Mid Term Evaluation of Support to Parliament

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2021, Zimbabwe
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
09/2017
Completion Date:
10/2017
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
42,000

Share

Document Type Language Size Status Downloads
Download document Final MTR Review Report JLMM.docx report English 244.86 KB Posted 1340
Download document UNDP Zimbabwe- Terms of Reference for Parliament Support Programme Mid-Term Review.docx tor English 61.48 KB Posted 1136
Title Mid Term Evaluation of Support to Parliament
Atlas Project Number: 00087153
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2021, Zimbabwe
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 10/2017
Planned End Date: 09/2017
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Democratic Governance
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.1. Parliaments, constitution making bodies and electoral institutions enabled to perform core functions for improved accountability, participation and representation, including for peaceful transitions
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
SDG Target
  • 16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
  • 16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
  • 5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
Evaluation Budget(US $): 42,000
Source of Funding: EC and UNDP
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 45,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: EC, UNDP and Government of Zimbabwe
Countries: ZIMBABWE
Lessons
1.

There is scope for sustainability of organizational and individual capacity development efforts through documented training manuals, organizational systems manuals etc. but continuation is likely to be constrained by the lack of financial resources for continued implementation

There are opportunities for self-funding given its Constitutional independence

Sustainability of capacity, while anchored on the training manuals produced, is not broad enough to formulate a system that allows regeneration of capacity to the levels of that developed by the PSP

Citizen participation in legislation is likely to be stalled unless alternative and effective means are identified and piloted


Findings
1.

Strategy

The PSP has, correctly, a section that describes the strategy of the programme and the principles guiding the implementation. The core of the strategy is to show the link between output and inputs, between outputs and outcomes, and to draw lessons from the previous programme and the evaluation thereof. It justifies any continuity from the previous programme by the high turnover of members of parliament between the last programme and itself. It also commits support to uphold the regional and global engagements of Parliament.

The strategy is the programme’s response to the challenges to Parliament of Zimbabwe and to the Office of the  Auditor General, which have been clearly articulated, but without reference to what has been achieved through or if not, the shortcomings of the previous programmes.


Tag: Parliament Results-Based Management

2.

Framing Strategies and Policies

The PSP asserts that “The strategy of this programme document is anchored on, and is consistent with, a number of key policy documents of the Government of Zimbabwe, relevant international and regional frameworks as well as agreements with its development partners.” First, apart from listing them, this is all that is said about these documents. It does not demonstrate even briefly how these, individually and collectively anchor the strategy, except in the results resources matrix where the link to the UNDP strategic plan, UNDAF and Country Programme Document (CPD) are associated with the PSP outcome areas, which is mandatory. In addition, the agreements with development partners are mentioned but not elaborated in terms of how they were factored into the PSP. Highlighting key elements in these institutional documents – government, UNDP, EU, POZ, Sweden etc. – help to understand how much the PSP is based on them. A programme document that brings more than one partner together represents either a convergence of interests or compromise, understanding either of which is important in anticipating implementation issues down the line. This is because it is important to grasp and take into account the partners’ interests in supporting POZ and the perspectives they bring, and how each’s comparative advantage would be leveraged for the success of the programme.[1] A good theory of change would have been able to capture these.


Tag: Relevance Results-Based Management

3.

Theory of Change

Then the programme discusses its underlying theory of change. In section II, the programme discusses challenges for both Parliament and the Office of the Auditor General. These are presumably the basis for the strategy, but are not discussed at all in the strategy section.

The programme discusses a theory of change (ToC), which it says “is primarily intended to inform the planning of the PSP”. Indeed, that is what a ToC should do. But there is hardly any presentation of the ToC. After mentioning the ToC on Page 10 para 33. Apart from part of para 34 that discusses the importance of Parliament, the discussion that follows is in fact an introduction of the programme components and the process of selecting outcomes from Parliament’s ISP. Thus, while theory of change is mentioned in the document, there is no discussion either in the main body of the document or as an annex. The one complete presentation is in the table at the end of the document titled “Theory of Change/Results Chain.”


Tag: Challenges Parliament Programme/Project Design Theory of Change

4.

Application of Lessons to the design

Also mentioned but not discussed is the fact that the programme has benefitted from the lessons of the previous programme. Except for M&E, it does not say which lessons and how these have been factored in the PSP.  The final evaluation of this PSP’s most recent predecessor programme does not contain a section on lessons so it would be difficult to check the lessons learnt unless they were stated. Showing which lessons learnt were applied to the design of this programme would have been helpful to all stakeholders and indeed evaluators to appreciate the progressive learning by all involved institutions – especially in this case where some of the key players are the same - and to assess how the learning may or may not have led to improved development results. Also missing is any significant mention of the programme’s pedigree as the third in the rolling plan of multi-donor supported PSP, or demonstration of the continuity or lack thereof.

This part of the strategy could have enriched the PSP by situating it’s successful past and shown it as a continuation that is building on those past successes. While it mentions that Zimbabwe has had a history of successful parliamentary reform, there is very little elaboration to situate this PSP in that tradition and show how it is taking it forward.


Tag: Parliament Programme/Project Design

5.

Partnership Strategy

The PSP is designed to respond to, and help implement Parliament’s ISP. Development and other partners are expected to derive their focus and develop their support strategies to the PSP from their understanding and commitment to support PoZ in the implementation of the ISP. The partnership strategy is not discussed in the PSP, but simply stated, as a principle and in the required section of the project document.  It is a basket funding arrangement, managed by UNDP. According to this partnership strategy, donors and others who support PoZPoZ outside the PSP are to be considered as PSP partners. So, there are different kinds of partnerships that provide resources to the PoZ. While the PSP is the largest programme, not all support to Parliament goes through the PSP. The development partners in the PSP also provide some support to Parliament through their civil society partners. Of those who work through the PSP, not all - for example civil society - bring in financial resources, making only technical contribution. POZ uses the PSP to coordinate support to itself even from those who do not contribute their support through the PSP. This is true of several civil society organisations, and of the African Development Bank and the World Bank. This makes three types of partners working with PoZ, either directly within or coordinated by/with the PSP. 1) There are those who provide financial resources such as UNDP, EU and Sweden, AfDB, WB; 2) those who provide technical resources such as UNDP and several civil society organisations, and 3) those who coordinate all or some of the partners. Of course, many of these are the same institution providing different kinds of services to PoZ.

A robust theory of change would have helped explain the rationale for the partnership models chosen and how they are expected to work and what the assumptions and risks are. One of the persistent questions in UNDP managed basket funding is that of UNDP’s value addition. The ToC would have offered a clear hypothesis on why UNDP management offered the best comparative advantage, why the EU and GOS would be more likely to achieve their objectives under this arrangement than any other alternative.

The Review Team, however, finds that the partnership model described above, was successful in coordinating support to PoZ. There was information sharing and joint reporting, duplication of effort was to a large extent avoided. The funding of two of the PCU posts by the AfDB further demonstrates the value of the coordination.

 


Tag: Resource mobilization Human and Financial resources Partnership Theory of Change Bilateral partners Country Government Donor International Financial Institutions Technical Support Civil Societies and NGOs

6.

Programme Duration

The programme was designed to cover the period from 2014 – 2017. The life of the current Parliament is 2013 – 2018. Thus, the programme came about a year after the new Parliament had begun and is scheduled to end one year before the Parliament ends. It is not clear how the timing was determined, but the ZUNDAF and the UNDP Country Programme Document both of which it purports to be based on cover the period 20112 – 2015. The ZIMASSET covers 2013 -2018 and PoZ’s ISP covers the period 2014 -2018. Of all the documents mentioned as its basis, only the global UNDP strategic plan covers the same period as the PSP. It is unlikely that this is the basis of its duration.

Concerns have been expressed that the programme is not being in sync with, not only the life of parliament but also with the ISP, is problematic. It is argued that it should see both parliament and its plan to the end, and should be there right at the beginning of a new Parliament to support it immediately as it takes off. However, there is a view that it would be best for the programme in such a way that it can be there when the new Parliament is coming in in order to help jump start support activities for the new parliament, which it would not be able to do if it ends together with the outgoing parliament. Designing and implementing a new programme takes time, so there would effectively be a period during which a new parliament is in place and the new programme is not yet in place.


Tag: Parliament Operational Efficiency Project and Programme management

7.

