Terminal Evaluation of Strengthening the Resilience of Post Conflict Recovery and Development to Climate Change Risks’ in Sri Lanka (SCCF)

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2018-2022, Sri Lanka
Evaluation Type:
Project
Planned End Date:
02/2018
Completion Date:
02/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
11,550

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Title Terminal Evaluation of Strengthening the Resilience of Post Conflict Recovery and Development to Climate Change Risks’ in Sri Lanka (SCCF)
Atlas Project Number: 00073030
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2022, Sri Lanka
Evaluation Type: Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 02/2018
Planned End Date: 02/2018
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.1.1 Low emission and climate resilient objectives addressed in national, sub-national and sectoral development plans and policies to promote economic diversification and green growth
Evaluation Budget(US $): 11,550
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 11,550
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Dinesh Aggarwal International Consultant
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Strengthening the Resilience of Post Conflict Recovery and Development to Climate Change Risks’ in Sri Lanka
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-5
GEF Project ID: 4609
PIMS Number: 4863
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of Disaster Management
Countries: SRI LANKA
Lessons
Findings
1.

3. Findings: project Design and formulation

At the time of project design, the idea of the project was to part-supplement the efforts made by the government towards two large-scale rural development programmes (Divi Neguma and Gama Neguma) by introducing a climate change resilience development component in these two programs and the planning process. These two programmes were active in all the 14022 Grama Niladhari (Village Administrative) units in all the 25 districts of Sri Lanka.

The objective outcomes and outputs were originally designed to address the requirements of Gama Neguma and Divi Neguma Programmes. These Programmes got terminated with the change of the Government in 2015. However, the focus on rural livelihood improvement and rural infrastructure development remained unchanged. Although, during its implementation, the design of the project underwent significant changes, the project objectives and their relevance were still valid.


Tag: Rural development Resilience building Programme/Project Design

2.

3.1 Analysis of LFA/Results Framework

The project objective was to increase the resilience of communities to climate change induced hazards through integration of climate smart policies and actions into rural development planning and budgeting. To achieve this objective, the project was organized into three Outcomes, with each of these three projected outcomes having their respective projected outputs and the corresponding set of activities which are detailed in Table 7.


Tag: Oversight Programme/Project Design

3.

3.2 Assumptions and Risks

A detailed risk analysis was conducted during the project preparation phase. The key project risks and the corresponding mitigation measures which were identified during the project preparation are given in Table 11.

Apart from the risks identified at the project preparation, a couple of additional risks are as follows: 

  • Lack of incentive and direction for agencies to incorporate climate change adaptation into sectoral development plans
  • Resilience viewed as an outcome of preparedness rather than planning

Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Change Management Risk Management

4.

3.3 Lessons from other relevant projects

At the time of project preparation, there was no project in Sri Lanka which made targeted efforts towards mainstreaming climate change adaptation and climate risk management. Some of the ongoing projects at the time of preparation of this project, with which this project was to co-ordinate are as follows:

‘Mangroves for the Future’ (MFF) project, which supported local community action for the restoration and sustainable use of coastal ecosystems. Enhancing community participation in coastal area management, including increasing the resilience of coastal and riverine communities to climate change.

SPA-funded and IFAD-supported project ‘Participatory Coastal Zone Restoration and Sustainable Management in the Eastern Province of post-tsunami Sri Lanka’ (2008-2015), which aimed to overcome key barriers to restoration of the coastal ecosystems. The SCCF project was to build on the experiences and techniques demonstrated by this project and expand the reach of community-based adaptation through participatory ecosystem restoration, to additional vulnerability hot spots on the northern coastline.

Community-based initiatives financed by the GEF Small Grants Programme, which has been operational in Sri Lanka since 1994.

There is no visibility regarding incorporation of the lessons learned from the above projects or any other project, in the design of the SCCF project.


Tag: Sustainability

5.

3.4 Planned stakeholder participation

As mentioned in Section 2.5, the main stakeholders for the project were the Ministry of Disaster Management, Ministry of Environment (now the Ministry of Mahaweli Development and Environment), Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agrarian Development, Department of Coast Conservation, Department of National Planning, External resources Department, Department of Agriculture, District Secretary, Divisional Secretary, Provincial Department of Agriculture, Farmer Organizations, Women’s Organizations and the UNDP.

At district level, the project’s main stakeholders were; The District Secretary (Chief Administrator) of each target district, Director Planning of the District, Planning Secretariat of the District. At sub-district level, the stakeholders include Divisional Planning Units,?Village level mobilisers, Grama Niladhari (GN) Officers of GN units, Agrarian Extension Officer of GN units.

During the preparation phase of the project, consultations were held with a range of government officials which included the officials of the Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Finance, National Planning and Directors of district planning units of all 25 districts. Table 12 provides details of the key stakeholders involved and their respective roles.


Tag: Change Management Country Government National Institutions Regional Institutions

6.

3.5 Replication approach

The project objectives and the ambition (in terms of the Outcomes and targets for indicators) were set at the national level. However, the provision of the activities in the project design were not up to the level required to achieve the ambitious targets. The project was to largely work with national technical agencies to design and implement location specific adaptation actions. In the design of the project, the action on the ground was focused on locations (districts and divisions) that demonstrate high level of vulnerability to climate change impacts. Implementation of these pilot projects was expected to lead to replication and upscaling across the districts and the provinces and the nation. Different provisions in the project design to achieve the replication and upscaling were as follows:


Tag: Resilience building Knowledge management Sustainability

7.

3.6 UNDP comparative advantage

PIF for the project provides the details of the UNDP comparative advantages as the GEF executing agency for the project, which is being referred here.

UNDP has a long history of supporting climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Sri Lanka. As part of 2004 December tsunami recovery effort, UNDP disbursed a number of small grants to help communities restore their livelihoods in a disaster resilient manner. Small grants were used to set up home gardens with a diversified range of fruit and vegetables; establish and restore mangrove greenbelts; and install communal and household rainwater harvesting tanks. Under its Disaster Risk Management programme, UNDP had rehabilitated ancient tank systems as a drought risk reduction and flood prevention measure. In the district of Monaragala, UNDP had supported establishment of the community rainwater harvesting systems, where rainwater is captured in small tanks for purposes of irrigation and ground water recharge.

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster risk management Disaster Risk Reduction Operational Efficiency

8.

UNDP was to contribute to the success of the SCCF project in a number of ways. In financial terms, with a grant contribution of USD 2.1 million that was to be provided by the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UNDP was to co-finance the development of risk and vulnerability profiles, review of existing infrastructure development controls and building codes, piloting of climate-resilient land-use plans, and educational activities on climate risk management at the community level.

