Local Climate Adaptive Living Facility

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2017, UNCDF
Evaluation Type:
Others
Planned End Date:
01/2017
Completion Date:
03/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
103,376

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Title Local Climate Adaptive Living Facility
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2017, UNCDF
Evaluation Type: Others
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 03/2018
Planned End Date: 01/2017
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
Evaluation Budget(US $): 103,376
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 103,376
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Alain Lafontaine Team Leader
Bishwa Paudyal Team Member
Jacquelin Ligot,Jon Garcia Team Member,Team Member ,
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: GLOBAL
Lessons
Findings
1.

1. Relevance

The relevance of LoCAL was assessed according to several dimensions including alignment of the programme with global, national and local priorities for development, CCA and decentralization. In addition, the relevance was considered within the context of the additionality brought in by LoCAL, the relevance of the programme design in connection to the programme objectives, the type of support to the programme by other organizations and the linkages with cross-cutting issues such as gender and vulnerable groups. Overall, the evaluation has found LoCAL relevant as a stand-alone programme working directly with local governments in implementing performance-based climate-resilient grants.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Relevance Local Governance

2.

1.1. Relevance to the international and national development, CCA and decentralization agendas

The evaluation team concluded that the programme was relevant to international and national priorities. This was concluded by assessing two dimensions.

Alignment at the international level. LoCAL is well aligned with United Nations and global development, decentralization and climate change adaptation priorities with room for expansion on urban and coastal areas. The review shows that LoCAL design is relevant to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7 (environmental sustainability), directly, and to MDG 1 (eradicate extreme poverty and hunger), indirectly, as well as to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 13 (climate action), and indirectly to SDGs 1 (no poverty), 2 (zero hunger), 5 (gender equality), 6 (clean water and sanitation), 7 (affordable and clean energy), 9 (industry, innovation and infrastructure) and 17 (partnerships for the goals). Furthermore, LoCAL priorities are in tune with current global climate change priorities as set in the Paris Agreement, the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and international climate change funds such as the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility, in terms of focusing on adaptation, LDCs and local governments. In addition, the present evaluation concludes that LoCAL is aligned with current global decentralisation priorities, as identified by the Development Partners Network on Decentralisation and Local Governance, in terms of building on existing institutional arrangements, fiscal transfer systems and local governments’ capacities to channel development finance at the local level, and seeking to involve national and local governments, communities and the private sector. However, recognizing that priorities are agreed with participating countries, and that financial transfers to most cities might require a different financial mechanism, desk review suggests that LoCAL could further strengthen this alignment by also addressing crucial development, decentralisation and adaptation aspects related to urban areas, since these are some of the most vulnerable areas in many of the LDCs. While LoCAL covers coastal areas to some extent (i.e. working in Tuvalu and with some work in coastal areas in Ghana), there is also room for expansion in this front. Furthermore, alignment with global priorities could be strengthened by further engaging the private sector as part of the adaptation measures. Expanding on these aspects may require adjustments that programme management is now wisely considering.


Tag: Global Environment Facility fund Global Fund Local Governance Human and Financial resources SDG Integration

3.

Alignment at the national level. At the country level, the evaluation found that LoCAL is congruous with national development, decentralization and climate change adaptation priorities, as determined from desk reviews of relevant documents (laws, policies, strategies and plans) and interviews at national and subnational levels. While LoCAL excludes important national adaptation priorities, such as those related to urban areas, and in some countries overlooks the importance of coastal areas, documents and interviews indicate that the programme’s adaptation priorities, such as agriculture (including irrigation), water and sanitation and transport infrastructure, are key national adaptation priorities. On the other hand, the selection of LoCAL countries was more opportunistic than strategic from the point of view of vulnerability to CC (while all LDCs are vulnerable to CC, the degree of vulnerability does not seem to have been a critical criterion– the description of each criterion does not draw a clear threshold for accepting or rejecting a country), and it was primarily based on countries where UNCDF was already active in the field of fiscal decentralization. Indeed, UNCDF is working on several programmes in almost all of the countries where LoCAL is being implemented. The only countries where LoCAL seems to be the only ongoing UNCDF programme are Bhutan and Tuvalu, while Ghana is the only country where LoCAL is the only programme from the Local Development Finance channel. UNCDF has been active in most of these countries for decades. However, all participating countries respond to the programme’s country eligibility criteria.


Tag: Agriculture Water resources Local Governance Sanitation Project and Programme management Vulnerable

4.

1.2. Accessing CCA finance for LDCs and local governments

CCA financial support to LDCs and particularly local governments. LoCAL’s efforts to improve the access of LCCs and local governments to CCA finance are relevant. CCA finance accessible to local governments in LDCs and LoCAL participating countries is limited. Documentation review and interviews demonstrate a considerable amount of resources flows to LDCs and LoCAL participating countries for CCA. According to the Climate Funds Update (CFU), USD 1,122 m has been channelled to these countries in the period 2013-2017 through multilateral public finance alone. However, international and national documents, including the NDCs, and interviewees point out that availability of finance, external and domestic, for adaptation, in general, and for LDCs in particular, is still a challenge in view of significant needs. According to UN Environment’s 2016 Adaptation Gap Report (p. xiv), which focuses on the financial gap, current adaptation costs are likely to be at least 2 to3 times higher than international public finance for adaptation. Information on LoCAL countries confirms this. For instance in Niger 79% of the financial resources needed to implement the adaptation actions included in the INDC are not available – in part due to the security focused investment situation in the country, but above all to the significant needs when compared to the resources available to the country more generally. International adaptation funding has concentrated on infrastructure and agriculture.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Relevance Least Developed Countries Fund Local Governance Human and Financial resources

5.

1.3 Additionality of the approach brought by LoCAL

So far, LoCAL has added value to climate change adaptation programmes in terms of mechanisms and processes used for financial flows, but there is room for improvement in contributing substantively to the mainstreaming of climate change concerns in decentralisation programmes. Desk review and interviews with development partners and programme staff at the global level indicate that, while not being the only global programme on climate change adaptation to work directly with local governments in LDCs (among others, UNDP, UN Environment and UN-HABITAT also work on this front), LoCAL is one of the first climate change adaptation programmes to go beyond climate change capacity building and planning and transfer resources to these governments through national systems for them to execute and invest in specific adaptation measures. It is also one of the first climate change adaptation programmes to use a performance-based grant system and proving the effectiveness of decentralized management processes, as well as having a relatively robust maturity model, as discussed below. Desk review, interviews at the global and country level and field visits suggest that LoCAL’s added value to the actual mainstreaming of climate issues in decentralisation programmes is less prominent. Although climate change is absent in most of the other decentralisation programmes, these sources indicate that the climate change content of LoCAL is still in its infancy and being nurtured in some participating countries, building on their limited and varying capacity to tackle these issues to start with. While concerns in this regard are less prominent in Cambodia and Bhutan, in Niger the climate change component is not that clear. Indeed, collected evidence suggests that LoCAL investments are not significantly different from those of programmes focusing on decentralisation and general rural development. Desk review and interviews at the programme level show that the programme is making efforts to strengthen this aspect as it moves along, as discussed in the efficiency section.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Relevance Local Governance Project and Programme management

6.

1.4. Relevance of the program design to its objectives

Alignment with UNCDF priorities and agenda at the global level. A desk review of LoCAL objectives and approaches against UNCDF’s priorities and agenda at the global level shows that LoCAL is very well aligned, in terms of geographical focus, top-up and phasing approaches, and tools, especially with the Local Development Finance channel.


Tag: Relevance Programme/Project Design

7.

The three phase approach. LoCAL is operationalized in three phases: piloting, learning, and scaling up which provides a more sustainable approach than other international programmes, and adds value in this regard.However, desk review and interviews with programme staff at the global and country levels point out that, while it has proved the approach is convenient, implementation of the programme presents significant challenges. On the one hand, some aspects have proved too vague. Addressed in the new designs, the lack of definition of “appropriate tier” – no indication of what appropriateness means– has demonstrated to be problematic in the allocation of funds in countries such as Bhutan and in monitoring, reporting and evaluation globally. In addition, specific minimum and maximum thresholds regarding proportion of investment grant versus local government budget and management is not provided in the programme document, which could be helpful to deal with pressure from some participating countries to extend it to new local governments with limited resources. On the other hand, some other aspects seemed too rigid in early implementation. Interviews at the global and country level reveal that the number of local governments to be covered in phase 2 and the timing might not have been realistic in all, if not most cases given the capacity and resources available. To its credit, the programme has recently integrated the learning on this front and now refers to 5-10 local governments and not 5-10% of local governments.


Tag: Relevance Human and Financial resources Monitoring and Evaluation

8.

