Midterm project evaluation: Support to Security Sector Ref II

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2020, Iraq
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
03/2019
Completion Date:
03/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
50,000

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Download document SSR Project Evaluation Procurement Notice FINAL-ToR.pdf tor English 194.93 KB Posted 359
Download document 190225 SSR External Evaluation Report .pdf report English 626.98 KB Posted 870
Title Midterm project evaluation: Support to Security Sector Ref II
Atlas Project Number: 00088597
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020, Iraq
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 03/2019
Planned End Date: 03/2019
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Governance
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.1.2 Capacities developed for progressive expansion of inclusive social protection systems
  • 2. Output 2.2.3 Capacities, functions and financing of rule of law and national human rights institutions and systems strengthened to expand access to justice and combat discrimination, with a focus on women and other marginalised groups
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
SDG Target
  • 16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
Evaluation Budget(US $): 50,000
Source of Funding: Project allocation
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 21,710
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Francesca Margherita Del Mese Evaluator francescadelmese@gmail.com
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: IRAQ
Lessons
Findings
1.

3.1 Key findings common to all Outputs

This section sets out key findings that are common to, and effect all Programme Outputs, taking into consideration the themes of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact, and sustainability. Findings -key successes common to all Outputs:

Findings -key successes common to all Outputs:

  • The relevance and effectiveness of UNDP’s support was voiced by national stakeholders. Almost every national participant pro-actively mentioned the importance of UNDP’s role in the SSR process, with UNDP being singled out for its ‘distinguished’ experts and assistance it provides. The good reputation and perception of UNDP as an honest broker and facilitator was commonly voiced,by national and international stakeholders.

Tag: Relevance Operational Efficiency Strategic Positioning

2.

The Programme continues to build on its on-going activities as opposed to generating new projects. This reflects the fact that UNDP is supporting long-term goals. Similarly, the Programme involves not only providing advice and assistance to elaborate key policies, but also advice on how to implement the same.

Synergies across activities in the Programme are evident, contributing towards the effectiveness and impact of interventions. For example, the Standard Operating Procedures on complex criminal investigations(SoPs)that were developed with UNDP support are directly relevant to the work of the Local Policing Road Map, and police training supported by the Programme references the Road Map.


Tag: Programme Synergy

3.

Critical weaknesses were observed regarding the lack of perceived strength and clarity of the exact nature of UNDP’s role in the SSR sphere. Almost all stakeholders said they would like to have more information from UNDP regarding its work on SSR, i.e. what are its activities, plans, and how it is working with the GoI. This was seen as particularly relevant given there is a high turnover of staff in international entities, therefore UNDP messaging on the above to IPs needs to be adaptive and responsive to this, and ensure it is constant and consistent in how it communicates.


Tag: Public administration reform

4.

One of the added values of UNDP was said to be that it has ‘eyes and ears’on the ground, particularly in areas where some IPs have no access. However, security challenges mean that in reality UNDP has limited access to the regions. Despite this, at the time of writing the Area Coordinators’ future role had not been determined, and it was being considered to reduce their presence in the region. This does not appear to correlate with the significant proposed scale-up of the Programme going forward, and it was not clear how such a scale-up could be adequately supported by diminishing staff levels.


Tag: Challenges Security

5.

Monitoring and Evaluation functions within the UNDP Country Office are weak, with external accountability mechanisms or processes not being engaged with sufficiently. This evaluation is the first external evaluation of the Programme since 2015, which is not sufficient given the high risk of the context as well as the sector engaged with. Itis understood that M&E missions took place in 2016 and 2017, but these were undertaken by UNDP Programme Unit staff. Related to this, there is a paucity of comprehensive baseline data regarding both the community’s perception of security and security service providers, as well as transformative behavioural changes of police officers and those in security functions. Whilst it previously might be too early to assess the latter, going forward UNDP needs to focus on evaluating the behavioural changes and public attitudes towards policing, as well as of police officers themselves, as this will create better baseline information for monitoring purposes.


Tag: Challenges Monitoring and Evaluation Security

6.

Findings -key weaknesses common to all Outputs:

The risk log has not been updated since 2015, although there is a live risk log that was said to be reviewed periodically. The issue of risk is therefore not given due prominence in the Programme. This is a risk in itself given the work focuses on a high-risk sector in what is a volatile environment. There needs to be much clearer articulation of risks and associated mitigation measures across the Programme, e.g. creating an early warning system that can better protect the Programme. Risks include (but are not limited to) issues relating to overall de-confliction between IP support, future ramifications of an absence of a DDR Programme, how the Federal Police and Local Police services are likely to interact in the medium to long-term because of territorialism and lack of clarity about roles and jurisdiction. These risks need active management and should be constantly articulated and documented, both within the team and also with stakeholders.


Tag: Challenges Security

7.

Lessons learned are not currently being given due weight in the Programme. There is no formal or effective mechanism that is being used where the Programme can gather, digest and reflect upon any lessons learned, aside from what is written in the Quarterly Reports. A mechanism could include, for example, a database or even a document that consolidates lessons learned across the Programme. This is notable given the lack of a robust risk assessment process, volatility of the Iraqi context,and consequent inevitability that many activities will have lessons learned aspects that can help inform and improve future engagement. The Quarterly Reports are not sufficient for these purposes; they largely set out project successes and activities, without balancing this against comprehensive narrative about what could have been done better. The 2015 –2017 Project End Report is also inadequate, stating under ‘Lessons learned and Future Plans’: ‘flexibility to adapt to project design and activities based on regular meetings with project partners is vital....require a high degree of strategic and operational flexibility as well as careful planning to reflect changes...’. This is not broken down any further. Under ‘Future Plans’for lessons learned it goes on to simply state ‘N/A’. This runs the risk of creating and fortifying an insular team attitude, where the Programme has no space or platform for open and transparent self-reflection and external input which can facilitate consequent improvement.


Tag: Challenges Knowledge management

8.

The Programme team is too small. There was a perception amongst some stakeholders of a mismatch between the responsibility and breadth of work that the Programme is undertaking, compared with the reality of its staffing levels. For example, there is only one long-term consultant Criminal Justice Advisor, which was said by several IPs to be inadequate given the broad nature of work, proposed scale-up of criminal justice activities and level of stakeholder relationships that need to be managed. Similarly, there is only one international SSR Advisor, which is not sufficient to carry the weight of technical assistance, as well as SSR coordination. It was said by several stakeholders that when someone goes on leave it causes some activities to be put on hold. There are some advantages of having fewer team members, including financial savings, and the fact that individuals develop deep relationships with national counterparts. However, the opportunity to delegate and pass on knowledge is limited if there is only one specialist working in each thematic area. Engagement and progress can become more personality-centric as opposed to being systems-based, and the prospects of building a broad base of institutional memory becomes undermined, which risks the Programme’s sustainability. If the Programme is to maximise its impact it should take advantage of the unique leverage it has by employing more personnel to divide responsibilities and ensure smooth continuation of work when individuals are not in-country. If this is not possible then it calls into question the proposed scale-up of activities, and the broad ambit and scale of the work needs to be reduced going forward, as it will be too ambitious for the resources available. Consequent inefficiencies, risk of criticism and reputational damage may flow from inadequate staffing levels and lack of back-stop arrangements when staff are absent. At present there is a gender imbalance in the Programme in favour of men, albeit the Programme Manager is female.


Tag: Challenges Human and Financial resources Knowledge management

9.

A weakness was observed with regard to the logic of interventions and theory of change in the 2015 –2017 Programme Document, which was approved immediately prior to a change in UNDP senior staff. The Programme Document for 2019 –21 evidences more robust intervention logic, theory of change and expected results, as well as better articulating the balancing of long and short-term goals and immediate needs.


Tag: Challenges Theory of Change

10.