In technical terms, UNDP was well placed to integrate climate risk resilient planning considerations and instruments into a variety of donor-funded reconstruction and development projects (such as ‘Support to Reconstruction and Development in selected Districts in North and East Sri Lanka’, which represented a baseline project under the proposed SCCF initiative). Through long-standing partnerships with the Ministry of Disaster Management, the Ministry of Environment and the Department for Agriculture, UNDP had helped to develop a solid pool of materials which can be used for purposes of resilient land-use, construction, agriculture and water resources planning. Available tools include an ‘Integrated Strategic Environmental Assessment’ for Northern Sri Lanka (consisting of a comprehensive suite of GIS-based maps); a best practice guidebook on agricultural practices in flood- and drought-prone areas; educational and awareness materials about climate change and climate-related hazards (such as climate cartoons, videos, supplementary teaching materials for school grades 6-11, adult education materials), and a web-based repository of adaptation –related resource materials.


Tag: Resilience building Knowledge management UNDP Regional Bureaux Reconstruction Capacity Building Operational Services Technical Support

9.

3.7 Linkages between project and other interventions within the sector

As was mentioned in Section 3.3, at the time of project preparation there was no project in Sri Lanka which made targeted efforts towards mainstreaming climate change adaptation and climate risk management into large-scale planning and investment processes. Some of the other ongoing projects at the time of preparation of this project, with whom this project was to co-ordinate are as follows:


Tag: Programme/Project Design

10.

3.8 Management arrangements

In the beginning, the project was being implemented by the Ministry of Economic Development in the National Implementation Modality (NIM). With the change in the government, post the elections in January 2015, the Ministry of Economic Development was done away with. Generally, the Projects are re-assigned to different Ministries after changes to the Cabinet of Ministers. However, in the case of this Project, there was no clear successor to the Ministry of Economic Development.

In June 2015, the Project was assigned to the Ministry of Disaster Management (MDM) for implementation.  Since then, the MDM, reconstituted the Project Steering Committee and Project Board, made arrangements for filling the consultancy staff positions to ensure speedy implementation of the Project (as the Ministry of Disaster Management is a smaller ministry, which cannot assign a full carder to the project)t. In view of the time overruns and other issues, it was decided that the project be implemented in assisted NIM. The Ministry held regular Project Board and Progress Meetings and supported the implementation through the regional staff employed by the Disaster Management Centre (DMC). The Ministry was entrusted with the task of identifying the stakeholders under the new setup, identifying the resources and bringing back the momentum of the Project that was on hold for about six months.
 


Tag: Project and Programme management Oversight

11.

4.Findings: project implementation

The project was being implemented by the Ministry of Economic Development (MED) until January 2015. Following the Presidential election in January 2015, and the subsequent dissolution of the MED, the project was not immediately allocated to another Ministry due to the new Government’s focus on the 100 day programme, Parliamentary elections and other matters. In June 2015, it was decided that from now onwards the project will be implemented by the Ministry of Disaster Management. At the first Project Board meeting held after this decision, it was acknowledged that the implementation is delayed, the Project needs to be re-organized and implementation methodologies such as counterpart funding as well as the role of stakeholder’s such as UNDP and government institutions needs to be revisited. Due to non-availability of funds and reduced time for implementation, it was decided by the Project Board to carry out the activities targeted towards Outcome 1 and Outcome 2, on a limited scale only (focused largely on the three districts and areas where activities for Outcome 3.1 were to be carried out). Also for Outcome 3, it was decided to lay emphasis on increasing climate resilience in rural livelihoods, as infrastructure improvement activities are capital intensive and the funds from the government (as originally envisaged) were no more available.


Tag: Resilience building Oversight Ownership Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management

12.

After the responsibility to implement the project got passed on to the Ministry of Disaster Management, agreements were made with the following ministries / departments / administrative units for effective implementation of different components of the projects in a collaborative manner.

  • MOU with the District office, Department of Agrarian Development, Kurunegala. Under the MOU, financial assistance was provided from the project to incorporate climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and mitigation measures into the annual and medium term plans, as well as demonstration of climate resilient minor irrigation rehabilitation models. Specifically, the MOU was for rehabilitating minor irrigation tanks during the years 2015 and 2016 in Kurunegala district in a disaster and climate resilient manner and promote climate change adaptation actions in the minor irrigation sector.

Tag: Human and Financial resources Project and Programme management Capacity Building Technical Support

13.

4.2 Partnership arrangements

As mentioned in section 3.4, the project design had adequate provisions for stakeholder consultation and participation. However, the project could not be implemented as designed due to the changed political and administrative setup of the country (post elections in 2015). Post those changes, the project design was also changed significantly in accordance to that. 

For implementation of the project in an effective manner, post the changes in its design and with the constrains of availability of funds and time, the project collaborated with the government departments and its administrative units to implement the project in a cost effective and timely manner. The arrangements made for collaborative working are detailed in section 4.1 above. With the changed situation, the availability of funds and time for project implementation got reduced significantly. Thus, collaborative working with the ministries and other administrative units of the government was the best strategy.


Tag: Partnership Project and Programme management

14.

4.3 Project Finance

The project was funded through the Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) of GEF and was to have significant funds contribution by the government (through its Divi Neguma) and UNDP (through EU- SDDP). The total budget and the sources of funds for the project were as given in Table 14.

The project was signed in June 2014. The project was being implemented by the Ministry of Economic Development (MED) until January 2015. In June 2015, it was decided that from now onwards the project would be implemented by the Ministry of Disaster Management. Under the changed situation, the funds which were committed to the project as government support (counterpart funding) were no more available. The project did not get any funding support from the government and implementation has been entirely supported by the SCCF funding. Based on the Combined Delivery Reports (CDRs), Table 15 provides the details of the expenses incurred in different years of project implementation.


Tag: Special Climate Change Fund Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Policies & Procedures

15.

4.4 Monitoring and evaluation: design at entry

The project design had made adequate provisions for M&E activities. The M&E plan was sufficient to monitor the results of the project. However, the M&E plan did not get tested as the project was implemented much differently than what the design of the project provided for. Following specific provisions were made in the project design towards M&E.

  • Project Inception Workshop was to be held within the first 2 months of project start with those who were assigned roles in the project organization structure, UNDP country office and appropriate /feasible regional technical policy and program advisors as well as other stakeholders. The inception workshop was to also provide a detailed overview of reporting, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) requirements.
  • Quarterly reports to monitor the progress made
  • Annual Project Review/Project Implementation Reports (APR/PIR): This reports were to be prepared to monitor progress made since project start and in particular for the previous reporting period (30 June to 1 July).

