End of project evaluation on Joint UNDP-Swedish EPA global project on Environmental Governance of Mining

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Title End of project evaluation on Joint UNDP-Swedish EPA global project on Environmental Governance of Mining
Atlas Project Number: 00056743
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2021, Bureau for Policy and Programme Support
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 01/2019
Planned End Date: 02/2019
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.4.1 Solutions scaled up for sustainable management of natural resources, including sustainable commodities and green and inclusive value chains
Evaluation Budget(US $): 50,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 50,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Arne Svensson svensson@professionalmanagement.se
Lina Lenefors svensson@professionalmanagement.se
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Swedish EPA
Countries: GLOBAL
Lessons
Findings
1.

3 Sub programme 1: Environmental Governance for Sustainable Natural Resource Management

3.1   The Sub programme

Since the launch of the joint global “Environmental Governance Programme” (EGP) in 2015, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) have promoted and applied an integrated approach to strengthening the environmental governance of the mining sector governance that is people-centred, enforces human rights, and takes into consideration complex institutional and political realities on the ground.

EGP has been designed to respond to the challenges developing countries face in implementing environmental policies and integrating environmental and social concerns into broader sustainable development policy making. The programme strengthens the environmental, gender, human rights and rule of law dimensions of public administration work in the mining sector. Working with ministries of environment, mining, planning and finance, as well as other public and private stakeholders, including Parliaments, regional and local administrations, civil society organizations, and the private sector, EGP is providing targeted support to four countries: Colombia, Kenya, Mongolia, and Mozambique. The programme also links this work to global and regional research, training and events that strengthen South-South knowledge sharing and policy approaches.

 

 


Tag: Environment Policy Gender Equality Human rights Local Governance Parliament Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions Private Sector

2.

EGP provides support to government authorities to improve the governance of the large scale mining sector so that it contributes to sustainable development and sustaining peace. It has particular emphasis on helping safeguarding environmental sustainability and substantive human rights, including gender equality, by strengthening such procedural rights as the right to participation in decision making, access to information and redress. This includes technical peer to peer support from SEPA as well as support to governance assessments and addressing the identified gaps.

On a global level the EGP provides platforms for sharing of knowledge and experiences through e.g.:

  • global workshops,
  • various side events with strategic partners,
  • online community of practice, and
  • knowledge products and trainings.

Tag: Environment Policy Gender Equality Human rights Knowledge management Capacity Building

3.

The EGP is partnering with a number of sister agencies including UN Environment, UN Women, UNITAR, OHCHR/special rapporteurs, the World Bank and Folke Bernadotte Academy and other organizations like the Intergovernmental Forum for Mining, Minerals and Metals (IGF), to capture synergies and harmonize support to countries.

EGP phase 1, from September 2014 to August 2015, focused on the preparation of a proposal to Sida for the programme implementation phase. In October 2015, the programme funding was secured under a contribution agreement.

EGP phase 2, from September 2015 to June 2019 the sub programme provides support to civil society actors as well as institutions to advance change on both the supply and demand side of the development equation. This implementation phase includes a cost extension phase.

During phase one of the programme the four target countries, Colombia, Kenya, Mongolia and Mozambique, were selected. The selection was made based on consultations with Regional Bureaus, Sida and direct discussions and surveys with a larger number of countries who had been identified as possible candidates. They were selected from those who had requested support from UNDP on environmental governance


Tag: Partnership UN Agencies Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions

4.

3 Sub programme 1: Environmental Governance for Sustainable Natural Resource Management

3.2 Relevance

3.2.1.1 Overall observations

According to the interviewees the sub programme has strengthened the environmental, gender, human rights and rule of law dimensions of public administration work in large-scale mining sectors.

The intervention is regarded as highly relevant to the needs and priorities as defined by stakeholders and beneficiaries, policies of partner countries and donor agencies.

Working in collaboration with ministries of environment, mining, planning and finance, as well as civil society and other public and private stakeholders, the sub programme has been successful in providing targeted support to the four selected programme countries: Colombia, Kenya, Mongolia, and Mozambique. The sub programme has also worked at the global and regional level to strengthen south-south knowledge sharing and innovative policy approaches. It has drawn on the combined governance, social, environmental and extractive sector expertise of SEPA, UNDP and partners. The interviewees say that the added value of the partnership configurations in addressing the global environmental challenges and in meeting the needs of the sub programme countries and organizations is primarily that the complementary knowledge and experience has been brought together in learning processes in a systematic way.

 


Tag: Relevance Gender Equality National Regional Human rights Rule of law Knowledge management Partnership South-South Cooperation Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions

5.

The EGP Theory of Change and the Results Framework was drafted by the Programme management and has not been widely discussed in the programme countries. According to the interviewees in the four participating countries this is one of the issues that the country level has not been involved in. Thus, few of the interviewees have any comments to the EGP Theory of Change and the Results Framework:

  • Prior involvement by country level in drafting the EGP Theory of Change and the Results Framework would have been more effective.
  • Would be good to formulate the results framework for the new phase in consultation with the country level.
  • The expected results are too ambitious. Sometimes the causal link between our activities and the expected results is weak. The results depend on so many other things that we cannot control.
  • The expected results should be more focused, for example the direct effects of the sub programme.
  • Want to see more specific results the sub programme wants to achieve – biodiversity or deforestation linked to mining
  • Focus is on filling in the gaps. Flexibility in addressing the gap and work on prioritised needs
  • Look more systematically on lessons in the individual countries.
  • Next phase: Specify target group for each activity
  • Looking from global perspective the programme should be more realistic in defining what can be achieved in each country.

Tag: Results-Based Management Theory of Change

6.

3.2.1.2 Capacity development in the four programme countries

    Overall observations

The sub programme is grounded in a Human Right Based Approach. The four programme countries have been selected based on the following criteria:

  • country demand in strengthening environmental governance,
  • likelihoods of practical results that can inform the work of SEPA, UNDP and partners more broadly in other countries,
  • existing UNDP mining and governance programming; capacity of UNDP Country Offices to engage in the sub programme,
  • SEPA/SIDA interests/partner countries,
  • regional representation, and
  • the need to focus on a relatively small number of counties in line with resources and practicality.

According to the interviewees the EGP is highly relevant to the needs and priorities of stakeholders and beneficiaries, and the policies of partner countries and donor agencies. The sub programme has addressed human rights and created arena for dialogue. The uniqueness of the sub programme to bring in human rights, sustainable environment and rule of law components in the extractives sector has been widely appreciated. The sub programme has also been helpful in developing new tools that are relevant for strengthening environmental governance in the four programme countries.


Tag: Environment Policy Human rights Rule of law Institutional Strengthening

7.

The integrated cross-thematic collaboration has been working well. According to the interviewees there is an added value of the partnership configurations in addressing the global environmental challenges and in meeting the needs of the sub programme countries and organizations. EGP is regarded as an efficient way to develop multi-stakeholder platforms.

The sub programme provides targeted support to four countries: Colombia, Kenya, Mongolia, and Mozambique. Thus, the relevance of the sub programme depends on the context and present situation in each of the four countries. As part of the EGP Ongoing Evaluation effort planned for the cost extension period, Lund University conducted a study with sub programme participants from two of the four programme countries; Kenya and Mozambique, during the Environmental Government Sub programme’s joint workshop in May 2018. Therefore we have in this evaluation prioritised interviews on the country level in the other two countries; Colombia and Mongolia. In addition, we below refer to the study in Kenya and Mozambique.

Four country workshops were conducted. To bring the different cross-sectoral working groups at country level coming together has been working well. The relevance, effectiveness and usefulness are high (Table 3.1).

 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency

8.

Mining conflicts are often socio-environmental in character. Socio-environmental conflicts can often be traced back to poor governance and administrative decision making that lead to environmental degradation and infringements upon substantive and procedural human rights, including lack of mechanisms for meaningful participation in decision making, accountability, grievance and redress.

