Strengthening Climate information and early warning systems terminal evaluation

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2021, Tanzania
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
08/2018
Completion Date:
08/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
35,000

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Title Strengthening Climate information and early warning systems terminal evaluation
Atlas Project Number: 00074211
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2021, Tanzania
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 08/2018
Planned End Date: 08/2018
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Not Applicable
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.3.1 Data and risk-informed development policies, plans, systems and financing incorporate integrated and gender-responsive solutions to reduce disaster risks, enable climate change adaptation and mitigation, and prevent risk of conflict
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG Target
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
  • 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • 13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
Evaluation Budget(US $): 35,000
Source of Funding: GEF-LDCF, UNDP
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 24,240
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Dinesh Aggarwal INDIA
Erneus Kaijage
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Strengthening climate information and early warning systems in Tanzania for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-5
GEF Project ID: 4991
PIMS Number: 5096
Key Stakeholders: Prime Minister's Office, Tanzania Meteorological Agency, Local Government Authorities
Countries: TANZANIA (UNITED REPUBLIC OF )
Lessons
1.

It would have been useful to have included in the project design the Score Card (SC) as a means of measuring progress of the project.

The project design has considered that demonstrations of benefits at local level from an effective EW, increased information and prediction ability on floods and droughts, increased agro-meteorological information, will help replicate and upscale project outcomes to other regions. As such there is nothing wrong with this consideration. However, it needs to be appreciated that preparation of reports and knowledge products alone is not sufficient for replication. Such lessons learnt, good practices and field demonstration need to be disseminated and communicated to the target audiences to achieve the objective of replication.

The project design has provided mobile phone network as a means of communicating early, the likelihood of a hazardous event and the measures required to be taken by the community to address the event. However, in the developing world, some geographical areas (including some of the locations where pilots under the projects we carried out) are still not at the level where availability of mobile telephony is still not there. For the cases where, mobile communication network is not available, the projects in the area of early warning / disaster management, in their design, need to provide for an alternative way to transmit data and to communicate ‘Early Warning’ of a likely event to the locations where mobile communication is still not available.

Data could then be transmitted by using satellite transmission. However, the cost of establishing and managing a satellite link for transmission of the data from the weather stations is quite high. As this is the case, it could potentially be incorporated into the regular operational costs of the Water Basin Authorities/Boards which are situated in areas where mobile phone services are not available.

The limited capacity of the TMA to develop weather products constrains its ability to sustain its operations. Were TMA able to create and sell such products, this would contribute to generate more consistent revenues to finance its operations.


Findings
1.

3.1.1Analysis of Log Frame /Results Framework

The objective of the project was to ‘strengthen the climate monitoring capabilities, early warning systems and available information for responding to climate shocks and planning adaptation to climate change in Tanzania’. To achieve this objective, the project was organized into two outcomes, with each of the two projected outcomes having their respective projected outputs and the corresponding set of activities which are detailed in Table 6.

The planned outcomes and the corresponding set of indictors are ‘SMART’ enough, except for Indicator A and the corresponding source of verification for it. The ‘Capacity Assessment Scorecard’ is one away to rate a qualitative aspect in quantitative terms. However, it has its own set of problems and issues. In order to minimize the bias of the individuals marking the scores for different attributes of the ‘Score Card’ a more robust scorecard verification should be used or developed at the time of baseline assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary that the set of stakeholders along with the attributes (including the weights for each of the attributes) is detailed in the project document. Also, it is necessary that ‘Score Card’ assessment is included as an activity in the project document or in the monitoring plan, so that it doesn’t get missed out. It is recommended (please see recommendation 1) that the use of ‘Capacity Score Card’ as a means of verification should either be done away with or its use may be made in such a way that the discretion of the individuals giving the scores to different attributes is minimized. Also, the project document should include an elaboration on how the ‘Score Card’ would be used.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Programme/Project Design Results-Based Management

2.

3.1.2 Assumptions and Risks

At the time of the project design, a risk analysis of the project was carried out and this was included in the ‘Project Document’ (Annex 3 of the Project Document). Table 8 provides the identified risks and the corresponding risk mitigation options.

The log-frame of the project included a set of assumptions for each of the project outcomes. The assumptions which were made at the time of project design are given in Table 9. Also given in the table are the comments and observations at the time of ‘TE’ of the project.

Most of the assumptions made at the project design stage remained valid during the implementation of the project, except for the assumption that TMA and WBAs have enough regular and predictable financing to support monitoring operations and will consider recurring O&M costs for new infrastructure in government budget lines because of the usefulness of the EWS will be demonstrated (assumption 6 in the above Table). Several assumptions(6 out of 13) could not be tested.


Tag: Programme/Project Design

3.

The project has created additional infrastructure for collection of weather data, generation of weather related warning and advisory. The one-time cost for creation of such infrastructure has been provided by the project. The project also provided the cost of operation and maintenance of the newly created infrastructure during the implementation phase of the project. After the closure of the project, the ownership of the assets and the responsibility to operate them will be passed on to the government authorities. There will be a recurring cost for maintenance and operations of the newly created infrastructure. Such costs include the following:

  • Cost of consumables (batteries and spare parts);
  • Charges to be paid to telecom companies for data transmission;
  • Charges to be paid to energy companies for provision of on-site solar panel for power generation;
  • Charges to be paid as rent /service charges to the owner of the premises housing the equipment; and
  • Salaries to the additional staff for operation and maintenance of the equipment and the EOU.

Tag: River basin management Human and Financial resources Ownership Technology

4.

3.1.3 Lessons from other relevant projects

In Tanzania, at the time of project design and prior to that, a number of projects were implemented /being implemented to address the issue of climate change and adaptation to climate change, including the following:

  • Project on Disaster Management, through which UNDP worked with the Prime Minister’s Offices’ disaster management department to deliver outputs that were of direct relevance to this initiative, including: Revision of the National Operational Guidelines; Formulation of a M&E framework; Convening of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)national platform and formulation of a resource mobilization strategy for emergency response; Development of DRR training package for the PMO-DMD.
  • Water Sector Development Programme (2005-2025), jointly funded by the World Bank and the national government, which had three major components: the water Resources Management Programme (WRMP), the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (NRWSSP) and the Urban Water and Sewerage Programme (UWSSP). The programme was deployed with the support of all the water stakeholders, including Ministry of Water, Water Basin authorities, water user groups, utilities and suppliers, private sector and NGOs. As part of the programme, a number of climate stations were procured to assist the Basins to better forecast rainfall events, droughts and floods. In addition, the programme had flood and drought management interventions that included: (i) preparation and agreements on disaster response organizational structures; (ii) preparation, financing and implementation of disaster advance warning systems; (iii) development of disaster contingency plans and procedures and training of personnel in their use; (iv) development of dam-safety measures to mitigate the impacts of floods and droughts; and (v) the identification and conducting of studies on climate change responses, and (vi) studies on the potential for and feasibility of large, medium and small scale dams and rainwater harvesting and their development, which could have the potential for buffering against climate variability.