Guiding Principles for Programme Implementation

The programme strategy lists seven principles for programme implementation. “to ensure that the Parliament of Zimbabwe is consciously responsive to its Constitutional mandate.” In reality, there are probably only three principles – ownership, inclusiveness and transparency. The rest are in fact either the whole point of the programme, “the programme should at all times support Parliament in its Constitutional mandate………” or management imperatives like flexibility in implementation.

Thus, in terms of guiding programme design and implementation, the strategy offers the three important principles. Unfortunately, for two of these – ownership and transparency – it does not say how these principles would be applied to programme implementation, and what the challenges would be. The only thing mentioned in relation to ownership is the PCU control of funds, which while important is not the only factor for ownership.


Tag: Anti-corruption Oversight

8.

Ownership

An important question in evaluating the appropriateness of any donor support programme to a national institution such as POZ is the extent to which such support r|DQ”einforces ownership and thus, in the case of any Parliament the national sovereignty imbedded in it in jurisdictions where it is regarded as the first branch of the state. Donor aid, by its very nature, always runs the risk of subordinating, wittingly or unwittingly, the recipient’s priorities to those of the donor. How the partnership is designed determines how well that risk is managed. The current standard is still of course the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action. The PSP asserts its management design basis as the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda. The main design and management consequence of this commitment is the Project Coordination Unit, based in PoZ and responsible for programme coordination and day to day implementation activities. The PSP is also anchored in the ISP and thus is clearly designed to implement PoZ’s own national programme.

A number of issues with implications for ownership have been raised in the context of this review. On the one hand there has been a view expressed that the PCU lacks sufficient authority and resources to manage in a way that actualises PoZ’s ownership of the programme. On the other hand, the issue has been raised that UNDP has not exerted sufficient pressure on the PCU to provide quality reports, as well as that  the donors do not have sufficient opportunity to influence day-to-day implementation of the programme as well as to influence the programme to intervene in issues they consider important, such as contentious governance issues. A different but pervasive issue is the now supposedly settled question of daily subsistence allowance, where no one seems happy with the solutions found to the challenge of whether to use Parliament’s own rates, previously-agreed-to GoZ rates or some other compromise solution. This review had to pay what it considers to be a disproportionate amount of attention to this issue. All these issues, and others, have a critical bearing on the perception and reality of ownership. Hence, we deal with them below.


Tag: Parliament Human and Financial resources Oversight National Institutions

9.

The Review Team heard from Parliamentarians donors and UNDP on the issue of DSA. At issue is the fact that Parliament disagreed with the DSA levels agreed to between Government of Zimbabwe and donors which UNDP sought to apply. Donors objected to the rates preferred by Parliament. We were informed that in the case of one donor there was a standoff that resulted in project implementation being put on hold for a while until a solution was eventually found. This solution, however, does not appear acceptable to Parliamentarians, who appealed to the Review Team to address the issue, despite explanations that we were outsiders and not part of decision-making.  While the travel allowances of Parliament do indeed differ from those of Government, the disagreement and subsequent preoccupation with the issue on the part of parliamentarians appear to be due to the fiscal situation, which makes the PSP a significant source of the Parliament’s programme budget. This situation is not conducive to an increased sense of ownership. Nor does the fact that Parliamentarians appeared to look to the programme to provide as many of their operational needs as possible.

The donor related sentiments vis-à-vis the PCU, cited above point to the partial commitment to the Paris Declaration, in that qualitative accountability for the programme is seen as that of UNDP, consistent with basket funding agreements,  and not of PoZ management, consistent with the PSP, which goes back to the incongruence of the institutional strengthening objective of Paris and the accountability needs of donors.


Tag: Parliament Donor relations Human and Financial resources Ownership

10.

Transparency

Discussions with stakeholders showed the PSP was designed through an extensive consultative process. This is further supported by the programme document itself, which gives that consultation as one of the reasons for delayed start-up. Consultation helps to increase transparency because it provides stakeholders with the opportunity to make their institutional positions clear and for engaging in forging a common position.  One of the thirty recommendations of the last PSP evaluation was that the design of the next phase – that is the PSP under review – should be done following extensive consultations with donors to ensure that it is a joint policy, programming and funding effort. If that recommendation was followed, as the PSP suggests, there would have been no need for some stakeholders to express discomfort relating to the priorities pursued by the PCU. It is not clear to the review team the depth to which the consultation went and the extent to which it helped to create the collective sense of programme ownership that makes for smooth implementation.


Tag: Anti-corruption

11.

  Inclusiveness

The programme’s gender mainstreaming outcome area is responsive to the inclusiveness principle. However, the programme missed incorporating other categories to enhance inclusiveness – youth, the disabled and minorities.  


Tag: Gender Equality Disabilities Youth

12.

Programme Priorities

The PSP derives its priorities from the ISP. The ISP has sixteen priorities and the PSP picked nine of these, collapsed them and came up with five outcome areas of the programme.  While it is commendable that the temptation to replicate the entire list in the ISP was avoided, the only rationale shown is that those left “are outside the funding parameters of the partners”. There is no link back to the earlier assertions regarding the key strategies on which the PSP is based. Another opportunity to demonstrate how the PSP is anchored in these key strategic documents is missed. And this is true of all the five outcomes.

However, the outcomes in themselves are clearly articulated. The five outcomes are distinguishable one from the other, and the results chains fairly well sequenced. ToC

 


Tag: Effectiveness Justice system Parliament

13.

Concerning outcome 2, exercising the oversight function is the mandate of Parliament. But its effective implementation requires cooperation with the Executive, because it would be counter-productive to rely on the coercive authority of Parliament alone.  That is why there is difficulty in ensuring that the oversight activities of Parliamentary committees result into executive responsive action. As noted in the discussion of results, pro-active engagement with the Executive by Parliament’s leadership has contributed to some of the progress realised. But committing resources, or coordinating efforts, to support the mutually inter-dependent relationship of the two branches of state would have led to a more effective systemic change. One of the recommendations of the evaluation of the last PSP deals with that precise issue. It says, “One of the obstacles to more effective parliamentary oversight over government, is the limited understanding and acceptance of parliamentary scrutiny by the executive. The evaluation team recommends that in addition to the building of knowledge and skills of MPs and Committees, the successor project should involve the executive in order to sensitize ministers on their obligations and accountability to parliament. This can be done through high level policy / leadership dialogue with the executive, taking into account the doctrine of separation of powers.”

This was not designed into the PSP and thus not done, but it would have gone a long way towards increasing the responsiveness to oversight findings by the Executive which is discussed under effectiveness in this report.

In summary, the evaluation team finds that the strategy formulation did not show how it is rooted in the strategy documents of the key stakeholders, what lessons learnt it had drawn from previous programmes, how the interdependence between the Executive and Parliament would affect programme implementation, and did not prioritise the five outcomes and the outputs within these. This had an effect on the implementation and reporting of results as will be seen in the results section of this report


Tag: Parliament Oversight Promotion of dialogue

14.

Relevance

Parliament is at the centre of any governance agenda. Any commitment to the deepening of democracy in Zimbabwe would have to include commitment to the strengthening of the first branch of the State. The main governance agenda in Zimbabwe since independence, but intensifying in the last decade and half has been the constitution – first it was the need to amend or replace the Lancaster House (independence) Constitution, evidenced by the fact that it had undergone nineteen amendments by 2009, twenty-nine years since its adoption. Then there was the constitutional commission which produced a draft constitution which was rejected in 2000, and finally the 2013 constitution which had the widest acceptance level in the history of the country.

Section 119 of the 2013 Constitution gives Parliament the role to protect the Constitution and promote democratic governance in Zimbabwe. This is considerably more responsibility than in the previous constitution, making it essential to develop Parliament’s capacity to fulfill its enlarged mandate.

The review team finds that the strategic choice by Parliament of Zimbabwe, UNDP and their  partners to continue to support POZ was therefore relevant and directed at the core of the agenda to consolidate democratic governance in Zimbabwe.

It is commendable that the PSP anchored itself in the ISP.  The five outcomes it chose to focus on are pivotal to the implementation of the ISP and thus, if successful, would be a  major contribution to the achievement of PoZ agenda and thus the national governance agenda.


Tag: Relevance Parliament

15.