The EGP adopts a dual approach to conflict sensitive programming that is grounded in the human rights-based approach and strengthening social and environmental safeguards. To improve its conflict sensitive programming, the EGP has developed the RoLPAM methodology which analyses drivers of conflict related to administrative decision making. It measures perception gaps between administrative officials and affected communities related to the quality of mining governance, including legality, accountability, participation, information and redress. This tool helps the programme and governments understand and address the concerns of citizens that can fuel grievances and social conflicts.

Strong buy-in by the governments has all along been key for the progress and achievements of the EGP. The UNDP country offices benefit from a strong relationship with involved institutions from previous projects and/or programs, which facilitated the integration of the EGP within a larger portfolio of programmatic support.


Tag: Anti-corruption Human rights Operational Efficiency Partnership

9.

3.2.1.2.2   Colombia

In Colombia, the National Environmental Licensing Agency (ANLA) has fulfilled the role of facilitator of information and knowledge between counterparts. In this role ANLA has cooperated with a number of other organizations for example Centro Regional de Empresas y Emprendimientos Responsables (CREER, Institute for Human Rights and Business). A new network of 25 representatives of regional and national environmental authorities was established 2017 for ensuring dialogue between national and regional environmental authorities on Human Rights, biodiversity and mining.

After decades of armed conflict, Colombia is moving forward with the implementation of the peace process. This may open up new possibilities for investment and economic development in the country’s mining sector as previous off-limit areas open to legal mining. However, within the context of the peace agreement and previous and upcoming elections, addressing issues around mining in Colombia is – and has been - politically sensitive.

The peace process has created new opportunities for communities to voice opposition to both large and small-scale mining on grounds of negative social and environmental externalities that impact local communities, which many times are left unaddressed and that have given a negative image to the extractive industry. Surpassed only by India, Colombia ranks second on the Environmental Justice Atlas’ index of socio-environmental conflict hot spots, many of which are linked to mining activities. The government therefore has major challenges ahead in governing the mining sector in a way that maximizes potential social and economic benefits, while preventing environmental degradation, linked social and human rights impacts, and socio-environmental conflicts.


Tag: Biodiversity Environment Policy Challenges Relevance National Regional Human rights Peace Building

10.

The added value of the partnership configuration in addressing the global environmental challenges and in meeting the needs in Colombia and the participating organizations is twofold; (1) The legitimacy gained through the partnership, and (2) the learning process through sharing information, experiences and different perspectives.

The interviewees underline the importance of the alliance between ANLA and UNDP. Participation of UNDP and the economic contribution was necessary to ensure the participation of regional entities. It is important to highlight the legitimacy of UNDP to link all agencies.


Tag: Mine Action Environment Policy Relevance Peace Building

11.

3.2.1.2.3  Mongolia

In Mongolia the work has mainly been focused on four key areas for improving environmental and social outcomes in mining:

  • Legislative changes (including gaps and overlaps in regulations etc);
  • apacity development and coordination of participating organizations (including capacity building for different stakeholders);
  • Information sharing and advocacy for responsible mining (including stopping illegal mining); and
  • Monitoring and enforcement of existing regulations
  • In 2017 the sub programme also included efforts on reducing the scale and preventing future cases of degraded and abandoned land caused by large scale and illegal mining.

    In 2017, two landmark studies on the rule of law in public administration and legality in mining informed the drafting of stronger mining laws and regulation: The Law of Offences, the Mineral Law, the Environmental Impact Assessment Regulation and the Environmental Monitoring Plan Regulations, which is expected to strengthen environmental protection in the mining sector for affected communities across the country.

    Investments in the mining sector continue to be a high priority in Mongolia. Out of 306 exploitation plans submitted in 2017, 86 were approved as of February 2018. The number of mining licenses (3,369) and the ratio of licensed land to the total land area (1%) remained relatively constant throughout 2017 compared to 2016.

    However, environmental and social harms related to mining remains a major challenge, and civil society and environmental organization continue to advocate for restrictions and regulations of small, medium and large-scale mining activities and illegal mining, which has become widespread in some regions. In Mongolia, the EGP supports the government and civil society to address these challenges.


Tag: Mine Action Environment Policy Challenges Relevance Rule of law Knowledge management Capacity Building

12.

One challenge has been the limited budget on the local level and another challenge is related to knowledge and experience among staff at the local level. To fill in the gap more funding is required. Presently a technical handbook is drafted to assist the staff and training will be conducted on the provincial level.

The participating organizations were provided with information about environmental governance. This has increased awareness among parties involved in the sub program.

  • As for our organization, I think it has a direct impact on developing an Environmental Management Plan.
  • Our organization has participated in terms of capacity building in policy-making. Staffs at local level were well involved. Relevant terms and recommendations have been submitted to the governors.
  • We hired independent consultant to develop self-assessment criteria for an entity with regards to preliminary requirements as well as environmental governance indicators. We are planning to test them within this year. This preliminary indicator consists of about 500 issues such as whether entities can assess their responsibilities in terms of environmental, public and human resources criteria.

Tag: Environment Policy Challenges Relevance Awareness raising

13.

3.2.1.2.3  Kenya and Mozambique

The purpose of the study of Kenya and Mozambique mentioned above was to gather insights from as diverse perspectives as possible into whether and how change happens or is expected to happen as a result of EGP and what the EGP could learn to inform its remaining sub programme period and the next phase. Thus, the focus in the study was on change, results and lessons and not on relevance. Therefore, observations from Kenya and Mozambique are mainly on the evaluation questions referred to in Section 3.3 – 3.6 below.

The mining industry in Mozambique is faced with a unique set of development challenges as the country continues to spiral into financial, political and civic unrest. For Mozambicans to benefit from mining, a robust legal, institutional and political framework must be in place to ensure participation, accountability and adherence to international standards in the governance of the sector.


Tag: Challenges Relevance Rule of law Country Government

14.

3.2.1.3  The Global Component – Knowledge Sharing, Networking and Policy Support

According to the interviewees partnering has been working well with a number of sister agencies including UN Environment, UN Women, UNITAR, OHCHR/special rapporteurs, the World Bank and Folke Bernadotte Academy and other organizations like the Intergovernmental Forum for Mining, Minerals and Metals (IGF), to capture synergies and harmonize support to countries.

In September 2017, the EGP also launched its GOXI Learning Series, which is a seven-months learning series that focuses on environmental governance and social and environmental conflict prevention topics.


Tag: Relevance Country Support Platform Knowledge management International Financial Institutions UN Agencies

15.

3 Sub programme 1: Environmental Governance for Sustainable Natural Resource Management

3.3 Effectiveness

3.3.1   Observations

3.3.1.1     Overall observations

The collaboration has been managed through a multi-disciplinary, cross-practice working group within UNDP and a joint UNDP-SEPA Working Group. The cross-practice team in UNDP headquarters has provided oversight for the collaboration and has been responsible for ensuring integrated country support that draws on relevant expertise. The outcomes and outputs from this sub programme have linked directly to UNDP’s Strategic Plan 2014-2017, which prioritizes support around Sustainable Development Pathways and Inclusive, Effective Democratic Governance Systems. It is also linked to UNDPs Extractives Industries Strategy. The sub programme has drawn on and strengthened UNDP’s services. The joint UNDP-SEPA Working Group has provided overall managerial coordination and substantive guidance throughout the collaboration.

The UNDP Effectiveness Strategy includes:

  • Linking the programme work to existing projects in the four target countries, rather than starting up standalone new work in each country, which would be much costlier.
  • A rigorous effort throughout to build on work that has already been done; to link to the GOXI.org website, e.g.
  • A strong partnership strategy, aimed at developing strong links to work being done by other UN agencies, IFIs, and other development partners.

The EGP has achieved the following results:

  • Supported in conducting participatory self-assessment on the environmental and social pillars of mining governance for evidence-based policy making; governments in the four programme countries

EGP has contributed to a desirable shift of thinking and change in practice in the four programme countries in terms of integrating human rights and environmental protection into the governance of mining. This is evident from the degree of not just participation and commitment to programme activities, but to the demonstrable uptake of effecting change in the countries with regards to Rule of Law in Public Administration Assessment (RoLPAM)/ Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA) or indeed the eagerness to adopt and operationalize the currently being developed Global Guidance Notes on mining and human rights (GGN).

 

 


Tag: Effectiveness Human rights Rule of law Oversight Partnership Policies & Procedures

16.

