Final Evaluation: Achieving Low Carbon Growth in Cities through Sustainable Management in Thailand

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Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Thailand
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
07/2021
Completion Date:
06/2021
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
42,000

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Title Final Evaluation: Achieving Low Carbon Growth in Cities through Sustainable Management in Thailand
Atlas Project Number: 00086188
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Thailand
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 06/2021
Planned End Date: 07/2021
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Energy
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.1.1 Low emission and climate resilient objectives addressed in national, sub-national and sectoral development plans and policies to promote economic diversification and green growth
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
  • Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
SDG Target
  • 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
  • 17.9 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the Sustainable Development Goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
Evaluation Budget(US $): 42,000
Source of Funding: GEF
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 40,776
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Eugenia Katsigris International TE Consultant/Team Lead ekatsigris@parnongroup.com
Walaitat Worakul National TE Consultant walaitat@hotmail.com THAILAND
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Achieving Low Carbon Growth in Cities through Sustainable Management in Thailand
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-5
GEF Project ID: 5086
PIMS Number: 4778
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: THAILAND
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1

Consider additional initiatives to address untapped GHG ERs at the local level but do so only if able to develop sound strategy for achieving substantial GHG ERs (per Recommendations 3 and 4). Consider expanding partnerships at different levels to maximize results. Consider continuing to work outside the national government level, especially with mid-sized cities (i.e. populations of 100,000-plus), but also with their greater metropolitan areas (which can have populations of 500,000 to 1 million) and thus neighboring cities and provinces, as a good fit for UNDP comparative advantage. For partnerships, consider the local private sector as especially promising. And, for initiatives in various sectors, such as waste management, transport, and buildings, partner with responsible national-level entities, to ensure the greatest emphasis is not on measuring the GHG ERs, but on achieving them. Working with both TGO and these line ministries, consider expanding NDC Road Map from its solely national level targets to include local level and private sector ones. New efforts should put the most emphasis on demonstrations and scale-up to achieve GHG ERs. Funds for other type of activities should be very specific, so as to assist in stimulating more GHG ERs in the near term.

2

For future projects, emphasize private sector engagement, leveraging UNDP comparative advantage in setting up dialogue to solve problems: Building on learnings from LCC, leverage “Alliance Model” (Chiang Mai Smart Mobility Alliance) to break down silos between private and public sectors and “Khon Kaen Model” to engage the private sector in major low carbon urban development initiatives. Determine other opportunities in mid-sized cities to leverage similar models. Also emphasize private sector cooperation on demos that reduce GHG emissions and benefit bottom line of businesses.  

3

Be strategic about achieving substantial GHG ERs in future projects and put the bulk of CCM funds in efforts directly tied to reducing GHG ERs: Build on your LCC success of good relationships with local partners, but do the analysis in advance and understand which initiatives will bring substantial GHG ERs for the money, or have very good potential for scale-up, so that future projects do not face LCC’s challenge of small GHG ERs. (See Recommendation 4 for a possible planning approach for identifying options.) Show partners analysis of the co-benefits, such as money they will save by choosing low carbon option. Pursue larger installations or extensive replications that can be attributed to your project. If it seems risky to pursue large projects, take a portfolio approach to spread out your risks among many such potential large projects. In use of donor funds allocated to “demo” outcomes, ensure funds are spent either on INV or on TA known to directly stimulate GHG ERs. The latter may include feasibility studies, design, and energy audits, but not workshops and information packages, and may even leverage funds better than INV. The former may include partial grants (such as 20% of project costs). Competitions may be used to attract strong applicants from mid-sized cities. Minimize facilitation fees to ensure maximum amount of demo outcome funds are used for INV or types of TA that directly stimulate GHG ERs. Further, future CCM projects should put bulk of funds into their demo outcome (or financing mechanism). Strategy may be based on an optimistic view in terms of the receding of Covid-19 impacts but include a back-up plan to focus on sectors less impacted by Covid-19.

4

Consider comprehensive analytic approach to determining the best opportunities for GHG ERs in designing cooperation by “slicing the CCF pie more thinly” and assessing the potential of specific measures to address the relevant “slice.” Similarly, if assistance to cities in low carbon planning is pursued, make it very specific to informing the achievement of substantial GHG ERs.: Project design: A comprehensive analytic approach would involve looking at the entirety of carbon emissions for a city, metropolitan area, or province and breaking it down into many sub-sectors, so that the potential GHG ERs can be assessed, and untapped opportunity identified. Sub-sectors need to be divided finely enough to inform strategy and may include, for example, different types of end use energy application (street lighting, air conditioners, different types of industrial applications, etc.). Analysis would consider how much in GHG ERs might be possible from adopting various measures and the cost effectiveness of the options. Planning TA for cities: Any further carbon footprint and LEDS work should be very specific to identify win-win efforts that will lead to substantial GHG ERs. Carbon footprint work should be broken down into more specific subsectors (e.g. organic waste, air conditioner electricity use, city street lighting electricity use, etc.) so cities can assess the GHG ER potential of the subsector and their ability to tap it. For various subsectors, planning work should also provide information on the degree to which various measures can impact these sub-footprints. Lastly, the win-win benefits for cities or other local partners must be emphasized and assessed. Cities need to understand the benefits in order to be convinced to pursue low carbon initiatives. How much will the various measures save the cities in the long-run? What other co-benefits are there? Upon doing the analysis, it may be found for example, that there are more GHG ER opportunities in rooftop PV systems than in water supply re-piping.

5

Look for entry point to low carbon mid-sized city initiatives via smart city plan efforts in relevant cities as focus of future project. Review the smart city plans of selected cities to find synergies with low carbon work and consider work such as in Recommendation 4 to expand strategic and cost-effective win-win low carbon content. In the case of Chiang Mai, consider especially transport aspects of this plan. Discuss with selected cities. Consider whether a smart city plan theme would be a good way to incorporate the strategies discussed in Recommendations 1, 2, and 3 (and possibly, 4).