There was little evidence that relevant cross-cutting issues are being properly and pro-actively addressed by the Programme. This is a significant omission in both Programme Documents, particularly regarding human rights. The fact that human rights is not explicitly outlined as a cross-cutting issue for security sector reform work(aside from it being mentioned briefly under gender), demonstrates a lack of foresight about how intrinsically important they are for a UN programme. Iraq is a volatile country, and security sector agencies have arguably the greatest capacity to inflict the worst human rights abuses as State representatives. Whilst UNDP asserted that human rights is the preserve of UNAMI, there was no evidence that joint work is currently being undertaken on this issue. Further, it should not be assumed that human rights will be properly addressed as a by-product of Programme activities. Itis critical they are mainstreamed at the outset of any reform process so that they can be adequately reflected in the creation of policies,as well as ensuring a cultural norm of human rights adherence is cultivated. Similarly, corruption was mentioned by almost every stakeholder as a major challenge, and is also articulated in the SSRP as such. Despite this, corruption is not prioritised in either of the Programme Documents, or mentioned as a cross-cutting issue. This is expanded upon further in the section on cross-cutting issues.


Tag: Challenges Human rights

11.

National ownership could be better articulated and emphasised by the Programme. For example, the Working Methods diagram was referred to as a UNDP document, although it is not. Similarly, staff stated they were ‘chairing’a Working Group, whereas it is actually being co-chaired by UNDP, alongside an Iraqi counterpart. Although subtle, these assertions pose the risk that there might be an imbalance(even if only perceived)in who is leading reform efforts.


Tag: Challenges Ownership

12.

3.2. Key findings for Output 1: ‘The GoI Plan for SSR is developed and the cooperation and coordination mechanisms required for its implementationare established and implemented under one central framework’(first tranche) and ‘Implementation model for Iraq’s SSRP is established and implemented under one central GoI framework’(second tranche).

Key successes:

  • The Programme is a response to requests made by national counterparts for assistance, which reflects the fact it shows a high degree of relevance. To this end, the Programme complements the Iraqi SSRP, with the 2019 –2021 Programme Document setting out plans to ensure its implementation. UNDP has provided technical advice and assistance to the SSR Support Committee and the High Committee, with additional direct support to the democratic oversight system.
  • UNDP is the only international presence represented at GoI SSR Support Committee level. It is also the only entity that has office space in the ONSA. This reflects the strong partnership UNDP enjoys with its national counterparts, reflecting its added value to the SSR process. It also provides an opportunity for UNDP to gain an overarching view over the SSR process and,indicates its potential to increase its convening capacity to ensure the SSRP is implemented under one central frame workled by ONSA.

Tag: Public administration reform Technical Support

13.

UNDP has supported the Al Nahrain Centre for Strategic Studies (ANCSS), which is a semi-government think-thank (its Board of Management is the NSC) under the ONSA. Capacity-building activities included helping to develop its organisational strategy and supporting the research team to upskill its research capacities so it can be a credible research entity specialising in security sector governance in Iraq.


Tag: Capacity Building

14.

Police engagement was sustainable and strategic in that it focused on longer-term goals, helping to facilitate the transition from a military-minded Iraqi police force to a civilian, community-centric service; commonly referred to as going from ‘green to blue’. Police training on Improving Effectiveness of Local Policing (IELP) was designed, and twenty mid-level police officers from Anbar, Ninewa, Salah-Al-Din and Baghdad underwent the ‘test’ training and mentoring. Programme engagement with the police developed into supporting the creation of the Local Policing Road Map (see below). The Programme commenced with the IELP work to create good connections between citizens and the police, and also to control data and intelligence; focusing on how this can be used effectively in an operational context.


Tag: Security Capacity Building

15.

Key weaknesses:

National coordination of the SSRP is weak, and was generally said to lack the capacity to drive such a complicated SSR programme. There appears to be good-will across IPs regarding information-sharing(although effective coordination is not happening), but nonetheless, this is generally seen as problematic against the back-drop of weak national capacity. In addition, the fact that there is only UNDP presence at a high national (HigherCommittee) level appears to have caused fatigue and frustration with some IPs who see themselves as being side-lined, not being coordinated well at the strategic level by UNDP, and unable to progress their work without access to senior decision-makers. Whilst UNDP states it does not specifically support national coordination, there are opportunities to strengthen it, given UNDP’s unique access to the Higher Committee. This can be, for example,in the form of better facilitating access to IPs, so they can also support by way of technical assistance where appropriate.


Tag: Challenges Coordination

16.

Aside from national coordination, international and joint (national/international) co-ordination by UNDP was said by almost all IPs to be severely lacking. This is the biggest weakness of the Programme. As already mentioned, the donor space is crowded,and co-ordination is a necessary core plank that can enable the SSR process, reflected in the aims of this Output. No IP said they felt coordinated, either by the Programme or the Iraqis. There was resistance from UNDP to the notion that it needs to focus more on this, stating that coordination only constitutes a small part of its work. This is a lost opportunity and avoidance of its responsibility as the key UN entity working within the SSR sphere; the Programme has the potential to convene stakeholders as an honest broker in a way that no other IP is able to do.


Tag: Challenges Donor Coordination

17.

There are considerable overlaps between the Programme and the work of IPs, and deconfliction is necessary.UNAMI, NATO and the EUAM are all working on SSR issues. Whilst in theory IP mandates might appear to be clearly delineated, this may not be the case in practice. The focus of NATO is on defence reforms (not SSRP implementation), and the EUAM’s focus is on broader MoI coordination. However, many of the target beneficiary entities are the same across IPs, and the main focus common to all IPs is that they are working with the security sector. There is therefore a risk of duplication of efforts or competing interests working at cross-purposes if poor coordination and IP mandates are not properly navigated. This was echoed by stakeholders. The work of one IP can directly impact on another, and IP mandates and aspirations can change over time (eg the EUAM is due to double its staffing levels in the early part of 2019, which may lead to an increase in activities). The Programme therefore runs the risk of setting itself upas, or at least being perceived to be,a competitor to other IPs, as opposed to the neutral convening power it needs to be. Every IP stated they would welcome UNDP being more muscular and pro-active about its role, and that it needs to communicate very clearly to other IPs whether it is undertaking the role of coordinating, and if so, how.


Tag: Challenges Donor relations Coordination

18.

UNDP can better facilitate an effective communication and coordination platform for the seven Systems. International Partner meetings used to take place every quarter, but it has not met for about eight months due to prolonged formation of the new government and pending appointments of the Deputy National Security Advisor (DNSA),as the DNSA co-chairs the meetings for ONSA. Neither has there ever been a meeting that brings together all stakeholders across the seven Systems. There was strong consensus that the space exists for a pro-active convenor to call a meeting where national and IP representatives from each of the seven Systems is present. This aim of this would be to coordinate Iraqi efforts and requests, and then piece this information together within the broader IP context. Further discussions across the seven Systems might also include sequencing of activities, e.g. ensuring the correct legislation is in place before any work is undertaken to strengthen national intelligence capacity-building. Some IPs stated that they did not see it as their role to coordinate with other Working Groups; and that there needs to be an overarching system that is an effective platform for communication across all entities, as what is currently in place is not functional. Whilst it is acknowledged that delays have been caused by the elections, there was some resistance from IPs to the idea that UNDP can only move as fast as the Iraqis; the UN is the designated coordinator and can increase momentum for progress (e.g. the NSS review).


Tag: Challenges Communication Country Support Platform Capacity Building Coordination

19.

Inter-UN coordination: There are significant SSR synergies and overlaps across various UNDP departments(e.g. Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP)), as well as across the broader UN. It was not clear to other stakeholders to what extent the UN is operating as a cohesive whole in the SSR context, and several said this needed to be better understood and articulated to non-UN entities. The Country Programme Document 2016-20105 asserts that UNDP will coordinate activities closely with UNAMI. However, this was not evident. UNDP described UNAMI as being ‘not relevant’ to the SSR Programme, despite the latter undertaking some work on SSR. This demonstrates a dislocation between the two entities which needs to be rectified to ensure synchronicity and complementarity, and to also ensure the impact of the UN’s work as a whole is maximised in Iraq(see recommendations section, and section on cross-cutting issues, specifically human rights). From a UNDP perspective, any overlaps -inter or intra UNDP-will need active management in order to ensure de-confliction and to maximise impact of efforts, particularly regarding UNAMI’s role in the SSR space.