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster risk management

5.

3.1.4 Planned stakeholder participation

The list of important stakeholders for the project was provided earlier (Section 2.5). The Project Steering Committee of the project was a main tool for stakeholder engagement into the project planning and implementation and included key partners for project implementation and the beneficiaries of the project. The project steering committee includes representatives from various partners for implementation of the project from departments of different ministries. As per the project design, the other opportunities for formal engagement of stakeholders was by way of training sessions, conferences, workshops, awareness creation, project websites, results dissemination etc. Table 10provides the details regarding the involvement and roles of the key stakeholders for the project

  • Vice Presidents’ Office (VPO
  • Disaster Management Department-Prime Minister’s Office
  • Tanzania Meteorological Agency
  • Ministry of Agriculture
  • Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development
  • Water Resources Division, Ministry of Waterand Irrigation(MoW)
  • PanganiBasin Borad and Ruvuma River and Southern Coast Basin WaterBoard
  • Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA)
  • Local Disaster Management Committees, DistrictCouncils (DCs)
  • Local communities in the two selected pilot project areas
  • Tanzania Red Cross Society
  • World Vision

Tag: Local Governance Oversight Country Government

6.

3.1.5 Replication approach

The project has both a national level component focused on the two pilot locations and the pilot river basins. Output 1.1 (see Table 6) is clearly at the national level and hence there is not much focus on its replication. The project design has made provisions to facilitate replication of the other outputs and activities from the pilot districts and sites to the other locations in the country. Some of the provisions in the project design in this regard are as follows:

  • •Generate of a thorough report on lessons learned to enable replication of project outputs and outcomes in other regions(Activity 2.7.4).
  • Development of a lessons learned report including methods for replication and extrapolation of the socioeconomic benefits of EWS(Activity 2.5.4).
  • Generation of lessons learnt from the EWS simulation and adaptation planning exercise deployed in each of the two pilot districts.
  • Lessons learned and recommendations on replication, including costs and benefits of EWS are available (Output 2.5)

The project design considers that demonstrations of benefits at local level from an effective EWS, increased information and prediction ability on floods and droughts, increased agro-meteorological information, will help replicate and upscale project outcomes to other regions. As such there is nothing wrong with this consideration. However, it needs to be appreciated that preparation of reports and knowledge products alone is not sufficient for replication. Such lessons learnt, good practices and field demonstration need to be disseminated and communicated to the target audiences to achieve the objective of replication. The knowledge dissemination part is clearly missing in the project design. It is recommended that the project design should include the activities targeted as dissemination of the knowledge, case studies and lessons learnt (please see recommendation 2).


Tag: Natural Disaster Sustainability Knowledge management

7.

3.1.6 UNDP comparative advantage

The project is aligned with UNDP’s comparative advantage in the area of capacity building, providing technical and policy support as well as expertise in project design and implementation. Additionally, UNDP has a long history of collaboration with the Government of Tanzania. It has experience managing related projects in the country, including for example the AAP. UNDP had worked with the Government of Tanzania on the integration of climate change issues into planning in the past.

One of the specific advantage of UNDP implementing this project is that the strategic principles that will influence the implementation of this project are the links and synergies with the other similar projects (in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Liberia, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Sa~o Tome´& Pri´ncipe, Uganda and Zambia) implemented through UNDP and funded through the LDCF. These 10 projects were designed simultaneously and as such, synergies have been explored at the project design stage. Common indicators have been included in the projects in order to facilitate aggregate results reporting and to allow comparisons between countries. This offered opportunities for joint activity delivery (training and knowledge sharing) which were to be explored and facilitated through UNDP and through a set of common services, including technical support and administrative assistance. The implementation of the project benefited through the common procurement of automated weather station and the flood forecasting model.

UNDP has a high level of experience managing other Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF)projects in the region, in particular those with an early warning component.


Tag: Programme Synergy Programme/Project Design Capacity Building Policy Advisory Technical Support

8.

3.1.7 Linkages between the project and other interventions within the sector

As was mentioned before (section 3.1.3), at the time of project design and prior to that a number of projects were implemented /being implemented to address the issue of climate change and adaptation to climate change. However, either at the project design stage or during project implementation stage the project did not draw linkage with any of the other ongoing interventions. The project was more or less implemented in a solo mode.

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Programme/Project Design

9.

3.1.8 Management arrangements

The management arrangements as presented in the Project Document were clearly described and were based on common project management arrangement for UNDP National Implementation Modality. The UNDP was the GEF Implementing Agency. The Prime Minister’s Office–DMD assumed the role of Implementing Partner for this project, with the VPO acting as executing partner. Project finances passed through Medium Term Expenditure Framework to ensure national accountability through the normal government procedures and according to UNDP rules and regulations.

The Project has fully followed the management arrangements as described. The UNDP Country Office provided overall program, administrative, and financial oversight of the project progress in accordance with the common UNDP procedures and tracking tools available in Atlas system. Project Steering Committee performed as a key decision-making body at a project strategic planning level. The project held regular steering Committee meetings over the evaluation period mainly focused on progress reporting and planning and revision of the unexpected changes in pilots.


Tag: Implementation Modality Oversight Project and Programme management

10.

3.2 Findings: Project implementation

3.2.1Adaptive management and Feedback from M&E used for adaptive management

The MTR for the project provided a comprehensive set of recommendations (total 19 recommendations). However, some of these recommendations were generic in nature and did not provide specific action points. One of the reasons for this seems to be the fact that at the time of MTR the remaining time left for implementation of the project was less than a year (project implementation started late, the project got the no cost extension after the MTR).

Given in Table 11below, are the MTR recommendations and the corresponding management response. Also given in the table are the comments at the ‘Terminal Evaluation of the project.

Monitoring and Evaluation activities has not been that strong. Quarterly reports were prepared only for three of quarters for the entire duration of the project implementation. Similarly, PIR was prepared only for the year 2017. The only credible action towards M&E is the MTR of the project. The MTR also pointed out the shortcomings in the M&E activities (although no recommendations are made). Thus, any possible opportunity for adaptive action due to M&E was largely lost.


Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation

11.

3.2.2 Partnership arrangements

As mentioned in section 3.1.4, the project design had adequate provisions for stakeholder consultation and participation. The project has been implemented under ‘National Implementation Modalities (NIM)’, with Vice-President’s Office (Department of Environment) and Prime Minister’s Office (Disaster Management Department) as the Executing Agency/Partners. Other responsible parties for the project implementation are TMA, Ministry of Water and theMinistry of Agriculture. The Water Basin Authorities (through the Ministry of Water) also participated in project implementation.