6

Consider and promote as relevant, national level policy to promote low carbon initiatives in mid-sized cities. In particular, consider promotion of KPI for city and provincial officials through liaison with MOI and relevant high-level leaders. Consider sector-wise national policies that may facilitate low-carbon city work, such as parking fee policies (vis-à-vis promoting sustainable transport), etc.

7

Consider promoting financing mechanisms or other means of generating increased investment for low carbon development at the mid-sized city level in future project. Address the gap of funding mechanisms that operate at the city rather than national level and consider how to get funding to the city-level private sector. Mechanisms that might be piloted include partial grant fund (e.g. 20% of costs), grants for feasibility studies and design, soft loans, ESCO-type modality for different types of low carbon initiatives, BOT, etc. As for carbon offset work, consider work to link Thai system to other markets. Consider engagement of financial institutions for training on economic viability of certain low carbon measures.

8

Put top priority of improvement of M&E of GHG ERs and Other Core Indicators for GEF Projects: Prepare a brief guidance document (e.g. maximum 5 pages) for UNDP COs outlining clearly the most important basis on which UNDP-GEF projects will be assessed, especially GHG ERs for CCM projects (or other top indicator for other types of GEF project). Emphasize concepts of attribution and incrementality and clarify that simply carrying out MRV for an installation does imply the installation’s existence is due to the MRV provider. CO staff should become completely familiar with this guidance document and be responsible for asking project teams the right probing questions to ensure their projects are addressing GHG ERs (or other core indicator) with proper consideration of attribution and incrementality. For third party MRV/ M&E consider an international consultant or one partnered with a national consultant as an alternative to a firm. MRV for demos of UNDP-GEF projects should not typically run in the multiple hundreds of thousands of US dollars. Ensure that the consultants are required to provide clear explanations for their GHG ER or other calculations. Also ensure that they are familiar with the GEF requirements of attribution and incrementality in assessing the indicators.

9

Emphasize beneficiary focus in M&E, including spot checks and evaluation: For future evaluations ensure that there is strong emphasis on one-on-one consultations with a large number of beneficiaries without presence of those paid to implement the project. Similarly, CO spot-checking of project progress should include such consultations with beneficiaries in the absence of those paid to implement the project.

10

Scrutinize plans for large contracts with organizations and minimize number of large TA contracts, if any. Consider options to cut costs while maintaining or improving quality by use of ICs for appropriate assignments. When organizations are definitely needed ensure that there are multiple qualified bids that are truly competitive by starting outreach early and not making requirements too onerous.

11

Reassess repeated delays at all stages in the UNDP-GEF cycle in Thailand and look for new solutions to avoid them. Project design is likely a step that could be sped up simply by requiring a shorter timeline of consultants. For lags between ProDoc clearance and signatures, high-level discussions within Thailand on national process may be needed. Inception workshops should be held shortly after hiring of PM.

12

Transport: Consider options for ensuring sustainability of LCC transport demos and options for future projects that may continue to build on LCC transport sector achievements in NR, CM, and KK. (i) For all three cities consider the importance of adding measures to discourage private car use, complementing the improvement of public transport. This may include higher parking fees in city center (and require national level action) and special lanes/ roads for buses. Realize that measures to improve transport can be very low cost but require political will, thus well suited to UNDP comparative advantage. (ii) For Chiang Mai, consider support for CM Smart City Plan’s smart mobility items – CCTV cameras to show cars parked on road illegally impeding traffic flow and sensors to control traffic lights so that traffic flow is optimized. Consider means to ensure Alliance is sustained and continues to make progress on extending bus routes and frequency. Promote ap and electronic tickets. (iii) Now that NR has received one year of UK support, consider using this period to plan follow up support thereafter to implement its e-BRT plan. (iv) For KK, ensure that LCC’s feeder plan and TOD study are shared with the relevant organizations, including the winning bidder for construction of the LR. CO may wish to discuss with experts the viability, long-term cost effectiveness, and likelihood of funding of the LR plan and, if it makes sense, consider partnership to ensure TOD development is low carbon.

13

Waste management: Consider options for ensuring the success of LCC waste management initiatives in Samui and KK and, if it makes sense in terms of potential GHG ERs, continuing to build on those achievements and/or taking them to other cities in new projects: (i) For the three privately owned learning centers or stations that manage organic waste in Samui and the one public one in Khon Kaen, ensure that their waste supply flow is increased and received daily to the level that new equipment capacity is at maximal use. If these prove to be viable means to address total city organic waste at significant levels, consider promoting replication. (ii) For Samui household composting, consider promoting replication in other locales. (iii) For Samui hotel compositing, consider means to stimulate the re-initiation of composting post-pandemic among the hotels and to expand to more of Samui’s 600+ tourist accommodations. UNDP may consider promoting the program to international hotel chains with branches on Samui. (iv) Consider supporting additional biogas digesters in NR at schools and hospitals according to interest expressed, as well as possibly municipal waste digesters in other cities if practical per expert advice. (v) For WTE projects, consider involvement carefully as these present special challenges. Consider providing continued advice to cities and private sector owners especially in the case of NR (which is launching procurement for a WTE now) and also KK (which has the negative GHG ER WTE and is planning its next WTE, though that one should be several years down the line). Advice may consider reducing plastic content and insuring waste is not burned without power generation.

14

Energy end use: Strongly consider opportunities in energy end use for future CCM projects, realizing that sizable GHG ER results can be achieved more quickly and with less complexity than in transport and typically, though not always, more easily than in waste management. Solar PV systems in the northeast seem an area that is just taking off. Private sector initiatives may be stimulated by brief studies and designs showing cost savings. For the public sector, designs of large systems with installation of a small portion as carried out by LCC may be a good model. Cooperation with PV system leasing/ BOT companies may be considered. For building initiatives in general, it may be useful to closely examine the track record of the NR energy audits and determine how many of the actions taken were actually due to the audits. If findings are positive, building energy audits on a larger scale in mid-sized cities might be pursued. Lastly, consider opportunities in promoting low carbon homes, building on the NR Low Carbon Home Guide. Ideas might include programs to promote energy efficient appliances or lighting across certain cities.

