Final Evaluation: Promoting Energy Efficiency in Commercial Building

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Thailand
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
06/2018
Completion Date:
08/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
42,000

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Download document PIMS3937_78576_UNDP-GEF TERMINAL EVALUTION TOR_INT_22 NOV 17.pdf tor English 566.26 KB Posted 1097
Download document 180828R PEECB TE Report Final - Clean Version.pdf report English 1727.58 KB Posted 1174
Title Final Evaluation: Promoting Energy Efficiency in Commercial Building
Atlas Project Number: 00061807
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Thailand
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 08/2018
Planned End Date: 06/2018
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.1.1 Low emission and climate resilient objectives addressed in national, sub-national and sectoral development plans and policies to promote economic diversification and green growth
SDG Goal
  • Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
  • Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all
  • Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG Target
  • 17.14 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
  • 7.3 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • 9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
Evaluation Budget(US $): 42,000
Source of Funding: GEF
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 35,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Nationality
Roland Wong International Consultant
Walaitat Worakul National Consultant THAILAND
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Promoting Energy Efficiency in Commercial Building in Thailand
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID: 4165
PIMS Number: 3937
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: THAILAND
Lessons
Findings
1.

3. FINDINGS

3.1 Project Design and Formulation

Design of the PEECB Project was conducted between September 2010 and September 2011. The PEECB ProDoc packaged these designs into a GEF climate change mitigation project that would support the country’s efforts to lower existing barriers to awareness, appropriate regulatory policies and technical barriers to energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The strategy of the PEECB Project to lower these barriers included implementing Project activities divided into 3 components, namely: • Component 1: Awareness Enhancement on Building EE Technologies and Practices; • Component 2: EE Building Policy Frameworks; and • Component 3: EE Building Technologies and Applications Demonstrations. 

3.1.1 Analysis of Project Planning Matrix

The original Project Planning Matrix (PPM) for the PEECB Project from 2012 consisted of 6 goal and objective level indicators, 10 indicators for 5 outcomes, and 29 indicators for 13 outputs. A revised PPM was formulated in September 2017 to revise 4 goal/objective-level targets and 3 output-level targets as well as the addition of 2 indicators and targets to a new Output 3.2.3 level. This was done to guide the Project extension to April 2018 with these new targets reflected in the revised PPM as shown in Appendix F. In general, the PPM has clarity with all indicators meeting SMART criteria8 . In the context of best practices for PPM preparation, some general comments on the composition of the PPM for the PEECB Project are made as follows: 

• The maximum number of outcomes in a project is recommended to be 4 to ease the monitoring efforts of the PMU. The Evaluation Team believes Outcome 3.3 (Replication of Demo EECBs) could have been combined with Outcome 3.1 since Outcome 3.1 pertains to “improved confidence in application of EE technologies and practices in commercial buildings in Thailand” which could include an additional indicator on the replication of EECBs; • The monitoring of 29 output indicators is too onerous on monitoring efforts of the PMU. Despite this comment, the PEECB PMU has provided monitoring reports for all 29 indicators; • There is a lack of clarity on the CO2 emission reductions target of 230 ktons as further elaborated in Para 26; • Designers of PPMs need to be cognizant of the efforts and costs required to monitor indicators in a PPM. Reporting on the progress of many of the indicators would have required surveys or questionnaires soliciting opinions from beneficiaries; such surveys would need to appropriately costed as a part of the M&E plan acknowledging the confidence levels such surveys would provide in its findings; • Improvements in the design of PPMs need to incorporate “Theory of Change” approaches, accompanied with a “Review of Outcomes to Impacts” (ROtI)9 . This approach would strengthen formulation of intended direct outcomes of PEECB through reviewing the pathways from which these direct outcomes will reach the intended impact (or goal of this Project which is “the reduced intensity of GHG emissions from the commercial building sector”) through various intermediate states. 

With regards to the “End of Project target for energy savings and GHG reductions”, the MTR reported that the “difference in the target and the actual annual energy saving is too vast” . The Terminal Evaluation team delved into the ProDoc calculation of the goal-level GHG emission reduction target of PEECB of 230,000 tonnes CO2eq cumulative by the EOP, and found several issues and a lack of clarity with this target:

• Para 41 (and Table 6) in the ProDoc provides an annual CO2 emission reduction of 252 ktons/year or a cumulative CO2 emission reduction of 493 ktons by the EOP of 2015. These estimates were linked to Project activities described in Para 41 of the ProDoc through the “promotion of energy efficient design in buildings and by improving the utilization efficiency in the operation of existing buildings”; • Part III in the ProDoc (Page 95) mentions the “potential” cumulative CO2 emission reduction target for PEECB of 230 ktons by the EOP of 2015. Unfortunately, this is the same number used in PEECB’s goal-level target in the PPM on Page 72 of the ProDoc. While the PPM clearly states that this target is cumulative, it is not clear on Page 99 of the ProDoc. Furthermore, Page 99 mentionsthat the cumulative CO2 emission reductions is 493 ktons by the EOP, contradicting the PPM target of 230 ktons, but linking PEECB’s barrier removal work to generate the 493 ktons CO2 of emissions reductions; • Table 16 in the ProDoc adds to this confusion by stating all CO2 emission reductions in ktons attributable to PEECB including direct emission reductions (over their lifetimes of 26.4 ktons) and indirect emission reductions from bottom-up and top-down. This table does not mention a rationale for the emission reduction estimates of 230 or 493 ktons;

In summary, the PPM in Part II, Table 12 of the ProDoc uses cumulative emission reduction of 230 ktons CO2 as its target to achieve the goal-level objective for PEECB. This target is highly problematic given that there is no rationale in the ProDoc for this estimate, and no reliable means of monitoring progress of this indicator. There is also the issue that this target is overly ambitious given that there were only 4 years to change the mindsets of commercial building owners in Thailand to become more energy efficient. With the direct GHG emission reduction estimate of 26.4 ktons from 7 demonstration EE buildings, the Project would need to achieve energy efficiency for more than 60 buildings to achieve the 230 kton target over a 4-year period. The “Alternative Scenario” in Para 34 of the ProDoc, however, describes the involvement of a wide range of building practitioner associations and local administration organizations, and in Paras 35 and 36 describes how implementation of the new 2009 Building Energy Code (BEC) would be strengthened that would result in 60% of all new commercial buildings being compliant and 30% of all commercial building stock retrofitted with EE technologies. Para 38 then estimates the annual energy consumption of commercial buildings sector to be 16,232 GWh by 2015 based on trend analysis of historical energy consumption data and estimated to be 1.2% below the BAU scenario where there is no project. There does not appear to any relationship between this estimate and the emission reductions in Para 41.


Tag: Global Environment Facility fund Programme/Project Design Results-Based Management Risk Management Theory of Change

2.

3.1 Project Design and Formulation (continuation)

3.1.3 Lessons from Other Relevant Projects Incorporated into PEECB Project Design: The ProDoc of the PEECB Project does not list any other relevant projects into its design.  

3.1.4 Planned Stakeholder Participation

One of the primary purposes of PEECB Project was to increase the knowledge and build the capacity of stakeholders involved with the design, implementation, construction, management and operation of commercial buildings to the extent that will result in additional investments into energy efficiency in commercial buildings, and a higher compliance rate of new building applications to the 2009 BEC.