Outcome 1: New laws enacted and old laws aligned with the Constitution

This outcome is a major national priority recommended in all relevant evaluations carried out after the constitution had been adopted, and advocated for by the Zimbabwe Law Society, which developed the original list of laws needing alignment. It is therefore very relevant to the implementation of the Constitution and to the ushering in of the new dispensation envisaged by its adoption. Some of the laws needing alignment at the time of the programme design included strategic ones like the electoral laws, with direct relevance to upcoming national elections.


Tag: Relevance Rule of law

16.

Outcome 2: Oversight function of Parliament strengthened; Governance systems enhanced.

This outcome links directly to the constitutional provision that states that “all institutions and agencies of the State and Government at every level are accountable to Parliament”. It is clearly essential to institute all possible measures to create individual and institutional capacity of Parliament and its committees to be able to exercise this authority and to effectively ensure and leverage it for deepening governance in Zimbabwe as per its mandate.

The PSP focuses on enhancing the capacity of Parliament and the Office of the Auditor General. However, this capacity enhancement is largely limited to individual capacities. Oversight is a massive and on-going challenge. Capacity for oversight requires enhancement of individual, sectoral and overall institutional capacity. A more broadly defined and operationalised capacity development strategy would have made this outcome even more relevant to the enhancement of the oversight function of PoZ.


Tag: Relevance Oversight Country Government Institutional Strengthening

17.

Outcome 3: People’s participation in legislation formulation, decision-making and related democratic processes increased.

This outcome is relevant to the functioning of Parliament especially because of the constitutional requirement for public participation in governance, in particular legislative processes. PoZ uses public hearings as the main strategy for participation in the legislative process. The programme, however, in its elaboration of this outcome conflates public hearings with effective constituency representation. Since public hearings are linked to Portfolio or thematic committees, they are not constituency based. Parliamentary Constituency Information Centres are signaled for ICT enhancement, but do not seem to still exist, which some Parliamentarians lamented. Public hearings are important, and have been effective in bringing people’s input into legislation. But Zimbabwe’s electoral system is constituency based and people’s participation and parliamentary accountability should be strengthened at constituency level as well.   


Tag: Relevance Civic Engagement Election Parliament

18.

Outcome 4: Parliament's performance of its core functions strengthened through capacitating Parliament leadership and staff

This outcome is perhaps one of the most relevant. At the end of the day, Parliament is an institution which needs internal capacities to deliver its mandate.  For without capable institutional capacity, PoZ cannot effectively carry out all the priorities it has set for itself, including the PSP. Given the capacity gaps demonstrated by the baseline studies on parliamentarians, it would be difficult to see how PoZ could achieve its objectives without the support that addresses these gaps.


Tag: Parliament Institutional Strengthening

19.

Outcome 5: Strengthened gender mainstreaming in the work of Parliament

This outcome is relevant because, as the programme states, previous efforts have not helped achieve full mainstreaming of gender. The new constitutional provisions on women membership of Parliament have contributed significantly to progress towards gender balance in the Legislature. In spite of these developments and gender mainstreaming policies and programmes in Zimbabwe over the years, the programme recognises that more needs to be done, especially in relation to the quantity and quality of female representation in parliament. A gender outcome of the PSP was necessary and relevant, as confirmed quite enthusiastically by the leadership of the Women’s Parliamentary Caucus and studies on women’s participation in parliament[1].

 


Tag: Relevance Gender Mainstreaming Parliament

20.

Efficiency

Timeliness in delivery

Table 2 shows analysis of quarterly expenditure for the programme. On average, the delivery rate has been 50.2%, at a time when the programme is well past the half way mark. Delivery has thus been slow, leading to the situation where quantitative programme targets are unlikely to be met.  Table 2 shows the delivery rate for the PSP.

The programme limits undertaking of activities with parliamentarians largely to the period of parliamentary sitting.  This approach allows the programme to reduce costs of implementation, as the costs related to their presence in Harare are met by the parliament core budget. In between, the PSP carries out those activities directed at the administration of Parliament. In some cases, however, where approval is granted, some work with parliamentarians is undertaken.  Because parliament meets 80 days per year, translating to an average of 3 months, it is a small window available for activity implementation. Delays in procurement and other upstream administrative processes, highlighted in the minutes of quarterly board meetings, reduce this window further. However, mobilising MPs outside the parliamentary seating may solve the timeliness of implementation but will increase the costs of the project.


Tag: Efficiency Parliament Human and Financial resources Procurement

21.

Effectiveness of multi-donor approach

The basket fund has provided a platform for the convergence of all PoZ’s development partners, including those not contributing into the basket.

The one report, one work plan, and one governance structure for parliament support adopted for the PSP has reduced the time of engagement with individual partners by parliament. The major development partners of parliament: SIDA, EU, UNDP, AfDB, World Bank and Southern Africa Parliamentary Support Trust (SAPST) are all part of the PSP Project Board. One quarterly report is presented on progress on activities with parliament and discussed in the Project Board. However, additional individual development partner reports, for those not contributing to the basket fund, are still prepared for their specific activities. This can be burdensome especially for an already constrained PCU. The burden can be reduced if the major partners financing parliament fund through the basket: World Bank and AfDB.
 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Parliament Partnership Donor

22.

Partners that would ordinarily not be able to afford working with parliament, but whose technical expertise is required, e.g. UN Women, specialised CSOs etc, have been able to engage with parliament through cost sharing with the PSP. Because of this flexibility in the basket fund, the quality of PSP activities have been enhanced and their depth deepened.

“The resources we have are little against what the parliament can mobilise….We have been able to do more because of the resources of PSP…We have engaged more than we would have…We are now working the other committees than just the gender or parliamentary caucus.” KIIs with a CSOs

The review finds the multi-donor approach symbolised by the basket fund an appropriate approach for enhancing efficiency in support to parliament. Despite parallel funding by some donors, the basket fund has provided a platform for aligning support to parliament from multiple funders creating opportunities for cost sharing that enhance the depth and quality of intervention.

These advantages of the basket funding modality would suggest that, if there are no significant institutional constraints for these development partners to finance through the basket, greater leadership is required from parliament to direct resources through the basket fund. Having the ISP already reinforces Parliament’s leadership. There is need, however, to address the constraints for contributing to the basket fund, especially for major partners, which include, but are not limited to agreeing on the issue of DSA. While there seems to be an agreement on this issue among majority of partners, its constant mention during interviews shows it is still an outstanding issue. DSA rates for parliament are the main cost driver for activities with parliamentarians. The importance of the DSA rate in the context of this programme and some of the effects in moving support elsewhere cannot be over-emphasised. Some partners (excluding those in the PSP) that work with parliament who were interviewed during the evaluation stated that they had reduced their scope of working with parliament because of the high costs of engagement driven by the DSA rate.  This issue should be settled during programme formulation. 


Tag: Efficiency Government Cost-sharing Human and Financial resources Partnership Donor Capacity Building

23.

Given the size of Parliament, significant investment is required to reach the scale required for effectiveness. For example, discussions with LCC showed the PSP has not been funding all committees. Committees, while appreciating support from the PSP, bemoaned the level of investment, where a few members were trained or where verification visits were made only to one area when more was needed to gather enough evidence etc. Sentiments on the scale of training were particularly pronounced in the Zimbabwe Women’s Parliamentary Caucus, which has 146 members.  Not all members are trained or are able to go through other capacity building initiatives. Thus, PSP alone does not have the capacity to implement at the scale required for the desired impact.  

“There is a belief that there are a lot of DPs in parliament but it’s a big institution. The PSP is not dealing with all committee<es. Parliament is a big institution we need to coordinate well because of the institutional structure of parliament. Sentiments of overcrowding of partners in parliament is not true because of this.” Interview with development partner

One illustration of the effectiveness of PSP coordination of DPs is the fact that although the World Bank and AfDB contribute a large amount of money to OAG, the perception in reporting and discussion treats the entire resource package as PSP intervention.

Given this context, the argument on duplication should be whether investments by other development partners is repeating interventions for the same MPs rather than increasing scale or filling an identified gap. This is where the PCU has provided the added value in coordination, not only of the PSP but of support to parliament as a whole as discussed earlier.

Through this, the basket fund has:


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Capacity Building

24.

Efficiency

Value for money assessment

The value for money (VfM) assessment drew from the widely used ‘3Es framework’:

Economy: getting the best value inputs

Efficiency: maximising the outputs for a given level of inputs

Effectiveness: ensuring that the outputs deliver the desired outcomes and impact

As Figure 1 illustrates the 3Es framework relates closely to the programme’s results chain.


