Adapting National and Transboundary Water Resources Management to Manage Expected Impacts of Climate Change in Swaziland

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2021-2025, Eswatini
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
08/2016
Completion Date:
12/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
50,000

Share

Title Adapting National and Transboundary Water Resources Management to Manage Expected Impacts of Climate Change in Swaziland
Atlas Project Number: 00061373
Evaluation Plan: 2021-2025, Eswatini
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2016
Planned End Date: 08/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 5.2. Effective institutional, legislative and policy frameworks in place to enhance the implementation of disaster and climate risk management measures at national and sub-national levels
Evaluation Budget(US $): 50,000
Source of Funding: GEF
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 50,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Nationality
Oliver Chapeyama
Nicolette Mhlanga-Ndlovu
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title:
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: International Waters
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID: 4255
PIMS Number: 3603
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy/Department of Water Affairs
Countries: ESWATINI
Lessons
1.

A number of useful lessons have been generated from the implementation of the CC-A project. These lessons will be important for the design of similar projects addressing problems and for informing what implementing agencies should do with the results generated to date. These are discussed below;
1. Community groups understand the implications of climate change and they will are willing to participate in projects that address threats to for their livelihoods.
2. Responses to climate change should be guided by national priorities to ensure the participation of all stakeholders.
Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy – DWA UNDP Swaziland/2016

Terminal Evaluation Report: Adapting National and Trans-boundary Water Resources Management in Swaziland 47
3. Participatory planning processes promote more long lasting impacts among beneficiary communities. The approach adopted under the CC-A project to involve community groups in the project design and implementation has resulted in community groups at the pilot sites owning the project which bodes well for sustainability.
4. Climate change adaptation needs to be mainstreamed into development planning initiatives at various planning levels for the results from the initiatives to be sustainable over the long term. The integration of climate change adaptation initiatives into County Development initiatives will guarantee the institutionalization of responses to climate change into national development planning.


Findings
1.

3. Evaluation Findings

3.1 Project Design / Formulation

As discussed in Section 2, above the Adapting National and Transboundary Water Resources Management in Swaziland to the Expected Impacts of Climate Change was designed to respond to what was increasingly becoming an issue of national concern-water shortages due to climate change and their implications for poverty and reduced economic growth. Although Swaziland had developed a National Development Strategy and was in the process of developing sector specific policies in the water and agriculture sectors these efforts were not coordinated and did not take into account climate risks which were all too obvious following weather events such as droughts and cyclones which continue to ravage the country. The design of the project to focus on inter-sectoral coordination and dialogue through Outcome 1 is therefore adjudged to have been appropriate as a response to climate change in Swaziland. The Project Document provides a very sound logic to the project and links it to relevant issues with respect to climate change and national development priorities.


Tag: Agriculture Food Security Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Challenges Relevance Programme/Project Design Inclusive economic growth

2.

3. Evaluation Findings

3.1 Project Design / Formulation (continuation)

a) Assessment of Indicators As observed in the Mid-Term Review of the project, there is some confusion with regards to the Indicators proposed for measuring progress with project implementation with some of the indicators being the same as the end of project targets. Some of the targets under Outcome 2 could have been used as Indicators instead (Targets 2.3 and 2.4). The evaluation team's assessment is that the indicators developed for the project were not SMART. Despite this confusion however, the project has used the Logical Framework as a project implementation tool and managed to capture the results reported in the Annual Project Implementation Reports. 

b) Risks and Assumptions A Risk Analysis was conducted at project design stage. However it is the view of the Evaluation Team that the exercise could have been more robust. For example, in addition to government remaining committed to taking on board the implications of climate change into their planning processes the project could have also highlighted the risk of government not possessing the technical or financial capacity required to take over the management and implementation of the project after close out. An additional risk that could have been highlighted was that of limited project management capacity at community level which has implications for the maintenance of the structures funded by the project after it is closed. The Project Exit Strategy has identified and recommended entities that will be expected to take over project elements that will require continued support beyond the project life span but there was no clear indication that these programmes will indeed be inherited and supported at the same level as is currently happening under the project. Provision of support through conventional government systems will not sustain these initiatives for very long. A clear difference between project based management systems and those found in government is that of the pace of decision making and disbursement of resources when these are required. The results achieved through the project are largely due to the quick turnaround in responding to community needs that was possible through the Project Management Unit. In all likelihood, this will not be possible through government unless a dedicated unit or focal person is identified and appropriately resourced to manage the project. Training in basic project management for beneficiary community groups will also be required to ensure that the gains achieved through the project are sustained into the future. 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Relevance Knowledge management Partnership Programme Synergy Programme/Project Design Results-Based Management Risk Management Country Government Institutional Strengthening Technical Support

3.