The stakeholder involvement approach in the PEECB ProDoc involved consultations with several categories of stakeholders including: • Central government agencies including the Prime Minister’s office and the Ministry of Finance; • Line ministries and their policymaking agencies. These include the: o Ministry of Energy which has several policymaking agencies reporting to them including EPPO, DEDE (the implementing partner), EGAT, MEA and PEA; o Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MoNRE) which oversees the operations of ONEP; o Ministry of Interior that oversees the operations of the various Departments of Public Works and Local Administrative Organizations (LAOs) such as the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) who are key in approving new building construction; • Professional institutions and entities including the Engineers and Architects of Thailand (EAT); • Private sector entities such as the Thai Hotel Association; and • Institutions such as the Private Hospital Association as well as other individual hospital groups that serve as demonstration hosts.

In summary, this level of stakeholder involvement is satisfactory in consideration of the need for building strength and capacity of government regulators, building practitioners and raising awareness of building owners and operators (notably commercial building owners whose buildings emit a significant proportion of GHG emissions from this sector) to the requirements of the BEC.

3.1.5 Replication Approach: The Project design envisaged a replication approach through Outcome 3.3 which basically assumed that the demonstrations would provide sufficient influence on new building applications to the extent that EE technologies and measures used in demonstration buildings would be used in these replicated buildings. The target number of EE buildings by the EOP was 20.

3.1.6 UNDP Comparative Advantage UNDPs comparative advantage to other donor agencies is its local presence and focus on policybased and cross-sectoral approaches positioning them to build local capacities through effective collaboration with a wide range of local stakeholders, ranging from the public and private sectors to technical experts, civil society and grassroots level organizations. These approaches have been strongly demonstrated on the PEECB Project. Given UNDP’s long track record on a wide variety of projects within the energy sector, UNDP was suited as an implementing agency for this Project.

3.1.7 Linkages between PEECB Project and Other Interventions within the Sector

The PEECB Project was intended to be linked with another ongoing UNDP-GEF Project on “Barrier Removal to the Cost-Effective Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Project” (BRESL), which aimed at promoting energy efficiency standards and labeling in each participating country harmonizing these standardsregionally. Implemented between 2009 and 2014, BRESL targeted products that are also targeted under PEECB including air-conditioners, motors, and fans. The project was executed by the Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organisation (TGO) who also sit on the PEECB Board. Conversely, DEDE is a member of the BRESL’s project board and the working committee. Potential coordination between BRESL included (1) the synergy between ES&L policy framework and the PEECB’s recommendations on the EE policy in EE building policy framework; (2) lessons learned from BRESL’s pilot cases which was to focus on promoting the use of the energy efficiency appliances in selected municipalities as part of the TGO’s policy in promoting low carbon development plan at the city-level; (3) the recommendations on the carbon footprint analysis of 2 BRESL products (lighting and air-conditioners) could be taken into account in the PEECB’s energy efficiency promotion action plan. According to Project personnel, this coordination was realized, notably the identification of labelled energy efficient equipment in buildings such as air conditioners and lighting products.


Tag: Knowledge management Partnership Programme Synergy Project and Programme management Strategic Positioning Country Government Private Sector

3.

3.2 Project Implementation

The following is a compilation of critical path events and issues of PEECB Project implementation in chronological order:

• The ProDoc was signed on 14 November 2012 marking the official start of the Project; • BRIGHT Management Consulting Co. Ltd. (BMC), was contracted in April 2013 for project management, and activities of Components 1 and 3; • BMC established the PEECB Project Management Unit (PMU) in May 2013, nearly 11 months after the official start of the Project; • First Project Board meeting which also served as the Project Inception Workshop organized in May 2013; • BMC contracted Engineering Solution Provider Co., Ltd. (ENSOP) in August 2013 as the main consultant for Components 2 and 3; • Preparation of detailed Project activities during May-December 2013 period including identification of demonstration buildings (Component 3); • In October 2013, CBEEC website was setup as well as delivery of first public PEECB seminars (nontechnical) from Component 1; • In November 2013, selected PEECB stakeholders visited Japan on a study tour to interact with the Nikken Sekkei Research Institute on low energy buildings, smart buildings and smart cities; • Commencement of other Component 1 activities in early 2014 such as newsletters, developing the BESM model, and developing training curricula; • The PEECB Mid Term Review (MTR) conducted during the period of July to September 2015. At this time, it was a foregone conclusion that the Project would be extended for a sufficient period to exhaust all Project funds. This was done in July 2016 with the Project extended to September 2017; • EE measures in 12 demo buildings undertaken during 2015 and 2016 followed by monitoring of energy saved in 2017 (Component 3); • The Project implementation period was extended from September 2017 to 30 April 2018 with additional activities for: o Non-technical training and upgrade of Building Energy Simulation Modelling (BESM) under Component 1; and o Energy Performance Indices (EnPIs) and Energy Disclosure Programme (EDP) under Component 3. 

3.2.1 Adaptive Management

Adaptive management is discussed in GEF terminal evaluations to gauge Project performance in its ability to adapt to changing regulatory and environmental conditions, common occurrences that afflict many GEF projects. Without adaptive management, GEF investments would not be effective in achieving their intended outcomes, outputs and targets. For the PEECB Project, there are several examples of adaptive management that were required and carried out to ensure efficient implementation of PEECB during its 5.5-year duration to date and through numerous changing circumstances during the Project: 

• To ensure efficient implementation of PEECB under a NEX modality, DEDE recruited their management consultant, BMC, to manage all PEECB activities, leaving DEDE personnel in an oversight position to ensure PEECB was managed in a manner to benefit DEDE personnel in their work tasks on energy efficiency mandates mentioned in Paras 20 and 27; • The activities in the PEECB ProDoc needed additional details to assist DEDE in addressing its priorities in the promotion of energy efficiency in commercial buildings. BMC in close collaboration with DEDE prepared a 4-year master plan for PEECB during the Inception Phase from May to September 2013 to provide these details; • Due to senior management personnel changes within DEDE during the early stages of PEECB in 2013 and 2014, risks to implementation delays were substantial, notably in the approval of quarterly budgets which needed the approval of DEDE prior to submission to UNDP for fund advances. PEECB management minimized this risk through advanced preparation of these quarterly budgets that were submitted to UNDP for initial approval prior to DEDE approvals; • During the 2014 period of unrest in Thailand, the DEDE offices were occupied by protesters forcing PEECB to find an alternate venue for Project Board meetings. This resulted in minimal delays to the implementation of PEECB; • During the process of selecting demonstration sites, PEECB encountered difficulties in securing the participation of some building owners for the planned demonstrations. With selection criteria prepared by the PEECB for demonstration buildings, PEECB personnel reached out to additional building owners to secure commitments for their participation; • To minimize delays caused by the indecision of building owners to invest in EE technologies, PEECB personnel worked closely with these owners to provide the necessary business cases for these investments, and to ensure their awareness of the energy savings, GHG emission reductions, and shorter payback periods of these investments; • PEECB PMU preparing and implementing the extension plan of PEECB from September 2017 to April 2018 to strengthen the achievements of Project goals and objectives utilizing a Project surplus of US$500,000. DEDE provided the rationale for proposed action plans to continue its activities in raising awareness on energy efficiency in commercial buildings, for further training courses utilizing the latest updates on the BESM software, for extending the work of demonstrating EE technologies for commercial buildings, and improving information dissemination on the results of these demonstrations in public and commercial buildings. Much of this work was designed to provide continual improvements in the specific energy consumption data for commercial buildings in Thailand to improve BEC compliance. Further details of the extension phase are provided in Paras 86 and 99.


Tag: Energy Global Environment Facility fund Implementation Modality Partnership Project and Programme management Technology

4.