15

Improve the PPG/ project design process for GEF projects in Thailand. Ensure that interpretation for international consultant is detailed and strong, so that ProDoc reflects the real situation. During design, ensure that baseline project owners are onboard. Develop a relationship with them and confirm that their timelines fit with the project’s. Increase specificity of incremental improvements planned and ensure that GHG ER projections are specific on whether 100% attribution is expected or only incremental attribution. For finance outcomes, ensure the options are well elaborated. Consider separate outcomes for policy work and capacity building if these are included unless they are very closely related to finance.

1. Recommendation:

Consider additional initiatives to address untapped GHG ERs at the local level but do so only if able to develop sound strategy for achieving substantial GHG ERs (per Recommendations 3 and 4). Consider expanding partnerships at different levels to maximize results. Consider continuing to work outside the national government level, especially with mid-sized cities (i.e. populations of 100,000-plus), but also with their greater metropolitan areas (which can have populations of 500,000 to 1 million) and thus neighboring cities and provinces, as a good fit for UNDP comparative advantage. For partnerships, consider the local private sector as especially promising. And, for initiatives in various sectors, such as waste management, transport, and buildings, partner with responsible national-level entities, to ensure the greatest emphasis is not on measuring the GHG ERs, but on achieving them. Working with both TGO and these line ministries, consider expanding NDC Road Map from its solely national level targets to include local level and private sector ones. New efforts should put the most emphasis on demonstrations and scale-up to achieve GHG ERs. Funds for other type of activities should be very specific, so as to assist in stimulating more GHG ERs in the near term.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07] [Last Updated: 2021/09/07]

Agreed. TGO and UNDP agreed with ‘Recommendation #1’ in regards the stimulation of interest and efforts on GHG ER in cities, particularly in the waste, transport, and energy sectors. Such efforts are in agreement with the national plans such as the National Economic and Social Development Plan, the national climate change master plan, NDC & its sectoral strategy, and smart city initiatives. TGO is working with the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP) and line ministries on NDC related topics such as the NDC Road Map, the Long-Term Strategy (LTS). UNDP though the NDC project is supporting ONEP on LTS. TGO through the lead of the Low Carbon Society Office will work with the provincial governments, and the private sector to mainstream GHG ER strategy into their urban development planning process.

TGO and UNDP will focus on assisting both mega and secondary cities in their low carbon development efforts and mainstreaming GHG ER strategies in their urban development process. This is because megacities are big sources of GHG emissions as most of economic activities are in these areas. However, most of the future growth and multiplier effect will be in secondary cities.  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP through the NDC project and TGO will provide TA and lessons learned from GHG ER in the cities as inputs to ONEP for the expansion of NDC Roadmap and its Long Term Strategies development to include local level and private sector that will bring about other potential GHG ERs. TGO will support cities to develop city carbon footprint reduction and LCC plans that include actions to implement identified climate change mitigation options and GHG ER reduction potentials. TGO will launch campaigns and competition activities in cities on the development of low carbon urban development ideas.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
- MONRE (ONEP, TGO) - Department of Local Administration, Ministry of Interior - UNDP Thailand CO in consultation with TGO, line ministries, local governments (city and provincial), and private sector. 2022/09 Initiated Promotion of climate action and low carbon society are mandates of TGO and in UNDP’s new CPD (being finalized). The government is working on development of NDC at the sectoral level.
2. Recommendation:

For future projects, emphasize private sector engagement, leveraging UNDP comparative advantage in setting up dialogue to solve problems: Building on learnings from LCC, leverage “Alliance Model” (Chiang Mai Smart Mobility Alliance) to break down silos between private and public sectors and “Khon Kaen Model” to engage the private sector in major low carbon urban development initiatives. Determine other opportunities in mid-sized cities to leverage similar models. Also emphasize private sector cooperation on demos that reduce GHG emissions and benefit bottom line of businesses.  

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed.  Awareness and role of the private sector on climate action, SDGs and social responsibilities have increased significantly in the past decades. Leveraging TGO and UNDP advantage on partnership with leaders in the private sector will enhance a meaningful dialogue to resolving problems.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Organize the Climate Action Leaders Forum 2021 – forum to enhance awareness of leaders in key business sectors on climate action. Participate in the private sector platforms to stimulate dialogue and take meaningful climate action, such as the League of Thai Municipalities, and etc.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
TGO 2022/09 Initiated TGO will be organizing the novel and first forum focused on climate actions and our common responsibilities for top executives and leaders from vast private sector companies to join.
3. Recommendation:

Be strategic about achieving substantial GHG ERs in future projects and put the bulk of CCM funds in efforts directly tied to reducing GHG ERs: Build on your LCC success of good relationships with local partners, but do the analysis in advance and understand which initiatives will bring substantial GHG ERs for the money, or have very good potential for scale-up, so that future projects do not face LCC’s challenge of small GHG ERs. (See Recommendation 4 for a possible planning approach for identifying options.) Show partners analysis of the co-benefits, such as money they will save by choosing low carbon option. Pursue larger installations or extensive replications that can be attributed to your project. If it seems risky to pursue large projects, take a portfolio approach to spread out your risks among many such potential large projects. In use of donor funds allocated to “demo” outcomes, ensure funds are spent either on INV or on TA known to directly stimulate GHG ERs. The latter may include feasibility studies, design, and energy audits, but not workshops and information packages, and may even leverage funds better than INV. The former may include partial grants (such as 20% of project costs). Competitions may be used to attract strong applicants from mid-sized cities. Minimize facilitation fees to ensure maximum amount of demo outcome funds are used for INV or types of TA that directly stimulate GHG ERs. Further, future CCM projects should put bulk of funds into their demo outcome (or financing mechanism). Strategy may be based on an optimistic view in terms of the receding of Covid-19 impacts but include a back-up plan to focus on sectors less impacted by Covid-19.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed.  TGO and UNDP agreed that climate change mitigation (CCM) efforts will bring about must GHG ERs. Striving to achieve the objective, the future activities will apply the public-private participation approach to ensure ownership and capacity is built in order to sustain GHG ER and co-benefits in the long run. Therefore, TGO and UNDP will ensure that TA with capacity building (such as energy audit, technical study) is essential and last longer than investment in technology alone. This statement is backed up by the cities of NR and KK where financial resource for investment is available. However, enhanced knowledge and capacity are what the cities need to drive/sustain their climate action investment.  In addition, addressing several barriers to GHG ER such as legal and regulatory, institutional and governance, financial, socio-economic and innovation, resulted in behavior change, regulatory unlocked are in TGO, UNDP and cities’ priorities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop a strategy and plan for TGO’s Low Carbon City and Society Office to promote GHG ER in cities
[Added: 2021/09/07]
TGO 2022/09 Initiated TGO has just restructured its organization and established the Low Carbon City and Society Office.
Develop a strategic plan for UNDP fund mobilization under the GHG emission reduction track. In the short-term, the action plan focuses on application for funding from UK PACT and Japan Supporting Budget (JSB) on GHG ER from electrifying urban mobility in NR and the preparation of SDG &EV climate credit scheme, respectively.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
- UNDP Thailand CO. - TGO, - Other UNDP IP partners in CCM related fields 2022/08 Not Initiated This is in line with new UNDP Country Program Development (CPD)’s Outcome
4. Recommendation:

Consider comprehensive analytic approach to determining the best opportunities for GHG ERs in designing cooperation by “slicing the CCF pie more thinly” and assessing the potential of specific measures to address the relevant “slice.” Similarly, if assistance to cities in low carbon planning is pursued, make it very specific to informing the achievement of substantial GHG ERs.: Project design: A comprehensive analytic approach would involve looking at the entirety of carbon emissions for a city, metropolitan area, or province and breaking it down into many sub-sectors, so that the potential GHG ERs can be assessed, and untapped opportunity identified. Sub-sectors need to be divided finely enough to inform strategy and may include, for example, different types of end use energy application (street lighting, air conditioners, different types of industrial applications, etc.). Analysis would consider how much in GHG ERs might be possible from adopting various measures and the cost effectiveness of the options. Planning TA for cities: Any further carbon footprint and LEDS work should be very specific to identify win-win efforts that will lead to substantial GHG ERs. Carbon footprint work should be broken down into more specific subsectors (e.g. organic waste, air conditioner electricity use, city street lighting electricity use, etc.) so cities can assess the GHG ER potential of the subsector and their ability to tap it. For various subsectors, planning work should also provide information on the degree to which various measures can impact these sub-footprints. Lastly, the win-win benefits for cities or other local partners must be emphasized and assessed. Cities need to understand the benefits in order to be convinced to pursue low carbon initiatives. How much will the various measures save the cities in the long-run? What other co-benefits are there? Upon doing the analysis, it may be found for example, that there are more GHG ER opportunities in rooftop PV systems than in water supply re-piping.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed. CCF development using the GPC Guideline under the LCC has introduced systematic data collection and a foundation to understand the root causes and impacts of cities on climate. This is a good starting point to identify hotspots and allow a deep dive into sub-sectors. Building on this assessment, information is visualized to promote broad awareness, better understanding and interventions are planned and implemented by a diversity of local actors. Given challenges on data collection which data is scattered and subsided in responsible agencies, and perhaps missing, the city needs to coordinate or build a platform for activity data sharing on a regular basis.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop CCF development system in the cities to allow CCF to be updated on a regular basis. Analysis of CCF developed under the LCC and TGO’s own program to identify hotspots and opportunity for GHG ER
[Added: 2021/09/07]
TGO and partner cities 2022/09 Initiated TGO is currently supporting cities to develop CFO, CCF.
5. Recommendation:

Look for entry point to low carbon mid-sized city initiatives via smart city plan efforts in relevant cities as focus of future project. Review the smart city plans of selected cities to find synergies with low carbon work and consider work such as in Recommendation 4 to expand strategic and cost-effective win-win low carbon content. In the case of Chiang Mai, consider especially transport aspects of this plan. Discuss with selected cities. Consider whether a smart city plan theme would be a good way to incorporate the strategies discussed in Recommendations 1, 2, and 3 (and possibly, 4).

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed. Smart city initiative usually has a section on smart environment, smart mobility and/or low carbon city where GHG ER can be used as an entry point.    

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Discuss with related organizations such as the Department of Local Administration, League of Municipality, as well as the Digital Economy Promotion Agency (DEPA) to stress the importance of finding a suitable entry point for low carbon initiatives in mid-sized city development .
[Added: 2021/09/07]
- TGO’s Division: Low Carbon City Office. - UNDP Thailand CO 2022/07 Initiated TGO’s Low Carbon City and Society Office is established and can take a lead. UNDP entered into discussion with DEPA on smart city initiative.
6. Recommendation:

Consider and promote as relevant, national level policy to promote low carbon initiatives in mid-sized cities. In particular, consider promotion of KPI for city and provincial officials through liaison with MOI and relevant high-level leaders. Consider sector-wise national policies that may facilitate low-carbon city work, such as parking fee policies (vis-à-vis promoting sustainable transport), etc.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed. TGO works closely with major national policy agencies to promote low carbon city initiatives, particularly: the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning (ONEP); Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MRNE); Department of Local Administration (DOLA); Ministry of Interior.  In 2021, despite the Covid-19 outbreak, TGO in partnership with national policy agencies jointly organize several events to engage High-Level policy makers, and leaders from public and private sectors, city leaders to join these landmark events.    