Tag: Efficiency

25.

Programme management

Table 5 provides a summary on the analysis of programme management cost. The cumulative total expenditure of the programme during the period under review is US$3,396,113.38 of which US$2,963,170.12 was spent on programme costs and the balance of US$432,943.26 (12.7%) was spent on indirect/recovery costs (overheads). The overheads to programmes ratio is a healthy 1:8 giving rise to a cost of transfer of US$0.15 administrative costs per every US$1.00 value of direct benefit transferred to parliamentarians in the form of training workshops and supporting materials. The cost of transfer shows that most of the budget went into goods and services that benefitted directly the beneficiaries.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Monitoring and Evaluation Capacity Building

26.

Economy

The key question at the 'economy' level of VFM analysis is whether inputs are obtained at the appropriate price and quality. Assessment involves looking at both the robustness of the procurement processes through which inputs are obtained and the resultant programme unit costs per beneficiary.

In terms of procurement, the PSP uses strict procurement guidelines, which are generally competitive, fair and transparent; and the tendering process has ensured competitive bids, quotations and project proposals are obtained and evaluated for the best value.

An analysis of the unit costs of the PSP major activities is provided below.

 


Tag: Effectiveness Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Procurement

27.

The key question at the 'economy' level of VFM analysis is whether inputs are obtained at the appropriate price and quality. Assessment involves looking at both the robustness of the procurement processes through which inputs are obtained and the resultant programme unit costs per beneficiary.

In terms of procurement, the PSP uses strict procurement guidelines, which are generally competitive, fair and transparent; and the tendering process has ensured competitive bids, quotations and project proposals are obtained and evaluated for the best value.

An analysis of the unit costs of the PSP major activities is provided below.

International conferences and workshops

The unit cost for conferences and workshops is US$2,779.89 (see Table 7). The main cost driver is the CSW conference at US$2,999.05 per participant. While women parliamentarians spoke of the empowering effect of this conference as it provided immense opportunities to learn from many countries in a single visit, improvements are required mainly through post CSW action planning to provide strong justification for this investment on a recurrent basis.  

Table 7 shows achievements to which international conferences and workshops have contributed. The direct contribution of these workshops and conferences cannot be ascertained as post conference and workshop action planning is not apparent. Such planning will greatly improve the value of this investment.  


Tag: Efficiency Knowledge management

28.

The key question at the 'economy' level of VFM analysis is whether inputs are obtained at the appropriate price and quality. Assessment involves looking at both the robustness of the procurement processes through which inputs are obtained and the resultant programme unit costs per beneficiary.

In terms of procurement, the PSP uses strict procurement guidelines, which are generally competitive, fair and transparent; and the tendering process has ensured competitive bids, quotations and project proposals are obtained and evaluated for the best value.

An analysis of the unit costs of the PSP major activities is provided below.

Benchmarking visits

Table 8 provides the costs for benchmarking visits. The total cost per person for a benchmarking visit to other regional parliaments or countries is US$1,838.69. While the benchmarking visits have shown potential to deliver results (as shown in Table 6) more could have been achieved if the visits were accompanied with consistent action planning and follow up. Given the cost to the programme, there is need for the PSP to strategically invest in benchmarking visits and ensure findings translate to tangible actions in Parliament.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources

29.

The key question at the 'economy' level of VFM analysis is whether inputs are obtained at the appropriate price and quality. Assessment involves looking at both the robustness of the procurement processes through which inputs are obtained and the resultant programme unit costs per beneficiary.

In terms of procurement, the PSP uses strict procurement guidelines, which are generally competitive, fair and transparent; and the tendering process has ensured competitive bids, quotations and project proposals are obtained and evaluated for the best value.

An analysis of the unit costs of the PSP major activities is provided below.


Tag: Efficiency Capacity Building Institutional Strengthening

30.

Cost-Effectiveness

As mentioned in the Inception Report of this evaluation, the assessment of cost effectiveness heavily depended on the availability of the output data in the PSP M&E system. However, data on outputs is not available or not measured in the PSP M&E system, which has undermined this assessment.

To enable this assessment in the end line evaluation, investments need to be made in collecting quantitative output and outcome data on activities of the PSP.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Monitoring and Evaluation

31.

Effectiveness

In this section, the review assesses how effective the PSP has been, or how much progress it is making towards, achieving the results it was designed to achieve. In assessing the meeting of targets and achievement of results in a programme whose results could be both tangible and intangible as this one certainly is, care should be taken in not being overly quantitative and due weight should be given to the effect of process. That said, the results are mixed.

Outcome 1: New laws enacted and old laws aligned with the constitution

Sixty two percent of targets under Outcome 1 have been achieved or are likely to be achieved by the end of the programme. The rest will not be achieved in the remaining timeframe.  Table 8 provides progress in outputs under this outcome.

The review finds that the targets for alignment of legislation were unrealistic given the political system and law-making process in Zimbabwe


Tag: Effectiveness Justice system Parliament Rule of law

32.

Outcome 1: New laws enacted and old laws aligned with the constitution

The review further finds that capacity-building support on legislative analysis and financing of public hearings from the PSP is contributing to: 1) improved quality of bills sent for presidential ascent; and 2) pace of passage of bills in Parliament.  

However, there are still some outstanding issues that impact on the legislative ability of PoZ. Quality of legislation passed by parliament is premised on capacity of MPs to analyse draft bills submitted to them. This capacity is influenced by MPs education levels and experience in legislative analysis. MPs in the current parliament have different educational backgrounds (see Table 9) which has a bearing on their capacity to adequately review draft bills sent to parliament for debating and passing, mediated of course by experience, self-learning  and other factors. Sixty-six percent of male and 38% of female MPs have a degree qualification respectively. A large proportion of women (42.86%) have only secondary education. A baseline study of economic literacy of MPs showed more males (54%) were economically literate than females (40%).  

Parliament has undertaken several initiatives to increase capacity of MPs in legislative analyses. On the one hand, Parliament initiated, from the onset of the current parliament, a process of ensuring that parliamentary committees had a mix of those with high and low academic qualifications. According to the Speaker of the National Assembly, it was hoped that those with academic and professional qualifications more suited to the parliamentary committee would provide a “spark” for discussions on draft bills in the committees. Other initiatives adopted to improve academic qualifications of MPs include special arrangements with Universities for bridging courses to enrol them in various degree programmes. At the time of the review, 147 MPs were at various stages in their degree programmes, with five doing their doctoral studies.  While degree programmes represent a long-term strategy, the PSP provided a short-term stopgap measure through short courses on legislative and policy analysis to ensure high quality debates on the draft legislation took place in Parliament. One hundred and eighty five (185) MPs drawn from 10 Portfolio Committees received the training. The training was well appreciated by MPs as shown in excepts.  


Tag: Effectiveness Justice system Parliament Capacity Building

33.

An interesting PSP achievement was in the area of “Ease of doing business”, which though relevant was not a specific intended output of the programme. The PSP facilitated Parliament to play a significant role in increasing the speed at which requisite bills were brought to parliament, debated and passed, by engaging business and labour to seek their input on legislation that needed review. Forty-three (43), pieces of legislation were identified for review to facilitate the ease of doing business in Zimbabwe. Once this was done additional support was provided to parliament leadership to engage with the Office of the President and Cabinet to facilitate and ensure speedy legislation. The ease of doing business bills have been adopted under the Rapid Results approach, which aims to complete the law making in 100 days. At the time of the review a new companies bill, and special economic zones bill had been gazetted.


Tag: Effectiveness Parliament Rule of law

34.

Outcome 2: Oversight function of Parliament strengthened; Governance systems enhanced

Achievement of the stated outputs in this outcome stands at 70%. One challenge worth noting in this outcome is the large number of output indicators that are not measurable because tools and methods to do so are not in place. Of those indicators rated as not achieved, 60% have not been measured by the programme or do not have set targets.

This said, it is unlikely the programme will meet the 30% outstanding targets because: 1) the time remaining is too short for implementing activities (including development and roll out of requisite M&E tools); and 2) the funding remaining in the last year is inadequate to meet these activities. In any case, it will be necessary to rationalise and prioritise to ensure that the remaining period is focused on specific achievable and impactful priorities and targets. The rationalisation process provides opportunities for the programme to focus on supporting the achievement of results in the last year.