3.2 Project Implementation (continuation)

3.2.3 Feedback from M&E Activities Used for Adaptive Management

Feedback from M&E activities was provided primarily from BMC and ENSOP through their activities on their respective components with BMC providing the overall management oversight. Based on the content in the PIRs from 2014 to 2017, DEDE shared sufficient information with the PMU to provide an understanding of progress, risks, and details of activities for adaptively managing the Project. Eight meetings of the Project Board as well as 73 PMU meetings were used to review feedback on Project progress and to undertake adaptive management decisions. These meetings were used as the mechanism to review and approve annual work plans developed to reflect necessary adjustments from the pre-designed 4-year workplan based on quarterly and annual progress report. PMU meetings were held every two weeks between the NPD, key DEDE staff, the NPM and the managing consulting firms, BMC and ENSOP. These PMU meetings proved to be an effective mechanism for regular feedback on Project implementation leading to joint decisions on necessary adaptive management and timely corrective actions. The only issue with regards to feedback for M&E activities was with the GHG emission reduction and energy saving targets which lacked clarity in the ProDoc as discussed in Paras 26 and 27. Through guidance from UNDP RBEC on the calculation of cumulative GHG emission reductions of PEECB, the PMU and DEDE were to include the direct GHG emission reductions from the demonstration buildings under Outcome 3.1 and energy savings of BEC-compliant buildings in comparison with the Energy Use Index (EUI) which was used by DEDE prior to PEECB for studies on specific energy consumption (SEC) of various building types. Paras 64-66 provides further details of this calculation. The feedback provided by these PIRs to monitor progress of meeting set targets of the Project is satisfactory. Much of this can be attributed to the quality of the PPM (notwithstanding the high number of indicators for monitoring), and the relative simplicity of the wording of various indicators and targets (outside of the confusion of the goal-level target of cumulative GHG emission reductions), as explained in detail in Para 25. A second reason is the strong ownership of the Project by DEDE where the design of PEECB strongly reflects the work priorities of DEDE to promote and facilitate investments in EECBs. As such, feedback from DEDE was much more effective to adaptively manage PEECB progress to have a greater impact on routine tasks undertaken by DEDE personnel.


Tag: Efficiency Global Environment Facility fund Human and Financial resources Monitoring and Evaluation Operational Efficiency Project and Programme management

5.

3.2 Project Implementation (continuation)

3.2.6 Performance of Implementing and Executing Entities

The performance of the implementing partner, the Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE) can be characterized as follows:

• DEDE had a significant role in the design of PEECB during the 2011-12 period, shaping the design to enhance the capacity of their staff to promote and enforce the BEC and energy conservation standards in existing buildings. DEDE viewed the PEECB Project to be beneficial by securing a donor’s long-term technical assistance funding commitment to improve their capacities to accelerate adoption of energy efficiency standards for all buildings in Thailand;

• They made the decision to outsource the functions of the PMU to BMC using PEECB funds. The performance of BMC has allowed DEDE personnel from its several bureaus (including Bureau of Energy Regulation and Conservation, Bureau of Human Resource Development and Bureau of Energy Efficiency Promotion) to offload Project monitoring and reporting obligations for GEFsupport projects and allowed for DEDE personnel to focus on integrating PEECB knowledge outputs into their work that included information from monitored demonstration projects in Outcome 3.1;

• The recruitment of BMC also increased access for DEDE to the qualified expertise of “Engineering Solution Providers Company Limited (ENSOP)” who carried out targeted activities for Components 2 and 3;

• Their PMU called and participated in regular weekly meetings to solicit and provide valuable inputs to PEECB. Project weekly meeting has also been set up to continuously follow up on the progress of the project;

• DEDE provided strategic leadership for PEECB to ensure the Project responded to the needs of DEDE personnel and their work priorities in boosting public confidence in the BEC approvals process for new buildings and in promoting energy conservation measures for existing buildings. This also included their inputs on Project activities for the PEECB extension phase that commenced in September 2017;

• DEDE facilitated the numerous adaptive management decisions that minimized delays to allow the Project to achieve its targets for all outcomes;

• In summary, DEDE oversight ensured the PEECB Project provided the aforementioned technical assistance benefits to their personnel as well as their target stakeholders, commercial building owners and operators. As such, the overall performance of DEDE is rated as satisfactory. 


Tag: Energy Efficiency Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Country Government Technical Support

6.

3.3 Project Results

This section provides an overview of the overall results of the PEECB Project and assessment of the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency, country ownership, mainstreaming, sustainability, and impact of the PEECB Project. In addition, evaluation ratings for overall results, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability are also provided against the revised November 2012 PPM (as provided in Appendix F). For Tables 5 to 8, the “status of target achieved” is color-coded as per the following colour coding scheme:

3.3.1 Overall Results

A summary of the achievements of PEECB Project at the Project Goal and Objective level with evaluation ratings are provided on Table 5. . Prior to the commencement of PEECB in 2012, there were no tangible GHG emission reductions and energy savings monitored from new buildings that complied with the 2009 Building Energy Code (BEC). Moreover, DEDE estimates that less than 20% of new buildings applying for approval for construction complied with the BEC. The PEECB Project was designed to address these issues by: 

• improving awareness and technical capacity of building owners and design practitioners with greater access to knowledge of EE technologies, practices and opportunities; • improving secondary legislation, policies, standards and financial incentives to encourage and accelerate investments into EE measures and technologies for new and existing buildings; and • setting up demonstrations of EE technologies, practices and measures in new and existing buildings that will inform policies and standards by which building owners and design practitioners can be guided. Table 5: Project-level achievements against PEECB Project targets.

With regards to the achievement of the Project goal of “reduced intensity of GHG emissions from the commercial building sector”, Para 26 and 27 mentions the lack of clarity on the original target of 230 ktons CO2eq of cumulative emission reductions and 396 GWh of cumulative energy savings by the EOP. This target was revised upwards in September 2017 to 239 ktons CO2eq and 411 GWh of energy savings to March 2018 as shown in Appendix G. Achievement of these revised targets can be described as follows:

• The direct energy savings from 717 buildings that are BEC-compliant 35 is 538 GWh that is equivalent to 332 ktons of CO2 emission reductions (derived from the BEC Center buildings database, a sample of which is provided on Figure 2). The achievement of these targets are directly linked to PEECB training that assisted building owners, managers and building practitioners to comply with BEC for energy efficiency in buildings. Details of this calculation can be found in Appendix E;

• Energy efficiency buildings or High Energy Performance Standard Building (HEPS), according to the building category in EEDP that comprises more than 42% of these 717 buildings, which had achieved with more than 10% of energy saving compare to BEC;

• The 717 buildings includes the direct energy savings of 17,596 MWh from demonstration buildings implemented in Component 3, the energy savings of which was monitored and documented by DEDE for dissemination to commercial building stakeholders. The energy savings for 9 monitored demonstration buildings using the GEF EE Tool can be found in Appendix E;

• The PMU informed the Evaluation Team that DEDE is preparing a figure on energy savings and GHG emission reduction from the entire building sector. The Evaluation accepts from DEDE the disclosure of 1.73% energy savings and GHG emission reductions from the entire building sector. The Evaluation Team, however, has no means of verifying the accuracy of this calculation, and to some extent, disputes the value of this indicator to the intended objective of this Project which has been difficult for the PMU to obtain from DEDE;

• DEDE reported only 20% compliance to BEC prior to the PEECB Project. During this Evaluation, DEDE reports that this compliance figure has risen to 66% based on the aforementioned 717 buildings. DEDE, however, also has data from another 2,000+ “designated buildings” in their database that is currently being analyzed.


Tag: Emission Reduction Energy Effectiveness Efficiency Operational Efficiency Results-Based Management

7.

