Mid-Term Evaluation: UN-REDD Programme National Programme Myanmar

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2018-2022, Myanmar
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
11/2018
Completion Date:
01/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
10,000

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Title Mid-Term Evaluation: UN-REDD Programme National Programme Myanmar
Atlas Project Number: 00094328
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2022, Myanmar
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 01/2019
Planned End Date: 11/2018
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Sustainable
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.4.1 Solutions scaled up for sustainable management of natural resources, including sustainable commodities and green and inclusive value chains
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG Target
  • 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
Evaluation Budget(US $): 10,000
Source of Funding: Project Budgets
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 7,900
Joint Programme: Yes
Joint Evaluation: Yes
  • Joint with UNEP and FAO
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Leandro Fernandez
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Forest Department, Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MONREC) government institutions, forest-dependent communities, Regional Community Forestry Training Center (RECOFTC), indigenous peoples (IP), private sector
Countries: MYANMAR
Lessons
Findings
1.

4. Assessment of programme implementation progress

The MTR finds that results are being achieved across the entire spectrum of the Programme, with relatively high degrees of achievement at the output level. Notable achievements have been made in the areas of forest monitoring and MRV, Emissions Reference Level, stakeholder engagement, and the development of national REDD+ governance system. The MTR assess the progress towards indicators and targets specified in the programme results framework, by the first two years of implementation and found out that the overall programme implementation progress is very satisfactory, considering that in most of the outputs the target expected for the 24 months period were achieved. The only output that does not achieve the target is 5.2, while output 3.2 shows slight delays but is still on track to deliver the activities expected at end of 2018. However, it is estimated that the most reasonable explanation for the non-achievement of these targets seems to be that the original plan proposed was very ambitious for these two results and/or that they depend on preliminary assessment that themselves got delayed.For output 3.2, SIS design requires a certain amount of progress on safeguards approach first. Some delays happened during the recruitment for the sub-national consultations on the National REDD+ Strategy (with knock on effects for benefits & risks assessment) and more recently during the recruitment for the assessment of information systems and sources. It is worth noting that the implementing agencies have speed up the activities in response to a request by the NP, despite stakeholder feedback that they prefer to go more slowly.


Tag: Forestry Natural Resouce management Effectiveness Efficiency Civic Engagement Donor relations Implementation Modality Integration Partnership Policies & Procedures Project and Programme management Results-Based Management Awareness raising Institutional Strengthening

2.

5. Performance assessment

5.1 Programme Relevance

Relevance is used here to imply the extent to which the objectives of the Myanmar programme are consistent with the needs and priorities of key stakeholders. The section examines the relevance of the programme from the national perspectives, its responsiveness to country needs, the appropriateness of its primary objective and the soundness of its intended causal relationships. To assess the relevance, the reviewers relied mostly on stakeholder perceptions and documented sources of evidence. In general, the programme has a strong linkage to UNFCCC framework make it highly relevant in the context of climate change agenda. Its objectives, outcomes, and outputs are fully consistent with the REDD+ at a global scale and related efforts to address the world forests protection. The Program exerts a positive influence on the need to establish the key role of forest ecosystem services and benefits at the top of national agenda and build the capacity of the country to develop sustainable economic pathways that support the maintenance of forests, their resources, and forest-dependent communities.


Tag: Forestry Rural development Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Environment Policy Natural Resouce management Relevance Institutional Strengthening

3.

5. Performance assessment 

5.2 Programme Effectiveness

In order to assess the Program effectiveness, the likelihood of achieving the expected outcomes in the remaining period was carried out. Further, the review assessed factors that may promote or inhibit the realization of the expected outcomes. The table below outlines the criteria/guiding questions, findings and ratings related to the effectiveness of the NP. Overall, there is a high likelihood of realizing the programme outcomes. Overall, the programme is effective in terms of producing key outputs, and progress towards outcomes is improving on time. Specifically, notable achievements are being made regarding the four pillars of Warsaw REDD+ framework. Furthermore, there are important achievements around raising awareness of the critical importance of forests and the need for stakeholder engagement, as well as providing forest-dependent communities with a unique platform to voice their rights, needs, and concerns. The programme is contributing to the expansion of the Green Growth paradigm in the country and the development of country capacities in a number of areas. Nevertheless, sustaining outcome level results is an ongoing challenge.


Tag: Forestry Green Climate Green Economy Natural Resouce management Effectiveness Awareness raising

4.

5. Performance assessment 

5.3 Programme Efficiency

The term efficiency refers to how well the programme uses available resources, including both financial and human resources, time, and other organizational capacities, to meet its objectives. Specifically, the evaluation sought to determine the degree to which the programme relies on appropriate management systems to track, monitor, and evaluate the use of resources; whether the distribution of resources appears appropriate, relative to the quality and timeliness of key outputs and the contributions of the three UN partner agencies; whether inter-agency coordination is contributing to improved efficiency gains; and whether agency capacities and the global UN-REDD programme are being fully leveraged. In general, the resources and quality of programme results are perceived as acceptable. Nevertheless, more capacity to analyze and decide how to best allocate available resources to achieve objectives is necessary to improve the efficiency.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Operational Efficiency Results-Based Management

5.

5. Performance assessment 

5.4 Programme Impact

At this stage of the Myanmar UN-REDD National Programme implementation, the full impact cannot be realistically assessed as many activities under each outcome are in the process of being implemented. However, the programme implementation is on track with likelihood to deliver substantial impact to the short-and longer-term objectives. The programme long-term impacts can safely be presumed as high since the National REDD+ process and the associated activities are expected to contribute towards the delivery of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC), as well as to the National Development Plan (2011-30) and National Climate Change Strategy and associated action plans, under development in the National Environmental Conservation Committee and Climate Change Central Committee (NEC). The coming into force of the Paris Agreement (2015) brings the promise of financial support towards developing countries with an ambition for mitigation actions such as ones being proposed in the Myanmar REDD+ strategy. Additionally, since the REDD+ process is being positioned to prepare for the result-based payments with clear benefit sharing arrangement and grievance redress mechanism for all stakeholders, it is likely to lead to improved socioeconomic conditions once the economically viable options of the REDD+ strategy are implemented.