Implementation of the project has been guided by the ‘Steering Committee’, which is responsible for making management decisions for the project. While the PMO was responsible for implementation of the project, monitoring day-to-day operations, and accountability on financial flows, the VPO was responsible for policy guidance in the virtue of its mandate for policy development and coordination of environment and climate change issues in the country. Other ministries and the TMA actedas Responsible Partners (RP) for specific components of the project. The Steering Committee for the project comprised of the members from the project partners and other stakeholders follows;

•PMO-DMD (co-chair)•VPO-DOE (co-chair)•TMA (Responsible Partner)•MoW(Responsible Partner)•MAFS Crop/Irrigation Department (Responsible Partner)•Ruvumariver and Southern Coast Basin Water Board(Responsible Partner)•PanganiBasin WaterBoard (Responsible Partner)•Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (Participating member)•TCRA (Participating member)•UNDP (Project Assurance)


Tag: Implementation Modality Partnership Coordination

12.

3.2.3 Project Finance

The project design has provided for a significant amount as co-financing contribution for the project. Table 12 provides the details of the provisions for financing of the project.

The contribution from the parties other than LDCF was in the form of co-financing. The co-financing considered significant investment by the national government in the development of complete disaster management architecture, including the operations of the climate monitoring system.

As was pointed out during the MTR as well, there is no tracking of co-financing commitment described in ‘Project Document’. However, there are in-kind co-financing contributions covering office space, utilities, communications, management and provision of technical experts.

As per the funding sources mentioned in the ‘Project Document’, the co-financing contribution by different government ministries/agencies/departments (TMA, DMD, MoW) was to come as in-kind. Table 13 provides the details of the in-kind funding, which was to be provided by different government agencies.


Tag: Global Environment Facility fund Least Developed Countries Fund Human and Financial resources Country Government

13.

3.2.4 Monitoring and evaluation: design at entry

A monitoring and evaluation plan was put in place at the time of the design of the project. There was a provision to review the plan at the time of project inception. As per the plan, the project was to be monitored through the periodic quarterly and annual monitoring. There were provisions for preparation of the APR / PIR. The APR/PIR combines both UNDP and GEF reporting requirements. Provisions were also made in the project design for an independent MTR and the TE. The GEF Focal Area Tracking Tool for climate change adaptation was also prepared at the time of CEO endorsement and before the MTR and at the TE. As per the plan stipulated in the project document, the project team was to prepare a Project Terminal Report, to summarize the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learnt, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. The set of indicators to be monitored and the corresponding targets were provided in the log-frame of the project. The results of the monitoring and evaluations were to be provided to the project board.

As is evident, the M&E plan at the design stage was well conceived. The plan was well articulated and was sufficient to monitor results and track the progress toward achieving the objectives, except for some issues with the indicators used. Adequate provisions were made in the budget for monitoring and evaluation activities. The M&E design at entry has been rated as Satisfactory.


Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/Project Design

14.

3.2.5 Monitoring and evaluation: implementation

As mentioned before, the Monitoring and Evaluation activities have not been that strong. At the time of TE mission only three quarterly reports for the entire implementation period of the project could be shared. PIR was provided only for the year 2017.The MTR also pointed out the shortcomings in the M&E activities. The possible opportunity for adaptive action due to M&E was largely lost. The project team prepared the end of the project report summarizing the results achieved (objectives, outcomes, outputs), lessons learnt, problems met and areas where results may not have been achieved. The project team prepared half yearly reports regularly and shared the same with the project steering committee. M&E Plan Implementation has been rated as Marginally Satisfactory. Overall quality of M&E is rated as Marginally Satisfactory.

 


Tag: Implementation Modality Monitoring and Evaluation

15.

3.2.6 UNDP and Implementing Partner/execution coordination, and operational issues

The management arrangements as presented in the Project Document had been clearly described and were based on common project management arrangement for UNDP National Implementation modality. The project has fully followed the management arrangements as described. The Executing Agency/Implementing Partner role was assigned to the Prime Minister’s Office (Disaster Management Department), with the VPO acting as executing partner for the project. Day to day implementation of the project was carried out a project co-ordinator, who in term was assisted by a project implementation team.

UNDP country office provided overall program, administrative, and financial oversight of the project progress in accordance with the common UNDP procedures and tracking tools available in Atlas system. The Project Steering Committee performed as a key decision-making body at a project strategic planning level. Quality of UNDP Execution has been rated as Satisfactory.


Tag: Implementation Modality Oversight Project and Programme management Coordination Operational Services

16.

3.3 Findings: Project Results

3.3.1Attainment of Objectives

  • What has been the achievements of the objectives against the end of the project values of the log-frameindicators, with indicators for outcomes/outputs, indicating baseline situation and target levels, as well as position at the close of the project?

A summary of the attainment of the overall project objectives is presented in this section of the report. Achievement of different Outcomes of the project in terms of indicators has been presented first, which is followed by the presentation regarding the achievement of project objectives. This is because the achievement of the project objectives has been assessed both in terms of the indicators (for project objectives as given in the log-frame) and in terms of the achievement for the two planned outcomes of the project.

As per the requirements, the attainment of results’ evaluation has been carried out for the two individual outcomes of the project as well. The evaluation of the attainment of results has been carried out in terms of the indicators of the log-frame. Wherever relevant, the reasons for non-attainment of the target values of the indicators have also been provided.

The mandatory ratings for the attainment of overall results has also been provided. Although the rating is not mandatory for achievement against each output and each indicator, the rating has been provided. This has been done to facilitate the ratings for the individual outcomes of the project and the project at an aggregate level. The evaluation of the attainment of overall results has been carried out keeping in mind the main questions for TE, as given in the box at the beginning of this section

 


17.

3.3.1.1Attainment of objectives–Outcome 1

Rating: Moderately Satisfactory

As per the project design (Project Document) the expected outputs of Outcome 1 of the project were as given below.

  • Output 1.1: 36 Additional automated stations generate hourly climate data
  • Output 1.2: Real-time hydrological and river flow data available for major rivers in Pangani and Ruvuma Basins
  • Output 1.3: Flood forecasting models, flood forecast management systems and flood risk maps are developed for each major river within the Pangani and Ruvuma Basin
  • Output 1.4: Hydrological and climate data collected from various monitoring systems is integrated into a harmonized database that is accessible to sectoral users

Indicative activities which were to be carried out under different outputs of Outcome 1 are as given in Table 14. Also given in the table is the status of implementation of the activities and the outcome at the time of the terminal evaluation.


Tag: Natural Disaster River basin management

18.

Output 1.3 was to support development of flood forecasting in the Ruvuma and Pangani basins, including the sub-catchment piloting areas. The idea was to develop flood forecasting models and flood risk maps using climate and hydrological data(including data coming in from the new monitoring stations acquired in Output 1.2). This outcome was targeted at enabling the ‘Water Basin Authorities’perform various tasks using flood management software, including: real-time local flood forecasting based on hydrological and precipitation data (rainfall-runoff models, or hydrological models), development of GIS-based flood risk maps and models using varied parameters to optimize decision making, better management of hydraulic structures (e.g. dams), and environmental monitoring. Models wereto use the available historical climate and hydrological data for the districts and the basins.