3.3 Project Results (continuation)

3.3.2 Component 1: Awareness Enhancement on Building EE Technologies and Practices 

To achieve Outcome 1 (enhanced awareness of the government, building sector and banks on EE technologies and practices), Project resources were to be used to: • establish a Commercial Building EE Information Center (CBEEC) (Output 1.1); • complete development of a system of information exchange and dissemination on EE technologies and practices for commercial building stakeholders (Output 1.2); • develop Energy Use Simulation Models for commercial building design (Output 1.3); • deliver training courses on EE technologies and practices, and financial arrangement for commercial buildings (Output 1.4); • deliver training courses on financial assessment of EE application projects in commercial buildings (Output 1.5); and • establish business linkages between suppliers of EE technologies, building owners, banks and building practitioners (Output 1.6). A summary of actual achievements of the Outcome 1 with evaluation ratings is provided on Table 6. 

Prior to the commencement of this Project component, the general knowledge amongst personnel of the commercial building sector to energy related issues was poor. This is evidenced through the general weak implementation of the 2009 Building Energy Code where DEDE reported only 20% compliance of new buildings to this new code. From the perspective of knowledge dissemination, the baseline for awareness of EE in the commercial building sector can be characterized by: • Absence of effective energy efficiency promotions at commercial buildings; • Information on new and innovative building EE technologies and their suppliers was scattered and difficult to access; • Lack of awareness and technical knowledge of energy efficiency opportunities amongst building practitioners; and • New building owners and designers were not considering energy efficiency of the building. 

Output 1.1: Establishment of the Commercial Building EE Information Center (CBEEC) was initially achieved as a website (http://dede-peecb.bright-ce.com) as of July 2014 with other ongoing activities after this date. This website includes quarterly newsletters to inform stakeholders of the status of PEECB activities, upcoming events and activities related to PEECB promotion, and other technical issues related to energy efficiency in commercial buildings with the Project obtaining agreements with other relevant agencies to link their websites with the DEDE-PEECB website. A total of 7,581 visitors had been to the DEDE-PEECB website as well as PEECB-supported training sessions and seminars. By 2016, pertinent information on EE technologies and practices were much more available to commercial building stakeholders. The CBEEC website also provided advice on available EE technologies and financial schemes (such as the 20% direct subsidy from DEDE) which was utilized to implement EE improvements to the 12 demo buildings. A Project-supported survey found 78% of persons interviewed were satisfied with this website. 

Output 1.2: A system of information exchange and dissemination of EE technologies and practices for commercial building stakeholders has been used by stakeholders as per the targets set in the PPM. The Project, again, had undertaken surveys of the degree of usefulness and user satisfaction of the information exchange system. The 2015 survey results found an 80% satisfaction rate that the system provided pertinent information on EE technologies and applications to building stakeholders. Training sessions included sessions on EE concepts and new technologies related to green buildings, and a study tour to Australia. Seminars were also held twice annually with high profile guest speakers to promote EECBs to wider interest groups. To strengthen information exchange of EECBs through outreach, the Project issued quarterly newsletters, and the “elec-ta-lon” (roving electrons) TV programme (that featured Project involvement with demo buildings), and commenced annual project symposiums in March 2015 to update commercial building stakeholders of the progress of the Project and recognition of energy savings of various demo buildings. These symposiums were well-attended by the commercial building sector as well as international development agencies.


Tag: Energy Knowledge management Partnership Programme Synergy Capacity Building Technology Advocacy Data and Statistics

8.

3.3 Project Results (continuation)

3.3.3 Component 2: EE Building Policy Frameworks

To achieve Outcome 2 (effective implementation of favorable policies that encourage EE technologies and practices for commercial building in Thailand), Project resources would be utilized to: • update and improve effectiveness of policy measures on energy efficiency in commercial buildings (Output 2.1); • revise and update data and information to facilitate policy implementation of commercial building EE (Output 2.2); • approve and implement new and improved financing models for commercial buildings (Output 2.3); and • develop and approve energy efficient promotion action plan (short and long term) to supplement DEDE activities (Output 2.4). A summary of the actual achievements of Outcome 2 with evaluation ratings is provided on Table 7. 

Prior to the commencement of Component 2, there was a lack of an effective and uniform implementation framework to encourage and facilitate EE investments in commercial buildings. This was evidenced by a 20% rate of compliance of newly constructed buildings to the 2009 Building Energy Code. This lack of an implementation framework can be described as: • Lack of clear guidance by DEDE to municipalities on how to administer and enforce implementation of EE building regulations that includes compliance checking of construction drawings and inspections during and after construction; • Lack of coordination between DEDE and other government agencies on the implementation of mandatory measures stipulated under the BEC and MEPS of various building equipment types; • Lack of information on EE building products and equipment that provide credible information to building developers and operators; and • Poor utilization of various financing projects under DEDE’s 2009 Energy Conservation Promotion Fund (ENCON) to encourage and support investments into EECBs. 

Through the work of ENSOP, the Project assembled a focus group in 2013 to undertake an assessment of the energy policy framework, and to draft policies, secondary legislation and actions to improve support for the implementation of the BEC for EE in commercial buildings. This Project team in close collaboration with DEDE made 6 policy recommendations related to: • Commercial building disclosure; • Energy efficiency procurement for the public sector; • Step-BEC; • Building specific-type’s financial support; • Electricity generation for self-use; and • Energy saving certificates. 

The commercial building energy consumption disclosure (CBECD) programme was initiated in 2015 and operating as a pilot project by 2016. CBECD was designed to benefit all commercial building stakeholders including DEDE and relevant government stakeholders, building owners, building managers, tenants, consultants and designers, and research and educational personnel. By the EOP, 7 buildings are expected to be under CBECD. Activities under CBECD include a Project-supported data survey of energy consumption, inputs of data into software for Building Energy Simulation Model (or BESM tailored for use in Thailand), and data analysis of the thermal transfer values (reference and overall) in comparison with BEC values, and a determination of the energy performance of the building by comparing the building’s operational performance index to its design performance index under BEC. With compliance below energy consumption values set by BEC, DEDE is proposing a system of awarding an Energy Saving Certificate to respective building owners. In early 2016, the concept of EE Procurement for the public sector as proposed by PEECB’s focus group was accepted by the Ministry of Finance’s Comptroller General’s Department (CGD). The concept to be developed was to ensure integration of EE procurement into E-market and E-Bidding, and by considering selection of EE equipment through life-cycle cost analysis of instead of lowest cost. This would complement the Government of Thailand’s cabinet resolution to reduce energy usage by 10% annually. LED lighting and split-type air conditioners were proposed as pilot items for e-bidding in the public procurement process. DEDE with the assistance of PEECB had provided CGD support on developing specifications and standards of EE equipment that is in proportion with pricing set standard for the government e-procurement. The outcome of these actions should accelerate the deployment of EE appliances into public buildings throughout Thailand. 


Tag: Emission Reduction Energy Effectiveness Policies & Procedures

9.