Tag: Impact Resource mobilization Oversight Policies & Procedures

6.

5. Performance assessment 

5.5 Cross-Cutting Issues

5.5.1 Gender

A gender balanced team in the REDD+ Readiness governance structures is in place. The gender balance of participation in TWG and Consultations was assessed. The gender balance among TWG nominees across the 3 TWGs is Male 61:39 female; for actual attendance, at TWG meetings the ratio is 70:30; for the sub-national consultations on the draft Strategy, the ratio for Male: Female participants was 78:22. However, the implementation of gender mainstreaming activities at the country level is not taking place in a systematic manner and more attention to gender issues will be crucial to address the drivers of deforestation and REDD+ strategy implementation. 


Tag: Forestry Rural development Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Gender Parity Civic Engagement Human rights Policies & Procedures Indigenous people

7.

5. Performance assessment 

5.5 Cross-Cutting Issues 

5.5.3 Indigenous Peoples

There is a lack of common understanding about the internationally-recognized concept of indigenous peoples by the stakeholders in the country and this term is not commonly used in official document and processes. The definition of "indigenous peoples” or “ethnic group” in the context of REDD+ is under discussion in the ongoing national safeguards clarification process. In addition to that, there is not available accurate information about the number of indigenous peoples in the country. The government recognizes eight broad ethnic categories and 135 subgroups within these main ethnic groups. The non-Burman ethnic groups in Myanmar have strongly asserted their distinct identities as ‘ethnic nationalities'. However, some stakeholders have reservations about the definition of ‘ethnic groups' in existing laws (such as the Law on Protection of the Rights of Ethnic Nationalities). The participants of the safeguards clarification workshop recommended not using that definition, as they felt it did not capture all relevant aspects and did not recognize that not all ethnic groups are native and also concerns were raised that the list of 135 recognized ethnic subgroups does not include all relevant ethnic groups in the country. According to the 1982 Citizenship Law, those ‘ethnic groups’ who have been present in the current geographical area of Myanmar since before first British annexation are considered “taing yin tha”, which is usually translated as ‘indigenous or ethnic’. Nevertheless, the government claims that all full citizens of Myanmar are ‘indigenous’ (taing yin tha), and on that basis undermine the applicability of UNFCCC REDD+ Safeguards and other relevant standards, such as the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). CSO and NGO use the Myanmar language term “taing yin tha” for indigenous peoples, based on the international concept, using the criteria of non-dominance in the national context, historical continuity, ancestral territories, and self-identification. 


Tag: Forestry Natural Resouce management Effectiveness Human rights Policies & Procedures Inclusive economic growth Awareness raising Indigenous people

8.

6. Sustainability

The mid and long-term sustainability of programme activities and achievements, once interventions end is unclear. The sustainability of Programme results is one of the main challenges for the two next years of the programme implementation. The program extension from 2020 is uncertain considering the absence of new funds at the moment. This issue was particularly highlighted by most of the stakeholders. In this sense, the programme need more support and focus on considering advancing the piloting REDD+ activities on the ground that can serve as feedback to the readiness process. It is crucial for sustainability to foster the establishment of new partnerships and funding proposal development to ensure the sustainable financing for phases II and III of REDD+. The development of an Investment Program is a key tool to achieve progress in this matter.


Tag: Effectiveness Sustainability Communication Integration Knowledge management Institutional Strengthening Technical Support Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions

9.

6. Sustainability 

6.1 Country ownership The lack of deeper inter-sectoral ownership places some limitations on the sustainability of Programme results at the national level. The achievements of the Programme in relation to capacities and institutional processes are likely to be absorbed into existing work processes but are largely be limited to the MoNREC, where the programme is housed. However, in order to create a sense of national ownership, such awareness needs to be shared by others, both across sectors and vertically, from national to local governments and grassroots communities. Horizontal and vertical coordination is incipient, but some steps in this sense are moving up. More high-level political compromises are necessary for better managing cross-sectoral challenges. Also, is crucial implement integrated approaches that involve local decisionmaking bodies, in whose jurisdiction forests are principally located. In this sense consultation and capacity building about the benefit sharing mechanism will be an important step. 

6.3 Investment Program Resource mobilization is critical for the Sustainability of REDD+ readiness achievements and REDD+ implementation. The elaboration of a REDD+ investment program is one of the expected outputs of the programme and the country is starting the process. The main pillars (drivers’ analysis, REDD+ strategy, PLR) for the investment program are already developed or advanced. In this sense, the development of an investment program with a cross-sectoral and multi-proposal approach that seeks to respond to the strategic objectives and transformational vision established in the National REDD+ Strategy will put Myanmar in an advantageous position for consideration by donors and funding organizations. A REDD + Investment Program, aligned with the Government's priorities, which includes a portfolio of REDD + activities throughout the country, the main structural and political reforms, such as the reform of land tenure to guarantee rural tenure, a policy of land use planning, improvement of governance and a sustainable model of rural development with socioeconomic opportunities for local communities, and small farmers will serve as the pivotal framework guiding the implementation of REDD+ in Myanmar and is especially important for the transition from Phase I to Phase II and III. The REDD+ Investment Program will translate the vision of the National REDD+ Strategy into concrete framework for the coming years after 2020.