BRLi Company Limited (a French company) was hired to install the hydrological solutions for Integrated Water Resources Management System in Ruvuma and Pangani basins. However, there is no significant progress. The tasks commenced in June 2017 with an inception meeting and a visit by the officials of BRLi Company. During the visit the officials of the company met with key stakeholders and identified the data needs and sources, established the inventories of available stations, assessed data quality controls, transmissions systems and data storage. No significant progress for this Outcome is reported since the inception report and the initial visit by the officials of the vendor company. The latest (11 June 2018) communication from the company has pointed out the following data gaps.•Hydrological observation data via NDCH•TMA forecast daily output


Tag: Natural Disaster River basin management

19.

Output 1.4 was to address the existing gaps in data coordination and data sharing for development, deployment and use of flood forecasting models at the two pilot districts (Arumeru and Liwale). Most of the activities envisaged to achieve this outcome has been achieved successfully. Thus, the achievement against this output has been rated Satisfactory.

Table 15 improvides details of the achievement of the results for different indicators for Outcome 1.

The project has successfully installed 36 new automated weather stations (Output 1.1) as was envisaged in the ‘Project Document’. Although the percent increase in the national territory covered is not known, it is believed that as per the provisions in the ‘Project Document’ the installation of new automated weather stations would have achieved the target of 75%. Thus, the achievement against indicator 1 is rated as Satisfactory.


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction River basin management Effectiveness Technology

20.

3.3.1.2Attainment of Objectives -Outcome 2

Ratingfor Outcome 2: Satisfactory

The objective of Outcome 2 of the project was efficient and effective use of hydro-meteorological and environmental information for making early warnings and long-term development plans. By project design, Outcome 2 was to draw on Outcome 1and the pilots to demonstrate early warning systems and prepare ground for replication of such early warning systems for other locations in the country. Due to lacking successful demonstration of early warning system,the achievements for Outcome 2 havealso been impacted. However, for the purpose of the Terminal Evaluation,the assessment regarding achievement of results of Outcome 2 has been done in terms of the achievements for different outputs and the achievements against the indictors provided in the results framework. As per the project design (Project Document) the expected outputs of Outcome 2of the project were as given below.


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Effectiveness Efficiency

21.

In case of Output 2.3, a simulation of the EWS in the two pilot districts, using the newly developed SOPs was to be carried out. For the purpose of the simulation, the ‘Emergency Operations Unit (EOU)’ (created under Output 2.2) was to be used for launching the simulation. SOP procedure (developed under Outcome 2.1) were to be used while carrying out the simulation. The simulations were expected to last for about 1-2 months. Instead, the project team carried out some desk-top simulation exercises in a workshop. The activities for Output 2.3, if carried out as envisaged in the ‘Project Document’ would have provided the opportunity to test (and if required correct) the SOP and the workings of EOU created under Output 2.1 and 2.2 respectively. As there is no achievement against Output 2.3, the achievement of results for Output 2.3 is rated as Unsatisfactory.


Tag: Policies & Procedures

22.

Output 2.4 of the project was to support the deployment of a crowdsourced disaster management platform whereby local communities were to be provided with telecommunications means (either simple smart phones or tablets) to upload real-time disaster and vulnerability information. This system was to be combined with an SMS based system for transmission of relevant agro-meteorological information. All the activities as envisaged inthe project document for this outcome were out, except for the most crucial activity of creation of the crowdsourced disaster management platform. Accordingly, achievement of results for this outcome has been rated as Moderately Successful.

Table 17 provides details of the achievement of the results for different indicators for Outcome 2.


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Country Support Platform

23.

Indicator 3:Percent of population with access to improved climate information and improved flood and drought warnings % of which are women

For Indicator 3, the sources of verification suggested in the project document are site surveys, reports on the implementation of the EWS simulation, crowdsourced information. No such surveys were carried out. Also, as discussed in the previous paragraphs,no credible work on the simulation (Outcome 2.3) could be carried out. The work on creation of a crowdsourced platform (Outcome 2.4) is also quite inadequate. Thus, an assessment regarding the achievements against Indicator 3 is not possible based on the sources on verification mentioned in the results framework.

The project carried out pilot activities in two divisions(Makata and Kibutuka) of Liwale district. The inhabitants of the project sites have benefited from the project services and received ago-meteorological information for social and economic activities such as crop farming and livestock keeping. Similarly, the project carried out pilot activities in 6 wards (out of 26 wards) of Arumeru District. The inhabitants of the pilot areas in Arumeru district also benefit from the services. The project has distributed 200 smartphones to small holder farmers in the pilot areas in Liwale and Arumeru districts (under Outcome 2.4). In addition,810 small holder farmers, from Arumeru and Liwale Districts were connected to a farmer SMS system. These activities have increased he reach of the early warning system in the targeted (pilot) areas to the level of 70%. However, the issue in this case is that increased reach of the early warning system is not leading to increased benefit from improved climate information, drought or early warnings. This is because there is no effective use of the newly created early warning information dissemination network. For example, since the time (March 2017) the network has been established, only 3-4 massages has been sent to the target beneficiaries. In view of this, the achievement of results against Indicator 3 has been rated as ‘Moderately Satisfactory’.

 


Tag: Crop production Disaster Risk Reduction

24.

Indicator 4:Type of development planning framework informed by climate information in Meru and Liwale Districts

For Indicator 4, the project has produced the policy briefs for Liwale and Arumeru on the impacts of climate change on local development(Output 2.6), the report summarizes climate scenarios and flood forecast covering Ruvuma and southern Coast River Basin and Pangani River Basin. This is to support the resilience and long-term planning through working with the local authorities, Basin authorities, ward and district councils. The project has also updated the local land use plans, district strategic development plans and district budget plans in light of emerging climate information, flood forecasts and economic scenarios. Accordingly, the achievement of results against indicator 4 has been rated as ‘Satisfactory’.

Based on the level of achievements for different outputs and the Indictors of Outcome 2, the achievement of results for Outcome 2 has been rated as ‘Satisfactory’.


Tag: Policies & Procedures

25.

3.3.1.3 Attainment of Results -Project Objectives

The stated objective of the project, the corresponding indictors to monitor and report the achievement of the project objectives along with the sources for verification of the achievements of the targeted value of the indicator are as follows:

As the ‘Capacity Score Card’ assessment at the end of the project has not been done it is not possible to assess the achievement of the project objectives, in terms of the indicator specified in the results frame-work. Due to this reason the assessment regarding attainment of the project goals and the project objectives have been done based on the assessment of the attainment of goals and objectives of the individual Outcomes of the project, which was presented in the earlier paragraphs.

As already mentioned, the ‘Capacity Assessment Scorecard’ is one very good ways to rate a qualitative aspect in quantitative terms. However, it has its own set of problems and issues. In order to minimize the bias of the individuals marking the scores for different attributes of the ‘Score Card’ a more robust scorecard verification should be used or developed at the time of baseline assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary that the set of stakeholders along with the attributes (including the weights for each of the attribute) is detailed out as an Annex in the project document. Also, it is necessary that ‘Score Card’ assessment is included as an activity in the project document or in the monitoring plan, so that it doesn’t get missed out.