3.3.1.2    Capacity development in the four programme countries

3.3.1.2.1     Colombia

According to many of the interviewees the intervention has made progress towards planned outcomes and outputs. Some of the interviewees do not feel that they have enough evidence to give an opinion on some of the questions.

The implementation strategies (including outreach & dissemination efforts) have been effective in achieving expected results:

  • Dissemination of information thanks to UNDP. The UNDP helped to facilitate the relationship, important communication of instruments. Survey rejection rate was almost zero, workshops were well attended.
  • Regarding information and dissemination, it was done in a broad manner, especially at the regional level. There has been a lot of communication, especially in the case of the pilot programs, with the actors involved. In the case of Chocó, for example, the form of diffusion was very good: to the point and meaningful.
  • Yes, of what I am able to see in the programming. Consistent and congruent. Could not give an opinion regarding measuring results and adjustment of activities.

Activities were adequate to reach the community and in line with expected results. However, a few things did not work so well:

  • Forms and instruments developed in Chocó, were not relevant to the area of influence. The people did not understand well. Some bias in the first collection of information since the instrument used had been prepared for global use by Swedish experts and was not necessarily adapted to the Colombian reality. It was adjusted successfully.
  • The instruments were super important. At the beginning people did not understand them and they were modified to be better applied to the community. It was possible to adjust according to the needs.

Tag: Environment Policy Effectiveness Communication

17.

3.3.1.2.2     Mongolia

In Mongolia, a major milestone for 2016 was reached with the finalization of the assessment in 2016. This work was instrumental in bringing together under the steering committee mechanism representatives of Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET), General Authority for Specialized Inspection (GASI), Ministry of Mining and Heavy Industry (MMHI), National Human Rights Commission (NHRCM) and research institutions for the first time in Mongolia’s mining history to more coherently address policy issues of mining. This collaboration has been cemented into a joint working group.

The working group that is established is comprised of six staff from the participating ministries. In addition three expanded coordination meeting have been held with invited staff from relevant ministries to brief them on what is going on and the progress. Due to the parliamentary elections in 2016 and presidential elections in 2017 new members were assigned to the working group. However, the agreed work plan ensured continuity of sub programme activities, despite the changes in the working group composition.


Tag: Environment Policy Effectiveness Rule of law Human and Financial resources Oversight Ownership

18.

The EGP supported the MMHI in organizing a regional workshop with the private sector and local authorities on issues of mining policies and environmental protection. The sub programme facilitated the participation of nine civil society actors to ensure the inclusion of their perspective. With the EGP’s support, the NHRC organized media campaigns and competitions for raising awareness around human rights issues and mining, which resulted in 49 articles, three television programs and six radio broadcast programs. However, according to the interviewees the implementation strategies in achieving expected results have not been sufficient when it comes to outreach and dissemination:

  • In my view, public outreach and dissemination efforts were inefficient. The EGP would have done more.
  • Outreach and dissemination efforts were not sufficient.
  • I think, there have been many initiatives, however, the public outreach was inadequate.

Tag: Environment Policy Effectiveness Human rights Local Governance Communication Awareness raising Civil Societies and NGOs Private Sector

19.

The Law of Offences incorporates aspects of the ’Law on Mining’ and the ‘Law on Environmental Impact Assessment’ which relates to non-criminal environmental offences, under one harmonized act. Under this new law, mining inspectors are assigned new roles and responsibilities which prompted the request for training. Workshops were organized by the EGP, in cooperation with the General Agency for Specialized Inspection (GASI) for about 320 environmental, geology and mining inspectors, including 205 inspectors from local levels. For many of them, this was the first time to receive training on how to apply the laws they use in practice, and the workshop contributed to new insights on the barriers to applying these laws on the ground. Subsequently, a handbook for inspectors on applying the new Law on Offences was prepared, printed and disseminated with the EGP support.


Tag: Mine Action Effectiveness Rule of law Knowledge management Capacity Building

20.

A two-day workshop on degraded land census has been held, in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET) and the General Agency for Specialized Inspection (GASI). The workshop was attended by 22 inspectors and local environmental officers. Once finalized in 2018, the census will provide up-to-date official data on land degradation by provinces and sub-provinces, as a basis for designing rehabilitation measures.

The objectives and expected results are realistic and clear. It has been possible to measure the results and adjust activities when needed. However, more time is needed to really show the outcome level results:

  • The logical framework and objectives within the programme were clear enough and it is assumed that the results can be measured. However, I am not sure if the changes can be made when it is needed.
  • The objectives and results were clear. The purpose of the programme was clear enough and we reached short term goals. We plan programme activities annually. I would say the programme was flexible because we were able to adjust activities when needed. For instance, we have discussed entities' self-assessment criteria and agreed the National Mining Association to lead the assessment.

Tag: Natural Resouce management Anti-corruption Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions

21.

3.3.1.2.3    Kenya and Mozambique

In Mozambique, the National Directorate on Environment (DINAB) under the Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Development (MITADER) and the National Institute of Mining (INAMI) under the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy (MIREME), has piloted the RoLPAM mining governance self-assessment since 2016. The piloting was finalized in 2017 in mining hotspots at both national and sub-national level (the provinces of Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Tete).

An EGP Coordination Group in Mozambique, which has been active since the end of 2016, was institutionalised in 2017. The group has its own terms of reference and meets quarterly, or more regularly if needed. It consists of INAMI, MITADER, MIREME, AQUA (Law enforcement) and the National Human Rights Commission. The purpose and role of the coordination group is to ensure the effective operationalization of the EGP programme in Mozambique.

The RoLPAM assessment was significantly delayed in Mozambique as some surveyed agencies were not receptive to the consultants. Change of focal points in the EGP Coordination Group was also an impediment to progress.

 


Tag: Effectiveness Coordination National Institutions Regional Institutions

22.

3.3.1.2.3    Kenya and Mozambique

In 2017, the EGP supported the Kenyan Ministry of Mining (MOM) to develop a community guide on illustrating entry points to participation in decision making across the mining cycle in large-scale mining in Kenya. The EGP plays a key role in facilitating dialogue and cooperation between the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) and the Kenyan Ministry of Mining (MOM). Both entities are guided by two acts of Parliament; the ‘Environmental Management and Coordination Laws of Kenya’, Cap 387 and ‘The Mining Act of 2016’. The partners convene through a joint technical steering committee for the SESA that ensures dialogue, cooperation and ownership across sub programme activities. The Technical Committee has evolved into a useful inter-ministerial body for coordinating EGP activities and advocate for a rights-based approach to mining governance. The committee is comprised of NEMA, MOM, Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR), a CSO, Directorate of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Kenya Chamber of Mines (KCM), Academia (University of Nairobi) and UNDP Kenya. The elections in October 2017 slowed down the validation of the SESA assessment by the technical steering committee.

The SESA analysis of all legislations in Kenya that are included in the mining sector framework concluded that 22 of all policies were well to moderately integrated. Only four policies were not fully-integrated in the legal framework which includes: HIV/ AIDS prevention and control Act, Government County Disaster management bill of 2014.


Tag: Human rights Rule of law Oversight Policies & Procedures Coordination

23.

 

3.3.1.3    The Global Component – Knowledge Sharing, Networking and Policy Support

There is a shared view among the programme management team (SEPA/UNDP), UNDP country offices and their national counterparts that the EGP has been a steep learning curve but an extremely valuable one nonetheless due to its innovative approach and methods.

The complexity of the sub programme and high sensitivity and politicized nature of the issues the programme deals with makes it difficult to achieve a “quick fix”. Baseline assessments, conceptualization and establishing partnerships and programme infrastructure take a lot of time in this context. EGP has invested in negotiating the right type of partnerships with the relevant actors and stakeholders to ensure targeting relevance and appropriateness of who to engage with.


Tag: Effectiveness Knowledge management Ownership Partnership

24.