Coherence of the program activities with outputs and outcomes. Necessary efforts are ongoing to improve the coherence of programme activities, outcomes, outputs. Although the programme document provides a logic model it does not provide a theory of change to underpin the programme’s strategy towards a clear vision. This limited strategic vision is visible in the logic model, with the stated outcome acting in reality as an output and being redundant with output 3, which in turns mostly reads like an input. As pointed out by WRI, outcomes and outputs are “narrowly - and oddly - focused on the underlying strategy of increasing finance for CCA as an end in and of itself, rather than towards the stated goal of ‘climate resilient communities and economies’”. In this sense, documentation review and interviews indicate that the programme could have strengthened output 1 on climate change adaptation mainstreaming, ensuring climate change additionality.


Tag: Theory of Change Coherence Relevance

9.

1.5. Support to programme objectives by partners

Mechanisms included in the programme design to engage different partners. The Programme design included a diverse range of mechanisms to engage partners. The programme document indicates that the programme would involve several UN agencies, national and local governments, communities and the private sector. At country level development partners would also be involved. In addition, LoCAL would link with other UNCDF programmes. Besides, technical partnerships would be established with some institutions in order to provide confidence to sources of climate finance that the LoCAL window will lead to effective and efficient resilience and leverage funds. Nevertheless, some important players, such as UN-HABITAT and decentralized cooperation, are not clearly considered in the programme
document.


Tag: Local Governance Partnership UN Agencies Private Sector

10.

Level of support to programme objectives by partners. Desk review and interviews reveal that, while LoCAL uses a diverse range of mechanisms to engage partners and has built a fair amount of support in view of what was originally planned, there is significant room for improvement at different levels, as discussed below:

International: Desk review shows that the programme has mobilised significant financial support from development partners. According to the 2016 Global Annual Report (p. 19), by the end of 2016, LoCAL had mobilized about USD 35 m. So far most of this has been provided by bilateral centralized partners, with limited mobilization from multilateral sources, except the EU. Documentation review also demonstrates that LoCAL has mobilized technical support from development partners at the global level, although results of these partnerships are not yet available. In particular, KEI is supporting participating countries in developing science-based climate change frameworks, starting with Bhutan and Cambodia, while WRI is developing a climate change resilience monitoring and evaluation
framework. Besides, the Hague Academy will contribute to capacity building. Interviews evidence that complementarities have been established also in some countries (i.e. with UNDP/UNEP PEI in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Mali and Nepal and IIED in Tanzania), with room for further coordination with internationally funded complementary programmes and projects in all countries (e.g. IFAD in Cambodia, WB in Niger). Interviews with programme staff at the global level indicate that more recently LoCAL has been making efforts to mobilized resources from international climate change funds, particularly the GCF, multilateral organisations, especially regional banks, and multi-donor funds. The same sources point out that the programme has started recently to try to link to other UNCDF programmes, regarding
the private sector (LFI), CleanStart and Youthstart.


Tag: Multi Donor Trust Funds Resource mobilization Partnership Bilateral partners

11.

National: Interviews and observation indicate that participating governments play a key role in the strategic management of the programme, as members of the Board. Desk review and interviews at country level show that in all participating countries national governments play a crucial role in the implementation of the programme, as its day-to-day management is integrated into the government systems, which implies significant in-kind contribution in terms of staff, equipment and vehicles. Desk review demonstrates that some participating countries have also provided direct financial contributions. At least USD 1,100,000 have been mobilized for the programme through national contributions. While the programme seems to be successful in engaging the national designated authority or the national implementing entity, typically the one in charge of decentralisation, different sources suggests that, although some coordination seems to be in place, in some countries LoCAL has been less successful in involving other national stakeholders, such as the ministries of finance and environment, as well as line ministries such as agriculture and rural development. In these countries this compromises the technical quality of the programme in the short term and its sustainability in the medium term.


Tag: Local Governance Human and Financial resources Partnership Project and Programme management Country Government

12.

Sub-national: Desk review and interviews at country level show that local governments are providing in- kind co-financing in terms of support of government staff at provincial/district and county/commune level to carry out all activities on the ground. Typically, regional or district governments are in charge of monitoring and county/commune governments in charge of selecting activities, receiving the funding and managing the investment process.


Tag: Local Governance Human and Financial resources

13.

Co-financing at the sub-project level: Documentation review indicates that, by June 2017, co-financing at the sub-project level had taken place in six or 60% of the participating countries. With the exception of Ghana, co-financing didn’t exist in any of the participating African countries, while this existed in all participating Asian countries, although here it is not constant. Documentation review reveals that there is no clear pattern in terms of source, overall percentage and percentage per measure, general coverage and coverage by type of investment across countries providing co-financing at this level. It is worth noting that while the idea is that LoCAL would cover the additional cost of climate-proofing the infrastructure while participating countries, ideally with the involvement of local governments, would cover the normal non-climate related cost, existing evidence suggests that a specific analysis and budgeting of climate proofing a particular infrastructure is not always conducted as part of the LoCAL process.


Tag: Local Governance Human and Financial resources

14.

Community: Focus group discussions indicate that, in Cambodia and Niger, some communities have also provided in-cash co-financing. These discussions also point out that user groups have been created in some cases and make financial contributions to maintain the investments. For instance, in Bhutan, communities conducted most construction works and provide free labour in some cases.


Tag: Micro-credit Civil Societies and NGOs

15.

Private sector: The programme document shows that the engagement of the private sector was an important element of LoCAL. However, desk review and interviews at country level reveal that this stakeholder has typically only been involved as contractors for constructing infrastructure in some
countries so far. Interviews with UNCDF point out that programme management is currently conducting efforts to address this, strengthening coordination with the rest of the Local Development Finance Practice portfolio and developing concept notes. In particular, two concept notes are being developed for Tanzania, one for Cambodia and one for Ghana. New designs in a number of African countries (Ghana, Niger, Mali and Burkina) also seek to engage the private sector. While these seem to be conscious of the challenges of LoCAL in this regard, desk review, interviews at country level and observation in the field suggest that engaging the private sector would likely require adjustments in the approach of the programme in terms of geographic focus, integrated approaches and complementarities with other programmes, given that limited size, spread and nature of interventions do not provide an incentive for traditional private sector investments under the programme, especially in the least developed LDCs of West Africa, such as Niger.


Tag: Challenges Least Developed Countries Fund Partnership Private Sector

16.

1.6. Linkages with cross cutting issues
The evaluation concluded that cross-cutting issues such as gender equality and vulnerable communities are not adequately considered in the programme document. Programme management is taking actions to address this in some countries. This was concluded by assessing two dimensions.

Gender. Gender equality is not adequately considered in the context assessment, the objectives, activities and the M&E framework of LoCAL. As noted above, the programme document includes a gender strategy claiming that LoCAL’s approach “is by design gender-sensitive”. However, this strategy seems a bit too optimistic, given that strengthening the planning and budgeting process for CCA at local level does not necessarily result in gender-sensitivity, as this depends on the gender structures at local level. Furthermore, documentation review shows that data on gender was not routinely collected. The latest aggregated sub-project information made available to the evaluation team provides incomplete disaggregated information on gender only for two of the ten participating countries. Desk review,
interviews with development partners and national and sub-national partners, and focus group discussions point out that in the field the contribution of LoCAL to gender equality was mixed. In Cambodia and Bhutan desk review and interviews suggest that women have been involved in a substantive manner in all project processes and activities, but, except in Mali, in West African countries desk review and interviews suggest that the participation of women in awareness raising and capacity building activities has been limited. Although existing information is not conclusive on the contribution of LoCAL investments in infrastructure to gender equality, this suggests that some of them could have inadvertently contributed to this. Interviews with UNCDF suggest that programme management is
taking actions to address this in Cambodia and Bangladesh and Mali where a gender expert was recruited to inform phase II.


Tag: Relevance Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Capacity Building

17.

Extent to which the programme is taking vulnerable communities into account

While vulnerable communities are not adequately considered in the programme document, implementation seems to benefit them considerably. The project document states that LoCAL focuses on the interests and needs of communities. However, a clear strategy on this seems to be absent. Interviews at country level and observation show that in the field the types of communities where LoCAL is typically active are by nature formed of largely vulnerable populations. Nevertheless, documentation review indicates that the programme could do a much better job at documenting the vulnerability of its beneficiaries in a systematic way – information is only available for one country and one year.


Tag: Vulnerable

18.

Other aspects
While the programme does not directly focus on disaster risk reduction and recovery, the process of mainstreaming climate change adaptation and the specific investments it supports contribute to reducing the vulnerability of targeted populations to extreme weather events related to climate variability and change. Overall the programme takes into account the poverty-environment nexus, directly linking with the Poverty-Environment Initiative implemented by UNDP and UN Environment in some countries. Efforts to increase resilience include the promotion of sustainable and resilient livelihoods, given that many investments are related to agricultural production (for details see section 4 on likely impacts). Although the programme doesn’t focus on security issues, it is working in some countries with security tension, such as Mali and Niger.


Tag: Disaster Recovery Disaster Risk Reduction Resilience building

19.