Tag: Effectiveness Parliament Oversight

35.

The Parliament Audit Committee (PAC) is another committee that provides clear demonstration of the influence of the PSP. After its members went through several workshops together with the Office of the Auditor General on reviewing audit reports, their analysis and contributions improved, resulting in some decisive recommendations. 

“Parliament are getting a lot sharper in their skills for reviewing the reports. In the past the PAC would rely on us to formulate the question to ask the accounting officers. After the training you can see they are a lot sharper. In the oral interviews with accounting officers, some come in with follow up questions which are brilliant – we attribute those to the training they received from the PSP.” Interview with the OAG.


Tag: Effectiveness Anti-corruption Human and Financial resources Service delivery

36.

Because the programme and Parliament have limited focus on following up implementation of the latter’s recommendations by the Executive, there is limited evidence of the impact of PSP on service delivery.

To strengthen the accountability function of parliament and ensure translation of recommendations into concrete actions by responsible authorities there is need for creating stronger linkages with the media and programmes that support citizen participation. Doing this will galvanise citizen voice around the findings providing another layer of accountability.  UNDP, EU and SIDA governance programmes present excellent opportunity for this and needs to be explored in the remaining period of the programme.

Exchange visits

As noted under the value for money section, exchange visits have contributed to various results in Parliament. Weighting the cost and return, as discussed under the value for money section, there is need for the programme to review their planning with a view of improving their effectiveness.


Tag: Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Service delivery

37.

Support to the Office of the Auditor General

The OAG is a central institution in Parliament’s capacity to hold the executive to account for use of public resources. With support from PSP and other development partners (AfDB and World Bank), the OAG has experienced tremendous improvements in operational efficiencies resulting from support of PSP and other development partners. The OAG now consistently meets the June 30 deadline for submissions of statutory reports on the management of public resources to parliament. Before support from development partners, these reports were submitted in November or December. This constrained parliament in using the reports to influence resource allocation and advocate for punitive measures as they did not coincide with the government budgeting cycle. OAG audit reports have also been commended for improved transparency and professionalisms. The content provides Parliament enough evidence to hold the Executive to account. PSP has made direct contribution to this by addressing numerous challenges faced by the OAG that constrained efficiency as detailed in Table 13.


Tag: Effectiveness Anti-corruption Operational Efficiency Oversight

38.

Outcome 3: People’s participation in legislation formulation, decision-making, and related democratic processes increased

Table 14 summarises achievements in this outcome. Majority of the indicators are likely to be met, according to the data provided by the programme.

Eight thousand seven hundred and fourteen (8,714) citizens have been reached through public hearings financed by the programme. At least 43% of the participants were women. While 28 bills have been passed by the current 8th Parliament, feedback from public hearings has made significant contributions to an adverse report for the NPRC bill, amendments to the Special Economic Zones (SEZs) bill (e.g. issue of the application of Labour Laws in the SEZs and the Labour Amendment Bill.

Public hearings have provided opportunities for citizens to participate and make contributions in the legislation making process. However, there remain concerns of 1) proportion of the population reached and 2) quality of facilitation of the public hearing process.


Tag: Effectiveness Civic Engagement Parliament Communication

39.

Outcome 4: Parliament’s performance of its core functions strengthened through capacitating parliament leadership and staff

Table 15 presents progress under this outcome. All indicators have reached their target or are on track to do so by the end of the programme period. 

Support to development of parliament’s organisational systems

The PSP has made direct contribution to improving organisational systems of parliament through supporting:

  1. upgrading the ISO 9001-2008 of parliament, quality management system (QMS) monitoring and review, and capacity building of staff in the ISO 9001; and
  2. training of parliament staff in customer care and public relations.

The recertification of the administration of Parliament under the ISO 9001-2008 standards in September 2015 which runs into September 2018 continues to demonstrate PoZ’s continued growth in stature. It is also clear the PSP has fostered greater coordination of development partners’ support to parliament, especially through the establishment of the PCU, which has become the central entry point for this funding. There is an acknowledgement and agreement among stakeholders interviewed during the review that indeed coordination has improved.  

While the organisation has grown its systems, capacity in areas such as research, report writing and monitoring and evaluation remain weak.


Tag: Parliament Monitoring and Evaluation Operational Efficiency Quality Assurance

40.

Capacity of Committee Clerks and Researchers

Competencies in report writing among Committees Clerks and Researchers have improved. Members of the LCC interviewed confirmed improvements in support offered to committees by Committees Clerks and Researchers. However, they bemoaned the inadequate staffing levels, which undermine the adequacy of this support. While report writing has improved, analytical skills for bills, budget policies, audit and financial reports needs improvement.

“[There is] More confidence among staff in writing or preparing documents, presentation of the work and confidence in articulating issues. Staff are of mixed education levels - some with first degrees, others Masters etc, but in general I observe better preparation reports among staff as a result of the training from the PSP.” Interview with staff of parliament

 


Tag: Quality Assurance Effectiveness Human and Financial resources

41.

Majority of indicators under this outcome are off track mainly because the programme is failing to measure them. 

The review finds that women’s capacity to debate in parliament and parliamentary processes is increasing but at a slow pace. Interviews with a women focused organisation and UN Women highlighted emerging changes on articulation of gender as observed in the quality of the debates and motions. There is greater sensitivity and articulation of gender issues with both male and female MPs demonstrating this capacity. These changes are attributed to gender analysis training of both male and female MPs. There were also specific issues reported as showing increased capacity among female MPS. Women MPs interviewed during an FGD with the Zimbabwe Women’s Parliamentary Caucus (ZWPC) stated that,

“Members’ trained on gender based violence have become very effective in terms of question and answer. We [note this from] monitoring participation of women MPs [in parliament].”

Gender mainstreaming is enshrined in the Constitution, Section 17 Chapter 2. Pursuant to this, Parliament is very conscious of the need to ensure gender is a key focus in its operations and statutes. For example, the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders appointed nine female Members of Parliament as Chairpersons of Oversight Committees, representing 34.6% of the Oversight Committees. A gender mainstreaming strategy is awaiting approval to entrench gender mainstreaming in the wider working of parliament. 


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender-Based Violence Women's Empowerment Parliament

42.

Management and Coordination

The delineation of project management and coordination responsibility followed a  fairly standard UNDP template, with agreement on basket funding  and UNDP’s management of it, setting up of a Steering Committee as the highest policy and strategy making body for the programme and a Project Board as the management of the implementation of the programme. The PCU is responsible for the day to day management of the programme, its finances and its staff. The entire management and coordination mechanism of the PSP, including majority of staff in the PCU, is paid for by the programme. The Parliament of Zimbabwe provides the leadership in the implementation of the programme through the National Implementation Modality (NIM), while UNDP provides technical, advisory and financial support services. While the NIM modality might have been a difficult decision in the current circumstances of Zimbabwe, it was consistent with previous evaluation recommendations.

The review finds that management and coordination arrangements were appropriate and in accordance with UNDP practice.

Despite the standard programme management model, it turned out that the experience of its implementation was not as smooth.


Tag: Effectiveness Implementation Modality Project and Programme management Coordination

43.

Steering Committee

The Steering Committee comprises the Presiding Officers of the Parliament of Zimbabwe, UNDP Resident Representative, UNDP Country Director and Heads of Cooperating Partners, and is supposed to “meet semi-annually  or more frequently if need arises”[1].

The SC has in fact met only twice in the life of the PSP, thus hampering decision making and proper direction of the programme. The reasons given to the review revolve around the busy schedules of the principals. At the same time the review has been informed by all the stakeholders including the representatives of the development partners, that this high profile programme is an important priority. If that were the case, then finding time for SC meetings less than 50% of the time would not seem consistent.

Whilst the evaluation of the last PSP recommended that the SC meets three times a year, the review team finds that in fact even the twice a year stipulated in the PSP have not been fulfilled.

 


Tag: Effectiveness Oversight

44.