Tag: Knowledge management Monitoring and Evaluation Quality Assurance

16.

Annual PIRs were produced using the set of indicators provided in the log-frame. Quarterly reports were not produced, largely due to a lot of uncertainties about the project, during its implementation. The PIR did not include impact-oriented information but rather described things such as how many training sessions, how many home gardens, how many tanks rehabilitated etc. This was largely due to the fact that in actual practice the project was being executed not as per the log-frame of the project, but as per the work plans approved by the project board (which was different than what was required as per the log-frame). Post MTR period, once the log-frame was revised to take care of the changed situation, the project implementation was carried out as per the revised log-frame. However, still the reporting was carried out based on activities; largely because there was hardly any time between the MTR and the end date of the project, during which no PIR became due. Audits for the project could not be carried out.

 


Tag: Challenges Monitoring and Evaluation

17.

4.6 UNDP and Implementing Partner/execution coordination, and operational issues

The management arrangements as presented in the Project Document had been clearly described and were based on common project management arrangement for UNDP’s National Implementation Modality. However, as against the original plan to implement the project as NIM, it had to be implemented as an assisted NIM due to a change in the implementation partner.

While earlier the project was being implemented by the Ministry of Economic Development, later the project was assigned to the Ministry of Disaster Management. Accordingly, director of the MDM was assigned with the task of ‘National Project Director’.

 


Tag: Implementation Modality Oversight Project and Programme management

18.

5. Findings: project Results

The actual implementation of the project started late and in between the implementation of the project was on hold (from Dec 2014 to June 2015) due to political changes in the country and the changes in the government set up (the Ministry of Economic Development which was implementing the project was done away with and later the project was assigned to the Ministry of Disaster Management). The funds which were committed to the project as government support were not available anymore. Due to non-availability of funds and reduced time for implementation, it was decided by the Project Board to carry out the activities targeted towards Outcome 1 and Outcome 2 only on a limited scale (focused largely to the three districts and areas where activities for Outcome 3.1 were to be carried out). Also for Outcome 3 it was decided to lay emphasis on increasing climate resilience in rural livelihoods (Output 3.1), as infrastructure improvement activities (Outcome 3.2) are capital intensive and the funds from the government (as originally envisaged) were no more available.

Chapter 3 of the report, provides the details, regarding the log-frame of the project (as originally provided in the Project Document), highlighting the Outcomes and the respective Outputs. Also provided in the log-frame is the set of indicators to determine the achievement of the project against the projected Outcomes.

The MTR report of the project pointed out that the project could not be implemented as originally designed (as per Project Document) and the project design was significantly modified. At the time of the MTR, a modified log-frame for the project along with the indicators was prepared (with was subsequently approved). The MTR of the project was carried out on the basis of the modified log-frame. The implementation of the project post MTR was also guided by the modified log-frame.
 


Tag: Challenges Change Management Human and Financial resources

19.

Outcome 1: Development plans integrate climate risk information and adaptation measures in the most vulnerable districts

As per the original design of the project different Outputs for Outcome 1 of the project were as follows:

Output 1.1: Climate risk assessments conducted in 12 vulnerable districts detailing climate related hazards, vulnerability hot spots and sensitive natural resources including the economic costs and benefits of alternative adaptation options

Output 1.2: Climate risks incorporated into District and Divisional Development Plans in 12 target districts

Output 1.3: Village Development Plans (VDPs) and Village Resource Management Plans (VRMPs) incorporate climate smart measures in all GN divisions in 12 target districts

Indicative activities which were to be carried out under different Outputs of Outcome 1 are as given in Table 16.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction Resilience building

20.

As has been stipulated before, during the implementation phase of the project, the Divi Neguma and Gama Neguma schemes of the government were done away with. Due to this reason, the indicators for this Outcome of the project were modified. Also, with the changed scenario, it was decided to implement the activities of the Outcome 1 of the project in 3 districts (instead of 12 as mentioned in the statement for Outcome 1).

In order to minimise the adverse impacts due to the changed situation, the project carried out the activities of knowledge sharing and experience sharing with other districts (which are vulnerable to change change) so that they can benefit from the project. The dissemination and expertise sharing was also targeted at upscaling of the climate resilience activities at other locations (other than the locations of the pilots) within the three districts, where the interventions under the project were carried out. More details about the activities carried out by the project for experience sharing are provided in section 5.2.4.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Regional Human and Financial resources Knowledge management

21.

5.1.2      Attainment of Objectives - Outcome 2

Outcome 2: National, district, divisional and local technical staff have sufficient technical capacity to identify and integrate climate risk considerations in designing, approving and implementing development projects under the Gama Neguma and Divi Neguma programmes

As per the original design of the project different Outputs for Outcome 2 of the project were as follows:

Output 2.1: Development planners, district engineers, urban and rural infrastructure planners are trained to recognize climate risk problems and apply or recommend targeted risk reduction/ risk management measures

Output 2.2: Develop institutional processes to review climate risks in new rural development investment

Output 2.3: Knowledge codified and shared to enable replication and up-scaling of climate risk management beyond Gama Neguma and Divi Neguma

Indicative activities which were to be carried out under different Outputs of Outcome 2 are as given in Table 21.


Tag: Challenges Operational Efficiency

22.

As has been stipulated before during the implementation phase of the project the Divi Neguma and Gama Neguma schemes of the government were done away with. Also, with the changed scenario it was decided to implement the activities of the Outcome 2 of the project in 3 districts (instead of 12 mentioned in the project document). The assessment regarding the attainment of results has been done in terms of the indicators in the Modified Log-Frame, which was prepared at the MTR. Given below is the achievement of the project for the two indicators for Outcome 2 of the project.

Indicator B-1

Specific achievements against this indicator are;

  • 5 Divisional Secretariat Divisions in Puttalam district, 13 Divisional Secretariat Divisions in Kurunegala district and 4 Divisional Secretariat Divisions in Rathnapura district are applying climate risk assessment tools and methods in development planning.
  • 60 Gram Nirdhari Divisions (GNDs) (31 in Kurunegala, 14 GNDs in Puttalam and 15 GNDs in Rathnapura districts) are applying climate risk assessment tools and methods in development planning.

The achievement against indicator B-1 has been rated as Satisfactory


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation National Awareness raising

23.