Tag: Challenges Coordination

20.

Key weaknesses:

A strategic approach to delineating and de-conflicting national roles and responsibilities of entities needs to be agreed and disseminated. This is highlighted in the Iraqi SSRP, but was not adequately reflected in the Programme. The SSRP states the lack of clarity both across, and within, security sector institutions, referring to ‘Incompleteness of job structures and descriptions’,6‘overlap and intersection among some tasks and specializations of security sector establishments,7and ‘weakness, multiplicity and task overlap’.8The SSRP also cites corruption as a challenge, acknowledging implicitly that addressing corruption is a multi-faceted task that can be addressed by clarifying human resource processes and introducing transparency about roles. Clarity should be at all levels and should include clarification about roles and responsibilities:

  • at system level,
  • mandates and jurisdiction of the Iraqi
  • institutions themselves., and
  • the various sub-committees that feed into the seven Systems(as per the Working Methods diagram, see Annex 3).

Tag: Challenges Anti-corruption Public administration reform Security

21.

3.3. Key findings for Output 2 (tranche 1): ‘The Democratic oversight capacity of the Security and Defence Committee is strengthened, and the Committee plays a more active role in SSR’ and Output 3 (tranche 2): ‘Parliamentary Security and Defence Committee plays an active role in the oversight of security sector governance in Iraq’.

Key successes:

  • The Programme supported the drafting of the by-laws of the SDC, passed in February 2018, following a series of meetings and seminars in Baghdad and a workshop in Tunis in 201710. The by-laws will help guide the work of the SDC, making it more effective and helping to ensure its work is sustainable. This is a key milestone in contributing to the relevant Outputs, as the Programme has contributed to creating the overarching policy framework of a critical parliamentary accountability mechanism. It also paves the way for further good governance capacity-building, e.g. creation of an SDC strategy.
  • Project activities during the first period of Phase II directly contributed to the Output, including, inter alia, a Regional Parliamentary Conference on SSR in Cairo which facilitated peer-to-peer engagement. In addition,a Parliamentary SDC and Civil Society Working Group was formed, following which a series of SDC and civil society consultations took place to develop a joint action plan. This was the first time such a collaboration has taken place. These forums allowed for an open discussion on issues related to SSR, including challenges and gaps in the current system.

Tag: Civic Engagement Justice system Parliament Public administration reform Rule of law

22.

 

Key weaknesses:

  • Conflating the SDC and civil society work into one Output for the second tranche under Phase II undermined the importance of the differing approach needed for developing these two distinct stakeholder groups. It also ran the risk of de-prioritising one or both groups, as the way in which they operate and engage (including with the public)differs significantly.
  • There was a lack of due emphasis in the Programme afforded to the importance of the SDC in the whole SSR process, and delays caused by the elections may have contributed to the Programme’s de-prioritisation of the SDC in the second period. In addition, the SDC was described by the Programme as being ‘completely separate’ to the SSR architecture, which it is not. Parliamentary oversight forms a critical component of a democratic reform process; a representative from the SDC is included on the Working Methods diagram because of this. However, the diagram does little to dispel the notion that the SDC is separate (or at least not critical) to the whole SSR process, as it references SDC presence at sub-committee level, whereas its role as an accountability mechanism is actually overarching and therefore it should be much more prominent.

Tag: Civic Engagement Parliament Public administration reform Oversight

23.

3.4. Key findings for Output 3 (tranche1): ‘The GoI engagement with civil society in the field of SSR is increased and civil society capacity on SSR is enhanced’and Output 3(tranche2): ‘Civil society plays an active role in the oversight of security sector governance in Iraq’.

UNDP CSO engagement has involved building on long-standing relationships with organisations (due to previous engagement through the Rule of Law Programme), as well as creating new relationships with different CSO organisations. In the first period of under Phase II, Programme activities included grants to six CSOs to undertake quick impact projects in Anbar, Salah-Al-Din, Karbala and Baghdad. These led to community-led activities to build bridges between citizens and the police, for example, football matches between teams made up of officers and local citizens.

Key successes


Tag: Civic Engagement Rule of law Security Civil Societies and NGOs

24.

Key Weaknesses

  • CSO engagement is challenging to monitor as it takes place in the regions where UNDP has limited presence.
  • The implementation time-span of the CSO projects was also quite short, as they were Quick Impact Projects (QIPs). This consequently means that long-term sustainability or impact of the projects is questionable.
  • To improve effectiveness, it was mentioned by several national stakeholders that more work could be done by the Programme to educate and sensitise more CSO regarding why they need to engage on SSR, before inviting them to place bids for SSR-related work. Many CSOs do not know what SSR in its broader sense entails, even if some aspects of their work involves engaging with security sector entities.

Tag: Challenges Civic Engagement

25.

3.5. Key findings for Output 2(second tranche): ‘Local Policing Road Map is Developed and Implemented to address public security and criminal justice requirements at national and local levels’

The development of the Local Policing Road Map in the second period of Phase II built on existing Programme engagement and relationships with the Iraqi police(see above).

After UNDP field visits, assessments and workshops had taken place to better understand the needs of police, the development of a strategic Road Map was identified as a priority. The Road Map Committee was established in April 2017(in the first period of the Programme), identifying five core functions of police that need support: security and protection management; crime management; traffic enforcement management; improving effectiveness of local police (IELP); and community policing. These core functions will be supported by operational specialisms including finance, human resources, training, equipment, infrastructure and IT and communications. The model of the referral pathway was incorporated into the Road Map and used to identify gaps and abuse of authority, from arrest to rehabilitation. The first draft of the Road Map was submitted at the end of the first period of the Programme, and the Road Map Implementation Plan was endorsed by the MoI Minister in August 2018. Two committees have been officially appointed by the MoI to oversee implementation of the Road Map:the Road Map Committee that will sit at Baghdad level, and a central committee that will oversee the implementation at governorate level. Governorate committees have been appointed, headed by the chief of police of each province.


Tag: Justice system Oversight Security Capacity Building

26.

The other component of this Output relates to the criminal justice system. Again, the work in this second period built upon engagement in the prior period. Iraq’s SSRP articulates that the security sector comprises two branches of institutions and entities: those that are concerned with security management and law enforcement (i.e. military, security services and police) and those that implement justice (eg Supreme Judicial Council and MoJ). The GoI is taking a comprehensive approach to SSR efforts in Iraq by also including Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement with specific focus on local policing. UNDP is supporting this, by co-chairing the Criminal Justice Working Group (CJWG). Members of the WG include representatives from the MoI, Higher Judicial Council (HJC), MoJ and ONSA. The focus of the group has been the introduction of best practice for complex criminal investigations. Other thematic areas are also discussed, e.g. the referral pathway of an offender through the criminal justice system, as well as police detention.


Tag: Justice system Public administration reform Rule of law Oversight

27.

Key successes:

Development of the Local Policing Road Map and agreement of the Implementation Plan is a key milestone in the SSR process, and is therefore highly relevant.It contributes to Outputs in both periods of Phase II, as it helps facilitate security sector reforms involving the police are delivered under one framework, thereby contributing towards a strategic and logical consistency of activities. Model Road Maps from other countries were used as comparative examples, and extensive consultations were conducted with national counterparts to ensure the product was Iraqi-owned, thereby engendering sustainability.


Tag: Security

28.

UNDP helped to support the development of Standard Operating Procedures on complex criminal investigations(SoPs), which involves elements of the judiciary and police working together for the first time. In order to facilitate this work, a visit was organised by UNDP to Germany for WG members, for them to observe and learn about practices in German police stations, the work of prosecutors and the functioning of the MoJ. The agreement of the SOPs marks the beginning of a major step forward in a relevant and efficient unified approach to working in the criminal justice system. It will hopefully facilitate better working, specifically between the MoI and HJC, and aims to streamline investigation procedures.