Project Board

The project board comprises the Clerk of Parliament, The Auditor General, UNDP Deputy Country Director (Programmes), Head of UNDP Governance Unit, UNDP Programme Manager, Two Parliament of Zimbabwe Deputy Clerks, Parliament of Zimbabwe Programme Coordinator and a representative of Cooperating Development Partners. Clerk of Parliament and the UNDP Deputy Country Director - Programmes co-chair the Board. The project board has met more or less as expected. To the extent that the project management at board level has been successful, this may be attributable to this level of management. It is at this level that non-PSP partners such as AfDB and WB have been coordinated and invited to participate in the board. It is also at this level that consolidated work plans and reports have been created.


Tag: Effectiveness Monitoring and Evaluation Oversight Project and Programme management Quality Assurance

45.

Programme Coordination Unit

A review of the programme achievement section shows that overall, the programme is not on course to achieve its quantitative targets. However, this should be discussed against the fact that the quantitative shortfall in delivery is found to mask more pervasive qualitative achievement referred to elsewhere.  The review team finds that the PCU demonstrated the flexibility and responsiveness essential for success in a multi- stakeholder programme like the PSP and took results where they could.

While  the management and coordination has not been wholly successful in steering the programme towards achieving results, it has been successful in maximising opportunities where they arose.  However, to the extent that the PCU was made “responsible for day-to-day management and decision-making for the programme, as well as ensuring that the  programme produces the  outputs and results specified in this programme document, in compliance with the required standards  of quality, within the specified limits of time and cost and in line with UNDP rules and regulations”, it is to that extent accountable for overall results, along with the other management and oversight structures.  We have discussed elsewhere in this report the circumstances the PCU finds itself in – understaffing, late programme funding and thus late start-up, inadequately capacitated departments of parliament needing PCU assistance and thus spreading them thin, and being called upon to perform other non-PSP functions.


Tag: Effectiveness Knowledge management Coordination

46.

1.1 Sustainability

As this is a mid-term review, Impact and Sustainability cannot be realistically addressed at this stage. However, the extent to which the design and implementation so

far have the potential to contribute to sustainability through capacity development, national ownership and approaches towards self-sustaining resource strategies have been assessed.

Sustainability is achieved when:

  1. there is ownership and continuity of programme results which can influence development of policies and/or support maintenance or scale up of the outputs achieved;
  2. products are developed that enhance technical capacity of the beneficiary to replicate outputs in the future; and
  3. there is both financial capacity and commitment to enable the necessary investment to maintain or scale up results achieved.

The programme design and implementation approach have cultivated strong ownership of activities and outputs of the PSP. Implementing within the framework of the ISP and the engagement of all stakeholders concerned with parliamentary development has ensured the programme remains within the priorities and needs of stakeholders, and therefore relevant. Using national capacity to deliver on programme outputs has further strengthened support of the programme in parliament. There is strong will, from the level of  Speaker of the National Assembly to Parliamentarians, to see the results of the PSP sustained.


Tag: Sustainability Human and Financial resources Ownership Capacity Building

47.

By far the most predictably sustainable results of the programme emanate from the outcome to do with legislative alignment. To the extent that legislation that entrenches the constitution has been achieved, it bodes well not just for the legislation itself but for the governance agenda as a whole. Provision for the implementation of the constitution has high potential for scaling up other governance related activities. The review team therefore finds that Outcome 1 is likely to yield the most sustainable result, barring an unforeseen and highly unlikely constitutional change. The rest of the results, especially those that require financial investment, are unlikely to be sustainable. These are results pertaining to efficiencies of the OAG, capacity of MPs, citizen participation and improved coordination of development partners’ support to parliament. These are directly affected by the fiscal situation that Zimbabwe is in, which has resulted in the government being unable to meet the needs of parliament in terms of capacity building and other basic parliamentary operations within their mandates. In addition, the programme design did not sufficiently address the challenge of sustaining results.

 


Tag: Sustainability Civic Engagement Human and Financial resources Capacity Building

48.

Capacity of OAG

Capacity of the OAG is likely to wane with the withdrawal of the PSP as funding is being provided for operation and logistical support due to underfunding of the institution from central government. The OAG has remained grossly underfunded. The programme financed key operational expenses for the OAG, acting as a replacement fund for the gap left by inadequate funding from fiscus. Removal of the programme will, in the short term, likely reverse gains made by the PSP in supporting efficiency of this critical institution that supports Parliament’s oversight role on the executive.
 


Tag: Efficiency Sustainability Human and Financial resources

49.

Capacity of MPs

Significant investment was made by the programme in building capacity of MPs to exercise their oversight, legislative and representation roles. As discussed under Effectiveness, there is demonstrable evidence of increased capacity of parliamentarians to play their roles. Because parliament evolves every five years, with new members voted in and others exiting, capacity building should be a constant feature of parliament. From discussions with parliament and stakeholders there does not seem to be sufficient capacity within the parliament administration or government institutional structure to regenerate this capacity which is lost every five years. While there is an assumption that building the capacity of parliament administration, under Outcome 3 of the PSP, there has not been adequate investment in this regard to support the level of capacity building required to regenerate capacity to the state achieved by the PSP. There are also arguments that, in each electoral cycle, an average of 60% of parliamentarians are retained thus in turn a significant proportion of the capacity developed is retained.

Sustainability of capacity, while anchored on the training manuals produced, is not broad enough to formulate a system that allows regeneration of capacity to the levels of that developed by the PSP.


Tag: Sustainability Parliament Capacity Building

50.

Citizen participation in oversight and legislative process

As highlighted under Value for Money, public hearings, in their current form, are very expensive and POZ will be unable to implement them at the same scale as that funded by the PSP as long as the current economic context persists. Support to public hearing ensured: 1) fulfilment of constitutional provisions under Section 141; and 2) parliament could test feasibility of the constitutional provisions. The support from PSP filled a financial and skills gap to ensure civic participation in the legislative process was effective. Because of the number of bills that needed to be aligned to the constitution, parliament would have found it impossible to meet this constitutional provision which would have resulted in the passage of legislation that may not stand a constitutional challenge or does not reflect the views of the population. The main format of civic engagement has been public meetings between MPs and the population. These, as demonstrated in the Efficiency section, are costly to undertake and would be nearly impossible to sustain at the same scale within the current economic context. New innovations being explored (e.g. use of mobile applications for citizen engagement), and piloted (radio sessions, the website) provide less costly alternatives for citizen engagement. These innovations will greatly improve the gains made by PSP in strengthening citizen engagement and in turn the representation mandate of parliament.


Tag: Sustainability Civic Engagement Communication Innovation

51.

Improved coordination of parliament

Coordination of interventions in parliament is centred on the PCU. However, it is unlikely that parliament can sustain the institution beyond PSP support due to the current freeze on civil service posts and cost of running such an institution. It was evident from discussions with stakeholders in parliament, development partners and CSOs that there was strong coordination leadership and coordination of interventions to parliament. Establishment of the PCU and institutional structure for managing the PSP (Project, Board and Project Steering Committee) and support to parliament (e.g. the Partners’ Forum) have been credited with contributing to improving coordination. Accompanying tools such as the Consolidated Annual Work Plan (though with some weaknesses) have enabled the PCU and partners to determine their strategic fit in parliament. Nonetheless, the central glue holding these structures together is the functionality of the PCU. Sustaining it would ensure continued coordination in the long term.  The history of development assistance shows that the establishment of project units to run specific programmes is not usually sustainable because:

  1. staff in the project unit normally have different working conditions as compared to the rest within the institution making it difficult for the host institution to assimilate them after project end; and
  2. the different working conditions sometimes create uneasy working relationships between staff of the project unit and those in the “mainstream”;

Parliament, by assimilating the finance officer from the previous PSP in mainstream Parliament administrative staff, has shown that it could have ability sustain the PCU capacity. However, the current freeze on civil service posts, and the cost of running a PCU, it is unlikely that Parliament will sustain this capacity in full. There are also currently no alternative plans to support donor coordination capacity established by the PCU


Tag: Sustainability Parliament Oversight Coordination Civil Societies and NGOs

Recommendations
1

Recommendation 1: It is recommended that UNDP Zimbabwe develop a theory of change for each of their major sectoral clusters. One such theory of change should be developed for governance to help explain and clarify the logic and assumptions underlying the achievement of governance results over time in Zimbabwe.

