and will be published in the framework of SCRL project Update on 05/09/2018: User friendly technical description and socio-economic impact of adaptation measures published in the framework of SCRL project. History
3.2. Monitor the developments around established WUGs and based on their institutional capacity and viability develop and publish lessons learnt/best practices in the framework of existing SCRL project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2020/02/11]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, AF Project team, SCRL Project team 2020/02 Completed Lesson learnt/best practices have been published and disseminated among interested parties including high agriculture educational institutions. -Success story to promote the results of the establishment of the WUGs has been produced and disseminated among local media https://www.tm.undp.org/content/turkmenistan/en/home/our-blog/2017/9/18/The-Modern-Landmark-to-Fight-Climate-Change-Effects-in-Turkmenistan.html History
4. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Finalize the editing of the video documentary about the project and arrange the airing

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

UNDP will continue consultations with the government regarding broadcasting the produced documentary about the project in a national TV and using it for other learning purposes (for example, using it for students at the education establishments)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 Continue partnership with the state TV company which was involved in producing the documentary, for editing it and making it applicable for broadcasting at national television
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2020/02/11]
UNDP CO, Environment Portfolio, Communication Associate 2020/02 Completed Produced documentary about the project have been several times presented at the workshops organized by SCRL project for different target groups and stakeholders. -Parts of the video were used by the national TV and aired as part of various programmes on climate in 2018 and 2019. For example, the talk show on desertification and desert cattle breeding has used the video from Bokurdak region (July 2019); Nohur videos were used for the talk about water use and mountain agriculture (February 2019). -UNDP CO has also cut video into short pieces and released them via YouTube. -The video has also been picked by the HQ and featured during the UN Climate Summit this September 2019. History
4.2. Look for partnership with relevant government agencies and education establishments for utilizing documentary for educational purposes
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2019/01/08]
Environment Portfolio, Communication Associate, National partners 2018/12 Completed -Partnership built with government agencies including education institutions regarding using this documentary for educational purposes. -Updated on 09/01/2019: Partnerships were built with Agricultural Institute of Dashoguz, Agricultural University of Ashgabat, National Research Institute “Turkmensuwylymtaslama” and the Land Management Service under the State Committee on Environment Protection and Land Resources and research institutes of the Ministry of agriculture which already use it in their training programs and field research activities. History
4.3 Continue using the documentary internally within functioning and upcoming UNDP projects for building capacity and raising awareness of local population regarding efficient use of water resources in the context of climate change
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2017/12/11]
Environment Portfolio 2017/12 Completed The documentary was actively used internally within functioning SCRL project pilot sites in order to raise awareness of local population regarding efficient use of water resources in the context of climate change. History
5. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Conduct presentation(s) (could be in a format of one well-structured conference) ensuring the participation of the stakeholders not yet actively engaged, especially from the welayats not covered by the project

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

UNDP will continue cooperation with relevant national partners on promoting the replication of the positive results of implemented adaptation measures in all three pilot regions of the project in other parts of the country, as well share this experience in the framework of functioning projects that cover other parts of Turkmenistan by presenting it UNDP’s current and potential projects will promote not only the Sustainability but also Replication of the project results

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1. Submit project results/lessons learnt to relevant stakeholders including government agencies not actively engaged in the project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2017/09/19]
UNDP, AF Project team 2017/12 Completed Executive summary of final evaluation report was shared during Project Board Meeting held on Aug 2017 and was sent to relevant stakeholders History
5.2. Participation in different national initiatives such as Environment protection Day, Earth Day and present project materials/results (brochures, booklets)
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2017/09/19]
UNDP CO, Environment Portfolio 2017/12 Completed Project staff participated in Environment protection Day - in first Central Asian Environment forum held in Ashgabat in early June 2017 History
5.3. Use positive experience of the AF project in the framework of the SCRL project that covers communities in Lebap and Dashoguz welayats
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2018/09/05]
UNDP CO, Environment Portfolio 2018/05 Completed SCRL project is actively using positive experience of AF project in its pilot sites Updated on 05/09/2018: Successful adaptation measures done in AF project will be continued in further activities and pilot communities of SCRL project. History
6. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Conduct high-level discussions with the Government over linking the project results and national investment plans, field trips, and alike

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

UNDP will keep high-level consultations with the Government on incorporating project results into implementation of national programmes and strategies such as “The Strategy of Economic, Political, and Cultural Development of Turkmenistan Until 2020" which envisages an increase in agricultural production and/or “The National Socio-Economic Development Strategy of Turkmenistan to 2030 which pursues the objective of modernization of the water management system and improving water efficiency”

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Promote government agencies dealing with implementation of national programmes to include project results and best practices into those programmes
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2017/12/11]
UNDP CO, Environment Portfolio 2017/12 No Longer Applicable [Justification: Due to changes in the government structures, merging Ministries of Economic development and Finance, previously submitted strategy on NEPAAM will be revisited and new national adaption programme will be developed with aim to support obligations under Paris Agreement and implementation of SDGs. ]
History
7. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Complete the last round of the research initiated in Sakarchaga (b) initiate the last round of the socioeconomic impact analysis to capture late benefits and (c) complete the training on the two models (FAO and USDA) for the engaged parties: carry out these by linking these to the UNDP’s new CRL project. Transfer the equipment purchased for the research in Sakarchaga to the CRL project