Tag: Operational Efficiency Quality Assurance

26.

3.3.2 Relevance

  • To what extent is the activity suited to local and national development priorities and organizational policies, including changes over time?
  • To what extent is the project in line with UNDP Operational Programs or the strategic priorities under which the project has been funded?

3.3.2.1 Relevance with National Development Priorities

Tanzania is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and has developed a National Adaptation Programme of Action (2006), as well as a National Climate Change Strategy. This project makes a direct contribution to addressing the 2007 NAPA Priorities in the water and health sectors. The project also falls within the framework of the Expanded NAPA of 2009, where early warning systems for droughts and floods are also mentioned as priorities in the short, medium and long-term for the agriculture sector, and as a cross-cutting priority.

Tanzania has set up a legal and institutional framework for environmental management through the Environmental Management Act of 2004. Among other things, the Act provides for establishment of climate change units at individual sector ministries. Tanzania lacks a stand-alone policy on climate change however; there are several sectoral policies, which address climate change. The policies include: National Environment Policy, National Energy Policy, Agriculture and Livestock Policy, National Forest Policy and National Water Policy. In addition, Tanzania has launched its 2013 National Climate Change Strategy, which aims to put in place a better institutional arrangement to adequately address climate change. The goal of the strategy is to enable Tanzania to effectively address climate change and to participate in global efforts to mitigate climate change with a view to achieving sustainable development, in line with the five-year national development plan, the Development Vision 2025, as well as national sectoral policies.

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster risk management Relevance Results-Based Management

27.

3.3.2.2 UNDP Operational Programs or the strategic priorities

This project was to contribute to achieve the following

  • Outcomes of the ‘United Nations Development Assistance Plan (UNDAP 2011-2015)’; Communities have access to improved credible emergency information to enable early action (Outcome 2, Emergency Preparedness and Response
  • Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) and Chief Minister’s Office –Disaster Management Departments (DMDs) effectively lead Emergency Preparedness and Response (ERP) with focus areas most susceptible to disasters

Stronger hydro-climate monitoring capacity were to help local communities and authorities avoid climate-induced losses in livelihoods and basic services such as food and shelter for the communities in the vulnerable areas. Moreover, having improved weather forecast were to enable the government to be informed as to where there will be shortages of food and other related basic needs, and that prior plans will be made to ensure that humanitarian assistance is available to save the lives of people and their properties.


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Vulnerable

28.

At the time of project design UNDP CO in Tanzania had a focus on: Programme 1 –Sustainable Management of Protected Areas and Programme 2 –Mainstreaming environment & Energy and Sustainable Land Management. In the UNDP Country programme document for 2016-2021, Environment sustainability, climate change and resilience remains as one of the priority areas. As per UNDP CDP 2017-2021 for Tanzania, UNDP will continue strengthening the provision of accurate climate information and early warning systems for disaster preparedness, response and recovery. This ongoing upstream capacity-building and two pilot projects will be scaled up in 28 districts in partnership with the Tanzania Meteorological Agency.

UNDAP II (2016-2016) for Tanzania has also identified the need for enhancing resilience at all levels of disaster management by strengthening early warning systems at national to community levels. The priority areas of UNDAP II include, technical and financial assistance for mapping the risk, vulnerability and capacities across sectors, structures and locales with follow-up provided for enhanced resilience at all levels. This includes provision if assistance for the scale up of collection, processing, dissemination and use of weather, climatic and hydrological information for early warning systems which inform both authorities and communities alike.

Apart from being in line with the policy framework of Tanzania (National Climate Change Strategy, NAPA), the project is fully compliant with UNDP’s environmental and social safeguards.

The relevance of the project has been rated as Relevant.


Tag: Disaster risk management Relevance

29.

3.3.3 Effectiveness & Efficiency

Rating: Moderately Satisfactory

  • To what extent the objectives have been achieved?
  • To what extent the results have been delivered with the least costly resources possible?
  • What are the positive and negative, foreseen and unforeseen changes to and effects produced by a development intervention?

Although, there are some issues with the achievements of the results, the project has been able to achieve most of its objectives, ‘to strengthen the climate monitoring capabilities, early warning systems and available information for responding to climate shocks and planning adaptation to climate change in Tanzania’. From the statement of the project objective, it is observed that there were following four components in the overall objective of the project;

  • •to strengthen the climate monitoring capabilities•
  • to strengthen early warning systems
  • to strengthen availability of information for responding to climate shocks•
  • planning adaptation to climate change

The project has strengthened the climate monitoring capabilities of the county. When it comes to ‘early warning’ the project has missed on one of the very important Output (flood modelling), Also the performance on the front of ‘strengthen availability of information for responding to climate change’ has not been that good (in-spite of the system being in place). When it comes to the objective of ‘planning adaptation to climate change’ the project has been able to successfully introduce climate change aspects in the land use planning in the two pilot areas.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster risk management Effectiveness

30.

3.3.4 Country ownership

  • Was the project concept in line with development priorities and plans of Tanzania?
  • Were the relevant country representatives from government and civil society involved in project implementation, including as part of the project steering committee?
  • Was an inter-governmental committee given responsibility to liaise with the project team, recognizing that more than one ministry should be involved?
  • Have the government(s), enacted legislation, and/or developed policies and regulations in line with the project's objectives?

The project is in line with the Tanzania Five Year Development Plan 2011/2012 –2015/2016 that highlights five core priorities to unleash Tanzania’s latent growth potentials. Most of the core priorities in the plan are climate change vulnerable sectors (agriculture, tourism), and the plan further highlights the need to enhance coordination and knowledge on climate change issues. The plan’s focus on agriculture proposes ambitious objectives of transformation of agriculture for food self-sufficiency and export, development of irrigation, particularly in selected agricultural corridors, and high value crops including horticulture, floriculture, spices, and vineyards. This is another area that could suffer the impact of climate change, and for which accurate forecasting.

The Five Year Development Plan of Tanzania (FYDP II, 2016/17–2020/21) also includes climate change in the four priority areas for action: fostering economic growth and industrialization; fostering human development and social transformation; improving the environment for business and enterprise development, and strengthening implementation effectiveness. Within the strategic interrelations proposed under the FYDP II one of the interventions is combating climate change and climate services would be needed for decision making.


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation

31.
  • Was the project concept in line with development priorities and plans of Tanzania?
  • Were the relevant country representatives from government and civil society involved in project implementation, including as part of the project steering committee?
  • Was an inter-governmental committee given responsibility to liaise with the project team, recognizing that more than one ministry should be involved?
  • Have the government(s), enacted legislation, and/or developed policies and regulations in line with the project's objectives?

