Évaluation du Projet « Appui au Processus Électoral en Haïti Mis en œuvre par le PNUD

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Haiti
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
01/2018
Completion Date:
02/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
29,798

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Title Évaluation du Projet « Appui au Processus Électoral en Haïti Mis en œuvre par le PNUD
Atlas Project Number: 00076471
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Haiti
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 02/2018
Planned End Date: 01/2018
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Governance
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.2.2 Constitution-making, electoral and parliamentary processes and institutions strengthened to promote inclusion, transparency and accountability
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
SDG Target
  • 16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
  • 5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
Evaluation Budget(US $): 29,798
Source of Funding: Project budget
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 55,330
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: HAITI
Lessons
1.

Highly dedicated and flexible experts can help to ensure that this type of a project is a success even in a volatile context where planning is difficult and deadlines are tight and ever changing.


2.

Importance of stability in partners for a development project.


3.

Need to address the systemic issues that impact the efficacy of electoral assistance and the sustainability of its efforts through the promotion of needed constitutional and legal reforms (as identified by election observers and experts) and to establish permanent institutions. 


4.

Ensuring a realistic timeframe and level of effort in project design and implementation for the scope of activities envisioned under the project.


5.

Addressing problems holistically, such as the development of the candidate registration system, may take more time and effort, but result in more durable and effective institutional solutions than piece meal efforts.


6.

Importance of a regular steering committee mechanism to share information and address the problems inherent in the management of an electoral project.  Technical election administration committees provide ad hoc solutions and are not appropriate structures to deal with project management and implementation issues.


7.

Importance of embedding technical advisors into the EMB to strengthen relationships, provide on the job mentoring, facilitate the transfer of skills, build counterpart capacity and increase national ownership and mutual accountability.  


8.

Ensuring a clear division of responsibilities throughout the electoral processes between United Nations agencies to avoid misunderstandings, reduce friction and duplication of efforts.


9.

Need for adequate PMU staffing relative to the size and complexity of the project and ensuring that PMU staff have the type of contracts that allow them to use UNDP’s financial and administrative systems


Findings
1.

Relevance. The project design was relevant to the 2013 context, GOH and UNDP objectives and included the mechanisms needed to support the administration of elections.  It used an electoral cycle and capacity building approach which are best practices.  It did not address the issue of the reforms needed in the context to stabilize and solidify Haiti’s political and electoral processes and institutions. 

The project remained relevant despite the disruptions in the electoral process but its electoral cycle nature was lost during implementation as it focused mainly on holding the elections.  The issue of “ownership” of election administration, and by extension control over the use of the basket funds, was raised by the 2015 and 2016 CEPs interviewed.  The international community had been active in Haiti for decades, led during the project period by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) which had an electoral mandate since 2004. The 2016 CEP felt it had more ownership once it negotiated with UNDP a split in the responsibilities for the use of the GOH funds intended for election operations, with the majority of GOH funds deposited directly into its account for use under its own workplan.

Relevance was reduced in 2017 as the project did not continue its assistance long enough into the post-electoral period to help consolidate the gains made by the CEP or to support the reform discussions which were just getting underway.     


2.

Effectiveness.  Many factors affected UNDP’s ability to function effectively and shaped the nature of its response. These also directly affected its relevance, efficiency and sustainability aspects. These included: the UN mission context that defined the parameters for UNDP support; UNDP’s long-time relationship and position of trust with the GOH and other actors which provided access and ability to work in the difficult context; the protracted electoral cycle which was continually interrupted by political problems, delayed decisions, and changes in election dates and counterparts; the provisional nature of the CEP and the frequent change of councils that required the continual re-building of relationships and trust; the highly politicized nature of the electoral process and its administration which shaped the perceptions of the Special Representative of the Secretary General (SRSG) and UNDP of where and how it should engage; the lack of a clear division of responsibilities between the MINUSTAH electoral support section (EAS) and the UNDP project; and the nature of the personal relations and communications between the myriad of actors at individual and institutional levels and the project.  Some of these facilitated the efforts while others constrained its actions.

The monitoring and evaluation (M&E) elements of the project were not sufficient to capture project performance beyond the provision of outputs.  However, it appears that the project’s efforts helped the CEPs to better manage their institutions, communicate with stakeholders and the public, and in the end to organize more credible and better accepted elections.  This was done in particular through the interaction of the technical experts and the CEP, support for the development of procedures, regulations and training, and through the provision of appropriate tools and technology. In particular, the support for the registration of candidates, poll workers and poll watchers (mandataires) which standardized the processes and brought the party agent and poll worker systems under better control.   The cloud based system introduced also allowed for late changes to be reflected in the printing of ballots and credentials. 

The project also procured highly securitized ballots for all of the elections which helped to increase trust and deter ballot-related fraud. Capacity building activities needed considerable strengthening.  Support to the ONI was limited but strengthened the ONI’s capacity to register an additional one million persons who would have been otherwise ineligible to vote in the 2015-2017 elections. 