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support organization of the 1st “Thailand Climate Action Conference” (TCAC), similar to the UNFCCC COP, to stimulate and call for climate action pledges from Provincial Governors, and City Mayors as well as demonstration of GHG ER success cases in cities. Organize the 1st “Climate Action Leaders Forum” in August 2021 for top executive levels from the government and private sector to exchange dialogue on national climate change policy i.e., the Paris Agreement; Net Zero Emissions; low carbon society; and Supportive Measures to achieve national climate targets. Develop a specific set of KPIs for low carbon cities by TGO together with DOLA, MOI in consultation with provincial and relevant organizations i.e., the League of Municipalities.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
- TGO’s Division: Low Carbon City Office. - Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. - Department of Local Administration (DOLA), Ministry of Interior. - UNDP Thailand 2022/09 Initiated TGO in partnership with MNRE, ONEP and UNDP Thailand take a lead in establishing the first Climate Action Leaders Forum in Thailand aiming to engage high-level leaders, from public and private sectors, to discuss and support MNRE and MOI to achieve national policies on climate actions. TGO provides supports to national policy agencies: particularly ONEP; MNRE; DOLA; MOI.
7. Recommendation:

Consider promoting financing mechanisms or other means of generating increased investment for low carbon development at the mid-sized city level in future project. Address the gap of funding mechanisms that operate at the city rather than national level and consider how to get funding to the city-level private sector. Mechanisms that might be piloted include partial grant fund (e.g. 20% of costs), grants for feasibility studies and design, soft loans, ESCO-type modality for different types of low carbon initiatives, BOT, etc. As for carbon offset work, consider work to link Thai system to other markets. Consider engagement of financial institutions for training on economic viability of certain low carbon measures.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed.  Financial mechanisms proposed in this recommendation are quite general and available in the financial market and/or energy market.  Investors in the partner cities are more advance and already tap into such mechanisms i.e., BOT, ESCO, feasibility study.  In terms of funding, other government agencies promote different mechanisms such as carbon tax, financial support through the Environmental Fund, Energy Conservation Fund, and banks. It is a matter of getting the message across about these mechanisms. The private companies accelerate GHG ER through their CSR and compliance to DJSI, SD report and etc.  Having said that, to avoid duplication of effort and reinventing the wheel, TGO, as implementing partner, innovatively has considered to co-finance (in kind and in cash) with the LCC to promote incentives through recognition of carbon reduction credits such as LESS, T-VER.

In the future, TGO will continue to promote T-VER and LESS which are directly under TGO’s mandate and help spreading information about financial mechanisms available to cities such as GEF, GCF and other bilateral opportunities. In addition, TGO will explore possibility to innovatively establish a new financial mechanism to promote GHG ER.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Promote and expand TGO’s voluntary scheme i.e., T-VER and carbon finance mechanisms. Provide TA on climate finance to cities and private sectors through UNDP’s project on NDC Support Project: Delivering Sustainability through Climate Finance Actions in Thailand. Assist the interested cities to access to information on carbon finance opportunities offered by the private sector and international organizations such as GEF, GCF, BOT and ESCO through exchange of dialogue with the private sector and municipalities like KK.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
UNDP Thailand CO and TGO 2022/12 Initiated TGO owns T-VER and LESS schemes. Also collaborating with international organizations on carbon credit. Examples from BOT in solar PV, WTE investment in KK can be shared to the interested cities.
8. Recommendation:

Put top priority of improvement of M&E of GHG ERs and Other Core Indicators for GEF Projects: Prepare a brief guidance document (e.g. maximum 5 pages) for UNDP COs outlining clearly the most important basis on which UNDP-GEF projects will be assessed, especially GHG ERs for CCM projects (or other top indicator for other types of GEF project). Emphasize concepts of attribution and incrementality and clarify that simply carrying out MRV for an installation does imply the installation’s existence is due to the MRV provider. CO staff should become completely familiar with this guidance document and be responsible for asking project teams the right probing questions to ensure their projects are addressing GHG ERs (or other core indicator) with proper consideration of attribution and incrementality. For third party MRV/ M&E consider an international consultant or one partnered with a national consultant as an alternative to a firm. MRV for demos of UNDP-GEF projects should not typically run in the multiple hundreds of thousands of US dollars. Ensure that the consultants are required to provide clear explanations for their GHG ER or other calculations. Also ensure that they are familiar with the GEF requirements of attribution and incrementality in assessing the indicators.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Partially agreed. Agreed that rules of the game and guidance, especially on GEF additionality, and M&E should be emphasized at the beginning. However, If the scope is accepted by CEO endorsement and firmly endorsed in the Project Document, UNDP, the implementing partner, and the M&E consultants shall respect the scope of work in the signed paper.  Any disagreement on work plan and/or M&E methodology should be pointed out as early as possible i.e., at the inception stage or at MTR at the latest. Disagreement between the project team and TE consultant on M&E methodology should not occur at this stage since it is too late to fix. In the future, UNDP will ensure that key message on M&E will be delivered to the implementing partner and stakeholders well in advance. Methodology for M&E must be prepared and accepted by UNDP-GEF and implementing partner. UNDP Regional Technical Advisor will play a key role in this exercise. It is recommended that the spot check the technical aspects of project implementation should be conducted periodically.

Disagreed regarding the use of ICs/NCs or subcontract companies. The decision regarding that is made during project design and confirmed during the inception phase. There are specific reasons for using ICs (e.g., lack of local technical capacity). If the project design require the use of ICs and is budgeted (as stated in the signed ProDoc), changing this to the use of other resource inputs is OK as long as this is compelling and justified, and changes in the budget is within the range of allowable budget adjustments. The third-party verification either in the form of an international IC or firms should be called on a case-by-case basis, based on reality and conditions. TGO and UNDP have negative and positive experiences with international individual consultants (IC) and firms. Therefore, it is not always that the IC is better than a firm, or vice versa. As being a National Implementation Modality (NIM), hiring expatriates or international companies registered outside Thailand by the Thai government agencies, authorization from the Office of Attorney General must be obtained. Otherwise, the hiring process has to be through UNDP.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop a manual of guidance on GEF additionality and organize a training on GEF M&E to the project staff, the implementing partner and UNDP’s M&E focal point.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
UNDP Thailand CO, RTA 2022/03 Not Initiated
Develop a manual of guidance on GEF additionality and organize a training on GEF M&E to the project staff, the implementing partner and UNDP’s M&E focal point.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
UNDP Thailand CO, RTA 2022/03 Not Initiated
9. Recommendation:

Emphasize beneficiary focus in M&E, including spot checks and evaluation: For future evaluations ensure that there is strong emphasis on one-on-one consultations with a large number of beneficiaries without presence of those paid to implement the project. Similarly, CO spot-checking of project progress should include such consultations with beneficiaries in the absence of those paid to implement the project.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Partially agreed. It is agreed in principle that one-on-one interviews is an ideal situation. However, in practice, local context and culture needs to be acknowledged and handle with care. As for the LCC project, key messages and cautions for future M&E and MTR/TE consultants are as follows:

  • COVID19 made M&E even more challenge than the normal situation.
  • M&E has to be carried out sensitively with a Do-No-Harm approach. . It is delicate and must come together with much respect to local stakeholders. M&E consultants should have experiences in working in different cultures. Many times, interviewees felt that they were treated like the plaintiffs and defendants during M&E.
  • Project implementation on the ground is based on the context and cultural sensitivities  and the roles of each stakeholders has to be nuanced as per the situation on the ground. The IP has been the main connecter to the communities and beneficiaries. . For example, interpretation of the implementing partners, cities, and stakeholders on some topics, especially on how to implement the project. M&E consultants should be open to reality and respect the right of the IP, since it has been through the consultation processes with stakeholders and the Project Board. We often found that M&E consultants have set their mind prior to listening to reality. For examples on the case of paid IC and/or firms, and implementation strategy that we disagreed with the M&E consultants:
    • The partner cities play dual roles as the implementing agencies and beneficiaries. This is a strategy to enhance ownership of activities.
    • Universities that are paid to support the implementation are considered as honor and trusted partner to cities. They have a strong partnership. Therefore, a request to be together during interview is quite common.
    • The IP and the Project considered the WTE in Khon Kaen as the demo since it passed the additionality test and the city subsumed it as the demonstration since the GEF project development. The other example, TGO’s TVER as financial mechanism was accepted by the project board and the parties. It generated high volume of GHG ER under this project and should be counted as project achievement. Unfortunately, the TE consultant disagreed. These are two examples of disagreement on GHG ER demonstration projects.
  • The requests to interview with beneficiaries will  not always be  accepted  within a short time frame because of the protocol of each organization, especially the private sector and large organizations.
  • The national M&E consultant should be a trusted source of verification for the international M&E consultant. A country with English is a foreign language, speaking in the same local language is more comfortable.
  • UNDP’s spot check exercise is designed to examine financial management capability of Implementing Parties or Responsible Parties. It does not require interviewing the beneficiaries which is outside of the scope of the exercise. 
  • However, lessons learned from project implementation, UNDP CO shall include the spot checks the technical aspects of project implementation periodically and reflect the progress in the quarterly report. This is not just to check delivery of the project resources but also check the existence, quality and acceptability of the tangible outputs that were reported to be delivered.

The experience from this TE exercise emphasized the importance of record keeping in the implementation of projects. The presence/availability of supporting evidentiary documents minimize the occurrences of problems such as those experienced in this TE exercise. Note that an independent project evaluation such as this TE is also a verification of the claimed achievements of the project. Therefore, the evaluators will be relying on their verification of the evidentiary documents that will support the reported achievements of the project.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Documentation of lesson learned from the LCC project implementation and share with UNDP CO staff, and M&E focal points and the implementing partner. Orientation on project background, stakeholders and culture needs to be provided to M&E consultants to ensure a good understanding of local situation and limitations.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
IP, UNDP Thailand CO, project teams, evaluation consultants 2021/12 Initiated It is suggested that necessary information can be provided by the project teams during the orientation and briefing of the independent evaluators at the start of the evaluation work. UNDP can require the evaluators to present in their inception report how they are going to carry out evaluating the M&E performance, based, among others, on what they learned from the orientation/briefing.
Develop the M&E protocol and detailed MRV to evaluate achievement of outcomes/outputs and seek approval from the Regional Technical Advisor at the beginning of the project.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
IP, UNDP Thailand CO, project teams, evaluation consultants 2021/12 Initiated The M&E plan and methodology for the project is agreed during the project inception phase. The PMO must prepare the M&E plan to be commented/agreed by the UNDP technical advisor.
Perform technical spot checks to monitor the progress of the project should such consultations with beneficiaries in the absence of those paid to implement the project.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
IP, UNDP Thailand CO, project teams, evaluation consultants 2021/12 Initiated This should be conducted periodically by the CO through the regularly project monitoring visits.
The Project Board shall involve in decision making in relation to procurement –IC vs firm if there is a need to deviate from the initial project design.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
IP, UNDP Thailand CO, project teams, evaluation consultants 2021/12 Initiated The decision regarding the resource inputs to implement project activities (e.g., IC, NC, or Contract Service Company) should be done during the project design stage, and if there are changes that could be agreed and confirmed during the inception. If during project implementation change in the resource input is made, the decision to change (after discussions with UNDP) can be endorsed by the Project Board.
10. Recommendation:

Scrutinize plans for large contracts with organizations and minimize number of large TA contracts, if any. Consider options to cut costs while maintaining or improving quality by use of ICs for appropriate assignments. When organizations are definitely needed ensure that there are multiple qualified bids that are truly competitive by starting outreach early and not making requirements too onerous.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Disagreed. Similar comment as Recommendation #8.

Contracts either in the form of an international IC or a firm should be called on a case-by-case basis, based on reality and several conditions on the ground. TGO and UNDP have negative and positive experiences with an international IC and companies. Therefore, it is not always the case that the IC is better than a firm, or vice versa. As being a National Implementation Modality (NIM), hiring international consultants or international companies registered outside Thailand must obtain approval from the Office of Attorney General, otherwise it has to be through UNDP.

In the case of the LCC, all 25 contracts strictly and transparently followed the procurement process of UNDP Programme Operations and Policy  standards and the Thai government. Contracts were with the local universities, ICs, and a few to companies. Local universities and firms are seen as more credible, capable, full of resources and trusted by the partner cities in supporting implementation of the projects.  

Given the decision regarding the resource inputs (e.g., IC, NC, Contract Service Company) is done during project design, and confirmed during the project inception phase, there is a need for the Project Board to endorse any changes in the type of resource inputs when the project is already under implementation.