3.4 Efficiency

3.4.1.1     Overall observations

Implementation of the sub programme has been per plan and on budget with few exceptions. Resources (funds, human resources, time, expertise, etc.) have been allocated – and reallocated - strategically to achieve results during the programme period. There was a budget cut to the Global Programme for 2016 of 4 million USD, the brunt of which was borne by sub programme 1 (9.4 % of the sub programme funds). The cuts were not considered to significantly impair the achievement of sub programme objectives, but nevertheless to some degree to affect the quality and timely delivery of results.

SEPA/UNDP reduced the budget for 2016 and adjusted the work plan as follows:

  • Reduced direct sub programme management costs (and increased UNDP in-kind contribution).
  • Reduced number of knowledge products.
  • Reduced number of activities in one of the four implementing countries (Mozambique).
  • Postponed webinars and web-based activities to 2017.

This collaboration has been managed through a multi-disciplinary, cross-practice working group within UNDP and a joint UNDP-SEPA Working Group. The cross-practice team in UNDP headquarters has provided oversight for the collaboration and been responsible for ensuring integrated country support that draws on relevant expertise. The outcomes and outputs from this sub programme are linked directly to UNDP’s Strategic Plan 2014-2017, which prioritizes support around Sustainable Development Pathways and Inclusive, Effective Democratic Governance Systems.


Tag: Environment Policy Efficiency Human and Financial resources Oversight Partnership Coordination

25.
  • The sub programme management has closely monitored progress and evaluated risks on a weekly basis. The programme management is highly appreciated by the interviewees: Excellent management team; always very supportive, answer questions quickly, not pushy
  • Working very well in organization of the meetings; well organized, good structure, no waste of time

The impression is that the management has been very efficient. However, according to the management´s self-assessment the budget has under-estimated the time that is needed for project management and project administration. Therefore, more hours have in practice been allocated to the work. Thus, programme management capacities have been adequate but at the same time too limited.

Almost all interviewees say that relevant international, regional and local expertise has been sought and used:

  • This was the biggest contribution of the programme. Training programme. Substantial efforts for capacity building.
  • Sometimes hard to use SEPA expertise and apply Swedish experiences and tools – the reality in Sweden is a lot different from the reality in the targeted countries. However, good to use experts with deep Swedish as well as international experience.
  • The only weakness is the absence of international organizational experts to assist in organizational reviews and institutional changes

The Advisory Board is comprised of experts and representatives of institutions engaged in thematic issues including environmental governance, extractives, rule of law, public administration, human rights, gender, capacity development, learning and knowledge management. The Advisory Board has been instrumental in providing guidance, inputs and linkages to relevant on-going work. The Advisory Board was planned to meet twice each year, with the first meeting in June 2016. So far the Board has had three meetings that ensured programmatic synergies and inputs from a wide range of relevant development actors: OHCHR, The Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment, UN Women, UNEP, UNITAR, WWF, DFID, World Bank, the European Commission to mention some.


Tag: Efficiency Rule of law Oversight Project and Programme management Capacity Building

26.

3.4.1.2  Capacity development in the four programme countries

3.4.1.2.1     Colombia

  • Yes, the resources were designated in a good and effective manner. In the allocation of resources, is noted that they took into account everything, except the continuous displacement between Bogotá and the area. The resources were well used.
  • Yes. Given the knowledge I have of the programme in general, I think resources have been well allocated. In the activities in which I participated without a doubt, there was a good use of resources in every way.

However, some interviewees clarified that they have only partial knowledge of the sub programme.

Programme management capacities have been adequate and efficient. The management team have effectively monitored performance and results. Relevant international, regional and local expertise have been sought and used:

  • Totally. For the surveys for example, international experiences and documents were reviewed. Regional and local level the experiences were also used, for example the work of UNDP in Antioquia and other areas of the country were relevant for us.

According to the interviewees the costs of the intervention can be justified by the results. However, most of the interviewees were not in a position to give an opinion.


Tag: Efficiency National Regional

27.

3.4.1.2.2    Mongolia

There are different opinions when it comes to if resources (funds, human resources, time, expertise, etc.) have been allocated strategically to achieve results and if resources have been used efficiently and timely:

  • I do not know how the programme's resources were used. It is impossible to conclude for me whether they have been allocated strategically or used efficiently. The programme was not transparent.
  • For my organization it was really an effective and timely programme. However, I view that the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Environment and Tourism did not work efficiently for the first two years of the programme implementation. It has been improved since 2016 and tasks and activities have been stabilized within the related stakeholders. I view that the Ministry of Mining has been poorly involved, were unable to use its resources including time and funds strategically.
  • It has been more than two years since the programme has started. In general, it worked well in 2017. For instance, a national consultant was assigned. Sub programme objectives have been achieved. The Board has been active, and inter-relationships have been improved. So, I can say resources have been used efficiently and timely.

The flexibility in the annual work plan has been highly appreciated. It has been possible to adjust activities to upcoming needs for example environmental damages. It has also been possible to coordinate with another UNDP project on civil service reform.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources

28.

3.4.1.2.3     Kenya and Mozambique

The potential of shifting the working group’s focus has been suggested, from implementing EGP to an inter-agency dialogue platform for addressing particular environmental issues. The development of the sub programme’s capacity development interventions was seen to be organic and well thought out. Participants in general appreciated the mix of exchanges of knowledge and experiences offered by the EGP. Some expressed wish for more hands-on training and exchange visits to deepen their technical knowledge on certain issues are dealt with on the ground. Some also suggested that the availability of financial resources, equipment support and more engagement with their management as important, for example, to realize field visits and community engagement processes.

  • Institutional changes cannot be expected already. At least they know of each other now at the participating ministries in Mozambique. And they recognise the importance of environmental protection.
  • Intended results on policy level in Kenya have been reached. Finalised Mining Act 2016. Will be reviewed to identify gaps.

The interviewees believe the costs of the intervention can be justified by the results.

 


Tag: Efficiency Knowledge management Capacity Building

29.

 

3.4.1.2.3        The Global Component – Knowledge Sharing, Networking and Policy Support

The list below shows EGP contributions to advance and implement normative frameworks and integrating Human Rights, Rule of Law, Biodiversity and Gender in Mining Governance for more peaceful and sustainable development outcomes.

  • Tools/knowledge products and contribution

Contributions as of 13 July 2018:

  • Global Guide: Extracting Good Practices: A Guide for Governments and Partners to Integrate Environment and Human Rights into the Governance of the Mining Sector (2018)
  • Assessment tool: Rule of Law in Public Administration of Mining Governance (2018)
  • Contribution to Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on Environmental Security and Sustaining Peace (2017)
  • Online Community of Practice and GOXI Learning Series (2016-2018)
  • Online training course: Human Rights and the Environment (2016)
  • Report: Natural Resources Revenue Sharing (contribution) (2016)

Tag: Mine Action Biodiversity Gender Equality Rule of law Knowledge management Awareness raising

30.

3.5 Degree of change

3.5.1.1     Overall observations

The iterative, experimental and customised nature of the sub programme was not explicitly communicated from start. Partners came with different expectations as to what this sub programme could realistically achieve and at what level of results. But along the way, these expectations have converged.

Environmental governance capacities have been strengthened at global, regional, national and community level as a result of the sub programme. The programme has contributed to capacity development on all three levels: system level, organizational level and individual level; however less on structures of environmental administrations.


Tag: National Regional Knowledge management Institutional Strengthening

31.

3.5.1.2     Capacity development in the four programme countries

3.5.1.2.1     Colombia

We asked the interviewees if their view on human rights and rule of law principles has changed as a result of their participation in the EGP. Their answers were “No”, with only one exception. Most of the stakeholders were part of the intervention as experts in environmental mining and human rights issues and already knew the challenges. The intervention confirmed their strengths in that area of expertise. They gained knowledge and additional skills from the EGP when it comes to human rights principles such as access to information and participation, rule of law principles, mine closure, environmental monitoring and effects on ecosystem services from mining.

  • My participation in the workshop made me see other international experiences in these issues and I realized that Colombia, at the normative level, has a robust legislation on human rights issues and the development of mining activities. The problem is not the absence of normative, or constitutional or regulatory legislation, but rather that there is a breach of the norm. That could be seen in the presentations because there were elements of the Colombian case that were striking for other countries participating in the workshop. Colombia has strong protection tools. What fails is the implementation.
  • Having participated in the project fundamentally changed my attitude. Highlights the importance of transparency and guaranteed access to information.