5.1.3   Attainment of objectives - Outcome 3

Outcome 3: Concrete adaptation actions defined and implemented in selected vulnerable villages/ village clusters in the 03 target districts to increase resilience of rural development programmes to climatic risks

As per the original design of the project different Outputs for Outcome 3 of the project were as follows:

Output 3.1: Increasing climate resilience in rural livelihoods through climate smart VRMPs

Output 3.2: Rural Infrastructure constructed through the Gama Neguma Programme in 60 villages incorporating climate and disaster resilience measures

Different activities which were to be carried out under different Outputs of Outcome 3 are as given in Table 26.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Human and Financial resources Value Chain Technical Support Refugee

24.

When viewed in terms of the indicators, this has been a very successful component of the project with 35% to 100% income increase against the baseline situation. The project implemented a series of climate change adaptation activities in key sectors affected by climate change, including water and agriculture sectors. The irrigation rehabilitation and agriculture development activities carried out under the project improved the adaptive capacity of the people and coping capacity of the livelihood resource bases for climate change impacts, thereby setting the ground for improving the farmers’ income. Some of the contributing factors towards increase in the income levels of the farmers are as follows:

  • Pot cultivation (mostly chillies) was introduced as an adaptation to drought and floods by the project. This cultivation method enabled farmers to protect the crops even during drought since the pots can be maintained with very little amount of water compared to cultivation on the soil. The pots can also be transported in case of floods.
  • The project introduced climate resilient home gardening and agriculture marketing systems in North Western Province in collaboration with PDOA-NWP. Under this the farmers market their ecologically produced agricultural products at the farmer’s market established by the project in Kurunegala city. More than 1000 additional climate resilient home gardening beneficiaries market their ecologically produced agricultural harvest in 10 regional farmer’s markets established by the project in collaboration with PDOA-NWP. Discussions with the farmers during the TE revealed that their income has increased by about 50-60 percent due to establishment of the farmer’s market.
  • Commercial pineapple crops through planting 500,000 pineapple suckers. The farmers have just started harvesting their pineapple crops and it is expected to harvest at least 250,000 kg of pineapple fruits annually. Compared to baseline income level, the family income of 162 pineapple farmers is expected to be increased at by about 48%.

 


Tag: Agriculture Fishery Livestock Rural development Resilience building Water resources Poverty Alleviation Value Chain

25.

5. Findings: project Results

5.1.3   Attainment of objectives -Project Objectives

Project Objective: Increase the resilience of communities to climate change induced hazards through integration of climate smart policies and actions into development planning budgeting.

The objectives of the project were to be achieved by integrating the climate risk information and adaptation measures in the two mainstream rural development programs of that time (Divi Neguma and Gama Neguma). The project was to conduct climate risk assessments in 12 vulnerable districts to identify areas with greater risk; and train district planning officials to manage climate risks (Outcome 2). These districts were identified as the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change in Sri Lanka (at the time of project preparation). As per the project document, the project was to work with a range of technical partners- such as the Departments of Agriculture, Irrigation, Livestock, and Disaster Management Centre. At village level, the project was to support Department of Divinaguma Development for incorporation of climate risk assessments into every Grama Niladhari Division (GND) level Village Development Plan. The project was to deliver concrete adaptation measures in Puttlam, Kurunegala, and Rathnapura districts, which are highly vulnerable to climate change (Outcome 3), building on the government-funded Gama Neguma and Divi Neguma rural development programmes. The measures were to include enhanced water storage and its rational use, conservation of soil, coastal ecosystems for improved agricultural production, improved crop choice and built infrastructure such as roads, irrigation systems and water supply which incorporate climate risk reduction


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction Ecosystem based adaption Water resources Oversight Infrastructure

26.

Project Objective: Increase the resilience of communities to climate change induced hazards through integration of climate smart policies and actions into development planning budgeting.

Indicator 1:

Indicator 1, required achievements at the national level, however, due to scaling down of the activities, the achievements of the project have become more regional (and not national). In order to take care of this situation to the extent possible, the project board as part of its work in the year 2017, included the activities relating to sharing the experiences of the three districts (where the concrete adaptation actions had been defined and implemented) with other nine districts which are vulnerable to climate change. In this regard some of the specific activities which were carried out are as follows:


Tag: Knowledge management Value Chain Capacity Building Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building National Regional

27.

Indicator 2:

The achievement against indicator 2 of the project objective has been only in three districts (instead of 12 originally targeted). Once again this is due to the changes made in the project design and the planned activities. The project has also achieved some results at the national level. Some of the specific achievements of the project against Indicator 2 are as follows:

  • Climate risk assessment included in Village Development planning process in 45 GNDs of North Western Province and 15 GNDs of Rathnapura district
  • Climate risk assessment included in Divisional Development planning process in 18 DSDs of North Western Province and 4 DSDs of Rathnapura district
  • Climate risk assessment included in Agriculture Development planning in North Western Province and Sabaragamuwa Province
  • Risk sensitive development planning in District Secretariats in Kurunegala, Puttalam and Rathnapura districts
  • Climate change adaptation included in minor irrigation development planning in national level (new circular issued to incorporate climate change adaptation into minor irrigation rehabilitation planning)
  • Climate change adaptation included into larger scale minor irrigation development projects of Strategic Enterprises Development Agency (SEMA) of Presidential Secretariat
  • Incorporation of climatic change adaptation into national agriculture policy is in progress

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction

28.

5.2 Relevance

The policy framework of Sri Lanka which is relevant to this project, includes national policies on agriculture, environment, climate change and disaster management. Agriculture policies and national economic policies support the upliftment of smallholder farmers. The budget speech for 2016 notes that the farmers are a vulnerable segment of the society, battered by the changing weather patterns as well as the inability to get a reasonable price for their produce. The policies promote crop diversification, stronger role for the private sector to provide good quality seed, tax concessions for agriculture machinery, equipment and drip irrigation systems, and provision of storage facilities for farm products. Similar mention has been made in the budget speech for the year 2018, wherein it was pointed out that the changing weather patterns, including the prolonged droughts, frequent floods and landslides are the challenges being faced. One of the areas where the budget for the year 2018 had laid emphasis is the environmentally sustainable development strategy (Green Lanka). The budget speech recognises that unsustainable agricultural practices adopted over time have resulted in low productivity, degradation of the soil, compromising the quality of water and water sources; and a paradigm shift is needed to transit into eco-friendlier agriculture practices.


Tag: Agriculture Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction Environment Policy Natural Resouce management Water resources Relevance

29.