Key Actions:

11. Recommendation:

Reassess repeated delays at all stages in the UNDP-GEF cycle in Thailand and look for new solutions to avoid them. Project design is likely a step that could be sped up simply by requiring a shorter timeline of consultants. For lags between ProDoc clearance and signatures, high-level discussions within Thailand on national process may be needed. Inception workshops should be held shortly after hiring of PM.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed.  Drawing on lessons from the past GEF-funded projects which UNDP has been supporting, this is a crucial issue to bring up with future project Ips. The CO has already alerted BEDO, an anticipated IP for a new GEF7 tourism project, about this and should find an opportunity to share the message with other agencies during the national consultation workshop for GEF8 project cycle (in 2022). This meeting is usually organized by the OFP and all qualified GEF agencies will be invited. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
For future GEF-funded projects, it is proposed that UNDP shares the final project document with the proposing agency for proceeding the Cabinet endorsement before Project Document will be endorsed by GEF CEO. Once completed, the IP can use early endorsement as reference for signature on the ProDoc.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
UNDP Thailand CO leadership (DRR and Team Lead), RTAs 2021/12 Initiated UNDP NO has brought this idea up with BEDO management as it is anticipated to implement a new GEF7 tourism project starting 2022. This message should be reiterated during the planned LPAC (around Nov)
The DRR and the Team Lead will initiate discussion on this recommendation with other GEF agencies in Thailand.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
UNDP Thailand CO leadership (DRR and Team Lead), RTAs 2021/12 Not Initiated Budget 2021 is available for workshop.
12. Recommendation:

Transport: Consider options for ensuring sustainability of LCC transport demos and options for future projects that may continue to build on LCC transport sector achievements in NR, CM, and KK. (i) For all three cities consider the importance of adding measures to discourage private car use, complementing the improvement of public transport. This may include higher parking fees in city center (and require national level action) and special lanes/ roads for buses. Realize that measures to improve transport can be very low cost but require political will, thus well suited to UNDP comparative advantage. (ii) For Chiang Mai, consider support for CM Smart City Plan’s smart mobility items – CCTV cameras to show cars parked on road illegally impeding traffic flow and sensors to control traffic lights so that traffic flow is optimized. Consider means to ensure Alliance is sustained and continues to make progress on extending bus routes and frequency. Promote ap and electronic tickets. (iii) Now that NR has received one year of UK support, consider using this period to plan follow up support thereafter to implement its e-BRT plan. (iv) For KK, ensure that LCC’s feeder plan and TOD study are shared with the relevant organizations, including the winning bidder for construction of the LR. CO may wish to discuss with experts the viability, long-term cost effectiveness, and likelihood of funding of the LR plan and, if it makes sense, consider partnership to ensure TOD development is low carbon.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed. The transport sector plays a role in GHG ER in mega citifies big secondary cities (i.e., the municipality). The nation considered GHG ER in the transport sectors and EV as means to achieve a commitment target in its NDC Roadmap. However, GHG ER benefits usually take longer to be realized, comparing to the other climate change mitigations in the other sectors (i.e. energy efficiency, RE). Barriers that slow down CCM in this sector include, but not limited to, lack of cleaner technology and infrastructure, the tedious processes in mega transport projects such as LRT, behavior of commuters, political will, laws, and enforcement, and etc. The cities will carefully assess possibility of implementation of proposed recommendations in the local context.

TGO and UNDP will work with the partner cities of the LCC project a) to identify measures to discourage the use of private cars, b) to support the role of the Smart Mobility Alliance Network to make progress in collaborating with the Municipality and the Province, c) the conduct study on electrifying urban mobility in NR (when the contract between UNDP and UK is finalizes), and d) to ensure the TOD study is shared with the Province, Municipality and the stakeholders.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Project wrap up and set dialogue on CCM in the transport sector management with the partner cities to encourage and keep momentum of initiatives that are already started. Emphasis will be on the role of the Alliance and private sector in CM and KK as well as findings from the studies that further enhance GHG ER. The CMU to share the results of transport studies and implementation to the Municipality and continue to promote the use of public transport, the urban mobility application and discourage the use of private cars.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
LCC Team, UNDP CO, partner cities 2022/07 Initiated Next 2 months for LCC Team; next 6 months for others
13. Recommendation:

Waste management: Consider options for ensuring the success of LCC waste management initiatives in Samui and KK and, if it makes sense in terms of potential GHG ERs, continuing to build on those achievements and/or taking them to other cities in new projects: (i) For the three privately owned learning centers or stations that manage organic waste in Samui and the one public one in Khon Kaen, ensure that their waste supply flow is increased and received daily to the level that new equipment capacity is at maximal use. If these prove to be viable means to address total city organic waste at significant levels, consider promoting replication. (ii) For Samui household composting, consider promoting replication in other locales. (iii) For Samui hotel compositing, consider means to stimulate the re-initiation of composting post-pandemic among the hotels and to expand to more of Samui’s 600+ tourist accommodations. UNDP may consider promoting the program to international hotel chains with branches on Samui. (iv) Consider supporting additional biogas digesters in NR at schools and hospitals according to interest expressed, as well as possibly municipal waste digesters in other cities if practical per expert advice. (v) For WTE projects, consider involvement carefully as these present special challenges. Consider providing continued advice to cities and private sector owners especially in the case of NR (which is launching procurement for a WTE now) and also KK (which has the negative GHG ER WTE and is planning its next WTE, though that one should be several years down the line). Advice may consider reducing plastic content and insuring waste is not burned without power generation.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed. Waste is always a challenge since it deals with basic needs of city management. However, it can also be a tool if used strategically and properly will also help in addressing other concerns such as energy supply. For example, waste-to-energy to generate electricity and biogas which can be replaced grid-electricity and fuels. Organic waste can be composed to make soil conditioner, fertilizer and animal food which can be used in the households or sell in the market. Recycle waste through 3R can be sources of local income. Plastic waste usage is increasing particularly during the COVID pandemic for hygienic purpose. Separated plastic waste (some type such as PET) can be sold in the recycle markets, used as construction materials (eco-brick and road) and source of fuel in RDF. Reduction in % of plastic waste in the incineration significantly reduces GHG ER from the WTE plant. These waste management techniques help reduce the amount of waste to landfills and hence burden of the Municipality to manage.