3. Evaluation Findings

3.1 Project Design / Formulation (continuation)

d) Stakeholders' engagement (continuation) The project started by selecting pilot locations for demonstrating the various elements including sand dams, rainwater harvesting and ecosystems restoration. It is intended that the results from these pilot sites will then be replicated to other community groups in the country. Successfully implemented projects would attract interest from other communities living under similar conditions at regional and global level. In this connection it is important to note that the project itself is a result of replication from experiences gained from implementing similar activities in Kenya. Community representatives from Kenya worked with Swaziland communities in building sand dams through which community level capacities were exchanged. Capacity enhancement in government entities will also strengthen the likelihood of replication at national level through government extension workers promoting the implementation of project elements in other parts of the country. Immediately following the Terminal Evaluation Mission, the project received a request for them to host a bench marking visit from the Botswana Department of Water Affairs who are also planning to implement a similar initiative in the dry regions of the country with support from the Green Climate Fund. Water harvesting technologies introduced to local schools have had such huge impact through improving school attendances due to reduced incidents of illness among pupils. Schools with adequate water supplies have also been able to attract qualified teachers. It is expected that these benefits will be translated into better performance in school work by the school pupils. The evaluation recommends that the engagement of stakeholders that has been a running theme throughout the implementation of this project should be supplemented by training in project governance and management to enhance local level project management capabilities without which the project's achievements will not be sustainable. Already the European Commission has pledged enough resources to up-scale water harvesting to sixty (60) primary schools across the country through a collaborative arrangement between this project and its own Improvement of Integrated Water Resources Management in Swaziland Project. The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA), through its Emergency Grant Fund, has also provided funding to up-scale the water harvesting projects to ten (10) clinics and an additional ten (10) schools across the country, while fifty more sites are targeted for support through the Central Emergency Relief Fund. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Efficiency Oversight Partnership Project and Programme management Strategic Positioning

4.

3.2 Project Implementation

Project implementation has been guided by the Project Board with the Project Technical Committee providing technical guidance over the life of the project. It has already been observed that the project design was changed at the stage of developing the Project Document to focus on the implementation of pilot project activities for the demonstration of climate change adaptation strategies. This was done when the project design was refocused to enable the project proponent to access resources from the Special Climate Change Fund. No further changes were made to the project design or outputs after the mobilisation stage or during implementation. This change in the design facilitated the front-loading of the implementation of demonstration activities ahead of policy development activities. The results generated from these pilot projects have in the end influenced the development of policies in the water and agricultural sectors that promote the mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into development planning in Swaziland. Although there have been a number of other initiatives with a climate change dimension implemented in Swaziland, the Adapting National and Transboundary Water Resources Management in Swaziland to Manage Expected Impacts of Climate Change was the first comprehensive national effort to attempt to bring together disparate entities to address this phenomenon in a coordinated manner. The progress made with this can be directly attributed to the management and leadership provided by the Project Management Unit. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Efficiency Global Climate Fund Resource mobilization Women's Empowerment Oversight Project and Programme management Results-Based Management Country Government Civil Societies and NGOs

5.

3.2.1 Monitoring and Evaluation

The project designed a Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for use in tracking progress with project implementation at the design stage. Periodic monitoring was provided through project site visits by both the PMU and UNDP against which Mission reports were produced with recommendations on how to improve project implementation. Annual Project Implementation Reports were produced for 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. The intermittent home based Technical Advisor provided for in the project design also provided advice on project implementation even though she did not visit the project as often as had been anticipated. The support she provided involved: - developing ToRs for project assignments;- reviewing consultant profiles and advising the Project Manager and principals at UNDP Swaziland Country Office in selecting appropriate consultants for project assignments; - guiding consultants during the conduct of the many assignments managed by the project; - reviewing and guiding the revision of draft reports to ensure that they meet reasonable standards;- providing technical and scientific information to the PM, including links to new science on Climate Change projections for Southern Africa.


Tag: Efficiency Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Programme management Results-Based Management Technology South-South Cooperation Data and Statistics

6.

3.2.2 Financial Management

Total Project Finances are made up of funds secured from SCCF and the total realised co-financing. Table 2 below summarises total project finances that were available under the project. Table 2: Total Project Financing. Project Finances have been handled efficiently with expenditures at the time of the Terminal Evaluation standing as reflected in Table 3 below.

Expenditure Summary: Total UNDP (TRAC 1) Disbursed: US$118,209.19 Total SCCF Project Disbursed: US$ 1,631,162.30 Total Expenditure for CC-A Project: US$ 1,749,371.49 Balance at 30/06/2016: US$120,628.51 Note: Budget and Expenditure figures have been rounded off to even out exchange rate fluctuations between that ranged between 1US$: 8.8 and 1US$:15. These figures are correct as at 30 June 2016 (ATLAS, UNDP Swaziland Country Office). As discussed under project management arrangements for the project, UNDP and the Department of Water Affairs played a pivotal role as Project Executives on the Project Board. Financial disbursements were made on time as were approvals for project activities. The Project Manager and his team who were based at MNRE/DWA operated as an extension of the UNDP Country Office which expedited project implementation despite the capacity limitations in national organisations such as the Department of Water Affairs as indicated above. Project execution by the Implementing Agency is rated Highly Successful (HS)


Tag: Efficiency Global Climate Fund Government Cost-sharing Resource mobilization Oversight Project and Programme management Institutional Strengthening National Institutions

7.

3.2.2 Financial Management (continuation)

Despite the full engagement of the Director of Water Affairs in project implementation, the Evaluation Team is not satisfied that the DWA has fully assimilated this project into their own programme even though members of staff from the department participated in most project management activities. As observed in the Midterm Review, the CC-A project has not been fully grafted into the DWA operations and is considered as a separate initiative which is led by the PMU. The project has benefitted from being led by an energetic Project Manager. Despite the complicated institutional terrain over which the project was implemented, the Project Manager drove all aspects of project implementation through his "handson" approach and developed strong bonds between himself and project beneficiary communities to the extent that in some localities it looked as though nothing could have happened without his involvement. The project Exit Strategy recommends that the supervision and monitoring of all the five sand dams projects be phased over to the DWA for continued technical support but the evaluation team saw no evidence of active engagement by departmental staff at project site level during the evaluation mission. The Project Manager was recognised as the primary driver of the project activities by community members, most of whom expressed the concern that all that has been gained through the project would be lost if the project was to close out. This lack of direct engagement by the department poses a direct threat to the sustainability of the project results beyond June 2016. 