Tag: Forestry Natural Resouce management Sustainability Resource mobilization Ownership Policies & Procedures Country Government Institutional Strengthening

Recommendations
1

8. Recommendations

The following recommendations emerge from the findings and conclusions presented in the previous sections. They were developed on the basis of input provided by stakeholders’ interview, in country mission feedbacks, external reviews, and lessons learned from relevant sources. 

Outcome 1 and 2 

1: Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups – considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs including private sectors in the TF and TWGs.  Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups - considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs, private sectors, Academics, sub-nationals governments, in the TF ad TWGs.  Review TWG ToR to enhance the coordination of the 3 TWG (considering more joint meeting or combine REDD+ strategy and Safeguards groups).

2

2: The consultation until now was the focus on bringing information, but more focus consultation methodology has to be developed, particularly to address FPIC, EAOs, remote areas population, inter alia.

3

3 .  Enhance the coordination and UN Agencies joint activities and programming.   A regular meeting of PMU and focal points of collaborating agencies and minute of discussions and follow up. At least every 1 month.

4

4. Though the AWP is done jointly – agencies need to consider on hierarchy and sequencing of the activities - so that the results could be optimally utilized. Civil Society Stakeholders remarked there could be better coordination amongst three UN collaborating agencies in terms of organizing meetings/workshops and planning of joint activities. The Inter-agency coordination was perceived as weak to some stakeholders. Although these would be due to misinformation or incomplete perception, we recommend taking action to improve communication with civil society stakeholders about inter-agency coordination and the sequencing and hierarchy of activities

5

5. An initial capacity building needs assessment was conducted. Recommend reviewing the progress, finding gaps and coming up with a systematic approach to addressing the capacity needs together with other on-going UN projects, including other donors.

6

6. Conduct a national and comprehensive stakeholder dialogue process involving key government departments, CSO and representatives of ethnic peoples to either develop a common understanding and terminology acceptable to all sides, and consistent with the international standards of the UNFCCC and the UNDRIP.

7

7. UN-REDD have developed a framework for participatory governance assessments (PGA) for information sharing and learning on how REDD+ governance and safeguards can be addressed and respected in a systematic manner. This framework has been pilot and tested in several countries at the sub-national level. Recommend implement a sub-national pilot of the PGA to examine aspects of governance: legal and policy frameworks, capacities of REDD+ stakeholders at sub-national level, the impact of existing laws and practices, as well as anti-corruption and conflict issues.

8

8. Consultations about the development a grievance mechanism have been conducted. Recommend establish an initial national feedback and grievance redress mechanism as part of the REDD+ institutional arrangements. Such a mechanism needs to be available in order to facilitate handling of any request for feedback or complaint by any REDD+ Readiness stakeholders, with particular attention to providing adequate access to geographically and culturally isolated and vulnerable communities.

9

9. Make a focused approach to integrating relevant policies of REDD+ into national policy/law reforms and development process through formation of a small task force and clear timeline and entry points in reform process, with the support and the involvement of the three UN agencies.

10

10.  Develop a roadmap for sub-national implementation to support the development of sub-national REDD+ strategies.  Particularly, develop options of how to support community leads forest conservations.

11

11. Accelerate the REDD+ investment program development.

12

12. Develop innovative actions and mechanisms to increase high level support (policy brief, high level forums/meeting, parliamentarian meetings).  Use existing structures or coordination mechanisms to implement and scale up REDD+ across levels of government.  UN partner agencies with the implementation partner should advocate for higher-level political support. Consider the role of NECC and PEB to achieve this end.

13

13: UN partner agencies should work with the implementation partner to strengthen country ownership over allaspects of national REDD+ efforts, including the development of a more bottom-up approach. This general recommendation is tightly in line with the recommendations 2, 4, 11, 12, 16, 24, 28 and includes them at some extent.

The more bottom-up approach means a more vertically integrated or more decentralized approach that involves local decision making bodies in whose jurisdiction forests are principally located.

Also, signify the willingness to address claims or concerns of subnational stakeholders and to decentralize REDD+ efforts across governing structures and other stakeholders. For example, if financial resources will remain completely centralized in the future, the likelihood that any forest conservation effort succeeds is very low. In these sense, it is very important consider a communities based or pro-poor benefit share mechanism.

More decentralizing intervention would help strengthen ownership over the REDD+ agenda, ultimately improving

14

14. Greater emphasis could be placed on strengthening institutional coherence and capacity across levels of government. Recommend efforts to harmonize and support the institutional capacities across levels government, from community councils to district, and state level authorities. Giving priority to the sub-national areas with pilot initiatives or possible investments through other REDD+ initiatives or donors. Shifting the emphasis from national level programming to cross-scale and jurisdictional-level effort.

15

8. Recommendations

The following recommendations emerge from the findings and conclusions presented in the previous sections. They were developed on the basis of input provided by stakeholders’ interview, in country mission feedbacks, external reviews, and lessons learned from relevant sources.

Outcome 1 and 2

1. Strength the involvement of civil society in programme processes, as well as clarifies the respective constituencies of CSOs and IP organizations. Ensure the fair and verifiablerepresentation of CSOs, IPs, and other forest-dependent communities in programme decisionmaking.

2. Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups – considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs including private sectors in the TF and TWGs. Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups - considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs, private sectors, Academics, sub-nationals governments, in the TF ad TWGs. Review TWG ToR to enhance the coordination of the 3 TWG (considering more joint meeting or combine REDD+ strategy and Safeguards groups).

3. In order to address weakness of horizontal sharing of information and communication of outcomes of TF and TWG meeting by members represented in these groups. Recommend TF and TWGs members to sharing outcomes and information amongst IP/CSOs represented and their line agencies.

