Adapting National and Transboundary Water Resources Management to Manage Expected Impacts of Climate Change in Swaziland

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2020, Swaziland
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
08/2016
Completion Date:
12/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
50,000

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Title Adapting National and Transboundary Water Resources Management to Manage Expected Impacts of Climate Change in Swaziland
Atlas Project Number: 61373
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020, Swaziland
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2016
Planned End Date: 08/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 5.2. Effective institutional, legislative and policy frameworks in place to enhance the implementation of disaster and climate risk management measures at national and sub-national levels
Evaluation Budget(US $): 50,000
Source of Funding: GEF
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 50,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Oliver Chapeyama
Nicolette Mhlanga-Ndlovu
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title:
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: International Waters
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID: 4255
PIMS Number: 3603
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy/Department of Water Affairs
Countries: SWAZILAND
Lessons
1.

A number of useful lessons have been generated from the implementation of the CC-A project. These lessons will be important for the design of similar projects addressing problems and for informing what implementing agencies should do with the results generated to date. These are discussed below;
1. Community groups understand the implications of climate change and they will are willing to participate in projects that address threats to for their livelihoods.
2. Responses to climate change should be guided by national priorities to ensure the participation of all stakeholders.
Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy – DWA UNDP Swaziland/2016

Terminal Evaluation Report: Adapting National and Trans-boundary Water Resources Management in Swaziland 47
3. Participatory planning processes promote more long lasting impacts among beneficiary communities. The approach adopted under the CC-A project to involve community groups in the project design and implementation has resulted in community groups at the pilot sites owning the project which bodes well for sustainability.
4. Climate change adaptation needs to be mainstreamed into development planning initiatives at various planning levels for the results from the initiatives to be sustainable over the long term. The integration of climate change adaptation initiatives into County Development initiatives will guarantee the institutionalization of responses to climate change into national development planning.


Findings
1.

Project Design / Formulation

As discussed in Section 2, above the Adapting National and Transboundary Water Resources Management in Swaziland to the Expected Impacts of Climate Change was designed to respond to what was increasingly becoming an issue of national concern-water shortages due to climate change and their implications for poverty and reduced economic growth. Although Swaziland had developed a National Development Strategy and was in the process of developing sector specific policies in the water and agriculture sectors these efforts were not coordinated and did not take into account climate risks which were all too obvious following weather events such as droughts and cyclones which continue to ravage the country. The design of the project to focus on inter-sectoral coordination and dialogue through Outcome 1 is therefore adjudged to have been appropriate as a response to climate change in Swaziland. The Project Document provides a Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy – DWA UNDP Swaziland/2016 very sound logic to the project and links it to relevant issues with respect to climate change and national development priorities.

Climate change is identified as an issue that will continue to affect all sectors of the Swazi economy and all social groups therefore requiring coordinated approaches to its management. With the economy of Swaziland being principally agro-based, with more than 70% of the country's population engaged in subsistence rain fed agriculture, the project design, through Outcome 2, correctly focuses on climate change adaptation strategies rather than mitigation strategies. In this respect, it is important to note that even the large scale agricultural enterprises in the country have started adapting to increased water shortages by diversifying their production to include crops which require less water.

Given the low capacities for policy and project design and uptake in Swaziland, the adjustment of the project to focus on pilot demonstrations of adaptation activities has yielded lessons that have shown that adaptation to climate change is possible across the board.

While the link to transboundary water resources management under Outcome 3 might, at face value, appear nebulous, it is important to note that the project has ably demonstrated the need for Swaziland to understand her international obligations with respect to shared international waters. Vulnerability assessments which have been conducted in Swaziland have provided useful background data that the country has used in defining its short term, medium term and long term strategies for engaging in dialogue for transboundary water resources management. Adaptation strategies adopted at this scale will also be useful for designing responses at national level. Project design and formulation are therefore adjudged to have been correctly focused.

As highlighted in Section 2 of this report, project design was adjudged to be logical as it addressed critical issues that had implications for national development. Strengthening institutional capacities for multi-sectoral coordination and dialogue will go a long way towards effective project implementation.

a) Assessment of Indicators

 

As observed in the Mid-Term Review of the project, there is some confusion with regards to the Indicators proposed for measuring progress with project implementation with some of the indicators being the same as the end of project targets. Some of the targets under Outcome 2 could have been used as Indicators instead (Targets 2.3 and 2.4). The evaluation team's assessment is that the indicators developed for the project were not SMART. Despite this confusion however, the project has used the Logical Framework as a project implementation tool and managed to capture the results reported in the Annual Project Implementation Reports


Recommendations
1

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 1: It is recommended that UNDP should consider using the balance on the CC-A project budget as bridge funding to extend the CC-A project for at least a year while a more permanent funding arrangement for the project is put in place. 

2

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 2: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Regional Technical Advisor support the Government of Swaziland to identify new and additional financial resources for use in replicating the pilot project initiated under the CC-A project to cover more communities in the country. A possible source of funding is the Green Climate Fund and the GEF Small Grants Programme. 

3

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 3: It is recommended that all relevant Ministries and Departments to include various project elements in their plans and annual budgets in order for them to attract sustainable funding.

4

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 4: It is recommended that the Project Steering Committee should be left in place over the recommended one year extension period so that the same effective project leadership remains available to the Project Management Unit.

5

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 5: DWA inherit the Outputs from the CC-A project and integrate these into their formal work programmes. This way any additional work that needs to be supported can be funded through normal government budgetary allocations.

6

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 6: It is recommended that the DWA identifies and designates a "face" for the project to ensure the sustainability of the project outputs into the future. This "face" could be in the form of a dedicated unit or individual within DWA.  