Tag: Challenges Relevance Human rights Rule of law Awareness raising

32.

We also asked if the interviewees were able to apply the new knowledge/skills, how or why not. All interviewees were able to apply at least parts of the new knowledge/skills. In practice there is always constrains depending on factors that the participants cannot control:

  • I would like to emphasize that the reality of things is not always what happens in the areas where the project has influence. For example, although ANLA ensures that there is access to information, the reality is that in many areas there is no internet. The community does not have access to the internet.
  • Knowledge of human rights and the protection of the environment is my area of work. The project was very interesting for participants and the citizen participation of communities was the focus of discussion, the participation of national authorities was effective, participation was discussed as an enabler of rights. However, regional and local authorities should be consulted and included in the process to avoid later saying that they were not consulted. Public policies must involve authorities at all levels at all stages.

The capacities have been strengthened at ANLA. Being part of the sub programme, it highlights ANLAs activities at an international level, and therefore its activities have greater impact. The interviewees underline that it is very important that ANLA continue to participate in this type of activities and consolidate its institutional capacity at the country level.


Tag: Human rights Knowledge management

33.

3.5.1.2     Capacity development in the four programme countries

3.5.1.2.1     Colombia

  1. The EGP has to some extent created institutional changes in environmental governance in Colombia when it comes to changes on the rules (formal and informal), processes, norms, beliefs and values that govern behaviour and relationships between agents, between agents and organizations, and between organizations and the public. However, the programme has not resulted in changes in legislation which is being implemented and enforced.

This means that right holders' access to decision making has increased in the pilots in Colombia and decisions making processes are more participatory. Thus, right holders now have better possibilities to participate and influence in decision making.

According to the interviewees the sub programme created some institutional changes in environmental governance:

  • Regarding the possibility of generating changes in Colombian regulation and legislation, the project reinforced the view that it is something difficult to achieve. To us, to the UNDP, to the ANLA it allowed us to realize that there have been changes regarding mining legislation, that there have been discussions and changes.
  • Institutional changes, project has allowed to have a realization of how things have been changing.
  • At the community level, there is greater empowerment; they were helped to better understand how the project works and why things were happening as they were. Increased the level of acceptance of the process, and better understanding who was the responsible authority.
  • Given the differences between the ANLA at the national level and the ANLA representation in the regions, I do not know the degree of changes that took place or the impact of those changes. It is my impression, though, that people have been empowered and their rights strengthened. I do not know the magnitude of impact.

Tag: Rule of law Institutional Strengthening

34.

3.5.1.2.2   Mongolia

We asked the interviewees if their view on human rights and rule of law principles has changed as a result of their participation in the EGP. Their answers were “Yes”. They gained knowledge and additional skills from the EGP when it comes to human rights principles such as access to information and participation, rule of law principles, mine closure, environmental monitoring and effects on ecosystem services from mining.

Yes, I have improved my knowledge and skills from the EGP. As a result of my involvement in the project, my view on human rights and rules of law and principals has broadened. I was able to see human rights issues from different angles. I have realized that it is very important to ensure good

  • legal environment for the program, such as enacting laws and regulation in mine closure and offsets, improving the innovative and systematic framework for the program. Particularly, in Mongolia participation of local communities and organizations were inadequate and not clear. Lack of knowledge in environmental governance at all levels of the community, self-governance, administrative and local authorities were big problem. I consider, capacity building trainings or outreach programs at all levels is essential.
  • In particular, my knowledge on human rights issues in the mining sector have increased. However, my expectation has not been fulfilled. I expected more changes such as improvements in mining legislation. In fact, current legal environment does not support environmental governance. For example, relevant laws and principals have not changed or revised on resolving compensation issues and conducting environmental monitoring.
  • Yes. As a result of participation in the EGP, I had a chance to realize what the human rights’ issues are and why environmental governance is important in the mining sector. Prior to this, I was not fully aware of these issues. So, I would say I have gained some knowledge and skills from the EGP. I would definitely be able to use my knowledge in my future career and field of work.
  • It is planned to undertake impact assessment on mitigation of human rights issues and to make tripartite consultations and come to a consensus. Participation in the programme allowed me to view the EGP from multiple angles, so I would definitely use my knowledge and skills in this area.

Tag: Environment Policy Knowledge management Awareness raising Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions

35.

3.5.1.2.3  Kenya and Mozambique

As part of the ongoing evaluation focus group discussions were conducted with the two country teams in Kenya and Mozambique. The purpose of the session was to construct the collective change stories for the environmental governance of the mining sector, with focus on the broader country context of bringing about ‘real change to real people’, not just on EGP interventions. The overall change vision of the Kenyan EGP team was: empowered communities while achieving environmental goals through sustainable mining. The long-term changes to achieve this change vision include: more community involvement, effective monitoring and enforcement of environmental legislations, effective county mining committees, accurate media coverage, improved household income, reduced human and environmental impact, clean, safe and healthy environment.

SESA and the mining cycle analysis are two completed EGP activities towards the change vision. Immediate results from these completed activities include knowledge generation and awareness concerning mining sector, along with improved inter-agency coordination. It is expected that these results will in turn lead to shared understanding of mining issues that will help create more coherence in policies and regulations and enhance synergies between regulatory agencies. In the longer-run, these are expected to lead to safe and sustainable mining operations for both large-scale and artisanal mining and enhanced community involvement during and after the mining process.

 


Tag: Communication Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Alleviation

36.

Through planned activities of community capacity building, consultative capacity building and an effective calendar design, it is expected that the risk of electoral cycles delaying or blocking the planned change process can be mitigated. It is planned to establish participatory environmental monitoring committees in two areas to build capacity, tools and knowledge for a community based environmental monitoring with human rights-based approach of mining activities. The sub programme will strengthen the capacity of government staff on environmental monitoring techniques.

In the short and medium term, it is expected that this will enhance community’s assessment (of information) skills. Designing of effective environmental policies and directives is also envisioned as a short- and medium-term effect of the capacity building activity. The long-term change expected is the strengthening of legal frameworks and better-defined procedures for mining, which will ultimately help achieve the vision goal of transparent, accountable, inclusive and sustainable mining. A decisive and involved institutional role was identified as a positive factor to bring about change towards the vision.

In Kenya, there is a shift of thinking showcasing clear links to HR and resulting in improved inter-agency collaboration and relationship. A critical success factor is that sub programme personnel have been open to learning, adaptive (rather than following rigid, predetermined design to meet country context, priorities and needs) and correcting courses as the sub programme progresses.  


Tag: Anti-corruption Human rights Knowledge management Capacity Building

37.

3.5 Degree of change

3.5.1.3    The Global Component – Knowledge Sharing, Networking and Policy Support

During 2017 the following was achieved:

  • Conducted 8 webinars with more than 700 participants from over 100 countries.
  • Contributed to a Massive Online Open Course with more than 9000 registered participants has been developed.
  • Expanded the Community of Practice on GOXI membership by 40%.
  • Held a soft-launch of the Global Guidance on Integrating Human Rights and Environment into the Governance of the Mining Sector was soft-launched at the annual meeting of the IGF on mining in Geneva.

Tag: Knowledge management

38.

3.6 Sustainability

3.6.2.Observations

3.6.2.1     Overall observations

The programme strategy is designed to ensure ownership and sustainability of results. The interviewees underlines that the national ownership has been essential for the success. There has been close partnership between SEPA, BPPS; Regional Centres and Country Offices. The four programme countries in the sub programme have developed training modules on Governance and Human Rights issues in environmental governance that has been offered as webinars for government staff from other countries as well. According to among others participants in Mongolia the training has been very useful for building capacity and, thus, contribute to sustainability.

According to the interviewees EGP has been a positive experience. However, it is emphasized that this is a long-term processes and that it cannot be expected to achieve sustainable results after such a short time. Some steps have been taken to ensure sub programme sustainability. One example that was mentioned in the interviews is that lessons learned have been documented, for example through training materials and webinars. Most of the interviewees are of the opinion that they have not done enough yet.