5.3 Effectiveness & Efficiency

Although, the project activities got scaled down, the project has been able to achieve most of its objectives (on a lesser scale) envisaged. Due to scaling down of the project the effectiveness of the project has reduced to some extent. The three Outcomes of the projects were to support the effectiveness of each other. For example, Outcome 2 of the project was to support Outcome 3 of the project and significantly increase its effectiveness. Outcome 3 was to act as a demonstration / pilot for other 9 most vulnerable districts, thereby encouraging development of policies and initiatives for climate-resilient development, thereby supporting the Outcome 1 of the project. As has been pointed out in the MTR report, at the time of MTR, the efforts towards information dissemination regarding the project results (with the objective to achieve replication and up-scaling) were lacking.

Based on the recommendations of the MTR, steps were taken by the project team to showcase the implementation of the adaptive measures in the three most vulnerable districts to the officials and communities in the other 9 vulnerable districts. The actions by the project team included the development of knowledge products, dissemination of information, publication of articles etc. These actions have certainly helped to improve the effectiveness of the project.
 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Resilience building Effectiveness Communication Knowledge management Policies & Procedures Value Chain

30.

5.4 Country ownership

The project is in line with the development priorities and plans of Sri Lanka. This has been explained in details in section 5.2. When it comes to the country ownership, there were some minor issues, which largely originates from the design of the project itself. The project has focused on the selected locations within the three districts of the country. The participation by the central government has been by way of chairmanship of the steering committee and members to the steering committee from different central ministries. The Project Steering Committee was established by the Implementing Partner (Ministry of Disaster Management), with core members comprised of representatives of different government ministries and departments. Considering that the Ministry of Disaster Management is one of the smallest ministries within the government setup and that the main focus of the project was the agriculture, improvements in livelihood, irrigation, water management, MDM had its limitations to implement the project at its own. To take care of this situation, the ownership of activities was obtained from the respective departments. The Ministry of Disaster Management was relevant as the ‘Implementation Partner’ with respect to its role for co-ordination with all the departments. However, as the steering committee has the members from other ministries and the role of the implementing agency was more or less administrative in nature, there were no adverse impacts on the execution of the project.


Tag: Implementation Modality Oversight Ownership Coordination

31.

5.5 Mainstreaming

UNDP has a long history of supporting climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, UNDP has been working as a key development partner of choice since 1967, to achieve sustainable human development in economic, social and environmental fronts. Working closely with the Government at the national, regional and local levels, and civil society and the private sector. UNDP aims at eradicating extreme poverty, and reducing inequalities and exclusion to protect both people and the planet. The project was fully compliant with UNDP’s environmental and social safeguards defined by integration of precautionary principle into programme/project management cycles. The very design of this project correlates to the main objective of safeguarding to prevent and mitigate undue harm to the environment and people at the earliest possible planning stage, and to identify and realize opportunities to strengthen environmental and social sustainability, including climate resiliency, of programming. The selected sectors (agriculture, water resources management; infrastructure development; integrated coastal zone management) are in line with the priorities areas of UNDP.


Tag: Natural Resouce management Financial Inclusion Jobs and Livelihoods Operational Services

32.

5.6 Sustainability

One of the risks to sustainability of the impacts created under the project is the availability of funds to carry out the maintenance of the adaptive actions carried out under the project. For example, maintenance of the tanks is a continuous requirement. There is no lack of knowledge regarding the need to maintain the tanks regularly. However, this was not happening due to lack of funds and budget allocation by the government. While the project has created a one-time impact by rehabilitating the tanks at selected locations, it has not been able to make the maintenance of tanks a continuous process. Further, the possibility of the communities undertaking the process of maintenance of tanks at their own in future are remote due to lack of availability of funds and also due to government policy like authority and jurisdiction to undertake such kind of activities. To take care of this, the communities have come out with the ways to generate revenues on a sustained basis (by putting a user charge for the services). These revenues will be used for maintenance of the tanks.


Tag: Sustainability Operational Efficiency

33.

Other adaptive actions undertaken under the project like home gardening, micro irrigation, water management etc. are likely to sustain as these directly benefit the individual farmers and the market forces will motivate the farmers to make the required investment in such activities. Establishment of collection centers, farmers market development initiative and buy back guarantees will improve the sustainability of the agriculture development actions through establishment of the viable business models. Since all the agriculture development works were implemented through Provincial Department of Agriculture, sustainability will be further ensured through continuous follow up of activities through regular extension services of the government.  Overall, the private and public partnership will improve the sustainability of the agriculture development actions. The sustainability of the project from the view point of financial risks is considered to be Likely


Tag: Agriculture Water resources Sustainability Value Chain

34.

The project has successfully created an inertia in the thinking within the government stakeholders, like national government entities, district / divisional administration and local authorities, regarding the need to integrate climate change adaptation issues in the development planning process. One of the ‘risks’ to sustainability of the achievement is the inability to sustain the shift, in the thinking within the national government entities.


Tag: Sustainability National Institutions Regional Institutions

35.

 

Wherever adaptive actions have been implemented on the ground, they have created a positive impact in the incomes of the farming community. There are no socio-economic issues associated with the project. From the view point of Socio-political risk to the sustainability of the impacts, the sustainability has been rated as Likely. This is considering that there are a number of climate change adaptation projects which are under implementation in Sri Lanka. These projects will help to maintain and sustain the inertia in the thinking regarding the need to integrate climate change adaptation in the development planning process.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Sustainability

36.

As such there is no institutional and governance risk to sustainability of the project results except for the fact that the institutional framework for implementation of climate change adaptive actions on the ground involves multiple agencies. From the view point of institutional framework and governance risks, the sustainability of the project is Likely.


Tag: Sustainability National Institutions

37.

There are no negative environmental impacts of the project, other than some minor impacts due to change in the land-use pattern. There is a remote possibility of environmental impacts due to changes in the cropping pattern as an adaptive measure. From the view point of environmental risk, sustainability of the project is Likely.


Tag: Environmental impact assessment Sustainability

38.

5.7 Impact

The project was to address climate change induced problems in Sri Lanka. The climate-induced problem which the project was to address is recurrent climate change related impacts posing threats to the government’s aim of developing strong rural economies. In order to address this problem, the project aimed at incorporation of adaptation to climate change into the design and implementation of rural livelihood development and rural infrastructure development programs. 

The interventions carried out under the project included development of institutional capacities to assess risk, designing appropriate interventions and implementing adaptation actions with community participation. The achievement of the project objectives is satisfactory and the project made the required impacts. However, due to scaling down of the project, the achievements have been to a lesser extent. The project has demonstrated verifiable improvements in ecological status. Also, the project has demonstrated verifiable reductions of stress on the ecological system.