3.3 Project Results (continuation)

3.3.4 Component 3: EE Building Technologies and Applications Demonstrations

Component 3 was setup to implement visible demonstrations of the application of energy efficiency technologies and practices in commercial buildings. Within this component, 3 outcomes were expected:• Outcome 3.1: Improved confidence in applying EE technologies and practices in commercial buildings in Thailand, which would be achieved utilizing Project resources to support implementation of operational demonstration projects in selected buildings (Output 3.1.1); • Outcome 3.2: Improved local technical and managerial capacity to design, manage and maintain EE technologies and practices, which would be achieved utilizing Project resources to: o prepare documentation of demonstration projects and available EE technologies in the markets and dissemination of demo project results (Output 3.2.1); and o deliver training courses for personnel attached to the demo project (Output 3.2.2); • Outcome 3.3: Replication of demonstration projects within the commercial building sector, which would be achieved utilizing Project resources to complete project documents and recommendations for EE project replication for the commercial building sector (Output 3.3.1). A summary of the achievements of Component 3 with evaluation ratings is provided on Table 8

Prior to the commencement of Component 3, Thailand lacked the presence of demonstration buildings that were fully invested into EE measures that could be used as a reference for other building owners and operators who are considering EE investments in commercial buildings. In addition, the absence of this type of demonstration building was a barrier to establishing benchmarks for commercial building energy efficiency that would inform and improve existing building energy performance standards as well as standards EE equipment being used to achieve energy efficiency. 

Efforts of the Project to interest commercial buildings owners to work with PEECB in demonstrating energy efficiency measures in their buildings began in earnest in the early stages of the Project in 2014. This included: • In 2014, the Project conducted a study on site selection for demonstration buildings initially identifying 7 commercial buildings in the categories of hotels, offices, hospitals, and hypermarkets 46. Energy savings opportunities along with annual energy savings estimates were identified in these reports; • By late 2015, 12 demonstration buildings were confirmed including hotels, retail stores, hospitals, schools, and office buildings. PEECB provided support for energy audits that include surveys of baseline energy consumption of these demonstration buildings, which revealed that 4 out of 11 buildings had already undertaken some of the energy efficiency measures planned. Several of these building owners have multiple properties and have shown interest in expandingEE measures. Some of the demonstration building owners also have clear corporate policies on energy efficiency, establishing them as excellent partners to disseminate energy efficiency information to the sector and the country in general; • The confirmation of the 12 demonstration buildings with baseline energy surveys served as a basis for commencing the preparation of M&V guidelines by PEECB (one of the products of Output 2.2).


Tag: Energy Technology

10.

3.3.5 Relevance

The PEECB Project is relevant to the development priorities of Thailand, namely its National Economic and Social Development Plans issued by the National Economic and Social Development Board under the Office of the Prime Minister:

• The 11th National Economic and Social Development Plans (2012-16)53 under “Development Guidelines” states under Section 5.2.3 to “develop environmentally friendly cities with emphasis on integrated urban planning having cultural, social and ecological aspects” that includes compact urban designs where areas are used creatively with emphasis on the expansion of green spaces and increased energy efficiency;

• The 12th National Economic and Social Development Plans (2017-21)54 under “development Guidelines” makes special mention of the BEC under Section 3.4.1 that applies to “increasing efforts increasing efforts in enforcing laws and regulations regarding energy conservation and energy efficiency, especially the enforcement of the Building Energy Code (BEC) for new buildings and the Energy Efficiency Resources Standard (EERS) for energy producers and distributors. 

3.3.6 Effectiveness and Efficiency

The effectiveness of the PEECB Project has been highly satisfactory in consideration of:

• The high rate of satisfaction amongst non-technical participants at PEECB seminars and workshops on the usefulness of these seminars towards understanding energy efficiency in buildings;

• High rate of satisfaction amongst technical participants at PEECB workshops on energy efficiency measures applied to commercial buildings and the use of the BESM tool for designing these measures and understanding life cycle analyses of EE investments;

• The high rate of utility of PEECB outputs that promote and support implementation of EE measures for commercial buildings in Thailand including financial support mechanisms (such as step BEC, revolving fund and financial support were specific building types), Commercial Building Energy Consumption Disclosure programme, updating of SEC values for commercial buildings, and M&V guidelines. Usage of these outputs by commercial building stakeholders appears to be very high, and has provided this subsector with accelerators towards energy consumption reductions targeted by the EEDP;

• Implemented energy efficiency measures and technologies with demonstrated energy savings and GHG emission reductions for over 9 prominent designated buildings in Bangkok, where the owners of these buildings have willingly shared information on the energy savings in the Commercial Building Energy Consumption Disclosure Programme with public and commercial building stakeholders.

The efficiency of the PEECB Project has been rated as satisfactory in consideration of:

• PEECB realizing more than 95% of its targets as set in its PPM by September 2017, prior to the Project extension and within a 4.83-year period of implementation, and within the original expenditures envisaged in the ProDoc;

• The use of surplus funds (~US$500,000) during the Project extension (to 30 April 2018) to meet revised and more ambitious targets in a new PPM (see Appendix G);

• The Project being implemented without noticeable delays despite external factors which substantially raised the risk of delays (further described in Para 40). The Project, unfortunately, was not able to be implemented within the 39-month period as per the ProDoc;

• The drivenness of DEDE to ensure the success of the PEECB Project towards increasing compliance of commercial buildings to new energy efficiency standards that would contribute towards energy intensity goals of the EEDP (see Para 126). 


Tag: Energy Environment Policy Effectiveness Efficiency Relevance Sustainability Implementation Modality Ownership Policies & Procedures Country Government Capacity Building Technology

11.

3.3.5 Relevance (continuation)

3.3.8 Mainstreaming

The PEECB Project has mainstreamed climate change goals of the 2012-16 UNPAF57, specifically: • Outcome 2: Energy, industry and transport sector progressively contribute to the development of a low carbon and green economy; and • Outcome 3: Harmonized information and knowledge system built and partnerships established among line ministries, department and other stakeholders (including neighbouring countries) for informed decision making. 

The PEECB Project is also mainstreamed with the updated UNPAF of 2017-2158, specifically: • Outcome Strategy 1: Collaborate at national and sub-national levels to strengthen systems, structures and processes for effective, inclusive, and sustainable policymaking and implementation. This includes harmonizing Thailand’s solid base of national policies and regulatory frameworks with international standards for consistent and effective implementation, and convergence between international obligations and domestic actions, policy coherence, capacity-building, public participation and multi-stakeholder engagement; • Outcome Strategy 3: Collaborate at national and sub-national levels to build systems, structures and processes that recognise and engage the private sector as a collaborator in national development. This includes the Project continuing to collaborate with the private sector to address a wide spectrum of issues, such as environmental pollution, climate change, and providing direct advice and support to private sector enterprises in adopting and implementing more responsible, inclusive and sustainable business and investment practices.; and • Outcome Strategy 4: Collaborate at national and sub-national levels to build systems, structures and processes that expand the methodical exchange of expertise and technology available regionally/globally to support social, political and economic development. With the predominance of Thailand’s Sufficiency Economy Philosophy practiced as a key approach to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, the Project’s activities only encourage this approach.

PEECB appears to have mainstreamed gender in its activities where the participation of both men and women appears balanced. During the mission, the TE team had interviewed several women who served in prominent positions. This includes women in lead roles in the development of training curricula for the BESM, External Experts Focus Group Meeting (comprising 32% women), and a few women in managerial positions (such as at CP Tower) for building operations. 


Tag: Energy Coherence Impact Sustainability Knowledge management Risk Management Capacity Building Technology Technical Support

Recommendations
1

4.1 Corrective actions for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the project

Action 1: Preparation of a Project Planning Matrix (PPM) needs to strengthened with a Theory of Change (ToC) analysis and a Review of Outcomes to Impacts (ROtI) to ensure there is a reasonable likelihood that the outcomes will result in the desired impacts.  Notwithstanding that the PEECB Project was well executed resulting in the desired outcomes, this recommendation is intended to emphasize the importance of a well-prepared PPM that is clear to the implementers of the Project of the development progress to be made. During preparation stages of a project, the activities of the project should have clear linkages to global benefits (in the case of PEECB, a linkage to GHG emission reductions) through a ToC analysis.  A draft PPM should be prepared and reviewed through an iterative ROtI process which forces the designer to review how the project will reach the desired impacts from the designed project outcomes.  Project designers will need to review the pathways to achieve a desired impact that include intermediate states in between the outcomes and impacts. With an acceptable development pathway from outcomes to impacts, the designers should then review the PPM to ensure it reflects pathway to desired impacts.