2.0 Efficiency

This section describes programme deliverables and the extent to which the programme is appropriately managed and overseen. In particular, there are three aspects of efficiency that are assessed: the quality of the programme management, programme delivery and the quality, including the usefulness, of the program`s monitoring and evaluation system. The evaluation has found LoCAL to be generally efficient in its management and approach. Regarding targets, as illustrated in table 2, to a great extent, LoCAL has met a number of its key targets for 2016. The RRF establishes 16 targets, 4 of which refer to project management. Of the remaining 12, it is possible to assess the performance on 6. Of these, LoCAL has met 5, namely the number of participating countries and local governments, the percentage of
participating countries using PBCRG systems, the percentage of implemented activities and the establishment of a LoCAL Forum. The project has not met the target regarding the percentage change in climate finance at the local level from the private sector. There is no target, baseline or clear information on performance for the other monitoring and evaluation indicators. The targets on project management have been overall met.


Tag: Climate finance Efficiency Oversight Project and Programme management Results-Based Management

20.

2.1 Quality of programme management

Programme management quality is generally good with room for improvement. The programme management mandate and roles are well aligned with the needs of the programme. Direct observation, desk review and country visits indicate that these have essentially been implemented as proposed in programme design. Data confirms that the Project Board - which is comprised of UNDCF, representatives of the governments that have signed the LoCAL MoU and joined the programme and
senior suppliers (donors) - acts as the overarching project body for the management and implementation of the programme at the global level. Data also confirms that LoCAL is implemented through Memorandum of Understanding (MoUs) and Letters of Agreement (LoAs) with participating governments at the country level.

The actual programme management costs represented 15% of all costs in the 2014-16 period (the planned percentage was 14%). The percentage of the budget allocated to programme management decreased steadily in the period, from around 25% in 2014 to 6% in 2016. While it was mostly spent in 2014 and 2015, only 80% of the resources planned for programme management were actually spent in 2016. The management cost of LoCAL is substantially lower than other global programs that manage small grants programs, as national and local authorities perform part of the management functions, thus reducing the transaction cost in general. Some examples for comparison include: the Small Grant Programme (SGP) supported by the GEF and managed by UNDP which has a management cost of 31%;
the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund (CEPF), with a management cost of 25%; and the Small Initiatives Programme supported by the French Global Environment Fund (FGEF), with a management cost of 18-21% 11 . It should be noted that the various funds just mentioned have somewhat of a different approach, as they work through NGOs while LoCAL works with and through governments ´ systems, and has therefore significant support from national staff, which is expected to reduce management costs. That being said, the management of small scale investments at the local level through a global programme nevertheless is typically more management intensive as it entails additional costs to reach the lower tier and build the associated capacity. However, the 2016 management cost ratio may need to
be maintained as a benchmark to mobilize resources from international funds, such as the GCF, at least in countries where the programme is reaching phase III 12 and associated economies of scale.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Project and Programme management Civil Societies and NGOs

21.

Given that by its very nature, LoCAL follows national processes for funding approvals and disbursements, transfers from UNCDF to the national system are not seen as a source of delays or complaints, but in most countries national processes tend to take long. For instance, in Cambodia the transfer from the national government to local governments has to follow 14 steps. In addition, local public procurement processes tend to be long. For example, in Benin contracting at local level can take 3-4 months.

There are no significant bottlenecks at the strategic level. Indeed, at the global level the functioning of the Programme Board has not only contributed to the expansion of the programme, but has turned it into an opportunity for south-south exchange on local government-led climate change adaptation. Data collected shows that Programme Steering Committees are also working well at the national level.


Tag: Efficiency Local Governance Knowledge management Procurement Project and Programme management Country Government

22.

UNCDF assistance at country level is affected by the availability of human resources. In Niger, the UNCDF’s focal point’s involvement in the programme seems to be limited. In some countries, like Bhutan, UNCDF does not have full-time technical staff. In this case, as well as in Cambodia, where the technical capacity of the UNCDF staff is limited, the programme relies on a small number of highly technical consultants, which while in principle external, are hired on a very regular basis to deploy
fundamental aspects of the programme. Although long term agreements with consultants help and have some advantages, this structure has some limits. It can sometimes compromise the independence of consultants, which is crucial for certain tasks, such as evaluations. It also limits knowledge transfer
through the programme. Furthermore, it does not strengthen regular and formal channels of communication between the programme at the global level and the national partners at the country level: information flows through a consultant regularly hired by UNCDF, but who is not formally UNCDF staff and is not permanently working on LoCAL. In Bhutan, for instance, interviews with national stakeholders reveal that there is room to improve communication, especially regarding global processes that affect the country.


Tag: Efficiency Communication Human and Financial resources Project and Programme management Technical Support

23.

In addition, the planning timeframe constitutes an administrative bottleneck for a number of countries. While for UNCDF the fiscal year follows the calendar year, in Cambodia it is from April to March and in Bhutan and Niger, from July to June. Interviews indicate this is also an issue in Bangladesh. This planning  framework mismatch is a problem given that, since governments cannot carry over resources from one fiscal year to another, these have to be spent in a very short timeframe. In some cases, resources cannot even be spent in the same fiscal year. This is in any case not a specific feature of LoCAL, but a common bottleneck in development programs working through national fiscal systems. Nevertheless, the combination of this mismatch, the lengthy transfer and procurement processes within countries mentioned above and some external factors, such as monsoons in South East Asia, have resulted in delays in some cases, like in Cambodia. In Mozambique delays have taken place due to poor design of investments.

Despite these issues, national and local partners are overall satisfied with management. This is perhaps best depicted by the words of an interviewee who stressed the fact that, unlike other programmes, LoCAL relies on national institutions, strengthening the capacities of national stakeholders.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Procurement Project and Programme management

24.

2.2. Programme delivery

As shown in Table 5, LoCAL has reached its targets in terms of number of participating countries, as it is now being implemented in 12 countries across Africa, Asia and the Pacific. Eight countries are in Phase 1, three in Phase 2, and one in Phase 3. While it is highly unlikely that it will be able to involve all 48 LDCs and bring them to Phase III 14 , the target of 16 countries set in the Resources and Results Framework seems realistic.

The programme has surpassed its targets in terms of participating local governments, and use and integration of the PBCRG system: 64 local governments are participating and using the PBCRG system, and 72% of these have integrated the PBCRG system in their inter-governmental fiscal transfer system. This is well above the target of 36 local governments and 45% rate of integration of the PBCRG.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Service delivery

25.

2.3. Programme ´s monitoring systems

At the global level LoCAL has a well-conceived M&E strategy that includes a description of roles and responsibilities, a work plan and reporting requirements, but does not include a clear resource allocation for this M&E function. The situation at the national level is less satisfactory: although programme documents in some countries include an M&E strategy, they have some shortcomings, including non- specific requirements, absence of an M&E budget and unclear responsibilities.

The Results and Resources Framework (RRF) included in the programme document shows clear room for improvement at both outcome and output level. At outcome level the programme document proposes four indicators, but provides only three targets, no baselines, one of the targets is not measurable, and the other two are not very clear. Furthermore, means of verification are not provided. At output level, while some of them lack some level of precision, indicators are overall adequate. However, clear baseline information is only provided for 2 of the 12 indicators. Targets are provided for 9 of the 12 indicators, but lack precision overall to allow proper tracking and measurement. Furthermore, as highlighted in section 1.2, the logic model is not well designed. As noted in that section, at the strategic level, the logframe is presented more as a local government capacity programme rather than an adaptation programme.


Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Results-Based Management

26.

Currently LoCAL does not have a systematic approach to data collection, management, or analysis. At the global level, there seems to be a gap in record keeping and knowledge management, with no essential repository of key documents. Typically, overall programme information is compiled into two central spreadsheets, but, at the time of this evaluation, no consolidated information was available at the global level in that document. Moreover, limited information is provided on results/impacts of the investments to assess and help reflect on the resilience impacts of the investments in particular. Furthermore, data is often incomplete and unclear and/or inconsistent at country level. While the global annual reports fill some of the gaps, they focus on annual achievements and don’t provide a comprehensive picture of overall achievements. Financial information is also unclear.

 


Tag: Efficiency Monitoring and Evaluation Data and Statistics

27.

Although this evaluation is the first to be conducted at the global level, WRI conducted a relevant assessment at the global level in 2015-2016. At the country level, the proportion of reports with lessons learned and recommendations with respect to LoCAL results remains below expectation. Evidence suggests that reporting is not conducted timely and is consistently incomplete.

Information is also unclear or inconsistent in important aspects. For instance, in Bhutan investments done during the first phase in several counties were considered as one investment if executed by the district, but the same investments would be considered as several ones if executed by the county. Perhaps more importantly the annual reports 2015 and 2016 do not systematically provide consolidated information and are not aligned with the consolidated table in issues as fundamental as number of investments and executed funds. There is a particular gap on financial information. Evaluations have been conducted in 2 of 4 phases in Cambodia and Bhutan, but independence was not ensured in all cases. Case studies have also been developed, for example on processes and tools to scale up the LoCAL mechanism in Cambodia.


Tag: Efficiency Monitoring and Evaluation Quality Assurance

28.