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Impact Infrastructure Institutional Strengthening

39.

The implementation of the ‘Disaster Management Policy’ in Sri Lanka is facilitated by several strategic plans including “Road Map Towards a Safer Sri Lanka 2005-2015”, which focuses on preparedness and response to disasters, awareness and creation of the legal and institutional structures, and contributing to an enabling environment for risk reduction. It promotes the communities, local governments and sub national agencies having necessary capacities and mechanisms to respond to, and recover from, disasters.

National Agriculture Policy of Sri Lanka aims at meeting the basic needs of the farming community in terms of food and nutrition security and enhancing employment opportunities and incomes. The policies promote production and utilization of organic fertilizers and gradual reduction in the use of chemical fertilizers. It also supports reduction in the use of synthetic pesticides through the promotion of bio – pesticides and integrated pest management. Therefore, the agricultural policy is complementary to the efforts of the government to reduce health hazards resulting from heavy metals from various forms of fertilizers and agrochemicals that are entering the human body through the food chain.

The Project interventions contribute to the achievement of these policy objectives. Therefore, it is concluded that the project has been designed, with due regard to the national policy framework of Sri Lanka.


Tag: Agriculture Disaster risk management Disaster Risk Reduction Relevance Policies & Procedures

40.

With regard to the institutional framework, this report highlighted the political changes that in turn resulted in changing the implementation setup and was thus, accompanied by delays. It is apparent that the project was designed in response to the institutional framework that existed at the time of design. It may be appreciated that the subsequent changes to the institutional arrangements were beyond the control of the Project.

Further, the project was focused on implementation of priority adaptation interventions as identified by Sri Lanka’s Second National Communication to UNFCCC and Sri Lanka’s National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. Key vulnerabilities identified in the Second National Communication were Agriculture/Food Security, Coastal Zones and Marine Ecosystems, Water Resources and Public Health.

Although, the overall objectives of the project and its relevance have not changed since the time of project design, the project design itself has undergone significant changes in the course of its implementation due to political changes and the changes in the institutional set up.

Apart from being in line with the policy framework of Sri Lanka (National Climate Change Policy, Development Policy Framework Roadmap for Disaster Risk Management), the project is fully compliant with UNDP’s environmental and social safeguards defined by integration of precautionary principles into programme/project management cycles. The very design of this project correlates to the main objectives of the safeguards – to prevent and mitigate undue harm to the environment and people at the earliest possible planning stage, and to identify and realize opportunities to strengthen environmental and social sustainability, including climate resiliency of programming. The selected sectors (agriculture, water resources management; infrastructure development; integrated coastal zone management) are in line with the priorities outlined in the GEF document.


Tag: Challenges Relevance Programme/Project Design National Institutions

Recommendations
1

The project has facilitated implementation of the pilots for alternate means of livelihood (bee keeping, drying of foods etc.) by providing the required equipment. However, the equipment for such activities needs periodic replacement. To ensure sustainability, it would be helpful if the project includes the initiatives to make such equipment locally available. The initiatives to make the equipment locally available may include the designs and skills to the fabricators at the local level. Local availability of the equipment would also help in the replication of the initiatives, thus, multiplying the results manifold. It is recommended that the project design involving the pilots having provision of equipment, must combine such a provision with the development of the skills for fabrication of such equipment at the local level.

2

The project has supported development of entrepreneurship amongst the farming community at some locations. It is recommended that the project design includes activities facilitating development of entrepreneurship through introduction of specific courses (targeted at youth) at some of the vocational institutes / colleges, on specific opportunities (e.g. mushroom cultivation, drying processing of agro products, making of jams / juices / pickles), along with training on commercial aspects (marketing, accounting, management etc.). The effectiveness of such an initiative may be further increased via efforts towards the development of the micro enterprises and the availability of micro finance to the youths trained at these vocational institutes / colleges.

3

The pilot under the project has been able to demonstrate that there is a great possibility of reduction in the expenditure (by the government) in the form of relief provided in case of disaster risk reduction (DRR) projects (e.g. construction of all weather approach roads / bridges). In some cases, the reduction in the expenditure for relief would pay for the capital expenditure done on the DRR projects. It is recommended that a case study highlighting the cost benefit analysis of the DRR pilots done under the project be carried out and further case studies be prepared to highlight the aspect of reduction in the relief expenditure.

4

In order to make good use of the success of the project, case studies / knowledge products (particularly from the pilots) may be produced and disseminated using different media. Such case studies / knowledge projects can also be the part of the curriculum on climate smart agriculture etc., which is being proposed under recommendation 8.

5

Making use of the training modules that were developed as part of the training activities undertaken under the project, the universities / colleges may introduce short duration courses for government officials and other stakeholders. These courses may include case studies and field trips to the pilots undertaken under the project. This will help to upscale the results of the project to the provincial and national level.  An information center on climate smart agriculture along with an information dissemination (in local language) mechanism (including a dedicated website) may be created and hosted in a university (please see recommendation 8 as well).

6

One of the adaptive measures, which could have been combined with the set of measures introduced under the project is Livestock (along with biogas) and fisheries. This may require involvement of the Department of Fisheries and the Department of Animal Husbandry. It is recommended that future projects for climate change adaptation may include the measures like livestock, dairy (along with biogas).

7

While different climate smart measures introduced under the project have helped the local communities, combination of these measures with the post-harvest care can multiply the effectiveness of the measures (based on discussions with stakeholders it is estimated that presently there is 30-40 percent wastage). It is recommended that the future projects should include components pertaining to post harvest care.

8

One of the prerequisites to achieve the upscaling and replication of a successful demonstration is to ensure the availability of skilled / trained human resources on a sustained basis. This can be achieved by introducing courses relating to adaptation towards climate change (e.g. climate smart agriculture practices, adaptive practices for water management etc.) in the schools, colleges and the universities. It is recommended that a course on climate smart agriculture be introduced in one of the universities. Such a course may make good use of the case studies / knowledge products created under this project. Further, the demonstrations / field training at the sites of the pilots implemented under this project can be effectively used for the same. The university may also host a website to disseminate the information about ‘climate smart agriculture’. (please see recommendations 4 and 5 as well).