Tag: Efficiency Sustainability Global Climate Fund Government Cost-sharing Resource mobilization Project and Programme management

8.

3.3 Project Results

Project results at the Terminal evaluation stage were assessed through the review of project documents including the Project Document, Annual workplans, project implementation reports and monitoring and evaluation reports produced by the PMU and UNDP country office. The Mid-term Review Report was also reviewed to establish the results that had been achieved at that point in the implementation of the project. The project was implemented through a set of activities aimed at achieving the following three Outcomes: 

Outcome 1: Institutional capacity for climate change adaptation strengthened through the integration of climate change risks into national water resources management policies and the establishment of inter-sectoral- coordination mechanisms based on inclusive and informed national dialogue.

This Outcome was to be achieved through three Outputs as discussed below:

Output 1.1: Key scientific knowledge gaps on climate change impacts within the water sector defined, targeted research to fill knowledge gaps carried out, climate change response options identified, and main findings and strategic recommendations disseminated to at least twenty (20) relevant organisations across sectors. The project has made considerable progress under this Output. Using the situation analysis presented in the Project Document as baseline, the Project Management Unit quickly mobilised to identify climate knowledge gaps and the actions required to fill these gaps. Four studies were commissioned at the very beginning of project implementation to establish the extent of the knowledge gaps and recommend response actions to these gaps. The studies that were commissioned were the Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment of the Water Sector and its Infrastructure in Swaziland; the Groundwater Use within the context of IWRM Framework and General Water Sector Reform; the Crop Diversification: Opportunities and Constraints for the Agriculture Sector in order to Develop Resilience, the Optimizing National Feasibility of Sand Dams in Swaziland and the National Feasibility for Alternative Water Supply Options study. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Effectiveness Impact Communication Knowledge management Programme Synergy Results-Based Management Promotion of dialogue Coordination Institutional Strengthening National Institutions

9.

3.3 Project Results

Outcome 1: Institutional capacity for climate change adaptation strengthened through the integration of climate change risks into national water resources management policies and the establishment of inter-sectoral- coordination mechanisms based on inclusive and informed national dialogue. (continuation)

Output 1.2: A set of tailor-made climate change response measures related to national (and transboundary) water management identified and integrated into at least three (3) national level policies related to water resources management (e.g. NWP, IWRMP, draft National Climate Change Policy) through a series of national policy dialogue workshops The policy engagement process under the project was conducted through the review of a number of institutional frameworks through the Water Policy and Other Sectoral Policies in light of Inclusion of Climate Change Impact and Adaptation study. The study was for purposes of finding entry points for integrating climate change adaptation into these national policies. The National Water Policy has been developed and is going through approval processes. The CC-A project provided support for the engagement of consultants to mainstream climate change into the policy. It is therefore expected that the National Water Policy will be sensitive to the implications of climate change when it is finalised. The project also supported the National Climate Change Committee in the development of a National Climate Change Policy and Strategy which have now been approved by Cabinet. 

Output 1.3: Institutional needs for inter-sectoral cooperation identified (through national dialogue - Output 1.2), appropriate national inter-sectoral coordination mechanism clearly defined, establishment/ strengthening of national coordination mechanism supported and capacity of key staff/ stakeholders strengthened through at least three (3) targeted training courses on inter-sectoral coordination Output 1.3 was aimed at promoting institutional collaboration and coordination in addressing issues of climate change. The project supported the performance of an institutional assessment to identify the institutional technical, financial, legislative gaps which affect inter-sectoral coordination. Recommendations for capacity enhancement including training have been made on the basis of the findings of the assessments. The National Focal Point for Climate Change has taken up these recommendations on capacity building and used them to develop a national capacity building programme on climate change.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Effectiveness Programme Synergy Coordination Institutional Strengthening National Institutions

10.

3.3 Project Results

Outcome 2: Climate change risk management measures integrated into national water and agricultural programmes and implemented in pilot projects to promote adaptation on the ground

Output 2.1: Guidelines for mainstreaming climate change risks into key national policies (NWP, IWRMP, NCCP) developed, toolkits on practical application of climate change response measures (identified through Output 1.2) developed and at least five (5) targeted training courses on toolkit application delivered Guidelines for mainstreaming climate change into key national policies have been developed as have the toolkits for the practical application of climate change response measures. Stakeholders in the water and agriculture sectors have also been trained in the use and application of the toolkits. The Project Implementation Unit had however not been able to establish whether these guidelines and toolkits were being used in the field by the trainees. 

Output 2.2: Programme/ project specific climate change risks and tailor-made response measures identified and integrated into at least three (3) major management/ investment plans implemented in Swaziland (incl. KDDP, LUSIP and CDPs developed under the GEF SLM programme implemented by SWADE). The climate change vulnerability assessment conducted at the beginning of the project highlighted climate change risks at national level. This influenced organisations like KOBWA and SWADE to review their emergency preparedness plans for Maguga, Mnjoli and Lubovane Dams. In addition, communication has been initiated with the other major investment programmes managed by SWADE to encourage them to factor in the potential implications of climate change into their programme plans. SWADE has developed guidelines for mainstreaming climate change into their community interventions under KDDP and initiated a crop diversification strategy in their irrigation projects to go beyond producing sugar cane and introduce horticultural crops that require less water. The LUSIP GEF project has been up-scaled to national level and will integrate climate change considerations into planning processes at Chiefdom Development Plan level.