Tag: Justice system Policies & Procedures

29.

Police training (IELP basic training and ToT) courses are relevant, as they were first identified by the MoI as an important management tool to prevent and manage rime in post ISIL Iraq. They have been efficiently designed, incorporating consultations and feedback from beneficiaries, with considerable quality assurance from UNDP. Danish and Norwegian police officers assisted in deliveringI ELP and Training of the Trainer (ToT) courses, with the aim of training about 300 mid-level officers. There was a high degree of flexibility by UNDPin responding to feedback and technical input. The original course has been changed and the manual edited, as the latter was previously not properly contextualised. The current manual now utilises national crime statistics and various models have been adapted to the Iraqi context.11Furthermore, a pilot course was created for the MLM course, ensuring the balance of theoretical knowledge versus practical exercises was carefully monitored, and feedback forms evaluated and used to improve the training. This demonstrates good receptivity and adaptability to national needs and opinions.


Tag: Effectiveness Knowledge management Capacity Building

30.

Sustainability of the police training is factored into the project’s delivery. After the training,visits are conducted to duty stations to see what is being implemented by participants. It was said that the majority of participants have implemented what they had learned in some way. The target is to train a group of Iraqi police trainers; to date 72 participants have been trained. Looking forward, UNDP will coordinate with the MoI to deliver basic IELP trainings with the trained Iraqi police trainers as the lead trainers, with UNDP and Danish national police instructors as mentors. In this way the TOT trainers will start delivering the IELP basic courses while also embedding the course into their overall training plan across the organisation.It should also be noted that the Road Map is focused upon as a topic in the trainings, with a day in the MLM course discussing change management.


Tag: Change Management Sustainability Capacity Building

31.

Key weaknesses:

The Police Road Map underwent considerable consultation, but national stakeholders stated that work on it has been temporarily suspended whilst further discussions take place amongst national counterparts. Whilst UNDP disputed this, at the very least it reflects issues regarding communication and national buy-in that need to be improved. Issues were raised by several national counterparts regarding the Road Map document and process of consultation, i.e. the extent to which the Road Map encompasses the broader criminal justice system as opposed to focusing only on the police. National counterparts thereby asserted that the document was too broad. The wording was also said to be too essay-like, and not practical enough. This demonstrates a divergence of opinion that should have been discussed more comprehensively between UNDP and national counterparts prior to the document’s final agreement. Whilst it is recognised that the national environment can be problematic to navigate, it also illustrates the need for UNDP to ensure buy-in across all stakeholders in order to avoid a situation where a project is temporarily stalled –or at least where dissatisfaction is strongly felt-after a document is thought to have been finalised.


Tag: Challenges Justice system Operational Efficiency

32.

It was mentioned that sharing of information and ensuring the correct communication channels in the MoI, could be improved, as UNDP was said not be doing this as requested. For example, sharing the results of mentoring visits to police stations in the regions with the correct personnel in the MoI was said to not be taking place. UNDP was compared favourably with other IPs regarding the use of email communications, but did not fare as positively regarding consultation about field visits, or regarding communication concerning approval of training curricula.


Tag: Challenges Communication

33.

Broadening into other areas of work that feature in the Road Map’s referral pathway would maximise UNDP’s impact. This is particularly relevant regarding building on the Programme’s good work supporting the criminal justice process. One of the Police Road Map core functions mentions detention, but there is no specific focus on this in the Programme as this was not a previous priority. Components of the criminal justice referral pathway are interdependent; therefore, effective reform depends on all entities and institutions in that system being strengthened. Detention centres were mentioned by several stakeholders as a ‘problem’, with associated issues such as the disregarding of custody time limits, adherence to a confessions-based system and general poor conditions cited as the norm. If the Programme is going to retain strategic foresight in the SSR context, going forward, detention conditions and procedures will need input and attention, even if it only involves the Programme coordinating other entities that focus on related issues.


Tag: Challenges Justice system Security

34.

At the time of writing, strategic decisions had not been made regarding how the Policing Road Map is going to be rolled out across the forces. There was a lack of clarity amongst stakeholders as to how practical and operational the Road Map Implementation Plan actually is. It was asserted that the latter might need to be bolstered by way of an Action Plan, or at least more practical directions. Whilst this might be remedied as the Implementation Plan gets underway, a risk currently exists that would render the good achievement of the Road Map merely aspirational in nature. Once the Road Map is rolled out and starts to be implemented in a practical way, it will focus the forces around a single set of objectives that will act as a common vector, there by helping focus reform efforts.


Tag: Challenges Project and Programme management

35.

A future challenge for the Programme’ssupport to improve local police in Iraq will be to ensure that the Programme is alive to developments within the Federal Police(e.g. number of officers, strategic plans, jurisdiction and overlapping remits)in order to avoid major political tensions and territorialism between agencies. The absence of a robust risk log is relevant here (see above). Whilst it is acknowledged that the Programme’s remit is not to work on the ‘green’ side of the security sector reform, it can nonetheless assist in negotiating any potential tensions, given the Programme’sstrong working relationships with national counterparts.


Tag: Challenges Operational Efficiency Ownership Security

36.

Geographical roll-out of the Programme is an on-going challenge due to the security situation in some areas of the country. The role of the Area Coordinators is being reviewed, and it is also not known to what extent senior police officers will allow the mid-level officers attending the training to deliver the courses in their own districts.


Tag: Challenges Security Coordination

37.

4. Cross-cutting issues

4.1 Gender

Issues surrounding gender and SSR in Iraq are multiple, and mostly relate to the under-representation of women working in the relevant entities and taking part in decision-making in the MoI, ONSA, NSC and Iraqi Police. UNDP asserts that there remains a lack of understanding of gender issues among national counterparts, with a common perception that gender issues are being addressed adequately if there is female participation in workshops or events. The Programme also asserts that whilst IPs recognise the need to improve gender equality in the SSR process, they only focus on training national counterparts on gender, with no follow-up or further strategic-level engagement to help national entities to define a clear gender policy.


Tag: Challenges Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Integration Results-Based Management Capacity Building Women and gilrs Youth

38.

4.2 Human rights

The UN Country Programme Document 2016 –2020 states that the 2015 strategic assessment mission, deployed in April 2015, recommended a focus on, inter alia, human rights.13Human rights is specifically mentioned in the ToR for this evaluation, although it is not referenced as a distinct cross-cutting issue in either of the two Programme Documents. This is surprising given the multiple human rights issues inherent in both security sector engagement, and working in such a high-risk context.

Iraq’s SSRP states ‘Ensuring security and peace is a tough challenge for all nations because security, development and human rights are interconnected, and they promote one another to establish security and peace’.14It goes on to state that one of the bases of the SSR Programme is ‘To follow a comprehensive and consistent SSR approach to ensure a general reform framework that is transparent and based on international standards and human rights’.


Tag: Challenges Human rights Rule of law Security

39.

4.3 Corruption

Corruption is not listed as a cross-cutting issue in the ToR, although this evaluation has nonetheless considered it, as it is a critical and omnipresent challenge for the security sector. Corruption is an endemic problem in Iraq,17and most stakeholders pro-actively highlighted corruption as being the ‘biggest challenge’ they are facing that is not being addressed. Corruption can take many forms, including nepotism, bribery and State capture. The Iraqi-drafted SSRP also recognises this, articulating corruption as being both ‘Administrative and Financial,’ and listing it as one of the 15 weaknesses that need to be addressed. The SSRP sets out aims to ‘limit political interference, nepotism and favouritism.....enhancing capacities in combating administrative and financial corruption....activating the role of...civil society in combating administrative and financial corruption......enforcing the law’. Corruption is also implicitly addressed in the SSRP when it talks about ensuring clarity regarding entity and individual roles and responsibilities.