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

Recommendation is accepted. Activities under this recommendation will be implemented by UNDP within existing SCRL project and upcoming water and land management projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1. Provide relevant stakeholders with the report on socio-economic impact analysis of implemented adaptation measures
[Added: 2017/08/31]
Environment portfolio, AF project team, SCRL project team 2018/03 Completed Report on socio-economic impact analysis was submitted to relevant stakeholders for their review in 2016. Further upgrade of this analysis will be carried out by SCRL project
7.2. Transfer of the equipment purchased for the research in Sakarchaga to the CRL project
[Added: 2017/08/31]
Environment portfolio, AF project team, SCRL project team 2017/10 Completed Equipment was transferred to SCRL project according to UNDP rules
7.3. Seek for opportunity to conduct training on FAO and USDA models and involve Agricultural University into this research in the framework of SCRL project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2018/09/05]
Environment Portfolio, SCRL Project 2018/08 Completed In the framework of the SCRL project there are plans to use FAO and USDA models for research purposes. Updated on 05/09/2018: On August 14-15, 2018 in the framework of the SCRL project 2-day training was held on FAO model AquaCrop which was attended by about 30 representatives of government agencies including agricultural-educational establishments History
8. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Translate the manuals for simulation exercises based on FAO AquaCrop and USDA NRCS SURFACE methodologies into Turkmen language, as was planned and hand it over to the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, as well as the State Agrarian University.  Carry out this recommendation by linking it to the new CRL project

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

UNDP CO is committed to continue cooperation with government agencies dealing with water and land management. Dialogue will be kept with relevant agencies and education establishments in this field in supporting their needs for innovative technologies in agriculture that leads to rationale use of water and land resources in the context of climate change. Transition and dissemination will be done by the end of 2017.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1. Continue cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and water resources and its educational/research structures (Agricultural University and Water Design Institute) and discuss possibility of using mentioned methodologies in their research and practical work
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2019/01/08]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, SCRL Project 2018/12 Completed All mentioned agencies are partners of functioning UNDP projects in one way or other, so their interest for mentioned methods will be captured within these projects. Updated on 11 Dec 2017: The status will be extended due to bureaucratic procedures of establishing partnership with educational institutions. Updated on 05/09/2018: The status is "in progress". All mentioned agencies are partners of functioning UNDP projects in one way or other, so their interest for mentioned methods will be captured within these projects. Currently functioning SCRL project is actively cooperating with Agricultural University on related field. -Updated on 09/01/2019:Partnerships were built with Ministry of agriculture and its education/research structures on using FAO AquaCrop products. In the framework of the SCRL project two-day National workshop was held in August 2018 with participation of around 30 experts and researchers from mentioned institutions. (http://www.turkmenistan.gov.tm/?id=16901). With the practical application of this tool it is expected that farmers will increase the amount of yield by 25% and reduce amount of water for irrigation by 20%. The project plans to test the software on the basis of project Agro-information centers in the pilot farmer associations of Lebap and Dashoguz regions. There will be free consultation for water users and assistance in analysing the recommendations provided by the FAO AquaCrop software. Similar activities are expected in the framework of the EERE project History
8.2. Seek for opportunity for translating manuals for simulation exercises based on FAO AquaCrop and USDA NRCS SURFACE methodologies into local languages
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2017/12/11]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, EERE Project, SCRL Project 2017/12 No Longer Applicable [Justification: This action is not any more applicable due to the lack of funds to translate the manuals ]
History
9. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Strengthen the information base (resource centres) for the pilot WUGs – to increase their chances of sustainable operations. Monitor the developments around the WUGs. Carry out this recommendation by linking it to the new CRL project

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

Recommendation is accepted. UNDP will closely monitor developments around established Water Users Groups in pilot regions and will support reforms/initiatives of the government in mainstreaming national legislation in related area that will lead to establishment of proper Water User Associations

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
9.1. Provide some support to established WUGs in the form of books, training materials, brochures, best practices, etc. to boost their chances of sustainability in the framework of existing environment related project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2017/09/19]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, EERE Project, SCRL Project 2017/10 Completed Resource Centers of established WUGs in pilot regions were provided with books, training materials and brochures for expanding capacity of WUG members on adverse effects of climate change to environment and agriculture. History
9.2. Promote establishment of similar WUGs in pilot regions of the existing UNDP environment projects by using WUG Establishment Guidebook/Manual developed in the framework of AF project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2017/12/11]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, EERE Project, SCRL Project 2017/12 Completed Experience from AF project on establishing WUGs will be promoted in other pilot regions of SCRL and EERE projects. History
9.3. Continue consultations with the government regarding adoption of additions and changes to the Law on Daikhan Associations to enhance the legislative basis of the operation of WUGs/WUAs and development of subsidiary laws and regulations to Water Code for introducing progressive pricing policies and communal management for local water services
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2020/02/11]
UNDP Environment Portfolio, EERE Project, SCRL Project 2020/02 Completed All proposed amendments to the Laws on Daykhan Associations and Daykhan Economy Societies have been submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture and Environment Protection for further consideration and approval by Parliament of Turkmenistan. History
10. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Utilize in full the opportunities for additional partnerships with the: (a) EU, GIZ, WB: to support the government in strengthening the agricultural extension services; (b) GIZ project on water basin management in Mary region and (c) FAO – the newly starting regional project on climate change adaptation, to share the accumulated experience and best practices 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