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Environmental impact assessment Water resources Effectiveness Integration Results-Based Management Risk Management Institutional Strengthening National Institutions Vulnerable

11.

3.3 Project Results

Outcome 2: Climate change risk management measures integrated into national water and agricultural programmes and implemented in pilot projects to promote adaptation on the ground (continuation)

Output 2.4: Community based climate resilience projects implemented in pilot sites, including the installation of rainwater harvesting systems in at least four (4) identified communities/ areas and rainwater infiltration improvement schemes (incl. reforestation) in at least four (4) communities/areas. Perhaps the most successful programme intervention under the CC-A project was the demonstration of climate change adaptation projects in pilot sites in the form of rainwater harvesting and the construction of sand dams.

Rainwater harvesting systems have been installed at ten (10) schools in the three river basins. In most of the cases the impact of these installations has been dramatic with school attendances rising due to reduced illnesses among pupils due to access to clean water. The ability of school committees where these investment have been made to recruit qualified teachers has also improved. The evaluation team however identified problems with the governance arrangements at some of the pilot sites where school committee representatives had not assumed full control of this intervention. Some committees still expect the CC-A project to continue supporting them with maintenance and management of the project. This is a situation which will negatively impact the sustainability of rainwater harvesting. Having said that though, it is important to mention here that during the Terminal Evaluation field mission the CC-A Project Manager was approached by the Project Manager of the EU-funded Improvement of Integrated Water Resources Management in Swaziland Project with a proposal for collaboration between the two projects which will up-scale the water harvesting initiatives to 60 schools across the country. In addition the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) through its Emergency Grant Fund, has also provided funding to up-scale the water harvesting projects to 10 clinics and an additional 10 schools across the country, while 50 more sites are targeted for support through the organisation's Central Emergency Relief Fund (CERF).


Tag: Rural development Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Risk Management Education Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Technology

12.

3.3 Project Results

Outcome 2: Climate change risk management measures integrated into national water and agricultural programmes and implemented in pilot projects to promote adaptation on the ground ;

Output 2.4 (continuation) In response to the impacts of climate change on ecosystems integrity, the project piloted an ecosystems rehabilitation project at Mkhiweni Inkhundla. The intervention includes the management of alien invasive species, promoting infiltration of water into soils, reforestation and a demonstration of benign extractive activities in the form of beekeeping, aquaculture and a vegetable garden that participating community groups could engage in with a healthy ecosystem. Unfortunately this project has not taken off as expected due, in the main, to community governance issues. The CC-A project has recommended that oversight of the various aspects of this project be handed over to NAMBOARD and World Vision working closely with the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) and the DWA. Draft Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) have been developed between NAMBOARD and the Mbelebeleni Community for provision of technical advisory services for the nursery and vegetable production components of the project. The MOA will support the aquaculture and beekeeping components while World Vision will support the community development efforts as well as financial management and community governance issues with this community. The evaluation team's assessment is that Outcome 2 has been achieved and rates it Highly Satisfactory (HS). 


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Effectiveness Integration Programme/Project Design Risk Management

13.

Outcome 3: Negotiations on trans-boundary water management for the Incomati, Maputo and Umbeluzi river basins informed by climate change risk analysis.

The link between Outcome 3 to the first two Outcomes has been questioned, with the Mid-Term Review stating that the "connection between Outcome 3 and the other two Outcomes is not clear, and there is a disconnect between actions at the community level (under Output 2.4) and actions at the national level. It is not clear how this piloting will contribute to Outcomes 1, 2 and 3". The findings of the terminal evaluation are that the project is properly linked with all the elements leading to the project objective which is "to promote the implementation of national and transboundary integrated water resources management that is sustainable and equitable given expected climate change". The creation of an enabling policy environment for integrating climate change measures into water resources managementwill facilitate the uptake of the interventions that are being demonstrated through the pilot projects under Outcome 2. When these are adequately replicated across the country, Swaziland's water resources management will be managed in a manner that adequately takes into account the impacts of climate change. Armed with this capacity, the country's representatives to the TPTC will be able to present Swaziland's water needs which are informed by comprehensive climate change risk analysis. With a clear understanding of the implications of climate change on its national water resources Swaziland will also be able to influence the other two countries to adopt similar planning processes thereby resulting in climate resilient transboundary water resources management in the three shared river basins. What is still an issue though is whether the current project was the correct vehicle to advance this dialogue or whether the project took on more than it could deliver over a four year period. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Environmental impact assessment Water resources Policies & Procedures Vulnerable

14.

Outcome 3: Negotiations on trans-boundary water management for the Incomati, Maputo and Umbeluzi river basins informed by climate change risk analysis. 

Output 3.1 (continuation)

The studies discussed above enhanced the understanding of the national water availability and supply situation and the possible impacts of climate change into the future. The understanding of the national water and transboundary water situation was used to develop a Position Paper for use in developing a negotiating strategy for use by the Swaziland delegation to the Tripartite Technical Committee (TPTC) on water resources management in the Komati, Mbuluzi and Usuthu river basins. The Position Paper was developed through consultations with the members of the TPTC. The results and recommendations from the studies discussed above have all been shared with stakeholders across the river basin associations and at national level. The DWA and the PMU have also presented these recommendations to the Minister of Natural Resources and Energy who is expected to table them at Cabinet. While these studies and reports have yielded valuable information on the water situation in Swaziland, a lot still needs to be done before this information filters into the policy arena. DWA will needto follow up on this in the post-project era to ensure that the momentum that has been generated to date is not lost.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Water resources Effectiveness Communication Knowledge management Results-Based Management Country Government Awareness raising

15.

