Mid-term Review of Multi-Media Initiative for Youth Project

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2018, Cambodia
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
03/2017
Completion Date:
03/2017
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
34,000

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Title Mid-term Review of Multi-Media Initiative for Youth Project
Atlas Project Number: 00061042
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2018, Cambodia
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 03/2017
Planned End Date: 03/2017
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Poverty and MDG
  • 2. Democratic Governance
  • 3. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 2.4. Frameworks and dialogue processes engaged for effective and transparent engagement of civil society in national development
Evaluation Budget(US $): 34,000
Source of Funding: Project budget
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 25,100
Joint Programme: No
Mandatory Evaluation: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Education, Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training, National Employment Agency, other government agencies, youth organizations, civil society, development partners
Countries: CAMBODIA
Lessons
Findings
1.

Relevance

  • The evaluation finding is that the mark for the relevance criterion is highly satisfactory.
  • This MTR confirms the conclusions from the design phase that external intervention, provided through the project Multimedia Support to Youth in Cambodia was relevant when project designed and that the programming process was optimal.
  • The MTR finds that the design of the project was done coherently. Problem identification followed bottom-up process of collaboration and involvement of policy makers from different levels and structures and direct beneficiaries/ target groups.
  • The technical basis of project design (planning and programming) was adequate, with sound planning process that included well established “theory of change”for both phases of the project, and clearly identified key problems.
  • Design process was comprehensive and sound resulting that the final proposed intervention was in fact clearly tied to Identification and assessment phase.
  • The project has clear links with the national development and strategic plans and stated development goals for Cambodia. The primer document during the formulation of the project was the Rectangular Strategy III, with the National Policy on Youth Development and other strategic documents that were considered.
  • The Project intervention logic remained true throughout its implementation, responding to the needs of target groups and addressing national priorities.
  • The evaluation confirms the broad conclusions from the original project document that external intervention was relevant and it responded to the needs of the target groups/ beneficiaries. It responded to the Cambodian national priorities and to identified needs of young people particularly young women.
  • The MTR finds that the great potentials and opportunities that the project Klahan9 provides (e.g. excellent support, well-developed image, access to the youth, technical capacities to use multimedia approach in promotion of youth employment) is not utilised to the extent possible. UNDP and other development partners are still not using Klahan9 as rather effective tool to support different priorities and address cross-sectorial challenges within the context of youth employment.

2.

Efficiency and effectiveness:

  • Efficiency and effectiveness were validated on the basis of project narrative and financial progress reports and interviews with the project implementation team, project stakeholders and beneficiaries.
  • The evaluation finds that the project was effective in delivering results.
  • The Project document provided for NGO implementing modality. In this context, a micro-assessment was carried to analyse financial system and management capacities of BBC Media Action and the risk was assessed as “low”. The MTR finds that the chosen implementation mechanisms are conducive for achieving the expected results.
  • The revision of the budget was not required and there were no significant delays that affected timely delivery of results.
  • The project document envisaged a substantive role for the  Programme Board (PB), namely: making management decisions on direction, adjustment, and approval of project work plans and the budge; approval of project revisions. The project was formally initiated within the framework of the SDP programme and the with the same, share PB, was for both projects. The actual use of the SDP PB was a solution to initiate the project; however, members of this board were not from the areas relevant to the Multi-media Initiative for Youth.
  • The  Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) was established to provide “technical advice to BBC Media Action’s production team on specific governance matters and help ensure that MIY’s content is relevant and accurate to the current environment of democratic space in Cambodia”. The MTR finds that the TAC was an efficient tool to ensure high level strategic inputs from the national partners on the core topics related to the scope of the project. However, , the information collected through the field work and its analysis showed that representatives of UNDP were not sufficiently involved in work of the TAC.
  • The BBC Media Action Project Implementation Unit (PIU) oversaw project implementation; its experience and technical capacities ensured efficient implementation of the project and high quality of the results. Still, based on information from the field and interviews with the partners, the finding is that involvement of UNDP project staff was less than expected.
  • The final evaluation analysed application of a standard management tools inherent to efficient project management. Based on this, the analysis of primary and secondary data, the evaluation concludes that the project had well-established management tools and procedures that facilitated efficient implementation.
  • The project was implemented in a complex environment; the content and specific subjects of the Multimedia youth initiative represented particular challenge for BBC Media Action team as the subject of youth employment is difficult to present in broadly acceptable and attractive manner.
  • It is important to highlight that the Klahan9 project and BBC Media Action produced media materials were highly successful. The project prepared and delivered very attractive and interesting media programs, well recognized by the target groups and generated nation-wide positive climate and supportive environment for youth employment (and follow up actions that could work to boost youth employment).
  • Delivery of results was driven by goals to ensure ownership and sustainability. Some of the project results, specifically those related to capacity development, are integrated in the key national institutions (the National Employment Agency and the National Broadcasting Company of Cambodia).
  • The MTR confirms that the youth employment concept has been promoted through all activities. The target beneficiaries (youth, young women and youth from vulnerable groups) were receiving information about employment, employment opportunities and steps forward through multimedia approach, using TV shows/ programs, radio programs and social networks. The project performed qualitative evaluation of the Klahan9 TV, radio and on-line programs that showed the actual impact and receprivity of the programs among the different groups.
  • Throughout all activities the principles of human rights based approach were mainstreamed. The MTR finds that screenplays promoted non- discrimination and equality, accountability and the rule of law while the selection of characters was based on prinicples of participation and inclusion
  • Still, the MTR finds weakness from the project design phase that the project has confusing and incoherently formulated intervention logic. This makes immediate assessment of effectiveness more challenging. Some of the examples, further commented in this part of the report could be that the outcome is weakly defined, which made assessment of the impact difficult. The project document uses terms “outputs” and “deliverables” in different contexts although it could be considered that deliverable is a subset of output; hence, in project management practice these two terms are used interchangeably.
  • In addition, the project document did not provide annual targets but rather milestones that are actual activity products.