The PBCRG system is based on three interlinked elements: the minimum conditions (MCs), the investment menu (IM) and the annual performance assessment (APA). The basic logic is that local governments must meet MCs to participate; adaptation measures must fall within the scope of the IM, which are drawn from CVA; and grant allocation is based on the performance, so that a bonus of additional funds is extended to good performers. Collected evidence suggests that there is substantive variation from country to country, and even within countries at different periods, in these three elements.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate finance Efficiency Human and Financial resources Monitoring and Evaluation

29.

Collected evidence also shows indicators not being sensitive enough to track change over time. In Cambodia the 2012, 2013 and 2015 PM’s were of limited relevance, with many indicators far from being sensitive enough to track change over time. The subjectivity of scores is also questioned. In Niger, for instance, ratings seem to be unreasonably high. Besides, changes in the PM have been common. Although it is certainly good to improve them, and some adjustments are reasonable in the pilot phase, it makes it difficult to assess the extent to which performance has improved overtime. While standardization methods can be applied, and have actually been applied for allocating grants, these are complex and compromise one of the key virtues of the APAs: that implementers can understand their progress and how this affects the resources they are allocated.


Tag: Efficiency Monitoring and Evaluation

30.

3.0 Effectiveness

LoCAL is also overall an effective programme at this stage of implementation on the basis of the data available. The programme has contributed to changes in capacity of national and local governments to plan, budget and manage climate-adaptive investments across the countries in which it is operating. Regarding local governments, this section examines changes in four aspects: in the level of appreciation of local government representatives of the importance of implementing CCA actions, the availability of climate change vulnerability assessments, the number of local development plans that explicitly include climate change adaptation and the number and value of investments with CCA components implemented. The likely impacts section assesses the achievement of output 3, related to the amount of finance available to local governments for climate change adaptation and resilience, with the relevance section covering the targets in output 1 related to the private sector. The efficiency section assesses the achievement of the targets of output 1 and output 4 as well as an output 2 target.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Effectiveness Local Governance Human and Financial resources

31.

3.1 Contribution to changes in capacity in targeted countries

At the national level, LoCAL has contributed to raise awareness of the importance of adaptation at the local level and through local governments. The selection of the national institutions in charge of decentralisation as the institutions to be accredited to the GCF is evidence to this effect. LoCAL has also contributed to strengthening the management and specific climate change adaptation-related knowledge and skills. In Bhutan national institutions indicate that the programme has helped them think along the lines needed to get CCA funding from development partners, and to meet their specific conditions, which are quite demanding in some cases, such as with the EU. However, as noted in the relevance section, while the programme seems to be successful in engaging the national implementing entity, typically the one in charge of decentralisation, in some countries there is room for further engaging the ministries of environment, finance and agriculture to increase awareness and ownership of the programme and its results. As explained later in the likely impacts section, while some countries are already co-financing the programme, so far LoCAL is mostly setting the ground for this to happen in the future. Some countries are increasing the resources transferred to the local governments, but this it is not necessarily for adaptation, and it is not necessarily the result of the programme.


Tag: Effectiveness Global Climate Fund Local Governance

32.

Awareness of CCA by local government representatives. LoCAL has conducted significant efforts to raise awareness and build capacity on planning, budgeting and management of climate change adaptation at the local level. To that effect, LoCAL has organized a significant number of trainings on climate change and resilience, local planning and PBCRGs at both global and country levels. In addition to training workshops, in some countries LoCAL has supported the development of national guidelines or manuals. For instance, in Bhutan a Climate Change Adaptation Planning Guideline was developed, together with the PAM, to facilitate the planning and utilization of PBCRG by local governments. Moreover, at local level, some PBCRG were used for awareness raising and capacity building. There were 108 capacity building and awareness raising investments made, equivalent to respectively 17% and 8% of the total number of measures and representing a total of USD 287,926 or 7% of the total investment budget. These investments covered a wide range of topics, from early warning systems to farming and human health. Learning derived from the actual implementation of the programme and technical assistance also contributed to this.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Effectiveness Local Governance Communication Capacity Building

33.

Availability of climate vulnerability assessments. LoCAL has increased the number of vulnerability and risk assessments (VRA) available at local level, with these being conducted for each of the provinces where it is active. For example, in Cambodia VRAs, including vulnerability maps, were carried out in 28 communes and sangkats at the beginning – VRA had not been conducted in these communes and sangkats before LoCAL. The programme is also contributing to build capacities of local governments in this regard. For instance, in Bhutan, after years of VRAs being conducted by a consultant, training workshops were conducted and now VRAs are led by local government officers. Besides, in an indirect way LoCAL is generating information that could be used in vulnerability assessments, globally through APAs, which provide annual information on adaptive capacity at district or commune level, and in Niger by supporting the functioning of an early warning system, still incomplete. This is a major improvement over the existing situation at project start and LoCAL efforts in this respect must be acknowledged.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk assessments Effectiveness Capacity Building Vulnerable

34.

Explicit incorporation of CCA into local development plans. LoCAL’s main policy influence at the decentralized level has been through the revision of local development plan, as a way of mainstreaming climate change into local development and raise awareness of and response to climate change at the local level. LoCAL has supported the integration of climate change adaptation in local government plans and budgets in 46 of the 64 local governments where it is active. This has been often conducted in partnership with other programmes/development partners. As part of this process, LoCAL has also provided training and contributed to the preparation of planning and monitoring guidelines on mainstreaming CCA into development to be used by all subnational authorities. This is the case in Cambodia, where the guidelines included the lessons learned from the first two phases of LoCAL. When local development plans had been reviewed LoCAL has followed with the finance and investment focus. When this exercise had not been done, LoCAL has supported this exercise, often in partnership with other programmes/development partners.


Tag: Effectiveness Human and Financial resources Partnership Policies & Procedures Capacity Building

35.

Investments with CCA components. LoCAL helps build more and better (more resilient) infrastructure (quantity and quality), as it complements local budgets and provides with a fund dedicated to climate change actions. PBCRGs have supported 438 actions in climate change adaptation totalling an investment of about USD 5.2 million, 82% of which was directly financed by PBCRGs while 18% was co-financed. The majority (58%) are investments in infrastructure and represent 87% of the total invested amounts, followed by capacity building with 17% of investments and 5% of the budget. In this framework, as of June 2017, 25% of LoCAL’s investments were in the water and sanitation sector, followed by the agricultural sector with 21% and transport and storage with 20%. Investments in the education sector are also important and represent 11% of the portfolio.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Effectiveness Efficiency Data and Statistics

36.

4. Likely impacts

This section assesses the actual or likely impacts of LoCAL. In particular, it focuses on two aspects from the ToC or RRF: increases in additional climate finance flows to local levels through direct access and other mechanisms and likely impact of the programme on the resilience of local populations. LoCAL is likely to have some lasting influence on policy and institutional systems at both the national and local levels, provided it can strengthen some of its efforts and by the same token manage some of the risks associated with the sustainability of some of its achievements.

4.1. Has LoCAL increased flows of additional climate finance to the local levels?

In the absence of a baseline, it is not possible for the evaluation team to assess conclusively whether the quantitative targets have been met. In contrast, this evaluation indicates the amount of resources mobilized and assesses qualitatively the efforts conducted to improve the access of local governments to climate change funds.

According to the 2016 Annual Report (p. 19), LoCAL has mobilized USD 35,560,301 for CCA to local governments in LoCAL participating countries. According to the programme’s financial data, of that amount USD 10,842,450 had been disbursed by the programme in the period 2014-2016. According to the LoCAL project database, by June 2017 the programme’s investments (past, ongoing and planned) totalled USD 4,235,013.

Collected information suggests that funds made available directly by LoCAL to local governments are modest compared to total resources available for the general functioning of the governments that LoCAL worked with. In Bhutan, in the 2015/2016 financial year, the financial contribution of LoCAL for adaptation measures represented 18% of the total resources available to the counties working with LoCAL. LoCAL’s contribution was more significant if compared against the resources transferred by the central government: it represented in average 28% of those funds. In Niger, the funds made available by LoCAL represent between 16% and 10% of the annual investment budget of the two communes where the programme was active in several years. Compared to other programmes funding the same type of investments as LoCAL, funds made available by LoCAL to local governments are also modest.

 


Tag: Impact Global Climate Fund Resource mobilization Results-Based Management Theory of Change

37.

As the accreditation process can typically take 3 to 4 years, and given the need to also explore potentialfunding windows for public-private sector partnerships financing to leverage private sector investments, LoCAL has been in discussion in parallel with organisations already accredited by the GCF, particularly with multilateral regional banks and national multi-donor trust funds. Work is on going with the West African Development Bank.

This progress is to a great extent the result of the effort of LoCAL programme management and its Board members to link up with the LDC Group under the UNFCCC negotiation process, and of country level advocacy to bring about recognition of the key role that decentralisation ministries and local governments can play in fostering the implementation of NDCs. LoCAL is also starting to build synergies with the LFI to involve and leverage private sector investors. While some countries are already co-financing the programme, so far the programme is mostly setting the ground for this to happen in the future.