There was a high level of involvement of the relevant country representatives from government and civil society in the project implementation and they were members of the steering committee. Many important departments and ministries were the implementation partners for the project. The ‘Steering Committee’ was co-chaired by PMO-DMD and VPO. The PMO was responsible for implementation of the project, monitoring day-to-day operations, and accountability on financial flows. The VPO was responsible for policy guidance in the virtue of its mandate for policy development and coordination of environment and climate change issues in the country. Other ministries and the TMA acted as ‘Responsible Partners’ for specific components of the project.


Tag: Relevance Ownership Policies & Procedures

32.

3.3.5 Mainstreaming

  • How is the project successfully mainstreaming other UNDP priorities, including poverty alleviation, improved governance, the prevention and recovery from natural disasters, and women's empowerment?•
  • Whether it is possible to identify and define positive or negative effects of the project on local populations (e.g. income generation/job creation, improved natural resource management arrangements with local groups, improvement in policy frameworks for resource allocation and distribution, regeneration of natural resources for long term sustainability).•
  • Dothe project objectives conform to agreed priorities in the UNDP country programme document (CPD) and country programme action plan (CPAP)?•Whether there is evidence that the project outcomes have contributed to better preparations to cope with natural disasters. •
  • Whether gender issues have been taken into account in project design and implementation and in what way has the project contributed to greater consideration of gender aspects, (i.e. project team composition, gender-related aspects of pollution impacts, stakeholder outreach to women’s groups, etc.)

UNDP has a long history of supporting climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Tanzania. In Tanzania, UNDP has been working as a key development partner of choice to achieve sustainable human development in economic, social and environmental fronts. Working closely with the Government at the national, regional and local levels, and civil society and the private sector, UNDP aims at eradicating extreme poverty and reducing inequalities and exclusion to protect both people and the planet. The project was fully compliant with UNDP’s environmental and social safeguards defined by integration of the precautionary principle into programme/project management cycles. The very design of this project correlates to the main objective of safeguarding to prevent and mitigate undue harm to the environment and people at the earliest possible planning stage, and to identify and realize opportunities to strengthen environmental and social sustainability, including climate resiliency, of programming. The selected sectors (water resources management and disaster risk reduction)are in line with the priorities areas of UNDP.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction Resilience building Natural Resouce management Policies & Procedures

33.

The project design and its implementation has taken specific care to ensure women participation. Some of the specific points in this regard are;

  • The project design integrates gender considerations in a Tanzanian context. Specifically, given their particular roles in agriculture, and the large number of female-headed households in project sites, the project intended to ensure that women have a role to play in the early warning system, that they benefit from climate information that is relevant to them and their roles, and that the information is presented and transmitted in a way that is accessible to them, considering their specific constraints.
  • The project has trained 885 community members, of which 259 were women, from the project pilot zones. The trainings have built community awareness on dissemination and use of climate information for managing floods and droughts.
  • 84 community representatives(on which 42 were women)from Liwaledistrict and72 (of which 36 were women) from Arumeru district were selected to form a district crowd-sourced platform. The volunteers represent all socio-economic groups including women, youth, elders, crop producers, livestock managers, water user associations etc.
  • The project introduced an SMS based system for transmission of relevant agro-meteorological information designed for smallholder farmers in the project pilot districts. 810 small holder farmers of which 405 are women from the two project pilot districts receive regular weather forecast and famers advisory.
  • The project has developed guidelines for local Early Warning systems simulation (EWS) which has taken care to ensure the participation of women and girls. The guidelines were used to conduct early warning simulation exercises in the pilot districts.103 community members participated in the simulation exercises, 43 were females equivalent to 39% of the total participation.
  • The project has facilitated training to local media, Community Based Organizations (CBOs), gender-based organizations and Non-GovernmentOrganizations working in the project pilot districts. 41 journalists participated in the training. The project trained 619 community members where 185 members were women from the project pilot districts on the use of climate information, products and interpretations of early warning systems.

Tag: Agriculture Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Capacity Building Women and gilrs

34.

3.3.6 Sustainability

  • Are there financial risks that may jeopardize the sustainability of project outcomes?
  • What is the likelihood of financial and economic resources not being available once GEF grant assistance ends?
  • Are there social or political risks that may threaten the sustainability of project outcomes?
  • What is the risk for instance that the level of stakeholder ownership (including ownership by governments and other key stakeholders) will be insufficient to allow for the project outcomes/benefits to be sustained?
  • Do the various key stakeholders see that it is in their interest that project benefits continue to flow?
  • Is there sufficient public/stakeholder awareness in support of the project’s long-term objectives?
  • Do the legal frameworks, policies, and governance structures and processes within which the project operates pose risks that may jeopardize sustainability of project benefits?
  • Are requisite systems for accountability and transparency, and required technical knowhow, in place?•Are there ongoing activities that may pose an environmental threat to the sustainability of project outcomes?

One of the risks to sustainability of the impacts created under the project is the availability of funds to carry out the maintenance of the newly created weather monitoring and forecasting facilities. The project has created additional infrastructure for the collection of weather data, generation of weather-related warning and advisory services. The one-time cost for creation of such infrastructure has been provided by the project. The project also provided the cost of operation and maintenance of the newly created infrastructure during the implementation phase of the project. After the closure of the project, the ownership of the assets and the responsibility to operate them will be passed on to the government authorities. There will be a recurring cost for maintenance and operations of the newly created infrastructure. This cost includes the following:•

  • Cost of consumables (batteries and spare parts)
  • Charges to be paid to telecom companies for data transmission
  • Charges to be paid to energy companies for provision of on-site solar panel for power generation
  • Charges to be paid as rent / service charges to the owner of the premises housing the equipment
  • Salaries to the additional staff for operation and maintenance of the equipmentand the EOU

Tag: Efficiency Sustainability Human and Financial resources

35.

The ownership and the responsibility for operation and maintenance of the advanced weather stations will get passed onto TMA. Presently, TMA gets funds from the government for its operations. Under the project a strategy has been worked out to generate some revenues by engaging the private sector and sell weather products. The idea is to meet about 20% of the regular expenses by selling the weather products. It is expected that TMA will be able to take care of the increased expenses partly by selling the weather product and partly by budgetary support.

In case of river gauges and hydrological stations, the flood model the ownership and the responsibility to operate will be with the two river basin authorities when the pilots were carried out. These ‘water basin authorities get some funds as per budgetary provisions and the balance funds are organized by them by levying a water chargeon the users of water. In case of Pangani basin, the collection of revenues due to water charges is quite significant (due to present of hydro power generation facilities). Also,in case of Pangani,due to availability of cellular phone networkand internet in most of the areas, the communication expenses to transmit data to the server are comparatively less. Therefore,it is expected that the PanganiBasin Authority (as confirmed by the officials) will be able to take care of the additional recurring expenses due to the project. However, the situation is not that comfortable in case of RuvumaRiver Basin, firstly due to the absence of any major water user, the collection of water charges is not that significant. Secondly, because of non-availability of mobile phone network in many locations,the transmission of data used a satellite link (which is comparatively much costlier). The sustainability of the project from the view point of financial risks is Moderately Likely(ML).