 


Tag: Ownership Partnership Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions Sustainability Human rights

39.

3.6.1.2   Capacity development in the four programme countries

3.6.1.2.1     Colombia

The interviewees mention a number of actions that have been taken to ensure EGP sustainability in Colombia including disseminating EGP results, lessons and experiences.

  • Colombia has the necessary legislation. We have to work on the implementation. UNDP must leverage and support this process.
  • In order to obtain long-term results and for ANLA to have more autonomy in the implementation of innovative processes of citizen participation in the licensing process, changes in the Colombian legal framework are necessary, which at this time have not occurred.
  • They made a special presentation on results to the UNDP. Their Director was in New York. They also made a presentation in Colombia. They shared results with other stakeholders in Colombia, including ANLA and the mining company. The socialization/dissemination of results with the mining company has already been done and the companies see the need for change as they realize that what they do needs to be changed.

Results are anchored in national institutions and can they be maintained at the end of the sub programme:

  • At ANLA level they have tried to socialize and disseminate the results but with the change of government and other internal issues, they have not been able to do so.
  • How well will the results be received? It is hard to see.
  • They have generated diffusion. The closing workshops are pending with the communities.
  • What is needed is a long-term vision and the willingness to continue this work for the long run. It can have a great impact in the country.

Tag: Communication Partnership National Institutions

40.

 

3.6.1.2.2    Mongolia

A number of steps have been taken to ensure EGP sustainability in Mongolia (including, e.g. disseminating EGP results, lessons and experiences). Even without a new phase of the EGP among others the following activities would have the potential to continue:

  • The working group can continue to work together and for example carry out monitoring trips.
  • Trainings can be institutionalised within the civil servant trainings either as compulsory or voluntary
  • Training material has been put online and can be used by everyone
  • Cooperation between the parties that has participated in the sub programme can go on by their own initiatives
  • Standards and benchmark can be used by mining companies and other stakeholders.

A draft methodology on setting benchmarks for responsible mining for mining companies, including environmental management and human rights issues, was developed jointly with the GASI. The methodology which draws upon international best practice and the current regulatory framework of Mongolia, has been piloted by two companies. Once tested, this methodology is expected to contribute to improving industry self-monitoring and compliance with international standards.


Tag: Sustainability National Regional Human rights Knowledge management Capacity Building

41.

Interviewees involved in the EGP sub programme have a heavy workload and some of them complain on the lack of coordination with other projects and their “ordinary work”. Alignment of sub programme activities with national work plans is an important measure. EGP activities were therefore integrated into work plans and performance plans for 2018. This measure will hopefully help strengthen accountability and national ownership.

Coordination with other development projects is vital to ensure synergies and more joined-up approaches. In line with these principles, the EGP is coordinating its activities with a Canadian funded project that is implemented by the Ministry of Mining and Heavy Industry and which shares similar objectives to the EGP. Going forward, some activities will also be jointly implemented with the UNDP Land degradation off-set project. Another project the EGP is partnering with in Mongolia is the UNDP implemented project ‘Strengthening Representative Bodies in Mongolia’ which aims to strengthen capacities for environmental monitoring of mining activities by local self-governing bodies. Regular information exchange with local environmental CSOs is also important. The sub programme continues to be in regular contact with the Open Society Forum coordinated network of environmental NGOs to ensure bottom up approaches and stakeholder engagement.


Tag: Environment Policy Natural Resouce management Sustainability Coordination Institutional Strengthening Civil Societies and NGOs

42.

3.6.1.2.3  Kenya and Mozambique

In Mozambique a cross-sectoral/inter-agency coordination mechanism for regular consultation among agencies involved in environmental governance of the mining sector has been institutionalized. The members of this group have become important advocates and influencers for change in how the mining sector is governed in Mozambique.

  • Government in Mozambique mainly speak Portuguese – would need peer to peer with Portuguese speaking countries for example Brazil
  • Used adaptive management approach. Before start established a core group of the participating institutions in Mozambique. No decisions made between these institutions before. Now decisions at the monthly meetings of the EGP Mozambique core group.

Tag: Sustainability Coordination

43.

4 Sub programme 2: Partnership for an environmentally sustainable One UN

4.1    The Sub programme

Sustainable United Nations (SUN) is an initiative of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) that coordinates operational activities and supports different UN organizations in their efforts to implement the UN climate neutral strategy and environmental management systems (EMS). The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) is supporting the work of UNEP by advising the SUN team and building the capacity of UN entities to establish and maintain EMSs.

The aim of this sub programme is that UN agencies have reduced their negative, and enhanced their positive environmental impact. The UN operates in several countries, both through their offices in its 193 member states and through its programs and initiatives. It is crucial that the UN agencies have minimal environmental impact at its offices and operations, not least because they often operate in fragile and poor countries with limited resources.


Tag: Environmental impact assessment Knowledge management UN Agencies

44.

4.2 Relevance 

4.2.1      Observations

In 2007, the UN Chief Executives Board (CEB) released a statement endorsing the UN Climate Neutral Strategy, which asks UN entities to:

  • Measure their GHG emissions;
  • Reduce their GHG emissions; and
  • Offset their unavoidable emissions.

The UN Climate Neutral Strategy covers UN system GHG emission related to facilities and operations, including travel. Within these boundaries, the strategy concerns all activities over which the UN has financial and/or operational control (i.e. activities that are being paid or controlled directly by the organization). The implementation of the strategy is the responsibility of each UN organization, but is coordinated by the UN Environment Management Group (EMG) and supported by UNEP.

SUN was established by UN Environment in 2008 to support UN agencies in implementing the Secretary General’s Statement and Strategy to make the UN system climate neutral. SUN serves the EMG and the Consultative Process in the achievements of the goals of the ESS Framework’s third pillar (facilities and operations). Through the IMG on Environmental Sustainability Management, SUN/IMG monitors and reports on GHG emissions, waste management and water consumption in the UN system. Furthermore, the SUN works to integrate environmental considerations into procurement and decision making processes for buildings. Since 2014, as requested by a decision of the CEB, work is underway to introduce EMS across UN agencies.


Tag: Emission Reduction Environment Policy Relevance Oversight UN Agencies SDG Integration

45.

In addition to reduced environmental impact, the purpose of the sub programme was also to pilot UN customized procedures and templates developed by the sub programme, and to use the pilot organizations as good examples. The short-term impact is that UN agencies have a more systematic, robust and credible way of working with their environmental performance.

The four pilot organizations were selected based on the criteria environmental impact, management committed to EMS implementation, symbolic value, active work on gender equality, and geographic spread among the pilots. Common to all four EMS pilots is that their EMS will consider interested parties such as suppliers, partner organizations, and the host country.

After the sub programme plan was finalized, the partnership between SUN and SEPA started with the SEPA experts making a stocktaking exercise to get an overview of the present situation concerning EMS implementation in the UN system. The purpose was to make sure that future activities in the partnership build on existing work, and to reach a better understanding of how to introduce EMSs to the UN system. Based on the findings, the experts provided recommendations for improvements.

The EMS uses a structured approach designed to help organizations to manage their environmental impact and improve their environmental performance over time and within a scope defined by the organizations themselves. Therefore the interventions are to a high extent relevant for the Pilot organizations as well as other UN enteties:

  • Extremely relevant
  • Could not have been more relevant. Expertise available vital for the progress.
  • Enabled pilots to get a kick start through benefitting from external expertise. Draw upon structure and experience from Sweden, structured pilot approach incredible valuable.

A key output of the sub programme is the online EMS Toolkit that will provide practical guidance to UN organizations implementing EMS. The Toolkit and its practical examples have been developed in close consultation with the four pilot organizations and with an EMS Working Group composed of close to 20 UN organizations. The EMS Toolkit will be implemented during the extension phase. According to the interviewees the EMS Toolkit is highly relevant to the needs and priorities within the UN.


Tag: Relevance Knowledge management Policies & Procedures

46.

4.3 Effecitveness

4.3.1 Observations

Continuous support has been given to the four pilot organizations in implementing EMS. The sub programme has worked regularly with the EMS working group of approximately 20 UN organizations, as well as the EMS pilots. In addition, around 20 organizations have been reached through the regular interactions between the SUN team (including the SEPA experts) and the Sustainability Focal Points in the whole UN system.