Regarding access of local governments to national climate change funds, while some countries are already co-financing the programme, so far LoCAL is mostly setting the ground for this to happen in the future. Some countries are increasing the resources transferred to the local governments, but this it is not necessarily for adaptation, and it is not necessarily the result of the programme.


Tag: Climate finance Impact Global Climate Fund Multi Donor Trust Funds Private Sector Financing Local Governance

38.

4.2. Changes in the living conditions in terms of resilience to climate variability and change

In view of the limited data available and the timing of this evaluation, it is a challenge to assess the likely impacts of LoCAL in terms of climate change adaptation and increased resilience of beneficiaries. Technically, this can only be examined in the medium and long term and in a mid-term review most of the adaptation measures have typically been completed very recently. In most of the LoCAL countries, the adaptation measures have been finalized in 2016 and 201520. Moreover, so far LoCAL’s M&E framework has paid very little attention to adaptation outcomes. APAs by nature are of limited use in this regard.

Notwithstanding this, after visiting 11 investments in three countries, the evaluation team was able to discern some emerging impacts. Focus group discussions with women and men indicate that some benefits are already demonstrated from investments in water supply infrastructure, roads and bridges and irrigation channels for agriculture.

Investments in water supply infrastructure (i.e. water tanks in Bhutan, wells in Niger) have notably increased access to water for human consumption. Before the investment supported by LoCAL, in Genkha, Bhutan, the existing tank wasn’t big enough for the community. Not only was water insufficient for regular bathing, but the community had to complement it with nearby streams also used by cattle, and in some cases walk 3 or 4 hours. As a result of the LoCAL-supported investment, currently the  community meets its water supply needs and does some kitchen gardening. In Niger, before the LoCAL-funded well, women beneficiaries had to walk long distances (6 or 10 km) every day for water, which sometimes was polluted, as animals used it as well. This freed some time to focus on other productive use of their time and reduced illness in the family.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Water resources Impact Poverty Alleviation

39.

Furthermore, investments in roads and bridges have improved resilience to climate variability. Interviews in Benin argue that a new bridge has allowed easier access to an economic and health and education centre, whereas a 2-3 hours detour had to be taken before. In Cambodia roads improved by LoCAL have resisted floods, to the point that, according to senior LoCAL staff, the national government is now following the standards used by the programme. In Bhutan, enhancing their resilience against climate change-related impacts such as landslides, flash floods and surface erosion has improved the access to the market for beneficiaries that were often cut off.

According to different sources, irrigation channels have already provided results. For instance, in Cambodia, in Doung Kpos Commune, Borei Chulsar District, beneficiaries claim that the project has increased the number of harvests from 1 to 3 per year, with 90% production increase in each harvest, the annual income increasing from USD 200 to USD 1800, which allows them to live, invest and save a bit. Interviews in Benin indicate that as a result of LoCAL investments the cultivated land has increased from 0.25 ha to 5 ha, and that harvests have increased about 50%, which has improved food security and has allowed beneficiaries to sell some vegetables in the market.


Tag: Agriculture Agriculture policy Rural development Disaster Risk Reduction Resilience building Impact Sustainability Poverty Reduction

40.

5. Sustainability

By design, LoCAL management put a strong emphasis on sustainability. The evaluation assessed the topic of sustainability of the programme results at different levels, from changes to relevant policy and institutions to increases in resilience. Overall, the programme has set the basis for the sustainability of the LoCAL model, with risks to be managed and a more careful approach to the sustainability of specific investments being required.

At the institutional level, LoCAL’s use of national systems and processes and work with national institutions contributes to the sustainability of the model. However, while the programme seems to be successful in engaging the national implementing entity, typically the one in charge of decentralisation, in some countries there is room to further engage the ministries of environment, finance and agriculture to increase awareness and ownership of the programme and its results. In Cambodia, for instance, the involvement of MoE in the second phase of LoCAL and its extension was very limited, without any functional or operational engagement, despite MoE being the national implementing partner of major CCA projects. LoCAL has failed to engage also the MAFF, although most of its investments focus on rural areas and many of them are agriculture-related, and the MAFF is actually the main implementing partner of one of the projects that replicates LoCAL model. In this country, LoCAL has not engaged either the Ministry of Interior (MoI), which has a critical role to play when functions are transferred to local governments (LoCAL implementing entity is in charge of pilots on decentralization and coordinates with other ministries, but it is the MoI who implements once a function has been transferred). LoCAL support to the integration of climate change adaptation in local government plans and budgets, also contributes to institutional sustainability.


Tag: Resilience building Sustainability Local Governance Country Government

41.

A significant number of mechanisms have been used to identify and share experiences and build ownership of the programme and the institutional and policy changes it advocates at both country and global levels. This has included the organization of a global programme lessons learned workshop in 2015, undertaking  high-level initiatives between 2014 and 2016, and producing a long and varied list of communication materials, comprising brochures, articles, books and films. In addition, the programme has also closely managed its website, and has been highly active in social media, including a Twitter account and a YouTube channel. While efforts in the period 2014-2016 tended to focus more on promoting and publicizing the initiative both among its participants and to the broader development/climate change communities than in drawing and sharing lessons, in 2017 LoCAL published an interesting experience sharing document in English and French. The programme could put more effort to generate more regularly concrete lessons from experience at both global and local levels.


Tag: Sustainability Communication Knowledge management

42.

On the technical front, as noted in the effectiveness section, the programme has made some contribution to raise awareness and strengthen the public expenditure, governance and climate change adaptation capacities of national and local governments in participating countries to strengthen the sustainability of CCA investment models at the local level. However, given its complex nature, raising awareness and building capacity to an adequate level might require more direct approaches than learning by doing. These increased capacity building efforts should involve the private sector, including the infrastructure advisors and engineers. While not a problem in Bhutan, according to interviewees at the national level, turnover of technical capacity at country level is also a risk in terms of sustainability of the robustness of the technical aspects of the programme in some countries.


Tag: Sustainability Capacity Building Technical Support

43.

There are also risks regarding management of the programme. Management teams at partner institutions and UNCDF could be overwhelmed if the programme were to be significantly extended both at the global and country levels. In countries with high dependence on long term agreements with consultants the expansion of the model is likely to require a different management system. There are also some concerns regarding the sustainability of the PBCRG processes. In Cambodia the 2016 Performance Assessment Report indicates that the current approach “is not capable of being scaled up to a larger number of Districts as the workload for the NCDD-S staff would be too much. There are also strong arguments for the APA being conducted by neutral, independent assessors” (p. 9). The APA methodology introduced in 2016 would arguably be suitable for contracting out to small teams, with remaining responsible for training assessors and quality control. While the proposed timing seems too tight, the 2016 adjustments move in the right direction.


Tag: Sustainability Project and Programme management

44.

Regarding financial sustainability of the phased approach promoted by LoCAL, in some countries the nomination of the institutions in charge of decentralisation to be accredited by the GCF shows buy-in from the national governments. This however does not necessarily mean direct financial support to LoCAL and its model from the country, as institutional tension might arise if money is mobilized. While new designs try to address this, for example by ensuring short term benefits in terms of job creation, in some participating countries, especially in West Africa, finance for traditional development needs rather than resilient development approaches could continue to compete for the limited resources available at the local level.

While some countries are increasing the resources transferred to local governments, understanding and behavioural changes are different. Although the relative modest size of the PGCRG contributes to fiscal sustainability, current discussions on increasing the top-up percentages in some countries to foster mainstreaming of CCA and to expand the number of interested local governments point at a serious sustainability challenge.


Tag: Sustainability Climate Change Adaptation Local Governance Human and Financial resources Jobs and Livelihoods

45.

So far LoCAL has not been able to engage the private sector significantly. This is indeed a challenge in many countries on the adaptation front, and not only for LoCAL. A lot of the climate change adaptation work is not going to be immediately return-oriented, making it difficult to attract private finance. Programme management is currently conducting efforts to bring the private sector on board and leverage its investments for CCA, strengthening coordination with the rest of the Local Development Finance Practice portfolio. While engaging the private sector would likely require important adjustments in the focus of the programme, the piloting efforts of LoCAL management on this front are certainly welcome.


Tag: Sustainability Private Sector

46.

At the international level, the international trend to support decentralisation and local governments will benefit LoCAL. Similarly, changes in the international climate change financial architecture, such as the increasing role of the GCF with its focus on LDCs and adaptation would be positive for the programme. The efforts of LOCAL in positioning itself as a recognized model for CCA investment at the local level with the GCF, and its support for readiness and accreditation process to the GCF by national decentralisation departments is to be applauded. LoCAL’s advocacy efforts have been significant at the global level. However, there are three important risks to be managed. On the one hand, the unclear climate additionality of LoCAL could be a fundamental barrier to access international CCA funds, particularly GCF resources. As noted in the WRI report (p. 11), “there is growing frustration among climate finance partners that too many programs are only superficially addressing or mainstreaming CCA”, which will likely result in more stringent criteria in this regard. As noted in section 2.3, the programme’s partnership with WRI is an excellent move in addressing this challenge. However, the process is taking very long.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Challenges Sustainability Global Climate Fund Least Developed Countries Fund Local Governance Risk Management

47.