3.

Impact and sustainability

  • The evaluation finds that the project sustainability is satisfactory and the project ensured ownership of the youth as the main target group. The young women and men were involved in the planning of multimedia campaing through direct interaction with the project during school and community presentations. Also, they participated in researches that the project carried out and in the implementation of activities starting from the beginning of the project. The project produced number of video and audio programs and tools - sustainability of these results is ensured as all of these results are available via Facebook and would be accessible to the youth in the future. they.
  • Capacity within the national institutions will remain in place, ensuring sustainability
  • The mid-term evaluation followed general practice to validate impact looking at the expected outpus (and deliverables) and the outcome, and assuming possible impact of the Klahan9 project on youth employment in Cambodia. This included the analysis at three levels: the level of individuals, institutions and the policy level. At the level of individuals, the impact could be observed among the individuals that participated in the project activities or directly benefited from them and among the project target groups. Organizational, operational and technical capacities of the key national partners, the Media Departments of the National Employment Agency and the Cambodian Broadcasting Service have been strengthened to perform information services, design and implement multimedia information campaigns. The project possible impact on policy making process is limited.
  • Qualitatively, the conclusion of this mid-term evaluation is that there is certain likelihood that the project impact will be achieved; however, as presently designed and implemented there is a high likelihood that the impact could erode without further external support to institutionalize results of the project or link the project to a broader development agenda.
  • The MTR finds that the Klahan9 project could be used as powerful and effective tool for Government of Cambodia, UNDP and other development partners for implementation of a larger scale youth employment program. Hence, the continuity of external support and technical assistance for youth employment in Cambodia remains highly relevant and probably one of the key priorities in the years to come. Using achievement of Klahan9 projects and building on available tools and tested approaches through the project, other areas of youth employment should be included and addressed.

Recommendations
1

Recommendation 1: Ensure participation of the key stakeholders that are involved in issues related to youth employment. It is recommended that the Project Board includes key national and international development partners involved in implementation of youth employment policy and measures and to re-enforce the role of UNDP as the chair of the PB, especially considering growing opportunities to link the Klahan9 project with larger initiatives in the area of employment/ youth employment.

2

Recommendation 2: Develop sound monitoring system for the project. It is recommended that the project team (UNDP and BBC Media Action) start working on a results oriented monitoring system. The purpose will be to keep the track whether the project achieves the expected results and objectives.

3

Recommendation 3: Strengthen strategic reporting for the Klahan9 project

4

Recommendation 4: UNDP should become more active in the area of youth employment.

5

Recommendation 5: It is needed to strengthen mechanisms to facilitate youth employment

6

Recommendation 6: UNDP should be advisor to the Government:  it is highly recommended that UNDP takes the lead as the advisor to the Government (and the National Employment Agency) to set up functional mechanism and ensure effective cooperation of the key national and international development partners in the area of youth employment. In this context, the role of the Klahan9 could become even more apparent and relevant, as powerful tool to support implementation of other activities in the area of youth employment.

7

Recommendation 7: Carry out (impact assessment of labour market measures):   UNDP could provide technical assistance for the establishment of the system for monitoring and evaluation of employment policies and programs. This will increase effectiveness of the implemented measures and to extract information about its relevance, results and objectives.