4. In order to expand the national capacity building process and consistency of participation, recommend appointing of REDD+ focal point and alternate focal point in relevant ministries and departments both at the central and sub-national levels, in additional to TF and TWGs.

5. Review of per diem and transportation rates for the counterparts based on the market rate and comparison with other bilateral donors to ensure the support needed to foster and expand participation. Especially, this issue is relevant to increase equity of woman participation in the consultation process.

6. Include CSO and IP stakeholders in knowledge exchange opportunities and SouthSouth exchanges. Support local stakeholders to self-organize them and conduct horizontal peer-directed learning.

7. The consultation until now was the focus on bringing information, but more focus consultation methodology has to be developed, particularly to address FPIC, EAOs, remote areas population, inter alia.

8. Enhance the coordination and UN Agencies joint activities and programming. A regular meeting of PMU and focal points of collaborating agencies and minute of discussions and follow up. At least every 1 month.

9. Though the AWP is done jointly – agencies need to consider on hierarchy and sequencing of the activities - so that the results could be optimally utilized.

10. An initial Capacity building needs assessment was conducted. Recommend reviewing the progress, finding gaps and coming up with a systematic approach to addressing the capacity needs together with other on-going UN projects, including other donors.

11. Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups – considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs, private sectors, Academics, sub-nationals governments, in the TF ad TWGs. ReviewTWG ToR to enhance the coordination of the 3 TWG (considering more joint meeting or combine REDD+ strategy and Safeguards groups).

12. To sustain the national capacity building and consistency of participation, recommend appointing of REDD+ alternate focal point in relevant ministries and departments. Consider including sub-national governments in REDD+ decision-making bodies and promote subnational arrangements for REDD+ at the local level.

13. The Myanmar REDD+ web portal or platform to access and share general information on REDD+ with stakeholders is a remarkably step to improve public access to information. The MTR recommends continue the efforts and improve the portal with all the information available. Furthermore, development a communication strategy with the objective of achieving a deeper understanding of climate change and forests in the national context and a greater understanding and support informed participation in REDD+ activities.

16

Outcome 3

14. Ensure understanding of all stakeholders about the mandate of the Programme, especially that SIS/SoI will not improve per se how safeguards are addressed and respected and are not designed to directly resolve systemic issues.

15. Conduct a national and comprehensive stakeholder dialogue process involving key government departments, CSO and representatives of ethnic peoples to either develop a common understanding and terminology acceptable to all sides, and consistent with the international standards of the UNFCCC and the UNDRIP.

16. UN-REDD have developed a framework for participatory governance assessments (PGA) for information sharing and learning on how REDD+ governance and safeguards can be addressed and respected in a systematic manner. This framework has been pilot and tested in several countries at the sub-national level. Recommend implement a sub-national pilot of the PGA to examine aspects of governance: legal and policy frameworks, capacities of REDD+ stakeholders at sub-national level, the impact of existing laws and practices, as well as anticorruption and conflict issues.

17. Consultations about the development a grievance mechanism have been conducted. Recommend establish an initial national feedback and grievance redress mechanism as part of the REDD+ institutional arrangements. Such a mechanism needs to be available in order to facilitate handling of any request for feedback or complaint by any REDD+ Readiness stakeholders, with particular attention to providing adequate access to geographically and culturally isolated and vulnerable communities.

18. In order to ensure that adequate steps are taken to develop the national overall approach to addressing and respecting the safeguards. Recommend to identify alternative work streams to content with contentious safeguards issues.

19. Enhance inter-agency support to safeguards-related activities to get the information of how safeguards are addressed and respected. Recommend continue to track NFMS and SIS developments, to explore and identify any emerging possible entry points for integration. 

17

Outcome 4

20. Accelerate the work to set up the forest monitoring web-GIS portal.

21. NFMS and REL: Identify specific gaps in actions to improve institutional development and national ownership of new capacities and to ensure the transfer and institutionalization of the knowledge. 

18

Outcome 5

22. Make a focused approach to integrating relevant policies of REDD+ into national policy/law reforms and development process through formation of a small task force and clear timeline and entry points in reform process, with the support and the involvement of the three UN agencies.

23. REDD+ Strategy: To a broader consultation and finalize the process. Recommend more consultations with EAOs and implementation of the plan, envisage/call for more support to the PMU from NPD and UNDPCO.

24. Develop a roadmap for sub-national implementation to support the development of sub-national REDD+ strategies. Particularly, develop options of how to support community leads forest conservations.

25. Accelerate the REDD+ investment program development. 

19

Cross-cutting recommendations

26. Develop innovative actions and mechanisms to increase high level support (policy brief, high level forums/meeting, parliamentarian meetings). Use existing structures or coordination mechanisms to implement and scale up REDD+ across levels of government. UN partner agencies with the implementation partner should advocate for higher-level political support. Consider the role of NECC and PEB to achieve this end.

27. UN partner agencies should work with the implementation partner to strengthen country ownership over all aspects of national REDD+ efforts, including the development of a more bottom-up approach.

28. Greater emphasis could be placed on strengthening institutional coherence and capacity across levels of government. Recommend efforts to harmonize and support the institutional capacities across levels government, from community councils to district, and state level authorities. Giving priority to the sub-national areas with pilot initiatives or possible investments through other REDD+ initiatives or donors. Shifting the emphasis from national level programming to cross-scale and jurisdictional-level effort.