Proposed recommendations are accepted. In Samui, secure of waste supply to the learning centers is initiated through deals with convenient stores (Family Mart and 7-Eleven), super stores (e.g., Big C) and coconut vendors. The household composting is replicated in the nearby island and will be promoted in the mainland of Surat Thani province. After the relive of COVID, the hotel association promises to continue to do organic composting in hotels since they see mutual benefits in reduction of waste management cost, environment, and marketing. As for WTE, lessons learned on enhancing efficiency of digester, design of WTE from NR and KK will be served as inputs for the new plants in these two cities to enhance GHG ER and avoid negative GHG ER. 

TGO and UNDP will maintain momentum with the partner municipalities, people, and the private sector to ensure sustainability of climate action in the long-run. In addition, implications of waste management solutions on GHG ER have to be conveyed to wider audience, particularly the designers of the WTE and the policy makers. Replication of success stories will be shared and encouraged in other cities.  UNDP and TGO accepted all specific proposed recommendations for the relevant cities and will continue to dialogue with the Municipality to maintain momentum and sustain activities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Project wrap up and set dialogue on CCM in waste management with the partner cities to encourage continuity of activities and call for a support from the Municipality. i) The 3 learning centers with assistance from the municipality to set a deal with local vendors and the city in securing supply. These vendors are, for examples, the convenient stores, and coconut vendors ii) Promote replication in Pha-Ngan Island and the mainland of Surat Thani province. Get the Smaui Gold Bin group involved. iii) Keep communicating with Samui hotel association on organic waste management to ensure that the activities will be resumed and expand after COVID. Distribute the manual on organic waste management in the hotels through various channels. iv) Organize a session with NR and KK on enhancing efficiency of digester and lessons learned from WTE and (negative) GHG ER as inputs for the design of the new WTE plants in the two cities. TGO will share the lesson learned on negative GHG ER to the other cities. v) Continue working with CP-All on reducing single-use of plastic bags and UNDP Accelerator Lab on plastic waste reduction.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
LCC Team, TGO UNDP CO 2022/07 Initiated Next 2 months for LCC Team; next 6 months for others
14. Recommendation:

Energy end use: Strongly consider opportunities in energy end use for future CCM projects, realizing that sizable GHG ER results can be achieved more quickly and with less complexity than in transport and typically, though not always, more easily than in waste management. Solar PV systems in the northeast seem an area that is just taking off. Private sector initiatives may be stimulated by brief studies and designs showing cost savings. For the public sector, designs of large systems with installation of a small portion as carried out by LCC may be a good model. Cooperation with PV system leasing/ BOT companies may be considered. For building initiatives in general, it may be useful to closely examine the track record of the NR energy audits and determine how many of the actions taken were actually due to the audits. If findings are positive, building energy audits on a larger scale in mid-sized cities might be pursued. Lastly, consider opportunities in promoting low carbon homes, building on the NR Low Carbon Home Guide. Ideas might include programs to promote energy efficient appliances or lighting across certain cities.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed.  There are untapped quick wins and low hanging fruits climate change mitigation available in the energy sector that should be harvested as much as possible to support low carbon initiative in mid-sized cities and NDC implementation of Thailand. Solar PV is promising and can be scaled up in the public and private sector such as Solar Rooftop at the municipality’s own property.  With the BOT business model, the cities can save costs of initial investment and lower financial risk. Low Carbon Home Guide will be further disseminated through TGO Academy.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Project wrap up and set dialogue on CCM in energy end-use with the partner cities. This will demonstrate potential of SV PV, usefulness of energy audit and cost effectiveness of energy efficiency and renewable energy in cities. Disseminate the Low Carbon Home Manual through TGO Academy, UNDP channels and social medias. Continue working with CP-All in expanding solar PV in its businesses such as 7-Eleven and distribution centers.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
LCC Team, TGO UNDP CO 2022/07 Initiated Next 2 months for LCC Team; next 6 months for others
15. Recommendation:

Improve the PPG/ project design process for GEF projects in Thailand. Ensure that interpretation for international consultant is detailed and strong, so that ProDoc reflects the real situation. During design, ensure that baseline project owners are onboard. Develop a relationship with them and confirm that their timelines fit with the project’s. Increase specificity of incremental improvements planned and ensure that GHG ER projections are specific on whether 100% attribution is expected or only incremental attribution. For finance outcomes, ensure the options are well elaborated. Consider separate outcomes for policy work and capacity building if these are included unless they are very closely related to finance.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/09/07]

Agreed. PPG and Project Document should be able to provide a solid background and history of PPG and ProDoc development, clear additionality analysis, a clear implementation map and precise language for project implementation and M&E purposes. Apart from these, all results of the project activities (subsumed co-financed baseline and GEF-funded incremental) have to be documented and properly vetted by the technical staff of the PMO and RTA. UNDP has to be provided all documents related to the project implementation, not only about the resources spent but also the technical results.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP DRR, RTA will ensure that future PPG and ProDoc are designed to reflect real situation with a clear strategy for execution, including M&E.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
PPG team, UNDP Thailand CO, UNDP RTA 2026/12 Initiated History of development, assumptions and key communications with key stakeholders must be documented at the UNDP office or in annex section for MTR and TE.
Keep records of relevant information obtained during project implementation at UNDP share drive, not only admin related but also technical documents for reference and future use.
[Added: 2021/09/07]
PPG team, UNDP Thailand CO, UNDP RTA 2021/10 Initiated All results of the project activities (subsumed co-financed baseline and GEF-funded incremental) have to be documented and properly vetted by the technical staff of the PMO and RTA. UNDP has to be provided all documents related to the project implementation, not only about the resources spent but also the technical results.
Sharing a session on lesson learned from implementation of the LCC project to UNDP CO and TGO.
[Added: 2021/09/07] [Last Updated: 2021/09/16]
The LCC project. 2021/08 Completed It is confirmed that lessons learned was shared and the report is uploaded here. History

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