2

Recommendation 2: Meanwhile the ToCToC in the PSP under review should be significantly improved to enable a more coherent understanding of the logic and development assumptions behind the programme design, which will contribute to better articulation, M&E and final evaluation

3
  • Recommendation 3: The review recommends that the Steering Committee authorizes an extension for the PSP as far as six months into the life of the 9th Parliament. This extension should be more focused on strategic interventions targeted at specific outputs and institutions (e.g. key committees rather than all committees). The extension should also support the next ISP preparation as well as fund start-up activities for the 9th Parliament that will input into the design of the next PSP. This extension should, of course, be a with-cost-extension. 
4
  • Recommendation 4: The review identified a missed opportunity in creating complementary actions between the outputs from parliament and work of civil society and media. Such linkages would enhance the effectiveness of the PSP. It is recommended that Project Board explores, further opportunities for linking outputs from the PSP with citizen voice, transparency and accountability programmes funded by the EU, GOS and UNDP. Such an approach is likely to reinforce results of the PSP. 
5
  • Recommendation 5: Although the PSP model has helped limit duplication per se, it is still recommended that donor support to related priority for parliament be much more coordinated to enhance synergy in strategy, implementation and results reporting.
6
  • Recommendation 6: UNDP and its partners should do more to leverage technical support for parliament to add value to both capacity development, improved legislative processes and enhanced oversight function to ensure that the PSP resources achieve more than plug a funding gap created by the shrunk fiscus.
7
  • Recommendation 7: Parliament should be more pro-active in engaging with the executive to improve the supply of bills as well as to ensure the implementation of recommendations from parliamentary committees.
8
  • Recommendation 8: While maintaining interventions during parliamentary seating the PCU needs to more systematically plan ahead to maximise the number of activities carried out through these windows. 
9
  • Recommendation 9: The departments of parliament need to be held more accountable for their own delivery under the PSP so they are less reliant on the PCU. 
10
  • Recommendation 10: Alternative and cost-efficient ways need to be explored that ensure: a large proportion of the population is reached and citizen engagement and discussions are well-informed to ensure quality of participation
11
  • Recommendation 11: The review team observed significant number of achievements that remain undocumented. The review therefore recommends that UNDP and POZ, go through a process of identifying results in each of the outcomes. This should go beyond quantification of results but also document the qualitative achievements that have been achieved e.g. changing relationships and attitudes, commitments, and changing confidence levels. 
12
  • Recommendation 12: The PSP has instruments to strengthen gender mainstreaming that include the ZWPC strategic plan and the Gender Policy of Parliament. The review team recommends that in the remaining period, the PSP should prioritise facilitating implementation of the ZWPC strategic plan. 
13
  • Recommendation 14: The weakness of the current M&E system for the programme is well known to the Project Board. Attempts to rectify the challenge are still to yield the required results. UNDP, working with POZ, should revise the M&E system and associated tools informed by global good practice for measurement of results from parliamentary support programmes for which UNDP is a global leader.   
14
  • Recommendation 15: It is recommended that in the final evaluation of the PSP, resources (time, money and expertise) be made available to include lessons learnt. This could include from previous PSP’s.
15

Recommendation 18: The review team recommends that Parliament should consider options for sustaining individual and organisational level results through institutionalisation of capacity development and resource mobilisation from treasury.

1. Recommendation:

Recommendation 1: It is recommended that UNDP Zimbabwe develop a theory of change for each of their major sectoral clusters. One such theory of change should be developed for governance to help explain and clarify the logic and assumptions underlying the achievement of governance results over time in Zimbabwe.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop the revised TOC for the project
[Added: 2018/08/10]
UNDP AND PCU 2017/12 Completed
2. Recommendation:

Recommendation 2: Meanwhile the ToCToC in the PSP under review should be significantly improved to enable a more coherent understanding of the logic and development assumptions behind the programme design, which will contribute to better articulation, M&E and final evaluation

Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

This is noted. The management team agreed that the recrafting of the TOC will need to be done to show logic between proposed interventions and results. This will positively impact the work to be done in 2017, no-cost extension period. The revised TOC will incorporate smarter, realistic and more measurable indicators and targets for the Programme. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop a revised theory of change
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/08/10]
GGM and M&E 2018/01 Completed Zero-draft log frame and TOC in place by the project Board. Steering Committee is yet to be consulted. Zero draft -log frame has been developed. This has been finalized, adopted and signed off by the EU. History
Develop a log frame
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/03/22]
GGM and M&E 2018/01 Completed Zero draft -log frame has been developed This has been completed and see attached the document. History
1.3 Revise Indicators and targets of the project
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/03/22]
GGM and M&E 2018/01 Completed There is a draft available already for finalization. This has been finalized, adopted and signed off by the EU. History
Develop the revised logical framework which mirror the TOC
[Added: 2018/08/10]
UNDP 2017/12 Completed Completed refer to the attached documents.
3. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 3: The review recommends that the Steering Committee authorizes an extension for the PSP as far as six months into the life of the 9th Parliament. This extension should be more focused on strategic interventions targeted at specific outputs and institutions (e.g. key committees rather than all committees). The extension should also support the next ISP preparation as well as fund start-up activities for the 9th Parliament that will input into the design of the next PSP. This extension should, of course, be a with-cost-extension. 
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

UNDP acknowledges the need for a no-cost extension to finalize key activities of the project. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Develop Annual workplan and budget for the no-cost extension period
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2017/12/18]
GGM, PCU and M&E 2017/12 Completed 1)The no-cost extension was approved by the project Board and Steering Committee 2)A draft annual workplan and budget has been developed and currently awaiting approval. Attached as evidence are the draft documents which are to be signed off in the next few weeks History
4. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 4: The review identified a missed opportunity in creating complementary actions between the outputs from parliament and work of civil society and media. Such linkages would enhance the effectiveness of the PSP. It is recommended that Project Board explores, further opportunities for linking outputs from the PSP with citizen voice, transparency and accountability programmes funded by the EU, GOS and UNDP. Such an approach is likely to reinforce results of the PSP. 
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

This is noted and management has already started responding to this by collaborating with specialized CSOs such as CARL and SAPST in civic engagement especially of public hearings

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Capitalize on Speaker series supported by CSOs
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
PCU, GGM 2018/12 Completed Discussion to take collaborative actions have taken place with CARL and SAPST, and this will still be ongoing in 2019 History
SDG speaker series could be used to engage CSOs for the development of knowledge material
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
PCU, GGM 2018/12 Completed This was initiated in 2018, and will continue and be rolled over into 2019, as part of the new programme which is being developed. History
Engage CSOs on public engagement activities
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
PCU, GGM 2018/12 Completed Whilst progress has ben made on this, this will continue into 2019, as part of the new programme which is being developed. History
5. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 5: Although the PSP model has helped limit duplication per se, it is still recommended that donor support to related priority for parliament be much more coordinated to enhance synergy in strategy, implementation and results reporting.
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

As part of coming up with a new TOC, it is important to develop tools and systems to effectively measure progress.  With one year to consolidate results of the   project, there will be increased effort to showcase results using reports and social media. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Development and utilization of tools for capturing results across all departments of Parliament, PCT
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/09/20]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/09 Completed This has been an ongoing process since the MTR held last year and progress has been made by the PCU. History
Follow up on working session on M&E tools and strategies
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/10/24]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/09 Completed Bilateral meetings have been held with the PCU and are still ongoing, despite the project coming to an end in December. Plans for the M&E workshop which was to be held in July 2018 were postponed due to the elections, and moved to months after the new prodoc has been developed and it is envisaged the capacity building around M&E will be ongoing. History
Showcasing of results and donor partner support
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/10/24]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/09 Completed Bilateral meetings have been held with the PCU and are still ongoing, despite the project coming to an end in December. Plans for the M&E workshop which was to be held in July 2018 were postponed due to the elections, and moved to months after the new prodoc has been developed and it is envisaged the capacity building around M&E will be ongoing. Development partners have indicated that they will support another phase of the parliamentary support programme in 2019. History
6. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 6: UNDP and its partners should do more to leverage technical support for parliament to add value to both capacity development, improved legislative processes and enhanced oversight function to ensure that the PSP resources achieve more than plug a funding gap created by the shrunk fiscus.
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