9

The project has promoted alternate cropping of the paddy fields as one of the strategies to improve the resilience of the farming community. However, an important aspect to be noted in this regard is to make the required changes in the Paddy Lands Act, No. 1 of 1958 and the Agricultural Lands Act, No. 42 of 1973, to allow the use of Paddy Lands for alternate crops. Somehow, this important aspect got missed out in the design and implementation of the project. It is recommended that this policy reform may be taken up in a subsequent climate change adaptation project.

10

As a part of an earlier project, some of the farmers are practicing rain water harvesting (from rooftop) at the household level, using tanks. The tanks were provided as a part of that project. The water collected through this system serves the drinking and cooking needs of the family for 6-9 months. The concept of roof top water harvesting using tanks did not get replicated (in-spite of the interest), due to high initial cost of the tank. The lesson learnt is that apart from demonstrations, it is also necessary to include the activities which will reduce the capital cost (e.g. training / technology transfer to fabricate tanks at the local level, use of alternate materials, mass production to get the benefit of the scale of operations, increase the sources of supply to bring in the market forces etc.). Since drinking water as well as the water requirement for the home gardening is one of the key issues, the future projects may explore the possibility to integrate rain water harvesting at the household level as one of the activities. The rain water harvesting component may include ideas to reduce the upfront cost. Please see recommendation 1 as well.

11

In most of the cases while selecting the beneficiaries, emphasis is often laid upon the attributes like most venerable, poorest etc. While it is good to do so, it will help to take on board some of the beneficiaries with good resources, to enable the upscaling of the activities.

12

At the pilots, as a part of home gardening, the use of plastic films / bags got promoted. While facilitating the use of plastic films for home gardening, education regarding the hazards associated with its usage may also be highlighted. This may be combined with the knowledge regarding safe disposal of used plastic films.

1. Recommendation:

The project has facilitated implementation of the pilots for alternate means of livelihood (bee keeping, drying of foods etc.) by providing the required equipment. However, the equipment for such activities needs periodic replacement. To ensure sustainability, it would be helpful if the project includes the initiatives to make such equipment locally available. The initiatives to make the equipment locally available may include the designs and skills to the fabricators at the local level. Local availability of the equipment would also help in the replication of the initiatives, thus, multiplying the results manifold. It is recommended that the project design involving the pilots having provision of equipment, must combine such a provision with the development of the skills for fabrication of such equipment at the local level.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

A good recommendation but it doesnt fit the context, therefore disagree with this recommendation.

Key Actions:

2. Recommendation:

The project has supported development of entrepreneurship amongst the farming community at some locations. It is recommended that the project design includes activities facilitating development of entrepreneurship through introduction of specific courses (targeted at youth) at some of the vocational institutes / colleges, on specific opportunities (e.g. mushroom cultivation, drying processing of agro products, making of jams / juices / pickles), along with training on commercial aspects (marketing, accounting, management etc.). The effectiveness of such an initiative may be further increased via efforts towards the development of the micro enterprises and the availability of micro finance to the youths trained at these vocational institutes / colleges.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

 Yes good recommendation, but this is not within the scope of existing UNDP Projects.

 

Key Actions:

3. Recommendation:

The pilot under the project has been able to demonstrate that there is a great possibility of reduction in the expenditure (by the government) in the form of relief provided in case of disaster risk reduction (DRR) projects (e.g. construction of all weather approach roads / bridges). In some cases, the reduction in the expenditure for relief would pay for the capital expenditure done on the DRR projects. It is recommended that a case study highlighting the cost benefit analysis of the DRR pilots done under the project be carried out and further case studies be prepared to highlight the aspect of reduction in the relief expenditure.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

This is a very good recommendation and Country Office has already started this dialogue with the Ministry of Disaster Management under the ongoing recovery project. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will carry out case studies to investigate the correlation between investment on mitigation and relief expenditure. This case study will be used to lobby with the Ministry of Disaster Management for greater investment in Disaster Mitigation actions.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/12/23]
Sureka Perera, Programme and Design Quality Analyst 2019/12 Completed There is correlation between investment on Ministry mitigation and relief expenditure History
4. Recommendation:

In order to make good use of the success of the project, case studies / knowledge products (particularly from the pilots) may be produced and disseminated using different media. Such case studies / knowledge projects can also be the part of the curriculum on climate smart agriculture etc., which is being proposed under recommendation 8.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

 A case-study will be published which will contribute to the knowledge base on adaptation. However, curriculum development is not within the scope of existing UNDP projects

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Project will explore opportunities to publish case study that will contribute to the knowledge base on Climate Change Adaptation.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/12/23]
Sampath Abeyratne, Technical Specialist 2019/12 Completed A research paper on “determinants of climate change adaptation of dry zone farmers in Maha nanneriya cascade system” was submitted and accepted for a publication in the journal of “Sri Lanka Agriculture Extension Association” History
5. Recommendation:

Making use of the training modules that were developed as part of the training activities undertaken under the project, the universities / colleges may introduce short duration courses for government officials and other stakeholders. These courses may include case studies and field trips to the pilots undertaken under the project. This will help to upscale the results of the project to the provincial and national level.  An information center on climate smart agriculture along with an information dissemination (in local language) mechanism (including a dedicated website) may be created and hosted in a university (please see recommendation 8 as well).

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

GCF funded “Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project” already initiated the development of a national guideline for Climate Smart Agriculture, which will provide recommendations for incorporating climate smart agriculture into curriculum for the trainings of Agriculture Instructors of the Provincial Departments of Agriculture.   

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1. Completion of National Guideline on Climate Smart Agriculture.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2020/07/14]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2020/06 Completed National Guideline on Climate Smart Agriculture has been completed in Dec 2019 and finalized in June 2020 and submitted for printing. History
2. Training manuals of Provincial Department of Agriculture (North Western Province) will be improved by incorporating Climate Smart Agriculture, according to the directives of the National Guideline.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2020/07/14]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2020/06 Completed Climate Smart Agriculture manual has been completed and submitted for printing. History
6. Recommendation:

One of the adaptive measures, which could have been combined with the set of measures introduced under the project is Livestock (along with biogas) and fisheries. This may require involvement of the Department of Fisheries and the Department of Animal Husbandry. It is recommended that future projects for climate change adaptation may include the measures like livestock, dairy (along with biogas).