Tag: Efficiency Sustainability Human and Financial resources Ownership Private Sector

36.

The project has successfully created a shift momentum (by successful demonstration in the pilots) in the thinking within the government stakeholders, like national government entities, district / divisional administration and local authorities, regarding the importance of ‘Weather Forecasting’ and ‘Early Warning’ regarding the likelihood of the hazards. One of the ‘risks’ to sustainability of the achievement is the inability to sustain the shift, in the thinking within the national government entities. Wherever actions have been implemented on the ground, they have created a positive impact in the communities. There are no socio-economic issues associated with the project. From the view point of Socio-political risk to the sustainability of the impacts, the sustainability has been rated as Likely. This is considering that there are many climate change adaptation projects which are under implementation in Tanzania. These projects will help to maintain and sustain the shift in the thinking regarding the importance of ‘Early Warning’ in managing the climate change induced Hazards.

As such there is no institutional and governance risk to sustainability of the project results except for the fact that the institutional framework for ‘Early Warning’ delivery and the matching actions on the ground involves multiple agencies. From the view point of institutional framework and governance risks, the sustainability of the project is Likely.

There are no negative environmental impacts of the project, other than some minor impacts due to change in the land-use pattern. There is a remote possibility of environmental impacts due to changes in the cropping pattern as an adaptive measure. From the view point of environmental risk, sustainability of the project is Likely.

The overall sustainability of project results is rated as ‘Moderately Likely’.


Tag: Natural Resouce management Sustainability Local Governance Country Government

37.

3.3.7 Impact

  • Whether, the project has demonstrated verifiable improvements in ecological status?
  • Whether, the project has demonstrated verifiable reductions in stress on ecological systems through specified process indicators, that progress is being made towards achievement of stress reduction and/or ecological improvement?

The project aimed at improving the resilience to climate change by strengthening the capacity of the Government of Tanzania to observe, analyse and forecast climate information to enhance the capacity of their early warning systems for climate resilient development and adaptation to climate change.Given the focus of the project on strengthening of capacity of the country for weather forecasting and early warning, it has provided both hardware (weather stations, river gauges, servers) and software (training, flood forecast models) to achieve the objectives.

The project also aimed at incorporation of adaptation to climate change into the land use planning at the local level to take care of the hazards. The project has been able to successfully introduce climate change aspects in the land use planning in the two pilot areas.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Impact

Recommendations
1

Generally speaking, in case of use of a Score Card (SC) as an indicator and a means for verification, the project document should include an elaboration on, how the Scores would be determined. Also, a write up should be included in the monitoring plan regarding the determination of ‘Score’ as an activity, so that it does not get missed out.

2

The project design has considered that demonstrations of benefits at local level from an effective EW, increased information and prediction ability on floods and droughts, increased agro-meteorological information, will help replicate and upscale project outcomes to other regions. As such there is nothing wrong with this consideration. However, it needs to be appreciated that preparation of reports and knowledge products alone is not sufficient for replication. Such lessons learnt, good practices and field demonstration need to be disseminated and communicated to the target audiences to achieve the objective of replication. It is recommended that project design should include the activities targeted as dissemination of the knowledge, case studies and lessons learnt to support replication and scaling up of project outcomes.

3

The measuring instruments (like gauges, sensors in the automatic weather stations etc.) supplied under the project will require periodic calibration. The infrastructure (laboratory etc.) required for this is presently not available in Tanzania, the future projects involving supply of measuring instrument/equipment should have a strategy for periodic calibration of the instruments/equipment. It can also be a part of the procurement process, wherein the calibration services are provided by the supplier of the equipment/instruments.

4

The project design has provided mobile phone network as a means of communicating early, the likelihood of a hazardous event and the measures required to be taken by the community to address the event. However, in the developing world, some geographical areas (including some of the locations where pilots under the projects were carried out) are still not at the level where availability of mobile telephone is still not there. For the cases where, mobile communication network is not available, the projects in early warning /disaster management, in their design, need to provide for an alternative way to transmit data and to communicate ‘Early Warning’ of a likely event to the locations where mobile communication is still not available. Such alternatives, may include public broadcasting, community-based radio stations etc.

5

The project could not complete the task of development and deployment of the flood forecasting models. The consultant for this activity has already been appointed. The deliverables for this will be provided by the consultant much after the end of the project. It is recommended that the project may work out the modalities for it to ensure that the quality deliverables are received, the required demonstration and training to the officials of the basin authorities is provided regarding the use of the software.

6

It is recommended to scale up the project to cover other areas of the country and the remaining seven water basins in Tanzania so that the other parts of the country can also benefit from the early warning. However, while doing so the lessons learnt from this project may be used to ensure better results. 

7

It is proposed, and TMA would in part meet its expenses by selling weather data (or weather data products). In this regard, the country may need to have a formal data policy and regulatory mechanism to facilitate commercial use/marketing of weather data and products. In this regard, a study should (or would need to) be carried out to see the kind of provisions made in different countries and draw the lessons.

8

To sustain the operations of TMA it is necessary to have consistent revenue streams through the sale of weather products. Some of the weather products which can be tapped are:

  • Data for development of weather index-based crop insurance models
  • Data for solar radiations (Solar Atlas)
  • City/location specific weather data to facilitate Energy Efficiency measures in the building sector (Green Buildings)
9

For communication the old and proven method of community-based radio stations may be explored. Although this may be comparatively capital intensive (compared to communication on mobile phone), the coverage of the impacted population would be almost 100%. Further, from sustainability point of view this is better as no recurring cost is involved (for mobile communication the telecom companies are to be paid regularly which impacts the financial sustainability).

10

From the view point of financial sustainability, one of the regular expenses is the regular bills to be paid to the telecommunication companies. The national government may explore the possibility to have policies, wherein there are no charges by the telecom companies for providing such kind of services. For example, there can be a condition in the licensing agreement to the telecom companies, wherein the services provided for disaster management and defense of the country are not chargeable.

11

In the areas where mobile phone services are not available; the project has provided for establishment of a satellite link for transmission of the data from the weather stations. The capital cost of providing the link and the recurring cost (for managing the batteries, invertors, solar PV systems etc.) is also quite high. It is recommended that in such situations, the creation of facilities with mobile service provides (telecom companies) may be explored on a cost sharing basis. This is likely to reduce both the capital cost and the recurring cost for provision of the link for data transmission. It will have an added advantage of the development of the area.