Outcome 3: Negotiations on trans-boundary water management for the Incomati, Maputo and Umbeluzi river basins informed by climate change risk analysis. (continuation)

The Project's Relevance to the Situation in Swaziland The CC-A project was designed to address the major climate change related problems facing Swaziland. The country's economic growth prospects have been adversely affected by this phenomenon. Increasing frequency of floods and droughts has caused reductions in food production while the food production capacities of communities in the country have been damaged by unpredictable weather patterns. Reduced availability of water has also led to the realisation that major agricultural development schemes promoted under the KDDP and LUSIP Projects can no longer be sustained into the future under a "business as usual" approach. This has resulted in SWADE adopting crop diversification strategies and introducing horticultural crops in their production system. Temperature changes caused by climate change are affecting the distribution of disease profiles with diseases like malaria becoming more widespread. At the same time, reduced water availability and lower soil moisture content have resulted in ecosystem changes and more widespread distribution of alien invasive species.Swaziland is wedged between South Africa to the west and Mozambique to the east and shares water in the Incomati, Maputo and Usuthu river basins with her two neighbours. Water resources management under these conditions needs to take into account the implications of climate change. The project also focuses on enhancing capacities for climate change adaptation at all levels in the country. The Evaluation team's assessment is that the project addresses the problems discussed above all of which have serious implications for the social and economic development of Swaziland. The team rates the project as Relevant (R)


Tag: Food Security Drinking water supply Environment Policy Natural Resouce management Water resources Effectiveness Relevance Regional Knowledge management Jobs and Livelihoods Technology Vulnerable

16.

The Project's Efficiency

Efficiency The project was implemented on a grant of US$ 1,670,000 from the Special Climate Change Fund. This is considered to be a modest amount of money when compared to the amount of work that the project set out to deliver on. Community mobilisation and the development of infrastructure such as sand dams, community boreholes and water storage tanks can be expensive operations. The fact that the project can point to five sand dams and ten schools with rainwater harvesting infrastructure is a clear demonstration of cost effective project implementation. This cost effectiveness was also buoyed by the effective mobilisation of beneficiary communities who provided the labour required to install the infrastructure. The CC-A project also introduced an innovative knowledge exchange mechanism by bringing community representatives from Kenya who had worked on similar initiatives to share their experiences with communities in Swaziland. This was a very successful example of South-South cooperation which was operationalised at a fraction of the normal costs of similar exercises based on North-South cooperation. Efficiency of resource use under the CC-A project was rated Successful (S). 

The CC-A project is all about mainstreaming climate change considerations into water resources management, education and agricultural policies. Work on the processes promoting this was on-going at the time of this evaluation and will need to be continued beyond the lifespan of the project principally because policy development processes customarily take a long time. Most rural or community development projects deliberately focus on mainstreaming gender, HIV-AIDS mitigation and the participation of the youth and other disadvantaged groups into their implementation strategies. The focus of the CC-A project on water resources provided ample opportunities for addressing all these elements without necessarily mentioning them as project elements. Water is a central natural resource to the development process and management strategies that take into account the implications of climate change will address these cross cutting issues. 


Tag: Climate change governance Environment Policy Natural Resouce management Efficiency Sustainability Global Climate Fund Communication Integration Knowledge management Ownership Education Jobs and Livelihoods South-South Cooperation

17.

Sustainability of Project Results

A critical aspect of project evaluation has committed itself to taking over the oversight and implementation of the activities which have not been concluded during the project's lifespan. Principal among these are the policy development initiatives and the support to institutional strengthening at community level especially at the sand dams. These will be incorporated into the day to day operations of government and financed through national budgetary processes. The GoS is also encouraged to identify on-going projects that are advancing similar objectives to the ones the CC-A project was design to achieve and graft this project onto them. The DWA already hosts the EU funded Improvement of Integrated Water Resources Management in Swaziland project which could serve this role. The PMU has also identified NAMBOARD as an appropriate institution to take over the management oversight over the ecosystem restoration project at Malamlela community at Mkhiweni Inkhundla. It is also important to note that the Outputs of the CC-A project have attracted the attention of other possible financing entities with the European Union already discussing the possible upscaling of the water harvesting initiatives to cover at least sixty schools around the country. The UNDP Swaziland has also expressed the desire to support the GoS with continuing with the initiatives started under the CC-A project. The Green Climate Fund is a potential source for resources to up-scale the CC-A initiative. There is therefore enough interest in carrying forward with the work that has been started through the CC-A project which, if realised, makes Financial Sustainability Likely (L).n which is required by GEF is the assessment of the likelihood of the project's results becoming sustainable beyond the project's life span. The potential for sustainability of the CC-A project was assessed with the following results. Financing for the project in the amount of US$ 1,670,000 was sourced from the SCCF while UNDP and the UNDP Country Office both contributed US$ 1,260,000. KOBWA provided US$ 34,000 as cofinancing and the Government of Swaziland pledged an in-kind contribution equivalent of US$ 4,530,900 bringing the total resource allocation to the project to US$ 7,494,900. At the time of the Terminal Evaluation most of the committed funds had been expended on the activities that yielded the results discussed in this report. Most of these results are a "work in progress" which requires additional support either from the project or from government and other entities if they are to transition to impact. The GoS 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Natural Resouce management Water resources Efficiency Impact Sustainability Government Cost-sharing Risk Management Country Government Poverty Reduction Technical Support

18.