Overall, activities have been conducted as planned. The implementation in ESCAP was delayed due to recruiting a new staff member. However ESCAP could then learn from the other pilots so the first steps took less time and ESCAP was able to catch up with the others. 


Tag: Effectiveness Knowledge management Partnership UN Agencies

47.

In addition to the pilot organizations, the following organizations have been in contact with the sub programme, and thereafter developed their EMS further: UNEP (comprehensive EMS), UNFCCC (environmental policy), UNFPA (EMS Manual), ILO (developed a sustainability policy), UNON (is implementing an EMS), UNOG (recruited an EMS coordinator an is implementing an EMS), OIOS (showed interest in how to integrate EMS elements in their audits).

According to the interviewees, the partnership with SEPA added great value for the EMS work within UN. SEPA has a unique experience on guiding and coordinating a large number of authorities with vastly different mandates on national level. These experiences have added valuable input to the collaboration:


Tag: Effectiveness Partnership UN Agencies Capacity Building Coordination

48.

 

4.4 Effiency

4.4.1 Observations

During the sub programme, one SEPA staff on loan in Geneva was a member of the SUN team and therefore part of the UNEP workforce and the daily activities at the UN office. As a result, SEPA experts have gained a better understanding of the UN culture. This way of working provides a link between SEPAs EMS activities in Stockholm and UNs EMS activities in Geneva which contributed to exchange of experience and the learning process.

During the sub programme period, the SEPA experts have had individual meetings online with each pilot and given them tailored guidance in their EMS implementation. The SEPA experts have visited each pilot organization at least once. There have also been joint pilot meetings between all four pilots quarterly, sharing experience and discussing challenges, since they were all working with the same EMS elements and therefore could benefit from each other’s solutions.

Based on the interviews, the SEPA experts have been very successful in coaching the EMS pilot organizations. The monthly meetings with each EMS pilot have been highly appreciated as well as the joint pilot meetings and the tailored training sessions.


Tag: Efficiency Knowledge management

49.

A sub programme plan was established in the beginning of 2015, outlining roles, timeline and activities. The project plan, budget and priorities has been discussed and revised at regular meetings with the steering team. Also, the steering team meetings have included an assessment of the collaboration as a basis for improvements. The effectiveness of the collaboration have been rated at least 3 in all meetings and most of the time the average has been above 4, on a 5-graded scale.

According to the interviewees the resources have been strategically allocated.

  • Yes, the external resources have been adequate. However, recourses within UN system have not always been sufficient.
  • Yes, to a large extent. The resources from SEPA allocated well. From the start pilots did not know what they needed – could not specify what they needed and specifically ask for that. Thus, SEPA should have provided the tools earlier in the process.
  • Resources to environmental sustainability are seldom given priority compared to other urgent and more visible areas of work. It does not, however, need to be any contradiction between interests. Instead, integrating environmental consideration into e.g. peacekeeping can improve resource efficiency.

The collaboration mechanisms have been highly appreciated


Tag: Efficiency Oversight

50.

4.5 Degree of change

4.5.1 Observations

The capacity development on EMS intends to support the organizations so they can implement, and later also maintain and develop their EMS without further support. The capacity development includes a general awareness among the staff about the EMS, the SDG: s and how the organizations activities effect the environment, both in a negative and a positive way. One of the main results from the sub programme is the UN adapted guidance on EMS, available online through the UN EMS Toolkit. The Toolkit contains descriptions of requirements on an EMS based on the ISO standard, practical advice for the EMS implementation, and case studies collected from UN organizations. Parts of the guidance material were sent to the EMS Working Group for review and feedback to ensure that the material was adapted to the UN. The UN EMS Toolkit can be used by any UN organization.

The level of EMS advancement has increased for several of the EMS Working Group member organizations during the period of the sub programme. The SEPA experts asked the UN EMS Working Group member organizations to fill out a survey 2015, and to fill out the same survey again 2018. The survey contained 39 statements and the respondents ticked all statements that were true for their entity. In total 17 organizations responded, and several organizations had made substantial progress since 2015, including the four EMS pilots. The entities were awarded a “virtual medal” (gold, silver or bronze) based on the level of EMS advancement. There were nine organizations that were awarded gold or silver medal level 2018, compared to three organizations 2015.


Tag: Knowledge management Operational Efficiency Awareness raising

51.

The sub programme has had great impact on institutional changes in environmental governance. By adopting an EMS, UN organizations will become actively responsible for the environmental impact from their premises and operations worldwide. This covers areas like energy efficiency, waste management, travel and the purchase of goods and services. The EMS are part of the Greening the Blue report since 2016 and there for, the UN organizations have to report on their EMS progress annually.

In 2016 the SUN team, including the SEPA experts, and the Issue Management Group (IMG) for Environmental Sustainability Management, received the UN Secretary-General’s Award for “Greening the UN”. The Secretary-General Awards recognize ‘the outstanding work of UN staff who have contributed above and beyond the call of duty or advanced projects with great impact and innovative potential’.

 


Tag: Energy Environment Policy Waste management Policies & Procedures

52.

4.6 Sustainability

4.6.1 Observations

One of the main challenges for the implementation of EMS in the UN system has been limited human resources and short-term contracts for UN staff. The short work contracts and high staff turnover is a general challenge for the UN system. There has been a change of EMS coordinators in a couple of the EMS pilots. The written commitments of collaboration between SUN and each pilot agency have therefore been valuable to mitigate these risks. High level decisions and management support is still important, so that the direction in the EMS will remain even if individual staff are replaced.

The EMS Coordinators in the pilot organizations and the IMG Focal Points have served as project leaders when implementing the EMS, and the SEPA have had the role of coaching, which means that ownership is with the pilot organizations. One person in the SUN team will take over the EMS coordination role when the SEPA experts leave and EMS Tool kit and guidelines will swift ownership to SUN. This is good steps in ensuring the sustainability of the sub programmes work.

Based on the interviews, the approach and support to pilot organizations have been very useful to secure sustainability in the organizations.


Tag: Challenges Sustainability Human and Financial resources

53.

Another challenge has been lack of signals from Member States in their dialogues with UN organizations in raising the importance of an active work with internal environmental sustainability to reduce environmental risks and environmental impact. To ensure sustainability in the EMS implementation, more has to be done so that Member States request the UN organizations to have an EMS, and the highest coordination bodies in the UN system can be further involved to anchor environmental sustainability in their agenda.

The sub programme seems to have led to an increase in interest in environmental management systems in UN organizations. However, the EMS Toolkit needs to be tailored to the context to suit UN offices composed of smaller country offices in developing countries. A well-tailored and well-promoted EMS Toolkit would increase the chances that the guidance material is used and that more UN organizations will implement EMS. This will in turn lead to more robustness in the environmental work of the UN organizations.


Tag: Challenges Sustainability Knowledge management

54.

5 Sub programme 3: Ecosystem Services Accounting for Development

5.1 The Sub Programme

The objective of the sub programme is to improve the methodology and provide input to the development of international guidelines in benefits from ecosystem services accounting such that better-informed decisions can be made. This will contribute to the targets outlined in the Convention of Biological Diversity i.e. that by 2020 the value of ecosystem services is being incorporated into national accounting. The programme results will also provide input to national objectives such as the sub goal of the Swedish Environmental Objective, A rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life. Furthermore, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include the aim to conserve and restore the use of terrestrial ecosystems and to halt biodiversity loss.

The sub programme will contribute to WAVES (World Bank´s Global initiative for Wealth Accounting Valuation of Ecosystem Services) objective to develop guidelines for implementing ecosystem accounting for global implementation by contributing to the enhancement of the methodology for ecosystem accounting. WAVES has four objectives delineated in the figure below.

 


Tag: Biodiversity Ecosystem services SDG Integration

55.