29. Intensify efforts to mainstream gender issues across the programme, providing sufficient resources, tools and relevant training to ensure a more comprehensive and systematic approach. Integrate gender concerns, especially at the local level, will be important to address the drivers of deforestation. Consider hiring a gender specialist to strengthen the opportunities and approaches related to gender issues in the programme. In order to support gender mainstreaming, recommend: a) provide training for programme staff and stakeholders; b) Establish partnerships with organizations at local, national o global level working in gender and environment issues (i.e. Mangrove for the Future; Women’s League of Burma); c) Apply gender sensitive participatory approach to ensure and enhance the participation and speed up the voice of woman in the consultation process d) Develop a gender roadmap for the national REDD+ process. 

30. Strengthening the resilience of programme implementing an adaptive management framework to address the changes in the local or global context.

31. Support the integration REDD+ into the university curriculum. Develop an initial road map in order to start the process of integrating REDD+ related issues into university curricula at various levels of the education sector and take in consideration the project “Least Developed Countries Universities Consortium on Climate Change” (LUCCC), which has the objective to strengthen capacity of universities on climate change subjects in Least Developed Countries.

32. Continue efforts to mobilize resources for the implementation phase, building on the political momentum the process has generated so far and leveraging on ongoing support from national and international development partners to ensure long-term sustainability and to minimize the gap between the readiness and the implementation phases.

1. Recommendation:

8. Recommendations

The following recommendations emerge from the findings and conclusions presented in the previous sections. They were developed on the basis of input provided by stakeholders’ interview, in country mission feedbacks, external reviews, and lessons learned from relevant sources. 

Outcome 1 and 2 

1: Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups – considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs including private sectors in the TF and TWGs.  Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups - considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs, private sectors, Academics, sub-nationals governments, in the TF ad TWGs.  Review TWG ToR to enhance the coordination of the 3 TWG (considering more joint meeting or combine REDD+ strategy and Safeguards groups).

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

Review of TWG ToR’s is planned as Myanmar moves from Phase 1 into Phase 2 of REDD+

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. Add 2 relevant departments as TF members
[Added: 2019/05/08]
Project Team 2019/03 Completed
1.2. TOR of TWG will be revised after finalization of strategy
[Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2020/12/09]
Project Team 2020/10 Completed The Task Force and associated TWG’s have now been disbanded. New governance structures appropriate for REDD+ Phase 2 are being put in place, with enhanced coordination between the parent body (National REDD+ Coordinating Committee) and the new TWG’s. TOR of REDD+ NCC and 2 TWGs is prepared. History
2. Recommendation:

2: The consultation until now was the focus on bringing information, but more focus consultation methodology has to be developed, particularly to address FPIC, EAOs, remote areas population, inter alia.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

Development of a process for Free, Prior and Informed Consent-FPIC (and design of a GRM); and increased grassroots awareness raising is a major focus for 2019

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Organize Free, Prior and Informed Consent- FPIC workshop
[Added: 2019/05/08]
Project team 2019/03 Completed
2.2 Pilot FPIC
[Added: 2019/05/10] [Last Updated: 2019/12/12]
Project Team 2019/10 Completed 11 Village Tracts under 3 townships in Mon state were selected to conduct the pilot of FPIC and GRM. Final Report is developed on Preparation and Piloting of a Process to Ensure the Right to Free, Prior, Informed and Consent is Respected and the design of a Grievance Redress Mechanism History
2.3 Operationalize EAO engagement plan
[Added: 2019/05/10] [Last Updated: 2019/12/12]
Project Team 2019/10 Completed EAO engagement plan is operationalized. History
3. Recommendation:

3 .  Enhance the coordination and UN Agencies joint activities and programming.   A regular meeting of PMU and focal points of collaborating agencies and minute of discussions and follow up. At least every 1 month.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

Very frequent meetings are held with FD; meetings with other agencies can be planned if REDD+ focal points are established (see recommendation 4)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 Frequent meetings with FD and UN-REDD agencies
[Added: 2019/05/08]
Project team, Forest Department (FD) 2019/03 Completed
4. Recommendation:

4. Though the AWP is done jointly – agencies need to consider on hierarchy and sequencing of the activities - so that the results could be optimally utilized. Civil Society Stakeholders remarked there could be better coordination amongst three UN collaborating agencies in terms of organizing meetings/workshops and planning of joint activities. The Inter-agency coordination was perceived as weak to some stakeholders. Although these would be due to misinformation or incomplete perception, we recommend taking action to improve communication with civil society stakeholders about inter-agency coordination and the sequencing and hierarchy of activities

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

Although the PMU has not heard similar comments, efforts to improve information flow to CSO’s will be investigated.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 A revised communications strategy for REDD+ Myanmar, prepared and presented to 7th TF meeting
[Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2019/07/08]
Project Team 2019/05 Completed The revised knowledge management and communication strategy is attached . History
5. Recommendation:

5. An initial capacity building needs assessment was conducted. Recommend reviewing the progress, finding gaps and coming up with a systematic approach to addressing the capacity needs together with other on-going UN projects, including other donors.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

Agreed the recommendation and will implement accordingly.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 Training on building advocacy, networking and monitoring skills for national and local NGOs in Yangon, and Taungyi covering relevant NGOs in Bago, NPT, Rakhine, Ayeyarwaddy, Shan and Kayar regions
[Added: 2019/05/08]
Project team 2019/03 Completed
5.2 Another 4 trainings to cover the rest of the State/Regions
[Added: 2019/05/10] [Last Updated: 2019/07/08]
Project Team 2019/06 Completed Additional 4 training have been conducted and now cover for all states/regions in Myanmar History
5.3 15 training on building technical, facilitation and communication skill for Official from Ministries with responsibilities for implementing REDD+ Policies and Measures will be conducted to cover all State/Region
[Added: 2019/05/10] [Last Updated: 2019/07/08]
Project Team 2019/06 Completed Fifteen Training covers the representatives of government officers from all states and regions under Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation – MONREC ( Forest Department-FD , Environmental Conservation Department- ECD, Myanma Timber Enterprise – MTE ), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation – MOALI ( Department of Agriculture – DOA, Department of Agricultural Land Management and Statistics – DALMS, Department of planning) , Ministry of Office of the Union Government – MOUG ( General Administration Department –GAD) , Ministry of Home Affairs – MOHA (Myanmar Police Force –MPF). History
5.4 Capacity building on Safeguards will be conducted throughout the process of SIS setting in 2019
[Added: 2019/05/10] [Last Updated: 2019/12/12]
Project Team 2019/12 Completed 5 meetings/ workshop on Safeguards conducted History
6. Recommendation:

6. Conduct a national and comprehensive stakeholder dialogue process involving key government departments, CSO and representatives of ethnic peoples to either develop a common understanding and terminology acceptable to all sides, and consistent with the international standards of the UNFCCC and the UNDRIP.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

An Ethnic Group, Forests and Climate Change Week is planned for 2019.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1 A national validation workshop for the REDD+ Strategy and involving as many ethnic groups as feasible will be held in Q3
[Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2019/12/12]
Project Team 2019/10 Completed National validation workshop for the REDD+ Strategy has been conducted with the involvement of representatives from 20 different ethnic organizations (Ethnic CSOs, Ethnic Youth Organizations, Self-Administered Areas, Ethnic Armed Organizations which signed for Nationwide ceasefire Agreement) . History
7. Recommendation:

7. UN-REDD have developed a framework for participatory governance assessments (PGA) for information sharing and learning on how REDD+ governance and safeguards can be addressed and respected in a systematic manner. This framework has been pilot and tested in several countries at the sub-national level. Recommend implement a sub-national pilot of the PGA to examine aspects of governance: legal and policy frameworks, capacities of REDD+ stakeholders at sub-national level, the impact of existing laws and practices, as well as anti-corruption and conflict issues.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/08] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

This would require the establishment of a forest governance monitoring or survey component, which is not presently planned or budgeted for.  The low expenditure rates identified in the subsequent clarification are not reflected in expenditure data.

The PMU will seek the advice of RTA’s in informing results and share lessons learned with stakeholders of the participatory governance assessments in Lam Dong province, Vietnam.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1 Sent request to RTAs
[Added: 2019/05/08]
Project Team 2019/03 Completed
8. Recommendation:

8. Consultations about the development a grievance mechanism have been conducted. Recommend establish an initial national feedback and grievance redress mechanism as part of the REDD+ institutional arrangements. Such a mechanism needs to be available in order to facilitate handling of any request for feedback or complaint by any REDD+ Readiness stakeholders, with particular attention to providing adequate access to geographically and culturally isolated and vulnerable communities.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

Design and piloting of a GRM is a major focus for 2019.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1 Discuss design of Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM)
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2019/12/12]
Project Team 2019/10 Completed GRM has been developed and report prepared History
8.2 Pilot FPIC
[Added: 2019/05/10] [Last Updated: 2019/12/12]
Project Team 2019/10 Completed FPIC has been piloted in Mon state. History
9. Recommendation:

9. Make a focused approach to integrating relevant policies of REDD+ into national policy/law reforms and development process through formation of a small task force and clear timeline and entry points in reform process, with the support and the involvement of the three UN agencies.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

The formation of focused groups is a standard practice for legal reforms – such a group is currently active on the Forest Rules development

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
9.1 Develop process for Forest Rules
[Added: 2019/05/09]
Project Team 2019/03 Completed
9.2 Implement process with FD, UN agencies and NGOs
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2019/07/08]
Project Team 2019/06 Completed UNDP supported consultation completed and UNDP continue to provide technical support to Forest Department. History
10. Recommendation:

10.  Develop a roadmap for sub-national implementation to support the development of sub-national REDD+ strategies.  Particularly, develop options of how to support community leads forest conservations.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

A roadmap for sub-national implementation will be developed in the investment plan.  Whether sub-national REDD+ strategies are needed is debatable – the benefits of such strategies would need to be described.  Community-led conservation will be a major feature of REDD+ implementation

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
10.1 Develop investment plan
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/05/04]
Project Team 2021/04 Completed REDD+ Investment plan developed and attached History
10.2 Pilot community led conservation with Korean funding and in mangroves with new Norwegian funding
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/06/21]
Project Team 2021/06 Completed Pilot Community led conservation was initiated during the UN-REDD NP and continued implementation with Korean and REDD+ Mangrove Fund under Governance for Resilience and Sustainability Project (GRSP). History
11. Recommendation:

11. Accelerate the REDD+ investment program development.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/02/23]

Agree with the recommendation

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
11.1 Investment programme development
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/06/21]
Project Team 2021/06 Completed REDD+ Investment Plan Myanmar developed History
12. Recommendation:

12. Develop innovative actions and mechanisms to increase high level support (policy brief, high level forums/meeting, parliamentarian meetings).  Use existing structures or coordination mechanisms to implement and scale up REDD+ across levels of government.  UN partner agencies with the implementation partner should advocate for higher-level political support. Consider the role of NECC and PEB to achieve this end.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Agree with the recommentation and will implement accordinlgy

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
12.1 Taskforce (TF) reports to National Environmental Conservation Committee and Climate Change Central Committee (NECCCC)
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2020/12/23]
Project Team 2020/12 Completed UNDP provided technical and operational support to the National programme on REDD+ Information and REDD+ Strategy Target to be presented at the Climate Change Working Group under National Environmental Conservation Committee and Climate Change Central Committee (NECCC) and the main body of NECCCC as well History
13. Recommendation:

13: UN partner agencies should work with the implementation partner to strengthen country ownership over allaspects of national REDD+ efforts, including the development of a more bottom-up approach. This general recommendation is tightly in line with the recommendations 2, 4, 11, 12, 16, 24, 28 and includes them at some extent.