Tag: Civic Engagement Rule of law Operational Efficiency Challenges Anti-corruption

Recommendations
1

1. Strategic oversight and maximising impact

1.1 The Programme needs to assess its forward-looking Programme in line with this evaluation.

2

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact

1.2 UNDP needs to take a much more decisive and pro-active role in convening and coordinating national and international stakeholders, as this is the Programme’s biggest weakness. UNDP should consider recruiting a dedicated coordination role (that could also be an SSR technical expert) that would span all thematic areas within the SSR Programme, acting as the touchstone and motivator to push forward the SSR agenda. Further, UNDP’s coordinating function needs to be communicated clearly to all stakeholders, preferably in a forum that already exists (e.g. an IP meeting).

3

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

1.3 In order to fully realise its convening and coordinating function, UNDP needs to convene regular meetings that are effective, as set out below. It is not suggested that the Programme should create and add more meetings to what is already taking place, but rather to make the meetings that do take place relevant and useful, as most stakeholders stated that they were dissatisfied with what is currently taking place

4

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

UNDP currently does not support national coordination, but given the weaknesses of coordination overall, consideration should now be given to supporting such assistance. UNDP needs to consider funding or facilitating the provision of additional one or two staff members at the SSR Secretariat and / or the ONSA, which would ensure that the process remains nationally owned. Ideally the assistance would be Arabic speaking, and would serve a dual purpose as both capacity-building the ONSA staff on coordination issues, as well as facilitating national coordination in a way that would offer a high level of coherence to all stakeholders.

5

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

UNDP should undertake, or commission ANCSS to undertake, a mapping exercise of the overlap and synergies across different areas of work in the SSR context, specifically the Seven Systems. This ‘connecting the dots’ exercise will facilitate de-confliction, and strengthen complementary areas (e.g. ensuring legislation is in place in order for all Systems to function effectively, such as security legislation and legislation empowering the intelligence community). It can act as a vector and platform in focusing stakeholder discussions, including regarding sequencing of activities. Part of this mapping exercise should include specifying (or suggesting for approval) roles and responsibilities / ToRs for all entities in the SSR context, including all stakeholders across the seven Systems, along with actions and deadlines for the various System Leads and functions.

6

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 6:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

UNDP can enhance its role in supporting the proposed NSS review. This provides an ideal opportunity for UNDP to bolster its coordination efforts in line with the above recommendations and demonstrate to all stakeholders the added value UNDP brings to the SSR process. This includes its access to technical expertise and its existing and long-standing good relationships with national partners. Using its convening power, UNDP can liaise with the NSC, NSA and DNSA to ensure the agreement of the SSR Action Plan process. UNDP could instigate the review by liaising with stakeholders and providing clear options and advice. Within this, it is imperative that long and short-term goals are clearly articulated.

7

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 7:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

Emphasis should be given to having an increased UNDP presence across the country as this will not only ensure UNDP can meet its targets, but it also enhances the added value of UNDP to IPs that do not have access to the provinces. The current Area Coordinators’ roles are limited due to the fact that the MoI in Baghdad can link up with police across the regions. However, the role of the Area Coordinators needs to be maintained and broadened given the scale-up of the Programme, and if work with CSOs is going to continue.

 

 

8

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 8:

Cross Cutting Issues:

  • The Programme should reformulate the forward-looking Programme Document to include critical cross-cutting issues, and to adapt its activities accordingly. An innovative approach needs to be adopted at activity level, so that human rights training is relevant to context and overcomes beneficiary fatigue.
  • The Programme should either procure a consultant, or work with other UN entities, to conduct an assessment(s) on relevant cross-cutting issues and SSR; specifically, human rights, gender, corruption, and youth empowerment. Focus needs to be on how these issues can be strategically incorporated into the Programme and mainstreamed across activities. A review of human rights in the SSR process should be undertaken in order that it is not seen as a circumstantial by-product of SSR engagement. Human rights would ordinarily be the remit of UNAMI, although as already mentioned, there did not appear to be synchronicity between UNAMI and the UNDP SSR Programme. The adoption of the referral pathway model incorporated into the Policing Road Map provides a good entry point and framework for this type of assessment, as well as reflecting existing UNDP work. However, it should be noted that relevant human rights issues are broader than the criminal justice referral pathway, as they cover issues relating to work across the seven Systems. This review could then be shared with stakeholders, acting as a common narrative as well as a platform for convening resources and strategizing interventions.

 

  • Corruption needs to be clearly articulated and given due prominence in the forward-looking Programme Document, as it is a critical challenge that cannot be ignored. The Programme should support a review, conducted either by an independent expert or the ANCSS, of how corruption affects each of the seven Systems. This would act as a touchstone to bring stakeholders together in order that they can better focus on the most appropriate interventions. Similarly, gender issues[1] need to be reinforced going forward, following a thorough gender assessment.

     

 

9

9. Strengthening UNDP capacity and processes

9.1 UNDP’s core SSR team needs to be augmented, in order to ensure continuity and sustainability are maximised

9.2 Monitoring and Evaluation within the Country Office needs to be improved

9.3 It is strongly recommended that a future outcome-based evaluation

9.4 Risks need to be properly scoped and assessed 

 

10

Police engagement:

UNDP should strengthen its work with the MoI and police. This means clarifying means and lines of communication, specifically regarding communication through the MoI International Cooperation and Coordination Committee. It also includes clarifying with stakeholders whether an Action Plan is needed as well as the Implementation Plan for the Road Map. There was a lack of clarity amongst stakeholders as to how practical and operational the Implementation Plan currently is. The absence of a practical Action Plan risks rendering the good achievement of the Road Map merely aspirational and impossible to realise.

11

Criminal justice: UNDP needs to continue to enhance or scale up its work on the broader justice component of SSR. This can include focusing on detention issues (police cells, military and civilian prisons), or working alongside other entities that have this focus, e.g. UNODC, and border management. If some of this work does not fall into future programmatic plans, UNDP should at the least be convening others that can fulfil this role.

12

SDC engagement:

UNDP should prioritise and strengthen its work with the SDC. Investing more in the SDC will demonstrate to other stakeholders that the SDC is not separate to the SSR process, but instead forms an integral part of necessary democratic and accountability processes and oversight.  There needs to be a significant reframing of the messaging of its role, both to counterparts and IPs.  The Working Methods document should be re-visualised, as it has been shared with counterparts and IPs, and places the SDC at the sub-committee level, whereas its role is actually overarching and should be much more prominent. Encouragement can also be given by UNDP to other national agencies to for members of the SDC to attend various high-level meetings.[1] The SDC by-laws represent good progress in strengthening the SDC, but it is only a four-page document that outlines the basic functioning, remit and human resources hierarchy of the SDC. UNDP should capitalise on this previous good work by supporting the SDC to create its own Strategy and Action Plan as well as further policies, as directed by the SDC. A Strategy and Action Plan would assist the SDC to set goals for what entities and issues they would like to investigate or focus upon. Further policies may also be beneficial in setting out, for example, the methodology that will be applied to research that the SDC hopes to undertake. 

 

UNDP should support continued collaboration between the SDC and civil society. This can include joint presence at the proposed CSO sensitisation events mentioned below.

 


[1] The Programme should also ensure from the SDC side that appropriate senior representatives attend any external meetings. It was said that junior representatives had in the past attended external meetings, which might have contributed to the SDC in general not being perceived as being a critical stakeholder.   