Notwithstanding that the PEECB Project was well executed resulting in the desired outcomes, this recommendation is provided on the basis of comments on the PPM made in Para 25. This recommendation is addressed to future designers of GEF projects on the importance of a well-prepared PPM that is clear to the implementers of the Project of the pathways to development progress, has minimized the number of indicators for monitoring, and provides the highest likelihood that the project’s causal pathways lead to intended project impacts. This recommendation requests project designers during preparation stages of a project, to ensure the activities of the project have clear linkages to global benefits (in the case of PEECB, a linkage to GHG emission reductions) through a ToC analysis. A draft PPM should be prepared and reviewed through an iterative ROtI process which forces the designer to review how the project will reach the desired impacts from the designed project outcomes. Project designers should review the pathways to achieve a desired impact from a baseline scenario to a desired impact with causal pathways consisting of project outputs, project outcomes, and intermediate states leading to the desired impacts (this can and should be done with the input of project beneficiaries and other relevant stakeholders). A Theory of Change diagram should then be prepared illustrating the linkages or causal pathways leading from the baseline to outputs, outcomes intermediate state and the intended impacts. With an acceptable development (causal) pathway from outcomes to impacts, the designers should then review the PPM to ensure it reflects pathway to desired impacts. In the context of PEECB, a ToC approach may need to closely the following: 

• the baseline scenario and identification of barriers to energy efficiency in commercial buildings;

• drivers of change that includes government policies and stakeholder needs(better knowledge of EE and lack of user-friendly compliance tools);

• assumptions for the design project intervention to succeed and for the project to achieve its long-term outcomes and sustainability (sustained economic health of the commercial sector, etc.);

• project stakeholders and their linkages to relevant project activities and outputs; and

• examination of activities of each project component to achieve their intended outcomes. Figure 3 provides a generic ToC flowchart.

2

4.2 Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

Action 2: Continue strengthening linkages with other partners to increase the profile of PEECB outputs including the Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA), and the Engineers and Architects of Thailand (EAT).  Strengthened linkages with BMA, EAT and other municipal-level partners can be leveraged to increase the familiarity and utility of these outputs amongst a wider spectrum of beneficiary stakeholders:

  • additional exposure of BEC and the efforts of DEDE on determination of EnPI values that 
  • will increase public confidence in SEC values for various building categories;

M&V guidelines developed under PEECB could be expanded or updated for new equipment with contributions from other stakeholders.  This could also include M&V guidelines linked and harmonized with MRV protocols being developed under ONEP.UNDP will endeavor to continue supporting DEDE in transferring expertise on EE for commercial buildings at the sub-national level (e.g., provinces, municipalities, towns) through Thailand smart cities initiative.

3

4.2 Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

Action 3: Raise the prominence of the Building Disclosure Program to building owners (both owners who are participating and those who are not) and building tenants.  This may increase the awareness of participating building disclosure owners on the environmental reasons for disclosing their energy consumption that includes climate change mitigation, reduced imported fuels, and encouragement to other building owners to follow their specific example of implementing EE measures.

Para 110 mentions the need for sustained awareness raising amongst building owners of the environmental reasons for energy efficiency in buildings. The increased exposure of the CBECD (as mentioned in Para 82) through various media and environmental campaigns, will increase the awareness of participating building disclosure owners on the environmental reasons for disclosing their energy consumption that includes climate change mitigation, reduced imported fuels, and encouragement to other building owners to follow their specific example of implementing EE measures.

4

4.2 Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

Action 4: Continue to improve the energy performance of new buildings through ongoing policy improvements. This would include continued support for:

  • the ongoing STEP-BEC programme to incentivize building owners to maximize energy savings;
  • analysing reports from over 3,000 designated buildings for baseline energy use, all of which are designed to determine EnPIs for various building categories, and to upgrade SEC values to be specified under a new Ministerial Regulation;
  • continued consultations with the Comptroller’s Office (Ministry of Finance) to develop a concrete proposal for e-Procurement for the public sector noting that the Comptroller’s Office is familiar with life-cycle analysis of equipment.  The next opportunity for these consultations is at the concluding PB meeting for PEECB sometime during the second quarter of 2018.
5

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

In proposing future directions of the Project, the following recommendations are suggestions taken from various stakeholders on increasing efforts to lower the carbon footprint of the commercial buildings sector in Thailand. The Evaluation Team understands that some of these recommendations may already be implemented by DEDE. The Team also understands that future course of actions by DEDE to promote energy efficiency in commercial buildings as well as other building categories will be strategic in the context of the most effective course of action to undertake and heavily reliant on the resources available to undertake certain recommendations.

Action 5: Raise profile of energy efficiency in commercial buildings by developing a pilot “smart city zoning scheme” in close collaboration with the Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) to be located within a high density area (such as in the CBD or the Rama IV area).  This recommendation is consistent with one vision and 2 objectives of the BMA’s “Bangkok Comprehensive Plan 2013”[1] including Vision #5 of “a healthy metropolis that promote conservation of natural environment, Objective #10 on “conserving environment and natural resources by promoting conservation, maintenance and restoration”, Objective #12 on “promoting solution against global warming by expanding green areas in order to reduce greenhouse gases”, and Case #5 that “encourages a green building construction concept”.  Elements of this pilot scheme would include:

  • promoting the development and implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures and other low carbon measures for various building types (i.e. shopping centers, public buildings) within the designated zone;
  • integration of building databases of DEDE and BMA that would streamline approvals for BEC-compliant buildings as well as enforcement of energy conservation standards in designated buildings;
  • streamlining reporting from building managers on compliance to energy conservation standards through the development of an on-line system for reporting.  Such a system would reduce errors and encourage building owners to submit these reports which would add to the existing building databases; 
  • M&V for buildings in a smart zone and using this information to determine their EnPIs and improving their SEC values;
  • programme to strengthen and expand building inspectors pool in BMA that will improve their ability to inspect EE performance in buildings to comply with BEC and existing energy conservation standards, and their knowledge on tools (such as BESM and M&V guidelines) to execute their enforcement duties; and 
  • formulation of laws and regulations relevant to smart or green city development in the pilot area followed by the joint issuance of these laws and regulations by DEDE and BMA.

[1] http://cpd.bangkok.go.th:90/web2/NEWCPD2556/The%20Bangkok%20Comprehensive%20Plan%202013_a4_pdf.pdf

6

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

Action 6 (to DEDE): Strengthen linkages between TGO and demo buildings with an aim to incentivize building owners to invest in the energy efficiency through the generation and sale of Voluntary Emission Reductions (VERs).  This would require:

  • raising awareness of EECB owners through conducting seminars and workshops to present proposals and mechanisms from which VERs can be generated from energy efficiency investments in buildings (that can be commercial, 
  • residential, public or industrial) and sold to various clients in Thailand or abroad;
  • development of MRV protocols specific to energy efficiency in buildings to provide consistent and confident estimates of GHG emission reductions from EE measures in these buildings;
  • formalizing reporting protocols between demo buildings, ONEP, DEDE and TGO.  This may involve the integration of building databases of DEDE and BMA as mentioned in Action 6;
  • ensuring there is sufficient technical consulting capacity to support the needs of building owners to prepare GHG emission reduction amounts consistent with approved MRV protocols.
7

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

Action 7 (to DEDE): Expand an energy efficiency programme for all buildings leveraging the leadership provided by owners of the demonstration commercial buildings.  This would include:

  • efforts by DEDE to encourage owners of demo buildings in Bangkok who have commercial 
  • building assets in other cities to undertake a leadership role for EECBs in other cities.  This may involve a closer working relationship with these building owners (possibly through the Building Disclosure Programme) and encouraging them to share their experiences on implementing EE measures on their other buildings with other building owners in Thailand;
  • DEDE promotion of EE in buildings in other secondary cities in Thailand by sector including the hotel sector which could sell “green rooms” through a hotel association;
  • DEDE promotion of EE in public and residential buildings, with an initial focus within the boundaries of a pilot smart city (see Action 5).  Promotion of EE investments in residential buildings is expected to be more difficult due to the difficulties of demonstrating clear savings on energy costs that can help residents decide on such an investment; 
  • Encouragement of retrofits with incentives of VERs or CERs (see Action 6).
8

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

Action 8 (to UNDP): Provide more exposure of the PEECB Project to other UNDP-GEF projects in energy efficiency in buildings.