Sustainability of Project Results (continuation)

The institutional framework for natural resources management in Swaziland is at times misunderstood on account of the role that the royal establishment plays in resource governance in the country. CC-A project has mobilised the participation of the traditional authorities in promoting the pilot projects that have been supported thereby ensuring that water resources management at community level, like that of other natural resources, is guided by the realities of the traditional governance structures that define Swazi society. This recognition of the role of the traditional leadership will therefore go a long way towards promoting water governance at the local level. The partnership arrangements which have been established with various institutions in the implementation of project activities are expected to contribute to the sustainability of project results into the future. Rainwater harvesting projects is expected to be institutionalised through the Ministry of Education and Training and the School Committees which manage these initiatives on the ground. The experience at Mbasheni Primary school where the school committee has taken over the repairs and maintenance schedule for the water supply with little input from outside system is a good indicator of the likelihood of sustainability of these activities. DWA has indicated its readiness to take over the management of the sand dams after the project close out. This commitment will need to be supported by the identification of a dedicated unit or person within the department to take over the responsibilities currently being carried by the Project Management Unit. The CC-A project has also promoted the mainstreaming of climate change considerations into the operations of national institutions such as SWADE and KOBWA which have developed emergency response plans around their major infrastructure developments to respond to the likely impacts of climate change. 


Tag: Food Security Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Natural Resouce management Water resources Challenges Sustainability Country Government Education Poverty Reduction Technology

19.

Project Impact

The CC-A project has yielded a number of very significant results. Initial work to integrate climate change adaptation into national policies has been initiated under the project while research on the major implications of climate change has been conducted addition to the knowledge base on this phenomenon. The pilot projects on water harvesting have yielded perhaps the most dramatic results with improved availability of water in community areas which had suffered serious water shortages over the years. The project also demonstrated the potential benefits of ecosystems restoration interventions. While the project has started showing results, it is too early to characterise these as impacts as it is as yet unclear what will happen should the project close at this point in time. Policy developments have not been concluded with the one on curriculum development having completely stalled. Community members who have benefitted from the project stated that they still required assistance with consolidating the gains achieved so far through additional investments in infrastructure refurbishment and maintenance. School committees running the schools that have benefitted from water harvesting investments also appeared unprepared to take over the management of the installations without support from the PMU. It is the view of the evaluation team therefore that the project is yet to have measurable impacts despite the impressive results that it has generated to date. Impacts are usually realised over the long term and well after the projects have been closed. It will therefore be important for the DWA to continue supporting the project interventions to facilitate their transition to impacts.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Drinking water supply Natural Resouce management Water resources Impact Sustainability Communication Knowledge management Policies & Procedures Education Youth

Recommendations
1

4.3 Recommendations

Most of the pilot initiatives funded under the CC-A project have started generating results and still require institutional and programmatic support for them to be sustainable. Support is still required for strengthening community project management systems and for repairs to damaged water transfer infrastructure at some sand dams. Institutional strengthening will also be required among some of the school committees managing water harvesting projects. The analysis of the project's finances shows that the project has a balance of US$ 155,000 as at June 2016. These funds have been earmarked for supporting project activities under the 2016 Annual Workplan for the project with almost half the amount reserved for activities under Outcome 3. With the project closing, supporting activities promoting transboundary water resources management is not considered strategic. These resources should therefore be directed at consolidating the gains that have been made with respect to national water resources management. 

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 1: It is recommended that UNDP should consider using the balance on the CC-A project budget as bridge funding to extend the CC-A project for at least a year while a more permanent funding arrangement for the project is put in place. 

Although the CC-A project is adjudged to have been Successful, the Terminal Evaluation identified the weakness of project management institutions at community level as a potential risk to the sustainability of some of the achievements recorded over the past three years. The community level institutions at the water harvesting and sand dam sites were generally still developing and required more support to enable them to manage these projects without support from outside. A number of these institutions still expected the PMU to assist them with maintaining the infrastructure which was damaged by flooding at the sand dams or by school children in the case of water harvesting installations. This was despite the fact that the project was being wound up at the time of the evaluation. The evaluation also established that DWA had not identified a focal unit or individual to take over the role of the PMU post project close out. These "institutional weaknesses" will need to be addressed if the achievements scored by the project are to be sustained into the future.

The project had facilitated the negotiation of Memoranda of Agreement between the Mbelebeleni community and NAMBOARD and World Vision for the provision of technical support with specific components of the ecosystems rehabilitation project. The Ministry of Agriculture had also been enlisted to support the bee keeping and aquaculture components of this initiative. The proposed project extension will provide time for the PMU and DWA to guide the development of workplans and the implementation of activities under these agreements. 

The evaluation team recommends that the balance of the SCCF grant be used to strengthen community project governance structures through training in project management and maintenance of the structures that have been built with support from the project. Such targeted training will prepare both government and community institutions for taking over responsibility for the management of the project after the close out of the CC-A.

2

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 2: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Regional Technical Advisor support the Government of Swaziland to identify new and additional financial resources for use in replicating the pilot project initiated under the CC-A project to cover more communities in the country. A possible source of funding is the Green Climate Fund and the GEF Small Grants Programme. 