A second risk relates to the fact that some of the countries where the LoCAL programme is more advanced and solid are likely to see their access to international adaptation funds limited in the medium term. Since July 2016 Cambodia is officially considered a lower middle income economy by the WB Group. In 2015, for the first time, Bhutan was assessed as being eligible for graduation away from LDC status. While the upgrade of status is complex (it considers several criteria), and might not happen in the next revision, in 2018, this might reduce the amount and shift the sort of assistance the country might receive from development agencies. This calls attention for the efficiency of the development assistance. As noted in section 1.3.2, LoCAL has still significant room to strengthen its communication and coordination with development partners at global and country levels. As noted there, lack of coordination cannot only limit synergies and complementarities, but can also result in redundancy and planning fatigue, compromising the sustainability of the programme.


Tag: Efficiency Sustainability International Financial Institutions Coordination

48.

A third risk for the sustainability of the CCA investments at local level through national systems refers back to the institutional dialogue issue at both the national and global levels. Indeed, typically LDC countries at the global level are represented within the framework of the UNFCCC negotiations by the ministries of environment. At the national level, the same ministries, especially in LDCs, have had a tendency to monopolise a large share of the international climate finance transfers, building on their nationally recognised role and prerogatives around climate change issues, but also on their political weight in the feedback loop to the UNFCCC international negotiation process. LoCAL is cognizant of this challenge and has started to tackle it, but a lot more work, advocacy and awareness raising is required to ensure a proper seat at the table for decentralisation stakeholders.

Regarding political sustainability, there are some signs of ownership at country level, but inter-institutional tensions are an important risk to be managed. At the global level, the Board plays a key role as a south-south exchange platform, trying to show to less committed countries that the programme should be understood as a system, and not as a project. Political decentralisation is also key for the sustainability of local adaptation and this is still limited in some countries.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Sustainability Promotion of dialogue Advocacy

49.

The evaluation points out to a mixed conclusion on the sustainability of sub-projects/investments. In some countries user groups have been created to manage the use and coordinate the maintenance of infrastructure financed by LoCAL investments. In others, sustainability of the sub-projects doesn’t seem to be high on the priority list. In some of the cases, infrastructures already require some maintenance even where user groups have been created. The sustainability of the investments in terms of impacts on resilience could be compromised by a weak sub-project assessment and/or corridor effects indicated in the likely impact section.


Tag: Sustainability Project and Programme management

Recommendations
1

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 1: The LoCAL Board and the programme Secretariat should seriously explore the possibility of expanding the portfolio in some geographical areas, especially but not only during phase II of the global programme. On the one hand, the programme should consider strengthening its work in urban areas, including small towns and secondary cities. This should refer to areas that have urban features, such as high density and non-primary economic activities, and not just only nominal urban areas. This should also mean taking into account the specific characteristics of urban areas. Ongoing discussions on how to work with urban areas are welcome, as this might require other tools, such as municipal financial bonds, eco-bonds, public-private partnerships, etc. On the other hand, the programme should consider strengthening the work in coastal areas, taking into account their particular features. A report on the plan to address these issues should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

2

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2: The LoCAL Board, the programme Secretariat and programme management teams at global and country levels should make more efforts to engage international and national partners and the private sector. Regarding international partners, the programme should try to further engage multilateral sources, strengthening the efforts with international CC funds and regional banks, but also exploring programmatic partnerships with other UN agencies, including UN-HABITAT and UN-Environment. In this sense, the programme Board should strengthen advocacy efforts on the role of institutions in charge of decentralization and of local governments at the global level. In addition, it should explore decentralized cooperation. Furthermore, at country level, the programme should explore and seize complementarities with other programmes and should make more efforts to engage a broader range of national stakeholders, working more closely in some countries with the ministries of planning, finance and environment and line ministries, such as agriculture and rural development. In addition, at the global, national and local levels, the programme should further explore the way in which it can promote the engagement of the private sector, examining the connection with the approach of the programme, in particular in terms of rural and urban focus, identifying and discussing potential adjustments in this regard. Specifically, business cases and feasibility studies could be supported and PPPs and banking products such as bank guaranties, equity investments and others, could be explored to help address the risk barriers to investments. Linking with other UNCDF programmes is key. A report on the plan to address this should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

3

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3: The LoCAL Secretariat should address the existing management bottlenecks. To do so, it should increase human capacity at the global level (for instance, with an M&E officer, a gender officer and additional (sub)regional officers); advocate for more national staff in some countries as part of the scaling up efforts; increase and regularize UNCDF technical support, establishing more formal communication channels; open the consultant roster, especially for tasks that require independence, such as evaluations; increase funds for monitoring in the field; and explore the possibility of engaging more with UNVs (this is not a substitute for all the former). Such efforts should be part of a programmatic capacity building window rather than treated as management costs. A report on the plan to address these bottlenecks should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

4

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4: The LoCAL Secretariat and programme management at global and country levels should significantly increase their efforts in M&E. Regarding baselines, in the short term, global programme management should ensure that sound baselines are developed in the new country programmes, ensuring that, in the medium term, a sound baseline is developed for the second global programme document. In addition, considerable work has to be done on the logic model and the RRF. In this regard, the LoCAL Secretariat should review the logic of the RRF at global level and the theory of change and ensure that indicators, baselines, targets, means of verification and sources are sound and provide for gender disaggregated data to inform the gender differentiated approach of the programme moving forward. Programme management at global level should ensure that new country programmes (programmes in new countries or new phases in already participating countries) have a sound RRF. Furthermore, substantive efforts are required in the PBCRG system. Programme level should also ensure that PACs and APAs are used in all cases in grant allocations. Moreover, the LoCAL Board should clearly set a disaggregated M&E budget in the global and country annual plans. In parallel, programme management at global and country levels should ensure that the M&E strategies are complete in all country programmes. Finally, further work is needed on reporting. In particular, this includes improving the organization of the Dropbox folder, consolidating the central spreadsheet, improving financial reporting at global and country levels, and ensuring global annual reports provide cumulative results in addition to annual results. Besides, at country level, global programme management should ensure timely reporting and make sure to conduct comprehensive evaluations after each phase by independent consultants. Furthermore, data on gender and vulnerable households should be collected more systematically. A report on the plan to address these bottlenecks should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

5

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5: The LoCAL Board, the LoCAL Secretariat and programme management at global and local levels should increase efforts to strengthen the climate change dimension of the programme. Awareness raising and capacity building efforts should be promoted further, particularly in countries where the programme is not complemented by programmes focusing on this. Regarding climate risk, vulnerability and adaptation assessments, global programme management should expand on-going efforts to produce more robust assessments. Programme management at country level should try to coordinate with more robust processes, such as NAPs. It should ensure that community level VRAs are linked with broader quantitative assessments and localized projections to factor in longer term climate risk and vulnerability trends and other aspects like systemic and corridor effects, to increase the strategic content of the investments and avoid maladaptation. Furthermore, detailed vulnerability assessments / feasibility studies should be conducted at sub-project level, especially for the largest investments. Finally, programme management at country level should ensure that CCA has been soundly mainstreamed in local development plans either directly (through supporting the process itself) or indirectly (by developing knowledge, information products and capacity that can feed into their revisions done in coordination with other partners). In some countries, efforts should be made to increase the engagement of women in the capacity building and awareness raising activities. A report on plans and progress in implementing this recommendation should be presented at the next Board meeting, with a view to conclude on the actions taken at the 2019 Board meeting.

6

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 6: Some of recommendations presented above will contribute to increased resilience and adaptation. To further promote this, programme management at global and national levels should favour integrated, comprehensive approaches that address multiple building blocks and dimensions of resilience, working more on the basis of complementarities and synergies with other programmes. While this should especially be the focus of phase 2 and phase 3, even pilots under phase 1 should aim at approaching investments through this more holistic lens in a limited number of communes/districts, building clustersto allow the critical mass effect required to improve resilience to the extent that is required in most communities. Moreover, to ensure the sustainability of the infrastructure investments, programme management at country level should be dialogue with local authorities to ensure that user groups are created for every single infrastructure investment and that sustainability has a high weight in APAs, as well as ensuring maintenance works are conducted where needed immediately. A report on the plans to tackle this recommendation should be presented in the next Board meeting, with a view to rolling out full approach across countries and reporting on results of this effort at the 2019 Board meeting

7

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 7: To conclude, programme management at the global level should organize global LoCAL Lessons Learned Workshops at least every two years. Regional level workshops could be cheaper and useful and should be organized once a year. Besides, with support from the LoCAL Secretariat, programme management should strengthen the lessons learned section of the global annual reports with new and specific lessons. At the country level, programme management should ensure lessons learned are identified after each phase, shared and used in the design and implementation of the following phase. Besides, it should ensure that a lessons learned workshop is organized annually and annual country programme reports have a section on lessons learned identifying new and specific lessons. A report on the plan to address this should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

1. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 1: The LoCAL Board and the programme Secretariat should seriously explore the possibility of expanding the portfolio in some geographical areas, especially but not only during phase II of the global programme. On the one hand, the programme should consider strengthening its work in urban areas, including small towns and secondary cities. This should refer to areas that have urban features, such as high density and non-primary economic activities, and not just only nominal urban areas. This should also mean taking into account the specific characteristics of urban areas. Ongoing discussions on how to work with urban areas are welcome, as this might require other tools, such as municipal financial bonds, eco-bonds, public-private partnerships, etc. On the other hand, the programme should consider strengthening the work in coastal areas, taking into account their particular features. A report on the plan to address these issues should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. LoCAL will be operationally connected to the UNCDF Municipal Investment Finance Programme (MIF). LoCAL and MIF will jointly develop an urban climate resilience component that modifies the Performance Based Climate Resilient Grant (PBCRG) through Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers (IGFT) methodology in accordance with urban local government finance. IGFT comprise a smaller percentage of urban local government revenue and urban climate resilient investments are likely to be more costly than the rural investments hitherto supported by LoCAL. Therefore urban LoCAL will explore how the PBCRG can be used as seed capital for PPPs and other forms of blended finance. This work will begin in Bangladesh and take advantage of the capital investment plans, credit ratings and impact assessment methodology that UNCDF has already supported for its EcoBond programme, as part of MIF.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/07/08]
MIF manager and LoCAL manager 2019/06 Completed UNCDF LoCAL has developed a climate change scorecard for public-private and private investments, to be applied in urban areas and for private finance. It has informed the development of a Call for Proposals for (commercially viable) investments aligned with the menu of LoCAL eligible investments launched in May in The Gambia. The Call for Proposals is attached. Both of LoCAL and MIF team are working together to mobilize resources with a view to start up project expansion to urban areas into targeted LoCAL countries. Proposals have been developed for Benin and for ASEAN, with more under development. Successful proposals will be uploaded as they are approved History
1.2 LoCAL will adapt its investment menu (IM) methodology to include greater recognition of the environmental ecosystem and ensure that expert input is provided to the IMs for each ecosystem from appropriate agencies. This includes coastal regions, high mountain areas and other specific ecosystems with particular climate adaptive needs. Partners could include ICIMOD for mountain areas (Bhutan, Nepal) and entities like SPREP for coastal protection in the Pacific (Vanuatu).
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/05/28]
LoCAL manager 2019/05 Completed "UNCDF and the Korea Environment Institute have developed a Country Climate Risk Assessment in Ghana aligned with the latest IPCC-AR5 framework. The report will be peer reviewed and the methodology documented for future use, as part of the LoCAL standard to inform menus of investments. In parallel, new LoCAL design exercises consider the possibility to have multiple investment menus based on ecosystem (ex. Cote d’Ivoire on going exercise) " History
2. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2: The LoCAL Board, the programme Secretariat and programme management teams at global and country levels should make more efforts to engage international and national partners and the private sector. Regarding international partners, the programme should try to further engage multilateral sources, strengthening the efforts with international CC funds and regional banks, but also exploring programmatic partnerships with other UN agencies, including UN-HABITAT and UN-Environment. In this sense, the programme Board should strengthen advocacy efforts on the role of institutions in charge of decentralization and of local governments at the global level. In addition, it should explore decentralized cooperation. Furthermore, at country level, the programme should explore and seize complementarities with other programmes and should make more efforts to engage a broader range of national stakeholders, working more closely in some countries with the ministries of planning, finance and environment and line ministries, such as agriculture and rural development. In addition, at the global, national and local levels, the programme should further explore the way in which it can promote the engagement of the private sector, examining the connection with the approach of the programme, in particular in terms of rural and urban focus, identifying and discussing potential adjustments in this regard. Specifically, business cases and feasibility studies could be supported and PPPs and banking products such as bank guaranties, equity investments and others, could be explored to help address the risk barriers to investments. Linking with other UNCDF programmes is key. A report on the plan to address this should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. LoCAL will capitalize on its coverage of 13 countries and explore deeper institutional partnerships with the objective of transforming itself into a sustainable global mechanism that applies national IGFT systems to address climate change adaptation in developing countries. Achieving this will also require addressing recommendation 5. The strategy will include seeking a more formal and structured recognition of LoCAL as part of the international climate finance architecture (UNFCCC, GCF etc), and broadening LoCALs partnerships for implementation. It may also include seeking an institution to co-host the mechanism with UNCDF and broadening its governance. In time, the role of the Secretariat may transform itself into a quality assurance and standard compliance role to national entities are responsible for implementing LoCAL in Phase III. The Secretariat would retain the role of seeding new countries through Phase I and II. This strategy would require Phase III as the “light at the end of the tunnel” and a more formal highlighting of the role of IGFT in implementing the Paris Agreement would accelerate this transformation.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/05/28]
LoCAL manager 2019/01 Completed "The LoCAL guidelines “Financing local adaptation to climate change: Experiences with performance-based climate resilience grants” were approved as Supplementary Material to the National Adaptation Plan Technical Guidelines at the NAP Expo in Korea in April 2019. The 2019 LoCAL Board has welcomed the participation of new observers, in particular ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, the Covenant of Mayors for Sub-saharan Africa, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, African Development Bank, Cities Alliance, West Africa Development Bank and the Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean to the Board and invited the LDC representative to the Green Climate Fund and to the UNFCCC at the next Board meeting. It also recorded the presence of the Green Climate Fund Secretariat at previous Board meetings and invites it at the next Board meeting." History
2.2. Private sector: LoCAL will become integrated into the Local Development Finance “dual key” system. Currently under the existing LoCAL mechanism the planning process does sometimes contain activities appropriate for private sector investment. These include the introduction of climate resilient crops, the improvement of storage facilities and the private management and supply of drinking water. Yet, correctly, the PGCRG are unable to directly finance these activities and support is limited to public sector de-risking such as the provision of access roads. Integrating LoCAL into the “dual key” system will remove this limitation and enable the LoCAL mechanism support private sector and PPP sponsoring of these investments by making available the deal structuring and private financing support of UNCDF’s Local Finance Initiative without compromising the public sector nature of the PBCRG. The “dual key” requires a verifiable impact key (provided by LoCAL on the basis of CCA criteria) and a clear bankability key (provided by an LFI investment officer following due diligence). The award of the two “keys” at a Local Development Finance investment committee enable the transaction to go forward. This approach, together with an improvement in LoCAL’s impact measurement and with stronger institutional linkages to climate finance, will provide a method for attracting private sector investment to measurable local climate adaptation. LoCAL has already explored synergies with the African Development Bank’s initiative on private sector climate adaptation. The market will take these innovations to scale once business models are demonstrated. LoCAL will negotiate with each participating country the use of PBCRG funds to support the transaction technical assistance (a flat rate fee) from the LFI team to structure the deal and secure bank financing; Secondly, where appropriate PBCRG will be eligible for grant seed capital support to private sector investments (or PPPs) that meet a specific adaptation target if the following three conditions are met: + a transparent and competitive RFP has been applied by the local government in the selection of the private sector partner and the fund have been managed according to standard IGFT procedures for development investments; + the LFI team specify that seed capital is required for a bankable transaction; + the LoCAL secretariat and the national partners specify that the transaction has a demonstration effect and there is evidence that the other actors will replicate the transaction type – for example a first mover in adopting a climate resilient crop will inspire other farmers.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/09/30]
LoCAL manager and Local Development Senior Investment Manager 2019/12 Completed see the Call for proposal for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Gambia as evidence. History
3. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3: The LoCAL Secretariat should address the existing management bottlenecks. To do so, it should increase human capacity at the global level (for instance, with an M&E officer, a gender officer and additional (sub)regional officers); advocate for more national staff in some countries as part of the scaling up efforts; increase and regularize UNCDF technical support, establishing more formal communication channels; open the consultant roster, especially for tasks that require independence, such as evaluations; increase funds for monitoring in the field; and explore the possibility of engaging more with UNVs (this is not a substitute for all the former). Such efforts should be part of a programmatic capacity building window rather than treated as management costs. A report on the plan to address these bottlenecks should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]

 Agreed in principle – implementation will require changes to the LoCAL funding architecture