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

The design of GCF funded “Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project” included  the development of diversified livelihoods including livestock and fisheries development interventions. GCF project already initiated the livestock and fisheries development planning process with relevant government authorities as well as the minor irrigation tank dependent communities. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1. The livestock and fisheries development participatory assessments will be conducted with minor tank dependent communities.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/10/30]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2019/09 Completed Field level assessments were conducted for livestock development under Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project (CRIWMP) (i.e. for cattle farming and poultry keeping). Based on these field level assessments, animal husbandry programme was already started under CRIWMP project. A contract was raised with National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA) in order to carry out aquaculture development works under CRIWMP Project. NAQDA has already carried out necessary assessments for aquaculture development and those assessments were based for planning the aquaculture development work. Therefore, additional assessment was not required. CRIWMP project established bio gas unit in Anuradhapura district in year 2019 and this will be up scaled in year 2020. History
2. Implement participatory Livestock and fisheries development intervention.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/12/23]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2019/12 Completed Animal husbandry programme (poultry keeping and cattle farming) programmes were implemented under Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project in Kurunegala, Puttalam, Anuradhapura, Vavuniya districts in year 2019 History
7. Recommendation:

While different climate smart measures introduced under the project have helped the local communities, combination of these measures with the post-harvest care can multiply the effectiveness of the measures (based on discussions with stakeholders it is estimated that presently there is 30-40 percent wastage). It is recommended that the future projects should include components pertaining to post harvest care.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

Future projects as well as ongoing projects including GCF funded “Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project” will consider to improve the post-harvest handling of vegetables.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP to improve post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables in the farmers market in selected locations via GCF project.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/12/23]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2019/12 Completed Foldable trays were introduced to Farmer Market in Kurunegala in order to reduce the post harvest losses of fruits and vegetables. The farmers were also trained on post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables History
8. Recommendation:

One of the prerequisites to achieve the upscaling and replication of a successful demonstration is to ensure the availability of skilled / trained human resources on a sustained basis. This can be achieved by introducing courses relating to adaptation towards climate change (e.g. climate smart agriculture practices, adaptive practices for water management etc.) in the schools, colleges and the universities. It is recommended that a course on climate smart agriculture be introduced in one of the universities. Such a course may make good use of the case studies / knowledge products created under this project. Further, the demonstrations / field training at the sites of the pilots implemented under this project can be effectively used for the same. The university may also host a website to disseminate the information about ‘climate smart agriculture’. (please see recommendations 4 and 5 as well).

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

Case studies will be locally published in order to contribute to the existing knowledge base. However, curriculum development is not within the scope of existing UNDP projects 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Case studies on climate change adaptation will be locally published which will contribute to the adaptation knowledge base
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/12/23]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2019/12 Completed A research paper on “determinants of climate change adaptation of dry zone farmers in Maha nanneriya cascade system” was submitted and accepted for a publication in the journal of “Sri Lanka Agriculture Extension Association” History
9. Recommendation:

The project has promoted alternate cropping of the paddy fields as one of the strategies to improve the resilience of the farming community. However, an important aspect to be noted in this regard is to make the required changes in the Paddy Lands Act, No. 1 of 1958 and the Agricultural Lands Act, No. 42 of 1973, to allow the use of Paddy Lands for alternate crops. Somehow, this important aspect got missed out in the design and implementation of the project. It is recommended that this policy reform may be taken up in a subsequent climate change adaptation project.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

GCF funded “Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project” will develop National Climate Smart Agriculture Guideline, which will recommend the inclusion of the required provisions in the Paddy Act and Agriculture Land Act to allow use of paddy land for cultivation other field crops.
 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP to support Natural Resources Management Center of the Ministry of Agriculture to develop the National Climate Smart Agriculture Guideline.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/08/19]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2019/07 Completed UNDP supported NRMC of PDOA by appointing a consultant to work with NRMC for developing national guideline on climate smart agriculture development. History
10. Recommendation:

As a part of an earlier project, some of the farmers are practicing rain water harvesting (from rooftop) at the household level, using tanks. The tanks were provided as a part of that project. The water collected through this system serves the drinking and cooking needs of the family for 6-9 months. The concept of roof top water harvesting using tanks did not get replicated (in-spite of the interest), due to high initial cost of the tank. The lesson learnt is that apart from demonstrations, it is also necessary to include the activities which will reduce the capital cost (e.g. training / technology transfer to fabricate tanks at the local level, use of alternate materials, mass production to get the benefit of the scale of operations, increase the sources of supply to bring in the market forces etc.). Since drinking water as well as the water requirement for the home gardening is one of the key issues, the future projects may explore the possibility to integrate rain water harvesting at the household level as one of the activities. The rain water harvesting component may include ideas to reduce the upfront cost. Please see recommendation 1 as well.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

The design of GCF funded “Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project”, includes the promotion of rain water harvesting for drinking and cooking purposes. Baseline survey of the GCF project established the baseline situation of the rain water harvesting in dry zone Sri Lanka.   Sri Lanka rain water harvesting forum also investigated the perception of the users on existing rain water harvesting tanks during year 2018. GCF project will use these findings as well to design appropriate rainwater harvesting tank prototypes for dry zone Sri Lanka.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1. Rain water harvesting perception survey will be conducted.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2018/07/24]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2018/07 Completed Rain water harvesting perception survey has been completed, and report is developed in draft mode. History
2. Identify the rain water harvesting tank prototypes.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2018/09/30]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2018/08 Completed History
3. Implement the construction of the Rain Harvesting Tanks
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/12/23]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2019/12 Completed Rainwater harvesting projects were implemented in Kurunegala, Puttalam, Vavuniya, Anuradhapura districts with mote than households in year 2019 History
11. Recommendation:

In most of the cases while selecting the beneficiaries, emphasis is often laid upon the attributes like most venerable, poorest etc. While it is good to do so, it will help to take on board some of the beneficiaries with good resources, to enable the upscaling of the activities.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

GCF funded “Climate Resilient Integrated Water Management Project” will consider this where cross-subsidizing or scale is possible. In any case, the value-chain development activities do include actors that can help enhance the markets.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1. Farmers market value chain will be established via the farmer association beneficiary selection by the GCF Project.
[Added: 2018/06/19] [Last Updated: 2019/12/23]
Sampath Aberatne, Technical Specialist. 2020/12 Completed Completed through the GCF project (value chain was strongly established and famer market is functioning well) History
12. Recommendation:

At the pilots, as a part of home gardening, the use of plastic films / bags got promoted. While facilitating the use of plastic films for home gardening, education regarding the hazards associated with its usage may also be highlighted. This may be combined with the knowledge regarding safe disposal of used plastic films.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/06/18] [Last Updated: 2021/01/28]

Home gardening beneficiaries who adopted pot farming methods were educated on safe-disposal methods.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Necessary awareness to be conducted for the selected communities
[Added: 2018/06/20]
Sampath Abeyratne, Technical Specialist 2018/06 Completed History

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