UNDP will utilize its internal resources in the office from a pool of economists, lawyers and environmental and gender specialists to support the work of Parliament. Regional and international experts will be drawn in to provide technical support for capacity development, legislative processes, and oversight function.  Further, appropriate tech support will be tapped in from EU and SIDA drawing lessons from their support to Parliamentary development globally.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Engage UNDP HQ, Inclusive Political Processes Unit for technical advice
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
GGM 2018/12 Completed Initial engagement with the IPP experts at UNDP HQ done and technical expertise provided which was shared with the Board members. This will be an On-going process. The Future Programme will ensure that key stakeholders such as SIDA and EU are consulted up-front to share experiences. History
Engage EU and SIDA for sharing of best practices in Parliamentary Development
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
GGM 2018/12 Completed This was comprehensively undertaken in 2018, as a follow-up to the MTR process.This is still an ongoing process, as part of donor relations into 2019. History
7. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 7: Parliament should be more pro-active in engaging with the executive to improve the supply of bills as well as to ensure the implementation of recommendations from parliamentary committees.
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

It was agreed that the executive is in control of supplying bills to Parliament. It is therefore necessary to regularly engage the Executive. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Regular engagement between Parliament and the Executive
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/11/13]
PCU 2018/09 Completed The Clerk of Parliament is now part of the IMT engaging directly the PC of Justice and the AG. planning of training for govt liaison officer AG updated the LCC on alignment of laws in October 2017. History
8. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 8: While maintaining interventions during parliamentary seating the PCU needs to more systematically plan ahead to maximise the number of activities carried out through these windows. 
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
There is need to train the PCU Administration as well as staff from the OAGs office on internal project management capacities.
[Added: 2018/08/10] [Last Updated: 2018/12/11]
UNDP and PCU 2018/12 Completed This process of capacity building based on identified gaps has commenced and is still ongoing within the institution. More is planned within the new third phase of the project which is being worked on. History
9. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 9: The departments of parliament need to be held more accountable for their own delivery under the PSP so they are less reliant on the PCU. 
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The parliament departments to develop departmental action plans in line with the defined prodoc results and the Institutional Strategic Plan.
[Added: 2018/08/10] [Last Updated: 2018/12/11]
PCU 2018/12 Completed Preparation on this workshop are almost finalised in response to this recommendation. However the PSP will be having a third phase which has a lot of action points and lessons learnt from the previous phase. The above has also been fully brought on board in the next phase. History
10. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 10: Alternative and cost-efficient ways need to be explored that ensure: a large proportion of the population is reached and citizen engagement and discussions are well-informed to ensure quality of participation
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

This is well noted. Parliament of Zimbabwe understands and appreciates that Section 141 of the Constitution requires public consultations in the legislative process and that these can take any form although there will remain emphasis on identified popular Bills. Parliament has already started exploring alternative cost-efficient means of conducting public consultations including radio programmes and online submissions. Management has agreed to continue piloting these and other means of public consultations during the remaining programme period and have regular monitoring and analysis on effectiveness of these processes in promoting citizen participation. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. Scale up use of social media in soliciting public views on Bills
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
PCU and GGM 2018/12 Completed This will be an ongoing activity throughout the no-cost extension period. UNDP and Parliament are making use of the radio for public hearings especially after the MTR process and findings. History
Identify partnerships with development partners and NGOs to share responsibilities
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/11]
PCU and GGM 2018/11 Completed The CO is in the process of developing a new produce of the 3rd phase of this project and this has been duly taken on board. History
1.3 Targeting/identification of Bills to be specifically supported by the PSP
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
PCU and GGM 2018/12 Completed In 2018 the NPRC Bill, Electoral Act where specifically targeted given the elections in 2018. History
11. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 11: The review team observed significant number of achievements that remain undocumented. The review therefore recommends that UNDP and POZ, go through a process of identifying results in each of the outcomes. This should go beyond quantification of results but also document the qualitative achievements that have been achieved e.g. changing relationships and attitudes, commitments, and changing confidence levels. 
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

As part of coming up with a new TOC, it is important to develop tools and systems to effectively measure progress.  With one year to consolidate results of the   project, there will be increased effort to showcase results using reports and social media. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Development and utilization of tools for capturing results across all departments of Parliament, PCT
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/10/24]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/09 Completed Bilateral meetings have been held with the PCU and are still ongoing, despite the project coming to an end in December. Plans for the M&E workshop which was to be held in July 2018 were postponed due to the elections, and moved to months after the new prodoc has been developed and it is envisaged the capacity building around M&E will be ongoing. History
Follow up on working session on M&E tools and strategies
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/10/24]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/09 Completed Bilateral meetings have been held with the PCU and are still ongoing, despite the project coming to an end in December. Plans for the M&E workshop which was to be held in July 2018 were postponed due to the elections, and moved to months after the new prodoc has been developed and it is envisaged the capacity building around M&E will be ongoing. History
Showcasing of results and donor partner support
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/10/24]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/09 Completed Bilateral meetings have been held with the PCU and are still ongoing, despite the project coming to an end in December. Plans for the M&E workshop which was to be held in July 2018 were postponed due to the elections, and moved to months after the new prodoc has been developed and it is envisaged the capacity building around M&E will be ongoing. Development partners have indicated that they will support another phase of the parliamentary support programme in 2019. History
12. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 12: The PSP has instruments to strengthen gender mainstreaming that include the ZWPC strategic plan and the Gender Policy of Parliament. The review team recommends that in the remaining period, the PSP should prioritise facilitating implementation of the ZWPC strategic plan. 
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

This is noted. Gender mainstreaming is a critical element of the Parliamentary support being provided for Parliament.  Implementation of the ZWPC strategic plan and the PoZ Gender Policy

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Integrate support to the ZWPC and mainstreaming in the work of parliament targeting specific committees
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/03/22]
GGM, M&E and Parliament of Zimbabwe 2018/01 Completed Draft TOC refers to Gender as a cross-cutting issue however, this need strengthening to elaborate on a two-pronged approach of mainstreaming gender in the work of Parliament and affirmative to support ZWPC prioritizing political participation in preparation of the 2018 elections. History
Support the finalization of the PoZ Gender Mainstreaming policy and strategy
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/03/22]
GGM 2018/01 Completed History
13. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 14: The weakness of the current M&E system for the programme is well known to the Project Board. Attempts to rectify the challenge are still to yield the required results. UNDP, working with POZ, should revise the M&E system and associated tools informed by global good practice for measurement of results from parliamentary support programmes for which UNDP is a global leader.   
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

 As part of coming up with a new TOC, it is important to develop tools and systems to effectively measure progress.  With one year to consolidate results of the   project, there will be increased effort to showcase results using reports and social media. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Development and utilization of tools for capturing results across all departments of Parliament, PCT
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/12 Completed This is not really a completed process and it is still ongoing into 2019 History
Follow up on working session on M&E tools and strategies
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/12 Completed History
Showcasing of results and donor partner support
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/10/24]
GGM, M&E and PCU 2018/09 Completed Bilateral meetings have been held with the PCU and are still ongoing, despite the project coming to an end in December. Plans for the M&E workshop which was to be held in July 2018 were postponed due to the elections, and moved to months after the new prodoc has been developed and it is envisaged the capacity building around M&E will be ongoing. Development partners have indicated that they will support another phase of the parliamentary support programme in 2019. History
14. Recommendation:
  • Recommendation 15: It is recommended that in the final evaluation of the PSP, resources (time, money and expertise) be made available to include lessons learnt. This could include from previous PSP’s.
Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

It is necessary for a final evaluation to be undertaken incorporating milestones achieved in the no-cost extension period. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Engagement of a consultant to undertake final evaluation of the PSP
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]
GGM, M&E, PCU 2018/12 Completed A lite end of project evaluation is planned in 2019, as the project comes to an end. History
15. Recommendation:

Recommendation 18: The review team recommends that Parliament should consider options for sustaining individual and organisational level results through institutionalisation of capacity development and resource mobilisation from treasury.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/10/19] [Last Updated: 2021/03/26]

There has been ongoing engagement with PoZ which reflect the intention to intergrate PCU in the structures of Parliament. It is acknowledged that there is a need to have a sustainability plan. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop a sustainability and exit strategy plan
[Added: 2017/11/16] [Last Updated: 2018/10/24]
GGM and PCU 2018/09 Completed Draft workplan incorporating activities to intergrate the PCU has been developed. Development partners have indicated that they will support another phase of the parliamentary support programme in 2019. History

Latest Evaluations

Contact us

1 UN Plaza
DC1-20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Tel. +1 646 781 4200
Fax. +1 646 781 4213
erc.support@undp.org