13

Civil society engagement:

 

  • UNDP needs to build more bridges with CSOs and take a more pro-active approach to CSO engagement on SSR issues, moving away from Quick Impact Projects to longer-term activities. The latter have a better chance of being more sustainable, thereby also representing sound financial investment. UNDP should therefore plan and budget for longer-term CSO engagement, by:

 

  • firstly, seeking to build upon what CSOs have already been doing, and continuing to support the most successful activities;

 

  • secondly, by inviting a wide array of CSOs to a forum (or several forums by region, if more appropriate), and sensitising them to SSR. This would include discussing what SSR is, how SSR impacts local communities, how CSOs can work at the local community level (e.g. through community policing models, or advocating for the same), and at the higher national level by advocating for strengthening of accountability processes through the passing of legislation. This would hopefully cultivate interest from organisations that have historically been focused on other issues, but could in future be valuable SSR partners;

 

  • Thirdly, in order to ensure that corruption is a topic that remains in the public eye, there is a need to sensitise NGOs as to why and how they can focus on corruption, and how it undermines effective SSR. This includes awareness-raising on relevant accountability mechanisms, both within parliament and inter-entity. Similarly, SSR and gender, human rights and youth empowerment issues should be focused upon so that NGOs are better informed and able to support work in these areas; and

 

  • Fourthly, increasing presence across the country as areas become more easily accessible.
1. Recommendation:

1. Strategic oversight and maximising impact

1.1 The Programme needs to assess its forward-looking Programme in line with this evaluation.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/04/14] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

  The recommendation will be taken into consideration.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The Programme team and the CO Programme Management Support Unit (PMSU) will review SSR 2019 -2021 multi programme ' Support to Security and Justice Sector Governance in Post ISIL Iraq' and assess should any revisions to the same is required where necessary and attend to the needful.
[Added: 2019/04/14] [Last Updated: 2019/12/25]
RoL/SSR Programme and PMSU 2019/05 Completed In discussed with PMSU it was agreed that it is prudent that the identified revisions to be incorporated into the Atlast system beginning of 2020 following the completion of all relevant 2019 year end reporting exercises. History
2. Recommendation:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact

1.2 UNDP needs to take a much more decisive and pro-active role in convening and coordinating national and international stakeholders, as this is the Programme’s biggest weakness. UNDP should consider recruiting a dedicated coordination role (that could also be an SSR technical expert) that would span all thematic areas within the SSR Programme, acting as the touchstone and motivator to push forward the SSR agenda. Further, UNDP’s coordinating function needs to be communicated clearly to all stakeholders, preferably in a forum that already exists (e.g. an IP meeting).

Management Response: [Added: 2019/04/14] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

The recommendation will be taken into consideration.  It should be noted that while UNDP's role involve coordinating International Partners (IP) engaged in advising and assisting the Government to implement its SSR Programme, coordination of National Partners  (NP) is not the role of UNDP.  The role of NP coordination relevant to each of the identified SSR priority at 'system' and 'institutional' levels is led by an IP engaged in supporting that specific system priority and, corresponding institutions. Therefore, within UNDP's role and remit in IP coordination it will take appropriate action to further encourage those IP leads to improve national partner coordination.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Seek donor assistance for an in-kind deployment of an SSR Coordinator to assist UNDP Senior SSR Advisor in IP Partner Coordination including in the development of a 'SSR international partner support Matrix'/ Mapping exercise of IP support and specific activities across SSR 'system' levels that is an identified gap by UNDP SSR team for IP Coordination.
[Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2020/01/27]
Rule of law/ SSR Programme 2019/07 Completed Donor assistance together with a corresponding ToR for an in- kind deployment for an SSR Coordinator to assist the UNDP SSR Advisor on the above task was sought from both Denmark and a recent opportunity that CO was presented to submit expression of interest for IUNV. ( At such time when one of the donors finds a suitable candidate in response to the in-kind deployment request they will inform us ) History
2.2 In order to strengthen IP coordination and, also NP coordination at 'system' and 'institutional' levels, submit a proposal to the GoI National SSR Coordinator from ONSA to establish a suitable reporting mechanism for sub- working groups at SSR system level.
[Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2019/12/25]
Rule of law / SSR programme 2019/03 Completed Same ToR was recently submitted for an IUNV opportunity that the CO was presented with. History
2.3 Subject to ONSA approval on the above proposal, develop sub working group TOR and finalize the same in consultation with ONSA and relevant IP leads and initiate revise system level sub - working groups.
[Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2019/12/25]
Rule of law /SSR Programme 2019/06 Completed All 'systems' now have an assigned IP lead coordinator. History
3. Recommendation:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

1.3 In order to fully realise its convening and coordinating function, UNDP needs to convene regular meetings that are effective, as set out below. It is not suggested that the Programme should create and add more meetings to what is already taking place, but rather to make the meetings that do take place relevant and useful, as most stakeholders stated that they were dissatisfied with what is currently taking place

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/07] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

The recommendation will be taken into consideration and given that this recommendation is a corresponding elaboration to 'Recommendation 2'  above, specific key actions and aligned activities elaborated under recommendation 2 will also apply to key actions and activities under this recommendation. 

Key Actions:

4. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

UNDP currently does not support national coordination, but given the weaknesses of coordination overall, consideration should now be given to supporting such assistance. UNDP needs to consider funding or facilitating the provision of additional one or two staff members at the SSR Secretariat and / or the ONSA, which would ensure that the process remains nationally owned. Ideally the assistance would be Arabic speaking, and would serve a dual purpose as both capacity-building the ONSA staff on coordination issues, as well as facilitating national coordination in a way that would offer a high level of coherence to all stakeholders.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/07] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

The recommendation that time sensitive and,  also  subject to Government's potential future priorities will be considered  as such time at a future request of Government for UNDP's advice and  assist for National level Coordination related to GoI SSRP implementation. It should be noted that currently, on going UNDP support to the Government’s SSR efforts are based on its request for UNDP advice and assistance, therefore given the implementation of the GoI SSRP is a government owned and led process UNDP will provide advice and assistance to this important endeavor on the request of the Government. Currently SSRP national coordination is not a GoI identified priority task nor an intervention that UNDP is best placed to undertake both in terms of its programmatic priorities and available resources.

Key Actions:

5. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

UNDP should undertake, or commission ANCSS to undertake, a mapping exercise of the overlap and synergies across different areas of work in the SSR context, specifically the Seven Systems. This ‘connecting the dots’ exercise will facilitate de-confliction, and strengthen complementary areas (e.g. ensuring legislation is in place in order for all Systems to function effectively, such as security legislation and legislation empowering the intelligence community). It can act as a vector and platform in focusing stakeholder discussions, including regarding sequencing of activities. Part of this mapping exercise should include specifying (or suggesting for approval) roles and responsibilities / ToRs for all entities in the SSR context, including all stakeholders across the seven Systems, along with actions and deadlines for the various System Leads and functions.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/07] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

The recommendation will be taken into consideration corresponding to the stated  Recommendation 2 above and, Key Action 2.1 and corresponding Activity 2.1

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
N/A
[Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2020/01/27]
N /A 2019/12 Completed The action taken to address this recommendation is linked to the action taken to address recommendation-2 and corresponding activity 2.1 which is already marked as "completed" History
6. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 6:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

UNDP can enhance its role in supporting the proposed NSS review. This provides an ideal opportunity for UNDP to bolster its coordination efforts in line with the above recommendations and demonstrate to all stakeholders the added value UNDP brings to the SSR process. This includes its access to technical expertise and its existing and long-standing good relationships with national partners. Using its convening power, UNDP can liaise with the NSC, NSA and DNSA to ensure the agreement of the SSR Action Plan process. UNDP could instigate the review by liaising with stakeholders and providing clear options and advice. Within this, it is imperative that long and short-term goals are clearly articulated.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/07] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

Work related to this recommendation is already on going.  On 9 September 2018, ONSA requested in writing for UNDP strategic advice  to undertake a review of the National Security Strategy (NSS) in view of the changing context in  post -ISIL. As a first step UNDP conducted an initial internal review of the NSS and shared key findings with ONSA and, following the appointment of a GoI special committee to undertake the review the first review meeting is scheduled to take place in April 2019. UNDP will continue to assist in this important endeavor and the expected approximate time schedule from ONSA to complete this task is from April - August 2019.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Provide on going advice and assistance to NSS review Committee to undertake the NSS review. (Note; Time frame i is dedicated by the GoI NSS review Committee therefore this may be subject to change in the coming months)
[Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2021/03/22]
RoL/SSR Programme 2021/03 Completed The project team provided and is providing the necessary support continuously to NSS and ONSA History
7. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 7:

Strategic oversight and maximizing impact:

Emphasis should be given to having an increased UNDP presence across the country as this will not only ensure UNDP can meet its targets, but it also enhances the added value of UNDP to IPs that do not have access to the provinces. The current Area Coordinators’ roles are limited due to the fact that the MoI in Baghdad can link up with police across the regions. However, the role of the Area Coordinators needs to be maintained and broadened given the scale-up of the Programme, and if work with CSOs is going to continue.