3.

Efficiency. UNDP was directly engaged in the implementation of the project along with the Project Management Unit (PMU).  The DIM mechanism was appropriate in the country context as it provided security for the use of funds for donors, but it also provided the CEP with a sense of ownership over the process once it was able to directly manage a portion of the funds. UNDP was a good steward of the basket fund, saving the funds for election support until the election dates were set and delivering its outputs and commodities in time for each election.  However, project management issues affected its efficiency and increased the management burden for UNDP.  There were not enough PMU staff to manage a project of this size and complexity and not all PMU staff had the type of contracts needed to use UNDP’s computerized administration and financial systems (ATLAS).  Project partners also noted the need for more frequent and open information sharing.  Project management issues, such as payments for temporary workers, were raised in tense CEP technical meetings on election administration rather than being resolved in project or Steering Committee meetings.  This politicized perceptions of the project and UNDP.  Partnerships with other agencies, such as UN Women and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to deliver parts of the participation and gender equity components, would have increased efficiency had they been part of the original design (so were more integral elements of the project) and been funded earlier in the cycle.   


4.

Sustainability. This remains a critical issue given the lack of a permanent CEP, needed electoral reforms and electoral/political stability.  There is the beginning of consolidation of the CEP as an institution and foundations to build on.  The level of GOH commitment and funding increased after the 2015 problems which are preconditions for the sustainability of the gains made in the 2016-2017 process.  The databases, systems, and manuals are expected to remain for the near to medium term even if councils change as they were proven to have been effective and were appreciated by the CEP staff and electoral participants.  The cost of the elections remains a concern and requires analysis at the policy and technical levels in the near term for Haiti to be able to develop an electoral system and process that it can afford and sustain. 


Recommendations
1

Continued support to strengthen the electoral processes in Haiti through immediate support for the reform process, to consolidate the gains made, and to develop a longer-term follow-on electoral cycle project.

2

Raise goals beyond electoral administration to developing sustainable and stable electoral and democratic political processes and institutions and ensuring they address key issues such as EMB independence, accountability of actors, electoral justice, inclusive participation, civic education and the cost of elections

3

Link policy dialogue and advocacy efforts for electoral reforms to the objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals and the national discussions on how to achieve these goals. In particular for SDGs 5 and 16

4

Adopt a programmatic approach for project implementation and ensure synergies of efforts to increase project effectiveness and efficiencies with other efforts that cover the broader spectrum of democratic governance

5

Continued use of a common basket fund to fund essential items not covered by the GOH but ensure a clear distinction between development activities and budget support. Increase national ownership through continued transfer of funds to GOH agencies receiving budget support while strengthening their capacity to manage the funds.

6

Build on the efforts to develop the cloud-based data systems and consider how interactive e-governance systems could further improve voter registration and the electoral administration processes

7

Resume UNDP's donor coordination role at the end of MINUSTAH and hold regular donor coordination and project steering committee meetings. Increase sharing of information between meetings and reporting. Strengthen project management and M&E efforts.

8

Ensure future capacity building efforts are based on participatory needs assessments and address the cost of elections issue by undertaking a comprehensive assessment of all costs to better understand the situation and to identify the systemic and technical changes needed to make the electoral processes more effective and affordable for Haiti.

1. Recommendation:

Continued support to strengthen the electoral processes in Haiti through immediate support for the reform process, to consolidate the gains made, and to develop a longer-term follow-on electoral cycle project.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - Technical support provided by UNDP on electoral reform in the during the period between elections  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Expertise provided to the CEP to draft the electoral law, associated key texts and related advocacy
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2018/12 Completed
1.2 Develop a new electoral support project focused on the electoral cycle
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2018/12 Completed
2. Recommendation:

Raise goals beyond electoral administration to developing sustainable and stable electoral and democratic political processes and institutions and ensuring they address key issues such as EMB independence, accountability of actors, electoral justice, inclusive participation, civic education and the cost of elections

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - Ensure strategic orientation of all electoral support via UNDP Haiti projects to ensure coherence with broader democratic political processes

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. Develop a new electoral support project focused on the electoral cycle, supporting electoral justice, inclusive participation and civic education
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2018/12 Completed The work planned in the context of UNDP’s support to elections is also dependent on the political climate, which has not been very favorable for broader reforms and dialogue (such as constitutional reform ).
2.2 Expertise provided to the CEP to draft the electoral law, including in the areas of electoral justice and inclusive participation
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2018/12 Completed
2.3. Engage in a review of the cost of elections with the aim of supporting national partners in rationalizing resources and advocating for a more coherent electoral process.
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2020/06 Overdue-Not Initiated UNDP will support the analysis of expenses of the past electoral projects and alternative on how to reduces costs. A workshop will be organize with the CEP on how to reduce costs. History
3. Recommendation:

Link policy dialogue and advocacy efforts for electoral reforms to the objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals and the national discussions on how to achieve these goals. In particular for SDGs 5 and 16

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - Ensure a coherent and comprehensive UINDP Haiti approach to supporting national efforts for the achievement of the SDGs, particularly SDGs 5 and 16

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 Provide substantive input to UNDP Haiti’s strategy on support to SDG implementation with regard to electoral reform
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2020/06 Overdue-Initiated UNDP organized (in partnership with the MPCE) a workshop in the frame of the International Human Rights Day (10 December) on the implementation of Agenda 2020, particularly on the SDG16 on the theme of participatory democracy and sustainable development. Another event is planned for mid 2020 on the theme of citizen participation in public affairs History
4. Recommendation:

Adopt a programmatic approach for project implementation and ensure synergies of efforts to increase project effectiveness and efficiencies with other efforts that cover the broader spectrum of democratic governance

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - Apply UNDP quality assurance guidance to the development and implementation of all support to the electoral cycle

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 Develop a new electoral support project focused on the electoral cycle, supporting electoral justice, inclusive participation and civic education
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2018/12 Completed
4.2 Hold planning and coordination discussions with other projects in the Governance portfolio in order to increase effectiveness, efficiency and synergies in the area of democratic governance.
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated The Governance and Rule of Law Unit has initiated an internal diagnosis/analysis (via the external expertise of a consultant) in order to strengthen the programmatic links between the Unit's 4 pillars, particularly on aspects related to democratic governance. The results of this study were presented on December 12. A programmatic retreat is planned for the first quarter of 2020 History
5. Recommendation:

Continued use of a common basket fund to fund essential items not covered by the GOH but ensure a clear distinction between development activities and budget support. Increase national ownership through continued transfer of funds to GOH agencies receiving budget support while strengthening their capacity to manage the funds.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - To the extent possible capitalize on the lessons learned from previous basket funds and continue efforts to rely increasingly on national systems for implementation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 Advocate with the Government and donors for the use of a basket fund approach
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/11/30]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; Senior Management 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated The political context and lack of donor appetite for elections renders the advocacy very challenging History History
5.2 Conduct a HACT micro-evaluation of the CEP
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; 2018/12 Completed
5.3 Develop a new electoral support project which includes technical support to planning and budgeting capacities of the CEP
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; 2018/12 Completed
6. Recommendation:

Build on the efforts to develop the cloud-based data systems and consider how interactive e-governance systems could further improve voter registration and the electoral administration processes

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - To the extent possible, provide the EMB with appropriate and quality information technology guidance

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1 Develop a new electoral support project which includes technical support to the further development cloud-based data systems
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; 2018/12 Completed
6.2 Provide early and ongoing support to the CEP in the area of Information Technology in preparation for and during the elections
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/11/30]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; 2020/06 Overdue-Initiated An IT expert was deployed between August and September 2019; a second IT expert is already recruited for 4 months initially from December 2019 History
7. Recommendation:

Resume UNDP's donor coordination role at the end of MINUSTAH and hold regular donor coordination and project steering committee meetings. Increase sharing of information between meetings and reporting. Strengthen project management and M&E efforts.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - Provide leadership and support all efforts towards coordinated and coherent support to all relevant parties involved in the electoral process

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1 Establish a regular calendar for coordination meetings among technical and financial partners
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/11/30]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; Senior Management 2018/07 Completed Coordination meetings with partners of the electoral process have been organized regularly by UNDP since March 2018 History
7.2 Establish a regular calendar for project steering committee meetings
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/11/30]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; Senior Management 2020/06 Overdue-Initiated The new PRODOC provides for regular Steering Committee meetings to take place from the start of the project. Once the prodoc is signed, meetings will take place History
7.3 Ensure appropriate M&E and reporting capacities are recruited for the electoral support project
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/11/30]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law; 2020/06 Overdue-Initiated This has been taken into account in the new PRODOC and a staff will be appointed responsible for M & E and reporting in the next project History
8. Recommendation:

Ensure future capacity building efforts are based on participatory needs assessments and address the cost of elections issue by undertaking a comprehensive assessment of all costs to better understand the situation and to identify the systemic and technical changes needed to make the electoral processes more effective and affordable for Haiti.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2018/12/31]

Recommandation Accepted - Apply good practices and standards for participatory planning with the aim of rationalizing financial and technical support to the Government of Haiti

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1 Develop a new electoral support project together with the CEP
[Added: 2018/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2018/07 Completed
8.2 Engage in a review of the cost of elections with the aim of supporting national partners in rationalizing resources and advocating for a more coherent electoral process.
[Added: 2018/12/14] [Last Updated: 2019/12/14]
UNDP Haiti Governance and Rule of Law 2020/06 Overdue-Not Initiated UNDP will support the analysis of expenses of the past electoral projects and alternative on how to reduce costs. A workshop will be organizing with the CEP on how to reduce costs History

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