8

Recommendation 8: UNDP should support development of the system of occupational safety: UNDP in Cambodia together with the national stakeholders could work on development and modernization of the system of occupational standards that will help to match education system with the labour market demands.

 

9

Recommendation 9: Youth employment programme should be comprehensive and address regional priorities: Successful programs for youth employment require to address different aspects that affect and impede active participation of youth in the labour market. In order to define sound and demand based approach, it is recommended to perform in-depth regional assessment in Cambodia to identify advantages and opportunities for regions throughout the country and identify opportunities for employment following competitive advantages.

10

Recommendation 10: Increase employability of the youth: Particularly important will be to work on increasing employability with focus on vulnerable youth at the labor market through different activities and approaches such as establishment of youth supporting framework, practical learning and professional training.

11

Recommendation 11: There is a need to work to improve access to business advisory and job/ career-guidance services.

12

Recommendation 12: UNDP should explore how to support development of youth entrepreneurs.

13

Recommendation 13: Policy planning in the area of youth employment should continue: Technical assistance for planning and policy development in the areas of that are promoting youth entrepreneurs must be done in coordination with the budgeting process and it should include sound monitoring system to measure progress and results.

14

Recommendation 14: UNDP should explore opportunities to support youth led businesses

15

Recommendation 15: Migrations are one of the challenges to be addressed: Measures for youth employment should include analysis of the root causes of migrations; build up on the potentials and advantages of migrants and migrations, while developing measures to counterbalance impacts and risks of migrations. UNDP could support development of capacities of the public institutions to better understand links between migration and development, and to mainstream migrations in the development planning (e.g. analysis of data on migrants and migrations for evidence based policy.

16

Recommendation 16: Development of rural areas and involvement of youth from rural regions in economic activities remain priority. it is recommended that UNDP explore opportunities to support rural youth, with particular focus on young female, through diversifying opportunities for their employment, especially in rural areas that are closer to economic centers/towns.

1. Recommendation:

Recommendation 1: Ensure participation of the key stakeholders that are involved in issues related to youth employment. It is recommended that the Project Board includes key national and international development partners involved in implementation of youth employment policy and measures and to re-enforce the role of UNDP as the chair of the PB, especially considering growing opportunities to link the Klahan9 project with larger initiatives in the area of employment/ youth employment.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
• Change the composition of the current board and to identify new board members whose works relate to youth and/or youth employment area. • UNDP will take the lead and chair Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of Klahan9. The Committee will widen its scope and focus on a broader strategic areas of youth employment, beyond access to employment information and behavioral changes. • Revise the ToR of TAC to expand the roles of its members.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2017/11/24]
UNDP 2017/10 Completed The new board composition is established and held its first meeting on 20th October, 2017 UNDP already started chairing the last TAC which was held on 30 Jun 2017 and will continue to the following TAC. TAC members being informed about the changes in term of strategic discussion within TAC and the revised TOR will be shared in next TAC meeting.
2. Recommendation:

Recommendation 2: Develop sound monitoring system for the project. It is recommended that the project team (UNDP and BBC Media Action) start working on a results oriented monitoring system. The purpose will be to keep the track whether the project achieves the expected results and objectives.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Partially Agreed. The project results focus on the behavior change level of audiences where could not be measured on annual basis but will be done through an audience impact evaluation exercise in which already planned in the end of the project term.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
However, the project recognizes there is a need to keep track of change results at certain level on annual basis, hence, the monitoring indicator will be reviewed to track some level of results on annual basis.
[Added: 2017/07/12]
UNDP, BBC MA 2017/09 Completed The audience impact assessment is planned for 2018 to measure the behaviors of target audiences as resulted from project intervention. The monitoring indicators are reviewed and simplified and being incorporated in the progress report format.
3. Recommendation:

Recommendation 3: Strengthen strategic reporting for the Klahan9 project

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09] [Last Updated: 2017/07/09]

Partially Agreed. The current reporting already response to the United Nations Development Group’s Results-Based Management Handbook, however, we recognize the complexity of level of measurement of those indicators.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
We will review existing report template to simplify the format.
[Added: 2017/07/12]
UNDP, BBC MA 2017/07 Completed The progress report template was reviewed and simplified the tracking of changes level.
4. Recommendation:

Recommendation 4: UNDP should become more active in the area of youth employment.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Partially Agreed. UNDP has already been active in the area of youth employment, having worked with other UN agencies to develop UN joint intervention.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP is developing a new pipeline to enlarge its intervention on youth employment beyond the partnership with BBC. This includes but is not limited to the work with NEA and policy oriented researches on youth employment.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/08]
UNDP 2018/09 Completed Prodoc for new youth employment project was developed. LPAC to review it will be conducted on 31 Oct.
Resume the Project Manager Position (Youth Employment Specialist) to play active role in coordinating existing activities, formulating new interventions and in mobilizing partners/stakeholders’ supports.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2017/11/24]
UNDP 2017/12 Completed The Employment Specialist has been on board from September 2017.
5. Recommendation:

Recommendation 5: It is needed to strengthen mechanisms to facilitate youth employment

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Agreed. (Same as Recommendation #1)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will take the lead and chair Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of Klahan9. The Committee will widen its scope and focus on a broader strategic areas of youth employment, beyond access to employment information and behavioral changes.
[Added: 2017/07/12]
UNDP 2017/07 Completed UNDP already started taking the lead of TAC.
6. Recommendation:

Recommendation 6: UNDP should be advisor to the Government:  it is highly recommended that UNDP takes the lead as the advisor to the Government (and the National Employment Agency) to set up functional mechanism and ensure effective cooperation of the key national and international development partners in the area of youth employment. In this context, the role of the Klahan9 could become even more apparent and relevant, as powerful tool to support implementation of other activities in the area of youth employment.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09] [Last Updated: 2017/07/12]

Partially Agreed – but will include in the new project.

There are other UN agencies that are working in the areas of youth employment. ILO has its core mandate on employment, though the scope of its current intervention is limited. There are other UN agencies that are working in the areas of youth employment. ILO has its core mandate on employment, though the scope of its current intervention is limited.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP is starting a design process of new initiative and is working to identify key trigger points of intervention. In addition, UNDP’s policy oriented researches on the impact of economy on youth employment will be used to feed into the Government policy, program, or strategy related to youth employments. Last but not least, through the anticipated works with NEA, UNDP will provide advisory support to the institution to strengthen its roles in providing youth employment related services.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2017/11/24]
UNDP 2017/10 Completed The UN Joint Programme on Youth Employment was signed off and launched on 1st September 2017.
7. Recommendation:

Recommendation 7: Carry out (impact assessment of labour market measures):   UNDP could provide technical assistance for the establishment of the system for monitoring and evaluation of employment policies and programs. This will increase effectiveness of the implemented measures and to extract information about its relevance, results and objectives.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Partially Agreed. This recommendation couldn’t be address within the current scope of the project; however, UNDP will explore this intervention in the new project pipeline.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
This recommendation couldn’t be address within the current scope of the project; however, UNDP will explore this intervention in the new project pipeline.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
UNDP 2018/09 Completed Prodoc for new youth employment project was developed. LPAC to review it will be conducted on on 31 Oct.
8. Recommendation:

Recommendation 8: UNDP should support development of the system of occupational safety: UNDP in Cambodia together with the national stakeholders could work on development and modernization of the system of occupational standards that will help to match education system with the labour market demands.

 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Disagreed – this intervention is not linked to the mandate of UNDP and it is actually being done by ILO

Key Actions:

9. Recommendation:

Recommendation 9: Youth employment programme should be comprehensive and address regional priorities: Successful programs for youth employment require to address different aspects that affect and impede active participation of youth in the labour market. In order to define sound and demand based approach, it is recommended to perform in-depth regional assessment in Cambodia to identify advantages and opportunities for regions throughout the country and identify opportunities for employment following competitive advantages.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Partially Agreed. This recommendation is not relevant to the current scope of the project; however, it will be addressed by UN joint programme on Youth Employment funded by Swiss Development Cooperation. The programme is expected to roll out in Q3 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The design of new interventions is taking the regional priorities into consideration, though the outcome of the design would depend on the ethnographic study of youth employment that UNDP is commissioning.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/08]
UNDP 2018/09 Completed The UN Joint Programme on Youth Employment was signed off and launched on 1st September 2017. UNDP’s contributions to the Joint Program include an assessment of the economic and social impact of the investment in education and skills and an assessment of entrepreneurship investment for rural economy. These two in-depth studies would help decision makers to identify suitable youth employability interventions for both rural and urban areas.
10. Recommendation:

Recommendation 10: Increase employability of the youth: Particularly important will be to work on increasing employability with focus on vulnerable youth at the labor market through different activities and approaches such as establishment of youth supporting framework, practical learning and professional training.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Agreed – but will include in the new project design.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP in consultation with concerned stakeholders, will explore the opportunity to address youth employability in a youth employment intervention being formulated (refer to key action in recommendation No. 7)
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
UNDP 2018/09 Completed Prodoc for new youth employment project was developed. LPAC to review it will be conducted on on 31 Oct.
11. Recommendation:

Recommendation 11: There is a need to work to improve access to business advisory and job/ career-guidance services.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Agreed & on-going

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Steps are taken by NEA and Microsoft to create a new platform where information on business advisory and job/career-guidance services are the main focus while Klahan9 contents on soft-skill building will also be included.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/08]
UNDP, BBC 2018/09 Completed UNDP built a partnership with private sector, particularly with Young Entrepreneurship Association in Cambodia (YEAC) to create guidance tools and provide platforms for youth to access to entrepreneurship and employment opportunities and advise in their residential provinces . While with NEA UNDP assists NEA to be able to provide career guidance to youth through multimedia, forums, and increased engagement of private sector and youth in their activities
12. Recommendation:

Recommendation 12: UNDP should explore how to support development of youth entrepreneurs.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Agreed – but will include in the new project design

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP, in consultation with concerned stakeholders, will explore the opportunity to support youth entrepreneurs in a youth employment intervention being formulated (refer to key action in recommendation No. 7)
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/08]
UNDP 2019/12 Initiated Prodoc for new youth employment project was developed. LPAC to review it will be conducted on 31 Oct. Under the UN Joint Program on youth employment, UNDP will conduct an assessment on the impact of entrepreneurship skill investment on rural economy. Following this assessment, solutions including training packages might be developed.
13. Recommendation:

Recommendation 13: Policy planning in the area of youth employment should continue: Technical assistance for planning and policy development in the areas of that are promoting youth entrepreneurs must be done in coordination with the budgeting process and it should include sound monitoring system to measure progress and results.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Agreed – but will include in the new project design

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP, in consultation with concerned stakeholders, will explore the opportunity to support policy planning in the area of youth employment in a youth employment intervention being formulated (refer to key action in recommendation No. 7)
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/08]
UNDP 2018/09 Completed The Youth Employment project pipeline is under development. The project is expected to begin January 2019, following the end of the MIY in December 2018. Under the Joint Program, studies are being conducted on the impact of education and skill training (including entrepreneurship skill) on economy. Based on these studies, policy paper would be developed for policy advocacy purpose.
14. Recommendation:

Recommendation 14: UNDP should explore opportunities to support youth led businesses

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Partially Agreed – but will be explored in the design of new project

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP, in consultation with concerned stakeholders, will explore the opportunity to support youth led businesses in a youth employment intervention being formulated (refer to key action in recommendation No. 7)
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/08]
UNDP 2018/09 Completed New Prodoc of youth employment will be consulted with LPAC on 31st Oct, designed to support youth-led business through coaching/mentoring programme to youth entrepreneurs.
15. Recommendation:

Recommendation 15: Migrations are one of the challenges to be addressed: Measures for youth employment should include analysis of the root causes of migrations; build up on the potentials and advantages of migrants and migrations, while developing measures to counterbalance impacts and risks of migrations. UNDP could support development of capacities of the public institutions to better understand links between migration and development, and to mainstream migrations in the development planning (e.g. analysis of data on migrants and migrations for evidence based policy.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Partially agreed. Migration is not UNDP mandate but by addressing youth employment issue the outcomes will have direct impact on migration.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Migration is not UNDP mandate but by addressing youth employment issue the outcomes will have direct impact on migration, UNDP will further analyze this aspect as part its new project design.
[Added: 2017/07/12] [Last Updated: 2018/11/08]
UNDP 2018/09 Completed The new prodoc of youth employment project that is to be consulted with LPAC on 31st Oct, designed by taking into account the migration issue through skills upgrading and expand formal employment opportunity in the country. The economic research on education and training of youth in Cambodia under UNJP will provide policy recommendations to address the issues.
16. Recommendation:

Recommendation 16: Development of rural areas and involvement of youth from rural regions in economic activities remain priority. it is recommended that UNDP explore opportunities to support rural youth, with particular focus on young female, through diversifying opportunities for their employment, especially in rural areas that are closer to economic centers/towns.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/07/09]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
To be addressed under UN Joint Programme on Youth Employment – UNDP is planning two researches under this joint programme in which will touch on those aspects: - Research on the macroeconomic effect of investments in integrated packages for formal jobs, targeting the poor and vulnerable including investments in education and skills development and enabling environment to attract identified economic sectors. -Research on the macroeconomic effect of investments in holistic packages for rural entrepreneurship
[Added: 2017/11/24] [Last Updated: 2018/10/28]
UNDP 2019/12 Initiated The two researches are combined into one and being undertaken. Preliminary findings are expected to be available in early Feb 2019.

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