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/07] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

Management Response:  

With regard UNDP overall  on going advice and assistance to ONSA in its efforts to implement GoI SSR Programme is Baghdad centric and managed, facilitated and overseen by the relevant senior government officials and corresponding ministries /agencies from Baghdad. Therefore at this point of time expanding UNDP's presence the across country to assist in this work is neither viable, appropriate, necessary nor required.  As such time if there is a need to provide National level assistance to implement the SSRP on the request of ONSA, UNDP will consider increasing its presence at national level beyond Baghdad.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
N /A
[Added: 2019/11/24]
RoL/SSR Programme 2019/10 Completed
8. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 8:

Cross Cutting Issues:

  • The Programme should reformulate the forward-looking Programme Document to include critical cross-cutting issues, and to adapt its activities accordingly. An innovative approach needs to be adopted at activity level, so that human rights training is relevant to context and overcomes beneficiary fatigue.
  • The Programme should either procure a consultant, or work with other UN entities, to conduct an assessment(s) on relevant cross-cutting issues and SSR; specifically, human rights, gender, corruption, and youth empowerment. Focus needs to be on how these issues can be strategically incorporated into the Programme and mainstreamed across activities. A review of human rights in the SSR process should be undertaken in order that it is not seen as a circumstantial by-product of SSR engagement. Human rights would ordinarily be the remit of UNAMI, although as already mentioned, there did not appear to be synchronicity between UNAMI and the UNDP SSR Programme. The adoption of the referral pathway model incorporated into the Policing Road Map provides a good entry point and framework for this type of assessment, as well as reflecting existing UNDP work. However, it should be noted that relevant human rights issues are broader than the criminal justice referral pathway, as they cover issues relating to work across the seven Systems. This review could then be shared with stakeholders, acting as a common narrative as well as a platform for convening resources and strategizing interventions.

 

  • Corruption needs to be clearly articulated and given due prominence in the forward-looking Programme Document, as it is a critical challenge that cannot be ignored. The Programme should support a review, conducted either by an independent expert or the ANCSS, of how corruption affects each of the seven Systems. This would act as a touchstone to bring stakeholders together in order that they can better focus on the most appropriate interventions. Similarly, gender issues[1] need to be reinforced going forward, following a thorough gender assessment.

     

 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/07] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

Note that UNDP has recommended to ONSA the inclusion of 'cross- cutting issues' in the proposed revision of the Security Sector Reform Programme (SSRP) following the planned NSS review; this remains an area of on going dialogue/ work.

Human Rights: trainings are already undertaken by a range of IP stakeholders and it is an already over crowded sector that will add no added value by expanding UNDP limited resources to human rights training. Additionally from the UNCT in Iraq there is dedicated team of Human Rights experts in the Office of Human Rights to persue this important topic and UNDP will continue to collaborate and coordinate with UNCT's OHR where necessary. Further more respect for and protection of human rights forms one of the underlying principles and norms of UNDP's SSR/RoL Programme of work.

 

Corruption: Curbing corruption is a GoI priority and, UNDP CO has a separate on going programme of work that focuses on Anti - Corruption. Within the GoI SSR efforts and UNDP SSR/RoL programme anti -corruption or rather allowing a supporting environment to curb corruption is another key underlying principle and hence the 2019 -2021 multi year programme of work's key focus is Support to Security and Justice Sector Governance in post - ISIL Iraq.

 

Youth empowerment: This is a an overarching focus of UNDP support to GoI SSR efforts and currently through CSO small grants schemes UNDP is continuing to engage more youth in liberated and other areas to engage with security and justice service providers to address local safety and security issues with the local communities.

Gender: Increased participation of both men and women in Iraq's SSR efforts is an on going challenge predominantly resulting from cultural and social norms as well as prevailing notions of masculinity. As 2019 SSR specific policy priorities ONSA has identified this as a current gap and has appointed a committee to present a paper on existing gaps in gender equality in Iraq's security sector and recommendations to address these challenges. Subject to securing additional funding UNDP SSR Programme intends to hire a dedicated 1-2 Gender Advisors to advice and assist the UNDP's key government counter parts in this sphere and also assist the Programme team to integrate a gender sensitive approach to UNDP's on going work within broader SSR as well as specific thematic streams such as policing and criminal justice spheres . Given this is one the key challenges in the SSR programme at present it would have helped if the External Evaluation provided a set of specific and tangible recommendations for UNDP's perusal on this topic.

 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
N /A
[Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2020/01/28]
RoL/SSR Programme 2019/12 Canceled
9. Recommendation:

9. Strengthening UNDP capacity and processes

9.1 UNDP’s core SSR team needs to be augmented, in order to ensure continuity and sustainability are maximised

9.2 Monitoring and Evaluation within the Country Office needs to be improved

9.3 It is strongly recommended that a future outcome-based evaluation

9.4 Risks need to be properly scoped and assessed 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

9.1 

The recommendation will be taken into consideration subject to securing additional funding to hire additional staff.  Subject to securing additional funding UNDP SSR Programme plans to hire two international positions  - Gender Advisor and Programme Analyst and two national positions Project Coordinator and Translator.  Furthermore in order to assist with the programme's new area of engaged on community security integration pilot ( CSIP) for which funding has already been secured recruitment for  two international positions - CSIP Advisor  and CSIP M&E Advisor and two national positions Project Coordinator and Senior Project Assistant/ Translator is in progress.

9.2

A new organogram has been developed to overcome the M&E weak points that resulted from separating the M&E responsibilities between two units (PU & MSU); according to the new organogram, a dedicated M&E specialist will be setting and tracking M&E plans and activities.

9.3

The outcome evaluations will be conducted based on the 2018 evaluation guidance and these will be conducted at least once during the programme cycle of the new CPD which is set to start from 2020. Any additional outcome will be done in light of the new evaluation plan for the new CPD and on the discretion of senior management

9.4

The recommendation will be taken into consideration and work is in progress. Risk log for the SSR multi- year programme of work covering 2019 -2021 is in place and, will be updated on a quarterly basis on Atlas. Last update was in December 2018. Furthermore from 2015 -2018 SRR programme was implemented on time and against corresponding targets of the AWP despite the highly sensitive nature of the programme and, the challenging operational context because risks were assessed regularly and where necessary timely action was taken in consultation with GoI implementing partners to mitigate and address the same.