The more bottom-up approach means a more vertically integrated or more decentralized approach that involves local decision making bodies in whose jurisdiction forests are principally located.

Also, signify the willingness to address claims or concerns of subnational stakeholders and to decentralize REDD+ efforts across governing structures and other stakeholders. For example, if financial resources will remain completely centralized in the future, the likelihood that any forest conservation effort succeeds is very low. In these sense, it is very important consider a communities based or pro-poor benefit share mechanism.

More decentralizing intervention would help strengthen ownership over the REDD+ agenda, ultimately improving

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Country ownership is planned to be strengthened through closer links between the Taskforce and NE5C.

 

The need for a “pro-poor” benefit sharing mechanism is included in a current, on-going consultancy.

 

Greater decentralization of REDD+ administration in Phase 2 will e discussed with the National REDD+ Taskforce on 31st January 2019.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
13.1 Consultant will provide recommendations to support management response
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2019/07/08]
Project Team 2019/06 Completed Decentralization is part of the proposed Outcome 6; pro-poor benefit sharing was developed internally by the Programme Management Unit (PMU) following finance consultants’ inputs. UNDP continue technical assistance in on-going consultancy for the need for a “pro-poor” benefit sharing mechanism. History
14. Recommendation:

14. Greater emphasis could be placed on strengthening institutional coherence and capacity across levels of government. Recommend efforts to harmonize and support the institutional capacities across levels government, from community councils to district, and state level authorities. Giving priority to the sub-national areas with pilot initiatives or possible investments through other REDD+ initiatives or donors. Shifting the emphasis from national level programming to cross-scale and jurisdictional-level effort.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

The MTR does not identify any activities to be dropped. This recommendation is in line with the recommendation 27.

This recommendation could be implementing jointly with REDD+ related sub-nationals initiatives o pilot projects. This recommendation could be implementing jointly with REDD+ related sub-nationals initiatives o pilot projects. For example, as part of a GCF funding proposal development.

Consider elaborate a Readiness Plan Proposal (R-PP) to include additional readiness support needs and search for additional donors. The emphasis on national level programming is considered valid.  Nevertheless, strengthening sub-national institutions is also a focus (for example through UN-REDD TA to support the establishment of sub-national REDD+ implementation coordination bodies.  A contract for sub-national government and CSO capacity development has just been signed.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
14.1 Provide capacity building training
[Added: 2019/05/09] [Last Updated: 2019/07/08]
Project Team 2019/06 Completed Fifteen training conducted for the representatives of government officers from all states and regions under Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation – MONREC ( Forest Department-FD , Environmental Conservation Department- ECD, Myanma Timber Enterprise – MTE ), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation – MOALI ( Department of Agriculture – DOA, Department of Agricultural Land Management and Statistics – DALMS, Department of planning) , Ministry of Office of the Union Government – MOUG ( General Administration Department –GAD) , Ministry of Home Affairs – MOHA (Myanmar Police Force –MPF). Five training for CSOs conducted for the representatives of CSOs from all state/regions. History
15. Recommendation:

8. Recommendations

The following recommendations emerge from the findings and conclusions presented in the previous sections. They were developed on the basis of input provided by stakeholders’ interview, in country mission feedbacks, external reviews, and lessons learned from relevant sources.

Outcome 1 and 2

1. Strength the involvement of civil society in programme processes, as well as clarifies the respective constituencies of CSOs and IP organizations. Ensure the fair and verifiablerepresentation of CSOs, IPs, and other forest-dependent communities in programme decisionmaking.

2. Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups – considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs including private sectors in the TF and TWGs. Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups - considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs, private sectors, Academics, sub-nationals governments, in the TF ad TWGs. Review TWG ToR to enhance the coordination of the 3 TWG (considering more joint meeting or combine REDD+ strategy and Safeguards groups).

3. In order to address weakness of horizontal sharing of information and communication of outcomes of TF and TWG meeting by members represented in these groups. Recommend TF and TWGs members to sharing outcomes and information amongst IP/CSOs represented and their line agencies.

4. In order to expand the national capacity building process and consistency of participation, recommend appointing of REDD+ focal point and alternate focal point in relevant ministries and departments both at the central and sub-national levels, in additional to TF and TWGs.

5. Review of per diem and transportation rates for the counterparts based on the market rate and comparison with other bilateral donors to ensure the support needed to foster and expand participation. Especially, this issue is relevant to increase equity of woman participation in the consultation process.

6. Include CSO and IP stakeholders in knowledge exchange opportunities and SouthSouth exchanges. Support local stakeholders to self-organize them and conduct horizontal peer-directed learning.

7. The consultation until now was the focus on bringing information, but more focus consultation methodology has to be developed, particularly to address FPIC, EAOs, remote areas population, inter alia.

8. Enhance the coordination and UN Agencies joint activities and programming. A regular meeting of PMU and focal points of collaborating agencies and minute of discussions and follow up. At least every 1 month.

9. Though the AWP is done jointly – agencies need to consider on hierarchy and sequencing of the activities - so that the results could be optimally utilized.

10. An initial Capacity building needs assessment was conducted. Recommend reviewing the progress, finding gaps and coming up with a systematic approach to addressing the capacity needs together with other on-going UN projects, including other donors.

11. Review the membership and ToRs of Task Force and Technical Working Groups – considering draft REDD+ Strategy, reorganization of mandates of ministries and different departments over the last few years. Expand the memberships to include more representation of IPs, private sectors, Academics, sub-nationals governments, in the TF ad TWGs. ReviewTWG ToR to enhance the coordination of the 3 TWG (considering more joint meeting or combine REDD+ strategy and Safeguards groups).