As mentioned in Para 37, there is a lack of exposure of the PEECB Project globally. The PEECB Project is providing numerous examples of progressive work in approaches to achieving energy efficiency to the buildings sector that should be shared with other similar projects such as in Malaysia, India, Turkey and Egypt with similar climatic conditions. Conversely, the knowledge sharing of other projects can be beneficial to DEDE on its subsequent projects in energy efficiency, especially if these projects involve successful examples of energy efficiency in the industrial and residential building sub-sectors. 

1. Recommendation:

4.1 Corrective actions for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the project

Action 1: Preparation of a Project Planning Matrix (PPM) needs to strengthened with a Theory of Change (ToC) analysis and a Review of Outcomes to Impacts (ROtI) to ensure there is a reasonable likelihood that the outcomes will result in the desired impacts.  Notwithstanding that the PEECB Project was well executed resulting in the desired outcomes, this recommendation is intended to emphasize the importance of a well-prepared PPM that is clear to the implementers of the Project of the development progress to be made. During preparation stages of a project, the activities of the project should have clear linkages to global benefits (in the case of PEECB, a linkage to GHG emission reductions) through a ToC analysis.  A draft PPM should be prepared and reviewed through an iterative ROtI process which forces the designer to review how the project will reach the desired impacts from the designed project outcomes.  Project designers will need to review the pathways to achieve a desired impact that include intermediate states in between the outcomes and impacts. With an acceptable development pathway from outcomes to impacts, the designers should then review the PPM to ensure it reflects pathway to desired impacts.

Notwithstanding that the PEECB Project was well executed resulting in the desired outcomes, this recommendation is provided on the basis of comments on the PPM made in Para 25. This recommendation is addressed to future designers of GEF projects on the importance of a well-prepared PPM that is clear to the implementers of the Project of the pathways to development progress, has minimized the number of indicators for monitoring, and provides the highest likelihood that the project’s causal pathways lead to intended project impacts. This recommendation requests project designers during preparation stages of a project, to ensure the activities of the project have clear linkages to global benefits (in the case of PEECB, a linkage to GHG emission reductions) through a ToC analysis. A draft PPM should be prepared and reviewed through an iterative ROtI process which forces the designer to review how the project will reach the desired impacts from the designed project outcomes. Project designers should review the pathways to achieve a desired impact from a baseline scenario to a desired impact with causal pathways consisting of project outputs, project outcomes, and intermediate states leading to the desired impacts (this can and should be done with the input of project beneficiaries and other relevant stakeholders). A Theory of Change diagram should then be prepared illustrating the linkages or causal pathways leading from the baseline to outputs, outcomes intermediate state and the intended impacts. With an acceptable development (causal) pathway from outcomes to impacts, the designers should then review the PPM to ensure it reflects pathway to desired impacts. In the context of PEECB, a ToC approach may need to closely the following: 

• the baseline scenario and identification of barriers to energy efficiency in commercial buildings;

• drivers of change that includes government policies and stakeholder needs(better knowledge of EE and lack of user-friendly compliance tools);

• assumptions for the design project intervention to succeed and for the project to achieve its long-term outcomes and sustainability (sustained economic health of the commercial sector, etc.);

• project stakeholders and their linkages to relevant project activities and outputs; and

• examination of activities of each project component to achieve their intended outcomes. Figure 3 provides a generic ToC flowchart.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

The designers followed the ToC in accordance with UNDP standard. However, this project was designed prior to 2010. The success indicators were slightly adjusted during the implementation phase due to the change of project circumstance such as national energy efficiency (EE) target, GHG national reduction target, EE investment incentive offered by DEDE, EE technology update,

Remark: Project Planning Matrix (defined project goal, objective, outcomes, outputs and activities, including success indicators, as well as delineation of responsibilities among the stakeholders); concluded project implementation arrangements

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
For GEF 7, the current project design team will follow the UNDP guideline in consultation with stakeholders. The project will foresee 3-4 years circumstance in EE work at national and sub-national level as per Thailand NDC Roadmap.
[Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2019/12/28]
UNDP 2019/01 Completed The GEF 7 concept note for EE was failed in March 2019. History
2. Recommendation:

4.2 Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

Action 2: Continue strengthening linkages with other partners to increase the profile of PEECB outputs including the Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA), and the Engineers and Architects of Thailand (EAT).  Strengthened linkages with BMA, EAT and other municipal-level partners can be leveraged to increase the familiarity and utility of these outputs amongst a wider spectrum of beneficiary stakeholders:

  • additional exposure of BEC and the efforts of DEDE on determination of EnPI values that 
  • will increase public confidence in SEC values for various building categories;

M&V guidelines developed under PEECB could be expanded or updated for new equipment with contributions from other stakeholders.  This could also include M&V guidelines linked and harmonized with MRV protocols being developed under ONEP.UNDP will endeavor to continue supporting DEDE in transferring expertise on EE for commercial buildings at the sub-national level (e.g., provinces, municipalities, towns) through Thailand smart cities initiative.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

DEDE is planning to continue strengthening linkages with other partners through follow on projects on BEC implementation and also EnPI.

UNDP will endeavor to continue supporting DEDE in transferring expertise on EE for commercial buildings at the sub-national level (e.g., provinces, municipalities, towns) through Thailand smart cities initiative.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Development of follow-up projects that also covers: 1. Implementation of BEC 2. Implementation on EnPI 3. Training programme development on M&V UNDP will explore funding opportunity from GEF-7, UK FCO, and the private sector.
[Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2019/12/28]
UNDP and DEDE 2019/12 Completed DEDE has already passed the enforcement law for BEC since February 2019. History
3. Recommendation:

4.2 Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

Action 3: Raise the prominence of the Building Disclosure Program to building owners (both owners who are participating and those who are not) and building tenants.  This may increase the awareness of participating building disclosure owners on the environmental reasons for disclosing their energy consumption that includes climate change mitigation, reduced imported fuels, and encouragement to other building owners to follow their specific example of implementing EE measures.

Para 110 mentions the need for sustained awareness raising amongst building owners of the environmental reasons for energy efficiency in buildings. The increased exposure of the CBECD (as mentioned in Para 82) through various media and environmental campaigns, will increase the awareness of participating building disclosure owners on the environmental reasons for disclosing their energy consumption that includes climate change mitigation, reduced imported fuels, and encouragement to other building owners to follow their specific example of implementing EE measures.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

DEDE is planning to further implement the Building Disclosure Program to around 50 buildings in different sectors including hotel, hospital and shopping center.