The pilot projects funded through the CC-A project have demonstrated the viability of community level interventions in climate change adaptation. The DWA has acknowledged that the experience so far has improved the GoS appreciation of climate change and the various ways it can be mitigated. The department should therefore assimilate the activities initiated under the project into their work programme to facilitate funding of these initiatives as part of formal government investments. The CC-A project has resulted in many important outputs on a very limited budget. The sand dams and the water harvesting projects that were supported by the project have demonstrated climate change adaptation strategies which will require further financial support for them to be sustainable into the future. 

3

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 3: It is recommended that all relevant Ministries and Departments to include various project elements in their plans and annual budgets in order for them to attract sustainable funding.

The project has produced a wide range of significant outputs especially i relation to adaptation to climate change at community level which need nurturing for them to transform into results. These achievements have been attributed to strong leadership and guidance provided by the project arrangements put in place at project mobilisation.

4

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 4: It is recommended that the Project Steering Committee should be left in place over the recommended one year extension period so that the same effective project leadership remains available to the Project Management Unit.

The need for project sustainability cannot be overemphasised. If the project is to be extended, it is critical that the current Steering Committee members are retained for institutional memory and to ensure that the initial goal and vision are carried forward. 

5

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 5: DWA inherit the Outputs from the CC-A project and integrate these into their formal work programmes. This way any additional work that needs to be supported can be funded through normal government budgetary allocations.

The Project Manager has almost single-handedly spearheaded the implementation of the project over the past four years. As the project closes it is expected that the DWA will assume responsibility over the project over the extension period.

6

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 6: It is recommended that the DWA identifies and designates a "face" for the project to ensure the sustainability of the project outputs into the future. This "face" could be in the form of a dedicated unit or individual within DWA.  

Information and publicity materials as well as policy briefs on climate change adaptation and its mainstreaming into development planning have been developed under the CC-A project. Most of this work was accomplished very late in the project and the PMU has not had the time to appropriately package these products.

 

7

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 7: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Department of Water Affairs complete the packaging of the information and publicity materials on the various elements of the project for use in creating awareness on achievement of the project results. Particular attention should be paid to the production of a Communication Strategy on Climate Change as well as simple one-page messages targeting policy makers. The DWA has already committed to taking over project oversight and will therefore be able to use these materials to publicize the benefits of climate change adaptation

1. Recommendation:

4.3 Recommendations

Most of the pilot initiatives funded under the CC-A project have started generating results and still require institutional and programmatic support for them to be sustainable. Support is still required for strengthening community project management systems and for repairs to damaged water transfer infrastructure at some sand dams. Institutional strengthening will also be required among some of the school committees managing water harvesting projects. The analysis of the project's finances shows that the project has a balance of US$ 155,000 as at June 2016. These funds have been earmarked for supporting project activities under the 2016 Annual Workplan for the project with almost half the amount reserved for activities under Outcome 3. With the project closing, supporting activities promoting transboundary water resources management is not considered strategic. These resources should therefore be directed at consolidating the gains that have been made with respect to national water resources management. 

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 1: It is recommended that UNDP should consider using the balance on the CC-A project budget as bridge funding to extend the CC-A project for at least a year while a more permanent funding arrangement for the project is put in place. 

Although the CC-A project is adjudged to have been Successful, the Terminal Evaluation identified the weakness of project management institutions at community level as a potential risk to the sustainability of some of the achievements recorded over the past three years. The community level institutions at the water harvesting and sand dam sites were generally still developing and required more support to enable them to manage these projects without support from outside. A number of these institutions still expected the PMU to assist them with maintaining the infrastructure which was damaged by flooding at the sand dams or by school children in the case of water harvesting installations. This was despite the fact that the project was being wound up at the time of the evaluation. The evaluation also established that DWA had not identified a focal unit or individual to take over the role of the PMU post project close out. These "institutional weaknesses" will need to be addressed if the achievements scored by the project are to be sustained into the future.

The project had facilitated the negotiation of Memoranda of Agreement between the Mbelebeleni community and NAMBOARD and World Vision for the provision of technical support with specific components of the ecosystems rehabilitation project. The Ministry of Agriculture had also been enlisted to support the bee keeping and aquaculture components of this initiative. The proposed project extension will provide time for the PMU and DWA to guide the development of workplans and the implementation of activities under these agreements. 

The evaluation team recommends that the balance of the SCCF grant be used to strengthen community project governance structures through training in project management and maintenance of the structures that have been built with support from the project. Such targeted training will prepare both government and community institutions for taking over responsibility for the management of the project after the close out of the CC-A.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Management response: The project financial resources will be completely utilised by the 30th September 2016 hence there will be no resources available for project extension beyond September 2016. The project will be closed 30th September 2016 as originally planned

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1: Present the TE recommendations to the Project Board and seek approval for project closure.
[Added: 2018/08/24]
DWA, PMU 2016/10 Completed Project Board meeting was held in Q3 of 2016.
1.2: Conduct Local project Appraisal Committee (LPAC) Meeting for official project closure along the UNDP procedures.
[Added: 2018/08/24]
UNDP 2016/10 Completed LPAC was conducted in the first quarter of 2017 following operational closure of the project.
2. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 2: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Regional Technical Advisor support the Government of Swaziland to identify new and additional financial resources for use in replicating the pilot project initiated under the CC-A project to cover more communities in the country. A possible source of funding is the Green Climate Fund and the GEF Small Grants Programme. 