12. To sustain the national capacity building and consistency of participation, recommend appointing of REDD+ alternate focal point in relevant ministries and departments. Consider including sub-national governments in REDD+ decision-making bodies and promote subnational arrangements for REDD+ at the local level.

13. The Myanmar REDD+ web portal or platform to access and share general information on REDD+ with stakeholders is a remarkably step to improve public access to information. The MTR recommends continue the efforts and improve the portal with all the information available. Furthermore, development a communication strategy with the objective of achieving a deeper understanding of climate change and forests in the national context and a greater understanding and support informed participation in REDD+ activities.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/16] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Key Actions:

16. Recommendation:

Outcome 3

14. Ensure understanding of all stakeholders about the mandate of the Programme, especially that SIS/SoI will not improve per se how safeguards are addressed and respected and are not designed to directly resolve systemic issues.

15. Conduct a national and comprehensive stakeholder dialogue process involving key government departments, CSO and representatives of ethnic peoples to either develop a common understanding and terminology acceptable to all sides, and consistent with the international standards of the UNFCCC and the UNDRIP.

16. UN-REDD have developed a framework for participatory governance assessments (PGA) for information sharing and learning on how REDD+ governance and safeguards can be addressed and respected in a systematic manner. This framework has been pilot and tested in several countries at the sub-national level. Recommend implement a sub-national pilot of the PGA to examine aspects of governance: legal and policy frameworks, capacities of REDD+ stakeholders at sub-national level, the impact of existing laws and practices, as well as anticorruption and conflict issues.

17. Consultations about the development a grievance mechanism have been conducted. Recommend establish an initial national feedback and grievance redress mechanism as part of the REDD+ institutional arrangements. Such a mechanism needs to be available in order to facilitate handling of any request for feedback or complaint by any REDD+ Readiness stakeholders, with particular attention to providing adequate access to geographically and culturally isolated and vulnerable communities.

18. In order to ensure that adequate steps are taken to develop the national overall approach to addressing and respecting the safeguards. Recommend to identify alternative work streams to content with contentious safeguards issues.

19. Enhance inter-agency support to safeguards-related activities to get the information of how safeguards are addressed and respected. Recommend continue to track NFMS and SIS developments, to explore and identify any emerging possible entry points for integration. 

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/16] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Key Actions:

17. Recommendation:

Outcome 4

20. Accelerate the work to set up the forest monitoring web-GIS portal.

21. NFMS and REL: Identify specific gaps in actions to improve institutional development and national ownership of new capacities and to ensure the transfer and institutionalization of the knowledge. 

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/16] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Key Actions:

18. Recommendation:

Outcome 5

22. Make a focused approach to integrating relevant policies of REDD+ into national policy/law reforms and development process through formation of a small task force and clear timeline and entry points in reform process, with the support and the involvement of the three UN agencies.

23. REDD+ Strategy: To a broader consultation and finalize the process. Recommend more consultations with EAOs and implementation of the plan, envisage/call for more support to the PMU from NPD and UNDPCO.

24. Develop a roadmap for sub-national implementation to support the development of sub-national REDD+ strategies. Particularly, develop options of how to support community leads forest conservations.

25. Accelerate the REDD+ investment program development. 

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/16] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Key Actions:

19. Recommendation:

Cross-cutting recommendations

26. Develop innovative actions and mechanisms to increase high level support (policy brief, high level forums/meeting, parliamentarian meetings). Use existing structures or coordination mechanisms to implement and scale up REDD+ across levels of government. UN partner agencies with the implementation partner should advocate for higher-level political support. Consider the role of NECC and PEB to achieve this end.

27. UN partner agencies should work with the implementation partner to strengthen country ownership over all aspects of national REDD+ efforts, including the development of a more bottom-up approach.

28. Greater emphasis could be placed on strengthening institutional coherence and capacity across levels of government. Recommend efforts to harmonize and support the institutional capacities across levels government, from community councils to district, and state level authorities. Giving priority to the sub-national areas with pilot initiatives or possible investments through other REDD+ initiatives or donors. Shifting the emphasis from national level programming to cross-scale and jurisdictional-level effort.

29. Intensify efforts to mainstream gender issues across the programme, providing sufficient resources, tools and relevant training to ensure a more comprehensive and systematic approach. Integrate gender concerns, especially at the local level, will be important to address the drivers of deforestation. Consider hiring a gender specialist to strengthen the opportunities and approaches related to gender issues in the programme. In order to support gender mainstreaming, recommend: a) provide training for programme staff and stakeholders; b) Establish partnerships with organizations at local, national o global level working in gender and environment issues (i.e. Mangrove for the Future; Women’s League of Burma); c) Apply gender sensitive participatory approach to ensure and enhance the participation and speed up the voice of woman in the consultation process d) Develop a gender roadmap for the national REDD+ process. 

30. Strengthening the resilience of programme implementing an adaptive management framework to address the changes in the local or global context.

31. Support the integration REDD+ into the university curriculum. Develop an initial road map in order to start the process of integrating REDD+ related issues into university curricula at various levels of the education sector and take in consideration the project “Least Developed Countries Universities Consortium on Climate Change” (LUCCC), which has the objective to strengthen capacity of universities on climate change subjects in Least Developed Countries.

32. Continue efforts to mobilize resources for the implementation phase, building on the political momentum the process has generated so far and leveraging on ongoing support from national and international development partners to ensure long-term sustainability and to minimize the gap between the readiness and the implementation phases.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/16] [Last Updated: 2021/02/24]

Key Actions:

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