 

The 4 pilot cities of the ongoing UNDP-GEF “Low Carbon Growth Cities” can be potential cities for the implementation of the Building Disclosure Programme. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Development of a project for the implementation of the Building Disclosure Program. UNDP will assist the DEDE (if requested) in the development of such project.
[Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/05/29]
UNDP and DEDE 2019/12 Completed The ongoing Low Carbon Cities project has adopted this program into the development of an energy efficiency guidelines for commercial buildings which are applied in Nakhon Ratchasima History
4. Recommendation:

4.2 Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

Action 4: Continue to improve the energy performance of new buildings through ongoing policy improvements. This would include continued support for:

  • the ongoing STEP-BEC programme to incentivize building owners to maximize energy savings;
  • analysing reports from over 3,000 designated buildings for baseline energy use, all of which are designed to determine EnPIs for various building categories, and to upgrade SEC values to be specified under a new Ministerial Regulation;
  • continued consultations with the Comptroller’s Office (Ministry of Finance) to develop a concrete proposal for e-Procurement for the public sector noting that the Comptroller’s Office is familiar with life-cycle analysis of equipment.  The next opportunity for these consultations is at the concluding PB meeting for PEECB sometime during the second quarter of 2018.
Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

After the completion of PEECB project, the results from each activity will continuously be carried out by the specific bureaus under DEDE to ensure the continuous implementation and improvement

  • STEP-BEC and EnPIs by Bureau of Energy Regulation and Conservation (BERC)

EE-Procurement by Bureau of Energy Efficiency Promotion (BEEP)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Follow on activities by the relevant bureaus (BERC and BEEP) in DEDE.
[Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/05/29]
DEDE 2020/02 Completed DEDE confirmed the results of this project has influenced thoughts on continued promotion of energy efficiency practices for commercial buildings in Thailand History
5. Recommendation:

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

In proposing future directions of the Project, the following recommendations are suggestions taken from various stakeholders on increasing efforts to lower the carbon footprint of the commercial buildings sector in Thailand. The Evaluation Team understands that some of these recommendations may already be implemented by DEDE. The Team also understands that future course of actions by DEDE to promote energy efficiency in commercial buildings as well as other building categories will be strategic in the context of the most effective course of action to undertake and heavily reliant on the resources available to undertake certain recommendations.

Action 5: Raise profile of energy efficiency in commercial buildings by developing a pilot “smart city zoning scheme” in close collaboration with the Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) to be located within a high density area (such as in the CBD or the Rama IV area).  This recommendation is consistent with one vision and 2 objectives of the BMA’s “Bangkok Comprehensive Plan 2013”[1] including Vision #5 of “a healthy metropolis that promote conservation of natural environment, Objective #10 on “conserving environment and natural resources by promoting conservation, maintenance and restoration”, Objective #12 on “promoting solution against global warming by expanding green areas in order to reduce greenhouse gases”, and Case #5 that “encourages a green building construction concept”.  Elements of this pilot scheme would include:

  • promoting the development and implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures and other low carbon measures for various building types (i.e. shopping centers, public buildings) within the designated zone;
  • integration of building databases of DEDE and BMA that would streamline approvals for BEC-compliant buildings as well as enforcement of energy conservation standards in designated buildings;
  • streamlining reporting from building managers on compliance to energy conservation standards through the development of an on-line system for reporting.  Such a system would reduce errors and encourage building owners to submit these reports which would add to the existing building databases; 
  • M&V for buildings in a smart zone and using this information to determine their EnPIs and improving their SEC values;
  • programme to strengthen and expand building inspectors pool in BMA that will improve their ability to inspect EE performance in buildings to comply with BEC and existing energy conservation standards, and their knowledge on tools (such as BESM and M&V guidelines) to execute their enforcement duties; and 
  • formulation of laws and regulations relevant to smart or green city development in the pilot area followed by the joint issuance of these laws and regulations by DEDE and BMA.

[1] http://cpd.bangkok.go.th:90/web2/NEWCPD2556/The%20Bangkok%20Comprehensive%20Plan%202013_a4_pdf.pdf

Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

DEDE will collaborate with BMA to study the opportunity in developing the recommended pilot project.

If requested by DEDE, or BMA or preferably by other cities, UNDP can assist in the development of a more appropriate “smart city” project concept.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Discuss with DEDE and interested city governments on potential collaboration in the development and implementation of a project on sustainable cities or sustainable urban development.
[Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2019/12/28]
DEDE 2019/12 Completed DEDE has already worked on the smart city programme with BMA. History
6. Recommendation:

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

Action 6 (to DEDE): Strengthen linkages between TGO and demo buildings with an aim to incentivize building owners to invest in the energy efficiency through the generation and sale of Voluntary Emission Reductions (VERs).  This would require:

  • raising awareness of EECB owners through conducting seminars and workshops to present proposals and mechanisms from which VERs can be generated from energy efficiency investments in buildings (that can be commercial, 
  • residential, public or industrial) and sold to various clients in Thailand or abroad;
  • development of MRV protocols specific to energy efficiency in buildings to provide consistent and confident estimates of GHG emission reductions from EE measures in these buildings;
  • formalizing reporting protocols between demo buildings, ONEP, DEDE and TGO.  This may involve the integration of building databases of DEDE and BMA as mentioned in Action 6;
  • ensuring there is sufficient technical consulting capacity to support the needs of building owners to prepare GHG emission reduction amounts consistent with approved MRV protocols.
Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

DEDE will collaborate with TGO to study the opportunity in developing of a pilot project as advise.

Key Actions:

7. Recommendation:

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

Action 7 (to DEDE): Expand an energy efficiency programme for all buildings leveraging the leadership provided by owners of the demonstration commercial buildings.  This would include:

  • efforts by DEDE to encourage owners of demo buildings in Bangkok who have commercial 
  • building assets in other cities to undertake a leadership role for EECBs in other cities.  This may involve a closer working relationship with these building owners (possibly through the Building Disclosure Programme) and encouraging them to share their experiences on implementing EE measures on their other buildings with other building owners in Thailand;
  • DEDE promotion of EE in buildings in other secondary cities in Thailand by sector including the hotel sector which could sell “green rooms” through a hotel association;
  • DEDE promotion of EE in public and residential buildings, with an initial focus within the boundaries of a pilot smart city (see Action 5).  Promotion of EE investments in residential buildings is expected to be more difficult due to the difficulties of demonstrating clear savings on energy costs that can help residents decide on such an investment; 
  • Encouragement of retrofits with incentives of VERs or CERs (see Action 6).
Management Response: [Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

DEDE will implement the various projects to support the implementation of energy efficiency programme for building sector including both technical assistance and financial assistance projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conceptualization and formulation of new projects that support the implementation of energy efficiency in buildings.
[Added: 2018/09/07] [Last Updated: 2019/12/28]
DEDE 2019/12 Completed DEDE has already launched the new programme to support EE in the government hospital. The participating hospital can receive 70% of the total investment cost for EE technologies installation. History
8. Recommendation:

4.3 Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

Action 8 (to UNDP): Provide more exposure of the PEECB Project to other UNDP-GEF projects in energy efficiency in buildings.

As mentioned in Para 37, there is a lack of exposure of the PEECB Project globally. The PEECB Project is providing numerous examples of progressive work in approaches to achieving energy efficiency to the buildings sector that should be shared with other similar projects such as in Malaysia, India, Turkey and Egypt with similar climatic conditions. Conversely, the knowledge sharing of other projects can be beneficial to DEDE on its subsequent projects in energy efficiency, especially if these projects involve successful examples of energy efficiency in the industrial and residential building sub-sectors. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/12/03] [Last Updated: 2020/12/05]

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