 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
9.1 Initiate action to hire CSIP Advisor, M&E Advisor, Project Coordinator and Senior Project Assistant/ Translator.
[Added: 2019/12/25]
RoL/SSR Programme and HR Unit 2019/05 Completed Project personnel are in place and fully embedded to the programme
9.4. Risk log in place and reviewed & updated quarterly on Atlas.
[Added: 2019/12/25]
RoL/SSR Programme and PMSU 2019/12 Completed During 2019 the risk log was reviewed and updated on a quarterly basis.
10. Recommendation:

Police engagement:

UNDP should strengthen its work with the MoI and police. This means clarifying means and lines of communication, specifically regarding communication through the MoI International Cooperation and Coordination Committee. It also includes clarifying with stakeholders whether an Action Plan is needed as well as the Implementation Plan for the Road Map. There was a lack of clarity amongst stakeholders as to how practical and operational the Implementation Plan currently is. The absence of a practical Action Plan risks rendering the good achievement of the Road Map merely aspirational and impossible to realise.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

The Ministry of Interior (MoI) developed the Local Police Service Road Map with  technical support and, strategic advice from UNDP. The Road Map provides a strategy for Iraqi police transition from a fighting 'force' to a public security 'service' in post liberation- Iraq (i.e.transition from 'Green' to 'Blue' Policing). The MoI Minister endorsed the Road Map on 16 May 2018. Its implementation plan was developed and, approved on 12 August 2018. The official launch of the Road Map took place on 12 November 2018 under the auspices of the MoI's Police Affairs Agency. It was followed by a series of orientation workshops for MoI and, police mid- senior officials from liberated and other areas in Iraq. The overall purpose of these orientation workshops is to introduce the Road Map and, initiate its implementation. The workshops also seek recommendations from provincial police for its implementation that is critical to ensure this important work is context specific and, responsive to the local level needs and challenges. Road Map orientation initiative at provincial level will continue till 30 May 2019 covering all provincial police commands in Iraq. Following this the Central Committee and Provincial Committees will identify Road Map core functions that are priorities based on the specific operational context in the respective provinces for implementation. UNDP will continue to advice and assist the Police Affairs Agency and relevant provincial police commands in its implementation. Furthermore, following the completion of provincial level orientation workshops, UNDP and Central Committee will also develop and finalize a plan to facilitate IP coordination in support of Road Map's implementation.

Key Actions:

11. Recommendation:

Criminal justice: UNDP needs to continue to enhance or scale up its work on the broader justice component of SSR. This can include focusing on detention issues (police cells, military and civilian prisons), or working alongside other entities that have this focus, e.g. UNODC, and border management. If some of this work does not fall into future programmatic plans, UNDP should at the least be convening others that can fulfil this role.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

It should be noted that UNDP is already engaged in GoI SSR identified priority under 'Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement' system and, corresponding to the 'suspects journey' to establish a unified approach criminal investigations. This has remained a gap for in the Criminal Justice sector for decades. Within Criminal Justice reform priorities MoI, HJC and MoJ have identified this specific aspect of the ' suspect's journey' to be addressed as the most pressing priority recognizing the overlap of roles and responsibilities related to criminal investigations and, the requirement for a unified approach. The GoI appointed Criminal Justice Working Group -CJWG  (composing senior representatives from MoI, HJC and MoJ) under the 'Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement' system requested UNDP advice and assistance to elaborate a unified Standard Operating Procedure for Criminal Investigations. ( SoP). This work was initiated in 2017 with a dedicated UNDP Senior Criminal Justice Advisor in place. With advice and assistance from UNDP the CJWG has finalized the SoP and, is pending MoI endorsement that is expected by April 2019. It is to be implemented as a MoI Regulation. UNDP will continue to work with the CJWG in the SoP implementation. The SoP is also a priority recommendation under the Local Police Road Map's core function 'security management' and, therefore this work will directly correspond and contribute to UNDP's on going support to implement the Local Police Service Road Map.

In view, it would have been useful if the above recommendation focused on providing some concrete and specific recommendations to improve UNDP's on going work related to SoP for Criminal Investigations specifically looking forward the up coming implementation phase.

Correctional Services including detention remains an identified gap where there is no IP support and where appetite for IP to this area also remains low. This is also not an identified programme priority in UNDP SSR multi -year programme 2019 -2021 which was developed in close consultation with National Partners and, building on from the work UNDP has already undertaken to support Government’s efforts in SSR in post- ISIL Iraq. However, UNDP will continue to advocate and encourage IP to correctional services and has already brought to the attention of UNODC during its scoping missions to Iraq in 2018.

Key Actions:

12. Recommendation:

SDC engagement:

UNDP should prioritise and strengthen its work with the SDC. Investing more in the SDC will demonstrate to other stakeholders that the SDC is not separate to the SSR process, but instead forms an integral part of necessary democratic and accountability processes and oversight.  There needs to be a significant reframing of the messaging of its role, both to counterparts and IPs.  The Working Methods document should be re-visualised, as it has been shared with counterparts and IPs, and places the SDC at the sub-committee level, whereas its role is actually overarching and should be much more prominent. Encouragement can also be given by UNDP to other national agencies to for members of the SDC to attend various high-level meetings.[1] The SDC by-laws represent good progress in strengthening the SDC, but it is only a four-page document that outlines the basic functioning, remit and human resources hierarchy of the SDC. UNDP should capitalise on this previous good work by supporting the SDC to create its own Strategy and Action Plan as well as further policies, as directed by the SDC. A Strategy and Action Plan would assist the SDC to set goals for what entities and issues they would like to investigate or focus upon. Further policies may also be beneficial in setting out, for example, the methodology that will be applied to research that the SDC hopes to undertake. 

 

UNDP should support continued collaboration between the SDC and civil society. This can include joint presence at the proposed CSO sensitisation events mentioned below.

 


[1] The Programme should also ensure from the SDC side that appropriate senior representatives attend any external meetings. It was said that junior representatives had in the past attended external meetings, which might have contributed to the SDC in general not being perceived as being a critical stakeholder.   

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

The recommendation will be taken into consideration and UNDP will continue to engage with SDC and CSOs during 2019 and beyond within SSR Programme's multi -year programme specifically assisting the newly established SDC under the new government to maximize the SDC by laws to play an active role in oversight aspects of SSR in close collaboration with CSOs.

( Note: At the time of  completing the Management Responses the newly established SDC is pending the appointment of its Chair that is expected in April 2019 and thereby complete the formation of the SDC under the new government following parliamentary elections in May 2019. UNDP will resume its work in this sphere following the appointment of the new SDC Chair as per the standard protocol and practice) 

Key Actions:

13. Recommendation:

Civil society engagement:

 

  • UNDP needs to build more bridges with CSOs and take a more pro-active approach to CSO engagement on SSR issues, moving away from Quick Impact Projects to longer-term activities. The latter have a better chance of being more sustainable, thereby also representing sound financial investment. UNDP should therefore plan and budget for longer-term CSO engagement, by:

 

  • firstly, seeking to build upon what CSOs have already been doing, and continuing to support the most successful activities;

 

  • secondly, by inviting a wide array of CSOs to a forum (or several forums by region, if more appropriate), and sensitising them to SSR. This would include discussing what SSR is, how SSR impacts local communities, how CSOs can work at the local community level (e.g. through community policing models, or advocating for the same), and at the higher national level by advocating for strengthening of accountability processes through the passing of legislation. This would hopefully cultivate interest from organisations that have historically been focused on other issues, but could in future be valuable SSR partners;

 

  • Thirdly, in order to ensure that corruption is a topic that remains in the public eye, there is a need to sensitise NGOs as to why and how they can focus on corruption, and how it undermines effective SSR. This includes awareness-raising on relevant accountability mechanisms, both within parliament and inter-entity. Similarly, SSR and gender, human rights and youth empowerment issues should be focused upon so that NGOs are better informed and able to support work in these areas; and

 

  • Fourthly, increasing presence across the country as areas become more easily accessible.
Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/24] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

The recommendation is well noted.  Recognizing that Iraqi CSOs are not experienced in engaging in a senstive issue such as SSR a step by step approach was adopted by the UNDP RoL/SSR Programme to engage with CSOs in this sphere. In view the CSO quick impact projects are viewed as a first step in this endeavor where CSOs are provided with support to  develop collaborative partnerships with local level security and justice service providers to improve local saferty and security. This work has allowed UNDP to engage with and continue to build a network of Iraqi CSOs from both liberated and other areas. Additionally UNDP has also invovled these CSOs in joint trainings on SSR and related issues with SDC since 2015 to-date.

 

In view UNDP will continue to engage with Iraqi CSOs through quick impact projects in the coming years building a strong network of CSOs from liberated and other areas who will be pro active in engaging in SSR related issues particularly where their engagement will add value in the areas of improving local policing, criminal justice and oversight of security and justice service at local level.

Key Actions:

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