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 The evaluation report observes that LoCAL is efficiently funded in comparison with similar programmes such as the GEF Small Grants Programme. Whilst this has been considered a virtue, the evaluation report highlights the limitations of a Secretariat that is too lean and unable to provide the required support to implementing countries. However the current funding architecture emphasizes Phase II scale ups without concomitant support to the Secretariat – with the result that one of UNCDF’s biggest programmes is unable to fully pay for its staffing structure. The new funding strategy will embed financial support for the secretariat in Phase II and Phase III funding to secure long term technical support to implementing countries, including the APA. It will augment this by seeking an appropriate long term partner to co-host LoCAL with UNCDF as a stable mechanism for climate resilience through IGFT and PBCRG.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]
LoCAL Manager 2021/12 Initiated Financial support for the secretariat function (technical assistance, quality assurance, MEL, partnership building, etc) has been embedded in 3 of the 4 larger scale country programmes (phase II) and in on-going programmes (phase I/II) under preparation. Funding for sustaining the global Facility team at the current scale is secured until 2022 and dialogue is on-going on long term partnerships to further support it financially and/or institutionalise it as part of the international climate finance architecture as demand from countries for LoCAL is expanding. ICLEI, EU, UNFCCC and GCA have been identified as possible partners for a co-hosting modality and the first co-hosting modality pre-agreed with ICLEI (Africa) is under senior management review. History
3.2 Within the context of response 3.1 a recruitment strategy and new Secretariat structure will be prepared.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2018/12/18]
LoCAL Manager 2018/12 Completed The new Secretariat structure has been approved History
4. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4: The LoCAL Secretariat and programme management at global and country levels should significantly increase their efforts in M&E. Regarding baselines, in the short term, global programme management should ensure that sound baselines are developed in the new country programmes, ensuring that, in the medium term, a sound baseline is developed for the second global programme document. In addition, considerable work has to be done on the logic model and the RRF. In this regard, the LoCAL Secretariat should review the logic of the RRF at global level and the theory of change and ensure that indicators, baselines, targets, means of verification and sources are sound and provide for gender disaggregated data to inform the gender differentiated approach of the programme moving forward. Programme management at global level should ensure that new country programmes (programmes in new countries or new phases in already participating countries) have a sound RRF. Furthermore, substantive efforts are required in the PBCRG system. Programme level should also ensure that PACs and APAs are used in all cases in grant allocations. Moreover, the LoCAL Board should clearly set a disaggregated M&E budget in the global and country annual plans. In parallel, programme management at global and country levels should ensure that the M&E strategies are complete in all country programmes. Finally, further work is needed on reporting. In particular, this includes improving the organization of the Dropbox folder, consolidating the central spreadsheet, improving financial reporting at global and country levels, and ensuring global annual reports provide cumulative results in addition to annual results. Besides, at country level, global programme management should ensure timely reporting and make sure to conduct comprehensive evaluations after each phase by independent consultants. Furthermore, data on gender and vulnerable households should be collected more systematically. A report on the plan to address these bottlenecks should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]

Agreed in principle – further partnerships will be required for this purpose

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 This evaluation recommendation is linked to recommendation 3 and 5. The consolidation of UNCDF’s internal capacity in the LRP and a recent re-purposing of the Local Development Finance work at UNCDF will provide an immediate boost to M&E capacity. Three additional (existing) staff will be assigned to support the LoCAL M&E effort in the short term, including to improve the systemic quality of M&E within the mechanism.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2018/12/18]
LoCAL manager and Local Development Finance Director 2018/12 Completed Complete but some staff has resigned a replacement will be filled in 2019 History
4.2 Quality of process against defined benchmarks is the most appropriate and effective way to empirically measure climate resilience. For LoCAL this means verifying that that the vulnerability assessment (VRA) accurately captures the effects of likely climate change as the first benchmark, verifying that the IM is an adequate response to the VRA as the second benchmark, and during the APA checking the application of the PBCRG towards the investment menu, including value for money criteria. The WRI tool will contribute to LoCAL improving its M&E system. It will be peer reviewed by a wider range of partners, amended and implemented.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/09/30]
LoCAL Manager 2019/09 Completed https://www.wri.org/publication/assessing-effectiveness-climate-resilience. History
5. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5: The LoCAL Board, the LoCAL Secretariat and programme management at global and local levels should increase efforts to strengthen the climate change dimension of the programme. Awareness raising and capacity building efforts should be promoted further, particularly in countries where the programme is not complemented by programmes focusing on this. Regarding climate risk, vulnerability and adaptation assessments, global programme management should expand on-going efforts to produce more robust assessments. Programme management at country level should try to coordinate with more robust processes, such as NAPs. It should ensure that community level VRAs are linked with broader quantitative assessments and localized projections to factor in longer term climate risk and vulnerability trends and other aspects like systemic and corridor effects, to increase the strategic content of the investments and avoid maladaptation. Furthermore, detailed vulnerability assessments / feasibility studies should be conducted at sub-project level, especially for the largest investments. Finally, programme management at country level should ensure that CCA has been soundly mainstreamed in local development plans either directly (through supporting the process itself) or indirectly (by developing knowledge, information products and capacity that can feed into their revisions done in coordination with other partners). In some countries, efforts should be made to increase the engagement of women in the capacity building and awareness raising activities. A report on plans and progress in implementing this recommendation should be presented at the next Board meeting, with a view to conclude on the actions taken at the 2019 Board meeting.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]

The programme is all about climate change. Management agrees to improve additionality measurement and institutional linkages

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 The implementation of this recommendation is through action 4.1 and 4.2 above. Improving the M&E and additionality of the mechanism will clearly identify the effectivenss of IGFT and PBCRG as a means of addressing climate change.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/09/30]
LoCAL Manager 2019/09 Completed https://www.wri.org/publication/assessing-effectiveness-climate-resilience. History
5.2 The implemention of this recommendation is through action 2.1 above. The evaluation team recognize the progress made in establishing the LoCAL mechanism as part of the architecture of climate adaptation.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/05/28]
LoCAL Manager 2019/03 Completed See 2.1 History
6. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 6: Some of recommendations presented above will contribute to increased resilience and adaptation. To further promote this, programme management at global and national levels should favour integrated, comprehensive approaches that address multiple building blocks and dimensions of resilience, working more on the basis of complementarities and synergies with other programmes. While this should especially be the focus of phase 2 and phase 3, even pilots under phase 1 should aim at approaching investments through this more holistic lens in a limited number of communes/districts, building clustersto allow the critical mass effect required to improve resilience to the extent that is required in most communities. Moreover, to ensure the sustainability of the infrastructure investments, programme management at country level should be dialogue with local authorities to ensure that user groups are created for every single infrastructure investment and that sustainability has a high weight in APAs, as well as ensuring maintenance works are conducted where needed immediately. A report on the plans to tackle this recommendation should be presented in the next Board meeting, with a view to rolling out full approach across countries and reporting on results of this effort at the 2019 Board meeting

Management Response: [Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1 Immediately, UNCDF has consolidated its Finance for Food programme and LoCAL mechanism into a broader Local Resilience Programme (LRP). This will enable the LoCAL Secretariat to directly benefit from the technical expertise of the UNCDF Finance 4 Food (F4F) initiative (which is based on rural local government public and private investment in food security). At the level of the local government climate resilience is closely related to food security and agriculture. Work has begun on Land Degradation Neutrality and with the UNCCD. An MOU has been signed with Commonland Foundation with a view towards developing projects for possible co-financing with the recently created Land Degradation Neutrality fund. An initial investment has been identified in Tanzania. Collaboration has also begun with the African Development Bank on the Desert to Power initiative in Niger and on the Adaptation Benefit proposal for private sector adaptation financing.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/05/28]
UNCDF Local Development Finance Director 2019/03 Completed The revised LoCAL global prodoc integrates links with the LIF and LFI programmes. The LRP portfolio include: 1) the LoCAL mechanism and its Secretariat, 2) other UNCDF support to environmental resilience through local governments and the private sector 3) partnerships and synergies with actors working on other dimensions of resilience. A new position, LRP Manager, has been approved. It is currently under the recruitment process. This function will oversee the LoCAL mechanism to secure its long-term sustainability. The function will also build UNCDF’s engagement with other aspects of resilience through local governments and local economic development History
7. Recommendation:

Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 7: To conclude, programme management at the global level should organize global LoCAL Lessons Learned Workshops at least every two years. Regional level workshops could be cheaper and useful and should be organized once a year. Besides, with support from the LoCAL Secretariat, programme management should strengthen the lessons learned section of the global annual reports with new and specific lessons. At the country level, programme management should ensure lessons learned are identified after each phase, shared and used in the design and implementation of the following phase. Besides, it should ensure that a lessons learned workshop is organized annually and annual country programme reports have a section on lessons learned identifying new and specific lessons. A report on the plan to address this should be presented at the next Board meeting with progress reporting in the following years.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2021/03/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1 LoCAL secretariat to publish and socialize lessons learnt including through contributions to UNCDF publications and publications by other relevant entities.
[Added: 2018/05/25] [Last Updated: 2019/05/28]
LoCAL manager 2018/12 Completed "LoCAL report on NDC “ Localizing NDCs” has been approved and published in 2018. The LoCAL guidelines “Financing local adaptation to climate change: Experiences with performance-based climate resilience grants” were approved as Supplementary Material to the National Adaptation Plan Technical Guidelines at the NAP Expo in Korea in April 2019. LoCAL Secretariat will next upgrade its training offer in line with the “Financing local adaptation to climate change: Experiences with performance-based climate resilience grants” and other elements of the standard to support adherence to the LoCAL standard by training and certifying key government and UNCDF staff and LoCAL experts." History

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