 

7

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 7: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Department of Water Affairs complete the packaging of the information and publicity materials on the various elements of the project for use in creating awareness on achievement of the project results. Particular attention should be paid to the production of a Communication Strategy on Climate Change as well as simple one-page messages targeting policy makers. The DWA has already committed to taking over project oversight and will therefore be able to use these materials to publicize the benefits of climate change adaptation

1. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 1: It is recommended that UNDP should consider using the balance on the CC-A project budget as bridge funding to extend the CC-A project for at least a year while a more permanent funding arrangement for the project is put in place. 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18]

Management response: The project financial resources will be completely utilised by the 30th September 2016 hence there will be no resources available for project extension beyond September 2016. The project will be closed 30th September 2016 as originally planned

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1: Present the TE recommendations to the Project Board and seek approval for project closure.
[Added: 2018/08/24]
DWA, PMU 2016/10 Completed Project Board meeting was held in Q3 of 2016.
1.2: Conduct Local project Appraisal Committee (LPAC) Meeting for official project closure along the UNDP procedures.
[Added: 2018/08/24]
UNDP 2016/10 Completed LPAC was conducted in the first quarter of 2017 following operational closure of the project.
2. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 2: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Regional Technical Advisor support the Government of Swaziland to identify new and additional financial resources for use in replicating the pilot project initiated under the CC-A project to cover more communities in the country. A possible source of funding is the Green Climate Fund and the GEF Small Grants Programme. 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18]

Management response: The GCF readiness proposal for the country. UNDP to engage the country on the GCF and GEF funding opportunities for the prioritisation of CC-A for the proposals that will be drafted for submission to these funding mechanisms

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1: Engage the Government GCF and GEF focal point and develop a follow-up complementary proposal based on Government priorities for submission to the GEF or GCF
[Added: 2018/08/24]
UNDP, MNRE,DWA,MTEA 2017/12 Completed The project proposal will be developed following the implementation of the GCF Readiness project. GCF Readiness Project developed and was approved for funding.
3. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 3: It is recommended that all relevant Ministries and Departments to include various project elements in their plans and annual budgets in order for them to attract sustainable funding.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18]

 

Management response: The exit strategy recommendations have been implemented to the effect of this proposed recommendation. Plans for all key Ministries and Departments to integrate the project elements have been established through the Project Exit Strategy

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
In conjunction with recommendation 5, in coherence with the implementation of the project Exit Strategy ensure the project elements are monitored for sustainability by the RWSB and DWA.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA,PTC,RWSB 2016/10 Completed
Facilitate the implementation and monitoring of the sustainability plan by DWA on quarterly basis
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA 2016/10 Completed
4. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 4: It is recommended that the Project Steering Committee should be left in place over the recommended one year extension period so that the same effective project leadership remains available to the Project Management Unit.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18]

 

Management response: The Project Steering Committee/ Project Board will be disbanded following the official project closure as highlighted under recommendation 1.  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Given the decision made by the UNDP CO and UNDP RTA to close the project 30th September 2016 as there are no resources to finance activities, the Project Steering Committee (and Project Board) will also be disbanded.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
UNDP,DWA 2016/09 Completed PSC AND PB discontinued following project closure.
5. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 5: DWA inherit the Outputs from the CC-A project and integrate these into their formal work programmes. This way any additional work that needs to be supported can be funded through normal government budgetary allocations.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18]

 

Management response:  The developed Project Exit Strategy has been implemented by DWA to integrate project outputs into their strategic documents e.g (IWRM Master Plan and Departmental Annual Budgets). Project activities will now be managed by DWA and ensure long-term sustainability of project outputs.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Facilitate continued implementation of the Project Exit Strategy monitoring through the IWRM Master Plan.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA 2016/12 Completed Project exit strategy was developed together with the IWRM Master Plan.
6. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 6: It is recommended that the DWA identifies and designates a "face" for the project to ensure the sustainability of the project outputs into the future. This "face" could be in the form of a dedicated unit or individual within DWA.  

 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18]

Management response:  The Department of Water Affairs has identified the Rural Water Supply Branch (RWSB) as the ‘face’ for sustaining the community projects such as sand dams, rainwater harvesting and the ecosystem rehabilitation. The RWSB will continue and provide support to community projects to ensure sustainability of the outcomes.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The DWA ensure the RWSB follows up on the monitoring of the project outcomes.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA,RWSB 2016/11 Completed the DWA monitors project outcomes and provides technical support where required through the project exit strategy.
7. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 7: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Department of Water Affairs complete the packaging of the information and publicity materials on the various elements of the project for use in creating awareness on achievement of the project results. Particular attention should be paid to the production of a Communication Strategy on Climate Change as well as simple one-page messages targeting policy makers. The DWA has already committed to taking over project oversight and will therefore be able to use these materials to publicize the benefits of climate change adaptation

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18]

Management response: Information and publicity materials have been developed and Shared with various stakeholders. More publicity materials aligned to this recommendation will be developed through UNDP support by the Department of Water Affairs pending availability of resources and demand for the materials

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Finalise the development of information and publicity materials and distribute to all stakeholders.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA, UNDP 2016/09 Completed The proposed action has been completed as developed publicity materials have been distributed to all key stakeholders. Publicity materials has also been shared through the DWA Information Management System and using online platforms such Facebook, and You tube.
Develop Technical Policy brief for integrated water resources management and facilitate policy development thereof.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
UNDP,DWA 2016/09 Completed Technical Policy Brief has been developed and presented to the Minister of Natural Resources and Energy for approval of the review of the National Water Policy Strategy and Action Plan.

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