1. Recommendation:

Generally speaking, in case of use of a Score Card (SC) as an indicator and a means for verification, the project document should include an elaboration on, how the Scores would be determined. Also, a write up should be included in the monitoring plan regarding the determination of ‘Score’ as an activity, so that it does not get missed out.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation and will seek to include a Score Card as a means of measuring progress of the project. This will include clear identification of indicators against which the progress will be measured. In the current project the Score Card was not determined as an evaluation tool at the beginning of the project design.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Include the use of Score Card in the scaled-up as well as other projects.
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC &Resilience Pillar 2019/12 Completed done History
Participate in RBM training to ensure a better understanding on how monitoring is done using SC
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC &Resilience Pillar 2019/12 Completed done History
2. Recommendation:

The project design has considered that demonstrations of benefits at local level from an effective EW, increased information and prediction ability on floods and droughts, increased agro-meteorological information, will help replicate and upscale project outcomes to other regions. As such there is nothing wrong with this consideration. However, it needs to be appreciated that preparation of reports and knowledge products alone is not sufficient for replication. Such lessons learnt, good practices and field demonstration need to be disseminated and communicated to the target audiences to achieve the objective of replication. It is recommended that project design should include the activities targeted as dissemination of the knowledge, case studies and lessons learnt to support replication and scaling up of project outcomes.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation and will include the knowledge sharing activities in the scaled-up project and any other future programming.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Include knowledge sharing activities in the scaled-up as well as other new projects.
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2019/12 Completed Done History
3. Recommendation:

The measuring instruments (like gauges, sensors in the automatic weather stations etc.) supplied under the project will require periodic calibration. The infrastructure (laboratory etc.) required for this is presently not available in Tanzania, the future projects involving supply of measuring instrument/equipment should have a strategy for periodic calibration of the instruments/equipment. It can also be a part of the procurement process, wherein the calibration services are provided by the supplier of the equipment/instruments.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation subject to the following strong caveats: (i) that funds be available for this activity in the scaled-up project; (ii) that adding calibration requirements as part of a procurement process to source suitable supplier of the equipment/instruments does not unduly restrict competition to the detriment of value for money as per UNDP principles.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Include calibration infrastructure and services in the scaled-up project assuming adequate availability of funds.
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC &Resilience Pillar 2020/01 Completed done History
Ensure complete specification during procurement process to source suppliers, subject to applicable competition rules (availability of expertise and value for money).
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC &Resilience Pillar 2020/01 Completed Done History
4. Recommendation:

The project design has provided mobile phone network as a means of communicating early, the likelihood of a hazardous event and the measures required to be taken by the community to address the event. However, in the developing world, some geographical areas (including some of the locations where pilots under the projects were carried out) are still not at the level where availability of mobile telephone is still not there. For the cases where, mobile communication network is not available, the projects in early warning /disaster management, in their design, need to provide for an alternative way to transmit data and to communicate ‘Early Warning’ of a likely event to the locations where mobile communication is still not available. Such alternatives, may include public broadcasting, community-based radio stations etc.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation and shall be taken un in future programming.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Alternative ways to transmit data and to communicate ‘Early Warning’ in remote areas without mobile phone networks to be considered in future programming
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2021/01/05]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2020/12 Completed done History
5. Recommendation:

The project could not complete the task of development and deployment of the flood forecasting models. The consultant for this activity has already been appointed. The deliverables for this will be provided by the consultant much after the end of the project. It is recommended that the project may work out the modalities for it to ensure that the quality deliverables are received, the required demonstration and training to the officials of the basin authorities is provided regarding the use of the software.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Follow up closely with the consultant (BRL) to ensure quality delivery of the flood and drought forecasting model.
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/06/08]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2019/12 Completed this work has been finalised History
Organize training for relevant officials as planned.
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2019/12 Completed Training on capacity building for the basin staff and the Ministry of Water has been conducted. History
6. Recommendation:

It is recommended to scale up the project to cover other areas of the country and the remaining seven water basins in Tanzania so that the other parts of the country can also benefit from the early warning. However, while doing so the lessons learnt from this project may be used to ensure better results. 

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Lessons learning will inform the scaled-up project, the consultant is being guided to include this in the concept note.
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2019/12 Completed Project Scale up Concept Note development has been created History
7. Recommendation:

It is proposed, and TMA would in part meet its expenses by selling weather data (or weather data products). In this regard, the country may need to have a formal data policy and regulatory mechanism to facilitate commercial use/marketing of weather data and products. In this regard, a study should (or would need to) be carried out to see the kind of provisions made in different countries and draw the lessons.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation subject to TMA approval’s and commitment to its implementation, which is outside of UNDP’s unilateral control.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Advocacy/Consultation with TMA to seek their endorsement and include this recommendation in the scale-up project will take place through a hired consultant.
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/23]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2019/12 Completed done History
8. Recommendation:

To sustain the operations of TMA it is necessary to have consistent revenue streams through the sale of weather products. Some of the weather products which can be tapped are:

  • Data for development of weather index-based crop insurance models
  • Data for solar radiations (Solar Atlas)
  • City/location specific weather data to facilitate Energy Efficiency measures in the building sector (Green Buildings)
Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management take note of this recommendation but are not able to accept it because the Tanzanian Government is implementing a strong centralized revenue collection policy, which will seriously hamper the implementation of this recommendation.  UNDP will nonetheless bring this recommendation to the attention of TMA, along with recommendation 7 above.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will bring the recommendation to the attention of TMA assuming the new developing project is approved
[Added: 2018/09/24]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2023/01 Initiated Project Scale up Concept Note development is in progress
9. Recommendation:

For communication the old and proven method of community-based radio stations may be explored. Although this may be comparatively capital intensive (compared to communication on mobile phone), the coverage of the impacted population would be almost 100%. Further, from sustainability point of view this is better as no recurring cost is involved (for mobile communication the telecom companies are to be paid regularly which impacts the financial sustainability).

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation the implementation thereof will be subject to availability of funds given the assessor’s own remark that this is capital extensive. This is linked to recommendation 4.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Consult key stakeholders to include community radio in the scaled-up project and advocate for broadcasting funds for radio stations
[Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/09/28]
Environment, CC & Resilience Pillar 2020/01 Completed Done History
10. Recommendation:

From the view point of financial sustainability, one of the regular expenses is the regular bills to be paid to the telecommunication companies. The national government may explore the possibility to have policies, wherein there are no charges by the telecom companies for providing such kind of services. For example, there can be a condition in the licensing agreement to the telecom companies, wherein the services provided for disaster management and defense of the country are not chargeable.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management disagree with this recommendation which is beyond the scope of the project and UNDP’s mandate. Introduction of new policy or policy change is a long-term process and may not happen through the influence of one project hence no action required from UNDP at this stage.

Key Actions:

11. Recommendation:

In the areas where mobile phone services are not available; the project has provided for establishment of a satellite link for transmission of the data from the weather stations. The capital cost of providing the link and the recurring cost (for managing the batteries, invertors, solar PV systems etc.) is also quite high. It is recommended that in such situations, the creation of facilities with mobile service provides (telecom companies) may be explored on a cost sharing basis. This is likely to reduce both the capital cost and the recurring cost for provision of the link for data transmission. It will have an added advantage of the development of the area.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/24] [Last Updated: 2020/12/20]

PMO-DMD and the project management agree with this recommendation which will be considered as part of recommendation 4 above.

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