UNDP will work closely with the Government of Turkmenistan to develop/strengthen agricultural extension service to advance the quality of consultative services provided to farmers/tenants/leaseholders in terms of efficient use of water and land resources. Relevant partnerships will be maintained with development partners in developing a larger proposal on upscaling, which will also focus on introduction of extension services.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
10.1. Identify key national ministries and entities who will be engaged into the dialogue on development of agricultural extension service
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2019/01/08]
UNDP Environment Portfolio 2018/12 Completed -Country Office keeps dialogue with key national partners on development of extension service. -Updated on 09/01/2019: CO identified key national agencies and entities on development of extension service. Identified key partners: Ministry of agriculture and water resources, State Committee on environment protection and land resources, the Union of industrialists and entrepreneurs History
10.2. Initiate dialogue with the identified national partners, share international best practices in related field, arrange discussion forums
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2019/01/08]
UNDP Environment Portfolio 2018/12 Completed -UNDP Country Office in Turkmenistan arranged 2 missions of International consultant and meetings/discussions were arranged with national partners on related topic. -Updated on 09/01/2019: CO engaged in dialogue with identified partners and arranged 2 missions of International consultant and meetings/discussions were arranged with relevant national partners on related topic. As a result, project proposal was drafted to Adaptation Fund for funding. History
10.3. Development of the project document focusing on the establishment of the national agricultural extension service and looking for potential international donors and government resources for funding the project
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2019/10/31]
UNDP Environment Portfolio 2019/10 Completed CO responded to Adaptation Fund comments related to the new project proposal on establishment of the agricultural extension services, project proposal was resubmitted and awaiting Adaptation Fund Board decisions on funding History
10.4. Build partnerships with currently functioning EU project “Support to Further Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Turkmenistan” and other relevant projects/initiatives for joint work and avoid duplication
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2019/01/08]
UNDP Environment Portfolio 2018/12 Completed -Partnerships are built with functioning EU and FAO projects for combining efforts in related field and avoid duplication. -Updated on 09/01/2019: Good working relationships and cooperation was built with functioning EU and FAO projects for combining efforts in related field and avoid duplication. History
11. Recommendation:

For UNDP: 

Seek further funding from the international organizations to support transformative national and sectoral policy reform in state crops sector for scaling-up climate-resilient agriculture, and improved enforcement of water and land use regulations, coupled with accelerated wide-scale dissemination of water saving and resilient farming technologies and practices among smallholder farmers and state-run collective associations.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

Recommendation is accepted. Work is already underway to build up a large proposal in upscaling efficient water an land management practices. UNDP will also support government efforts to reform agricultural sector that includes modernization of the water management system and improving water efficiency, as well as climate change considerations and introduction of efficient water/land related adaptation practices.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
11.1. Engage in discussions with key government agencies on reforming agricultural sector and familiarize them with community level adaptation measures successfully implemented by UNDP projects
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2020/02/11]
UNDP Environment Portfolio 2020/02 Completed The effectively demonstrated measures and technology are now incorporated into the State Programme for Developing the Agro-Industrial Sector for 2019-2025, stipulating the use of water saving and any other resource efficient technology for any investment in the land and water sector. History
11.2. Seek further funding opportunities from international organizations to support reforms in agricultural sector initiated by the Government
[Added: 2017/08/31] [Last Updated: 2020/02/11]
UNDP Environment Portfolio 2020/02 Completed CO submitted new project proposal on “Conservation and Sustainable Management of Land Resources and High Nature Value Ecosystems in the Aral Sea Basin for Multiple Benefits” and received approval from GEF for preparation PPG History
12. Recommendation:

For the Government of Turkmenistan 

 Link the project results with the national investment plans, field trips, and alike, promoting replication; 

Management Response: [Added: 2021/01/15] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

Key Actions:

13. Recommendation:

For the Government of Turkmenistan 

Analyze the experience with the WUGs and take into account in the plans to introduce WUAs in Turkmenistan 

Management Response: [Added: 2021/01/15] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

Key Actions:

14. Recommendation:

For the Government of Turkmenistan

Formulate clear and time bound program for reforming rural water sector management linking it to land reform 

Management Response: [Added: 2021/01/15] [Last Updated: 2021/01/19]

Key Actions:

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