The pilot projects funded through the CC-A project have demonstrated the viability of community level interventions in climate change adaptation. The DWA has acknowledged that the experience so far has improved the GoS appreciation of climate change and the various ways it can be mitigated. The department should therefore assimilate the activities initiated under the project into their work programme to facilitate funding of these initiatives as part of formal government investments. The CC-A project has resulted in many important outputs on a very limited budget. The sand dams and the water harvesting projects that were supported by the project have demonstrated climate change adaptation strategies which will require further financial support for them to be sustainable into the future. 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Management response: The GCF readiness proposal for the country. UNDP to engage the country on the GCF and GEF funding opportunities for the prioritisation of CC-A for the proposals that will be drafted for submission to these funding mechanisms

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1: Engage the Government GCF and GEF focal point and develop a follow-up complementary proposal based on Government priorities for submission to the GEF or GCF
[Added: 2018/08/24]
UNDP, MNRE,DWA,MTEA 2017/12 Completed The project proposal will be developed following the implementation of the GCF Readiness project. GCF Readiness Project developed and was approved for funding.
3. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 3: It is recommended that all relevant Ministries and Departments to include various project elements in their plans and annual budgets in order for them to attract sustainable funding.

The project has produced a wide range of significant outputs especially i relation to adaptation to climate change at community level which need nurturing for them to transform into results. These achievements have been attributed to strong leadership and guidance provided by the project arrangements put in place at project mobilisation.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

 

Management response: The exit strategy recommendations have been implemented to the effect of this proposed recommendation. Plans for all key Ministries and Departments to integrate the project elements have been established through the Project Exit Strategy

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
In conjunction with recommendation 5, in coherence with the implementation of the project Exit Strategy ensure the project elements are monitored for sustainability by the RWSB and DWA.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA,PTC,RWSB 2016/10 Completed
Facilitate the implementation and monitoring of the sustainability plan by DWA on quarterly basis
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA 2016/10 Completed
4. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 4: It is recommended that the Project Steering Committee should be left in place over the recommended one year extension period so that the same effective project leadership remains available to the Project Management Unit.

The need for project sustainability cannot be overemphasised. If the project is to be extended, it is critical that the current Steering Committee members are retained for institutional memory and to ensure that the initial goal and vision are carried forward. 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

 

Management response: The Project Steering Committee/ Project Board will be disbanded following the official project closure as highlighted under recommendation 1.  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Given the decision made by the UNDP CO and UNDP RTA to close the project 30th September 2016 as there are no resources to finance activities, the Project Steering Committee (and Project Board) will also be disbanded.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
UNDP,DWA 2016/09 Completed PSC AND PB discontinued following project closure.
5. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 5: DWA inherit the Outputs from the CC-A project and integrate these into their formal work programmes. This way any additional work that needs to be supported can be funded through normal government budgetary allocations.

The Project Manager has almost single-handedly spearheaded the implementation of the project over the past four years. As the project closes it is expected that the DWA will assume responsibility over the project over the extension period.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

 

Management response:  The developed Project Exit Strategy has been implemented by DWA to integrate project outputs into their strategic documents e.g (IWRM Master Plan and Departmental Annual Budgets). Project activities will now be managed by DWA and ensure long-term sustainability of project outputs.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Facilitate continued implementation of the Project Exit Strategy monitoring through the IWRM Master Plan.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA 2016/12 Completed Project exit strategy was developed together with the IWRM Master Plan.
6. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 6: It is recommended that the DWA identifies and designates a "face" for the project to ensure the sustainability of the project outputs into the future. This "face" could be in the form of a dedicated unit or individual within DWA.  

Information and publicity materials as well as policy briefs on climate change adaptation and its mainstreaming into development planning have been developed under the CC-A project. Most of this work was accomplished very late in the project and the PMU has not had the time to appropriately package these products.

 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Management response:  The Department of Water Affairs has identified the Rural Water Supply Branch (RWSB) as the ‘face’ for sustaining the community projects such as sand dams, rainwater harvesting and the ecosystem rehabilitation. The RWSB will continue and provide support to community projects to ensure sustainability of the outcomes.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The DWA ensure the RWSB follows up on the monitoring of the project outcomes.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA,RWSB 2016/11 Completed the DWA monitors project outcomes and provides technical support where required through the project exit strategy.
7. Recommendation:

Terminal Evaluation Recommendation 7: It is recommended that UNDP Swaziland and the Department of Water Affairs complete the packaging of the information and publicity materials on the various elements of the project for use in creating awareness on achievement of the project results. Particular attention should be paid to the production of a Communication Strategy on Climate Change as well as simple one-page messages targeting policy makers. The DWA has already committed to taking over project oversight and will therefore be able to use these materials to publicize the benefits of climate change adaptation

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/18] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Management response: Information and publicity materials have been developed and Shared with various stakeholders. More publicity materials aligned to this recommendation will be developed through UNDP support by the Department of Water Affairs pending availability of resources and demand for the materials

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Finalise the development of information and publicity materials and distribute to all stakeholders.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
DWA, UNDP 2016/09 Completed The proposed action has been completed as developed publicity materials have been distributed to all key stakeholders. Publicity materials has also been shared through the DWA Information Management System and using online platforms such Facebook, and You tube.
Develop Technical Policy brief for integrated water resources management and facilitate policy development thereof.
[Added: 2018/08/27]
UNDP,DWA 2016/09 Completed Technical Policy Brief has been developed and presented to the Minister of Natural Resources and Energy for approval of the review of the National Water Policy Strategy and Action Plan.

Latest Evaluations

Contact us

1 UN Plaza
DC1-20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Tel. +1 646 781 4200
Fax. +1 646 781 4213
erc.support@undp.org