The Theory of Change is illustrated in Figure 5.3. Two outputs are defined:

  • Advancement in methodology for ecosystem accounting for decision making
  • Increased knowledge generated about identified gaps in knowledge in ecosystem accounting recognized by the accounting community (WAVES and its partners)

The intermediate outcome is that the outputs from this sub programme should contribute to WAVES objectives to develop guidelines and add to policy analysis. The results should be able to be replicated in other countries and contribute to internationally agreed standards in ecosystem valuation


Tag: Theory of Change

56.

5.2.1    Observations

The sub programme has designed and implemented a series of coordinated studies that help improve ecosystem service accounting and valuation in seven countries (China, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Sweden, and Tanzania). This work has addressed three essential but poorly understood ecosystem services: i) water purification, ii) crop pollination, and iii) urban green amenities.

All interviewees are of the opinion that the sub programme is relevant. To correctly internalize the benefits and costs of ecosystem services is an international challenge. Several countries, including Sweden, have set targets to include ecosystem services in decision making by the year of 2018.

Developing countries are relatively more dependent on natural resources and ecosystem services. Many vital ecosystem services are not accounted for in decision-making, which often leads to short sighted decisions jeopardizing not only the situation of the poor but also national growth prospects. Accounting for natural capital has been discussed for many years but progress in moving towards implementation has been slow.

The objective of the sub programme is to improve the methodology in ecosystem service accounting and provide standard approaches to accounting. This will have an impact on the situation for all citizens in the long run but above all provide decision makers with better tools in managing natural resources and the environment.


Tag: Ecosystem services Water resources Urbanization

57.

According to the Global Programme proposal the gender dimension should be highlighted in the findings. Therefore, we asked the interviewees to comment on how cross-cutting issues (gender, poverty reduction) have been taken into consideration in the sub programme. There were among the interviewees’ different opinions on the relevance of these cross-cutting issues for their research. Benefitting the poor is part of the development goal for the sub programme and has had high priority. One of the studies specifically focused on gender and the others have in most cases indirectly integrated gender aspects in the research.

  • The roles of women and men in agriculture production are very specific. The Tanzanian study on pollination was targeted on gender. But not the other studies directly, only indirectly. Not captured values in gender terms. All studies come across poverty reduction. Reducing cost of water translate into the household budget. Pollination increase income from agriculture products.
  • Poor people more affected by externalities like pollution. Loose both food and cash flow through for example flooding. There is strong link between poverty and household led by females. It is important to control externalities.
  • There are implications for poor. But the papers are not generally focused on this issue but on methodology for assessments of ecosystems. The methods can be used in developing as well as developed countries. Gender is not relevant in our research.
  • Poverty implicit in all development cooperation and also in our research. Gender only addressed in Tanzania, indirectly addressed in some research and not addressed at all in most of the countries.
  • Difficult to address these issues in this kind of research. Gender is not relevant in the research. Poverty has no direct relevance for the research, only indirectly.
  • Evidence to present to policy makers on gender and poverty is needed. Tanzania focused on gender in the research but not the other countries

Tag: Gender Mainstreaming Gender Equality

58.

5.3 Effectiveness

5.3.1 Observations

The sub programme has been carried out as planned to a high extent. The researchers have presented their ideas and findings at many national, regional and international conferences and workshops. They have also in most cases actively engaged with policy makers and other stakeholders in their countries and more broadly. As of October 2017, the researchers have produced more than 15 manuscripts intended for publication in peer reviewed journals, with several more still in preparation. According to the interviewees the researchers are publishing continuously. At the time of the interviews (July 2018) more than 20 manuscripts were published or submitted.

The results have contributed to the overall outcomes of the UNSDs work by feeding into the UN Committee of Experts on Environmental-Economic Accounting (UNCEEA) in developing the guidelines to include ecosystem services accounting on national accounts, and the WAVES programme at the World Bank by informing on robust methodologies and help to construct a value function in the future.

According to the interviewees the sub programme´s two outputs have been achieved to a high extent.

  • We have achieved the expected results quite well. There are room for improvements in linking the two communities for ecosystem and accounting.
  • Yes, we have identified gaps. But not focused on generating new knowledge yet. Maybe this will be done in the team’s synthesis paper for each area.

Tag: Effectiveness Communication

59.

Also Output 2 (Increased knowledge generated about identified gaps in knowledge in ecosystem accounting recognized by the accounting community) has been achieved to a large extent. The researchers have shared their ideas, plans and preliminary analysis and results with other researchers at conferences, workshops and seminars and through publications. 

  • Now we can monitor value of bees. The same with trees for water purification. Translating these values into economic models or policy decisions are strong tools.
  • We have produced methods to provide evidence of values of ecosystem services that not existed before. Brilliant methods we believe in - but we don´t know until they met the needs of practitioners if they are useful. Reviews from outside are necessary to get their views before presenting these methods for policy makers.
  • The water purification method is quite novel. The pollination method is definitely novel. In urban green we have added the development country perspective to methods that had been used only in developed countries before.

We asked the interviewees: “To what extent have you been able to share results both in academic and practitioner arenas? How will the results be used in coming years?” Each researcher has attended at least one international academic meeting. They are also active in their own national academic networks. In the coming years they will share the results extensively in policy briefs and presentations in seminar series.

Presentations at national and international events are listed in the table below per country


Tag: Effectiveness Knowledge management

60.

The sub programme has shared with us a number of the publications listed above. They seem to be of good quality and in line with what is expected from the sub programme.

So far the implementation strategies, including outreach & dissemination efforts, have been working quite well according to the interviewees. But they also say that there is much more to be done.

  • Need to get out to many more stakeholders. The common person should understand what the ecosystem does for them.
  • Have been effective in reaching accountants
  • Not got there yet. So far only awareness rising
  • Presenting results in many academic events. Some researchers work closely with WB and Asian Development Bank.
  • We have used all possible conferences internationally and in the region for presenting our papers.
  • We should now be focused on next step and have workshops and seminars with all stakeholders.

There are different channels to reach policy makers in different countries. In some countries it is easy to establish an open dialogue with decision makers at for example ministries. In other countries you cannot invite them and lecture them. In some countries you can have workshops together with the decision makers. In other countries you have to use written information only, for example Policy Briefs on findings or Policy Briefs on conclusions.


Tag: Effectiveness Communication Ownership Partnership Policies & Procedures

61.

5.4 Efficiency

5.4.1 Observations

The research has been conducted by a working group (WG) comprising eight researchers representing the different countries and headed by a Principal Investigator from IUCN. The executive coordination has been done by SEPA until September 2017, and taken over by one WG member, who also conducts the case studies for Costa Rica.

Every first Wednesday of the month the WG meets for 1,5 hour. In addition the WG have had a one-week workshop every year. The Team is also meeting at the Efd conferences.

According to the interviewees the resources (funds, human resources, time, expertise, etc.) have been allocated strategically to achieve results.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Capacity Building

62.

The management capacities have been adequate and efficient according to the Team. It has consisted of an Executive coordinator for the Team and a Principal Investigator.

The Executive coordinator has three main tasks:

Arranging monthly meetings in the group and the yearly workshops

Reporting to SEPA and reporting to Efd

Validating findings internationally

Also the role of the Principal Investigator has been clear. Some individual responsibilities are defined for the role in taking lead in analytical work. In addition, there are some shared responsibilities with the Executive coordinator where they have had to consult each other.

The principal investigator (technical leader) is highly praised by the Team members. Also the Executive coordinators are highly praised.

The technical leader has been an enormous asset. He is very knowledgeable and approachable.

The technical leader is not available now as much as he was before and that is a pity. He has been extremely important for our progress.


Tag: Efficiency Project and Programme management

63.

5.5 Degree of change

5.5.1  Observations

When it comes to the first evaluation question (“What are positive or negative, direct or indirect, intended or unintended, changes observed so far on the target groups or beneficiaries?”) the answers from the interviewees are mainly confirming what was expected from the sub programme.

  • International accounting community are experts in accounting but not ecosystems. Big gap in environmental data. We are filling in this gap.
  • The ecosystem services are of immense importance to any particular country. We have proved that it is possible to attach values to the three areas.
  • When you need secondary data you meet a lot of bureaucracy and difficulties.
  • In some countries it is political sensitive to share data on water treatment.
  • For example the water company now have implemented an information system that is in place to gather the data that is needed continuously for the analysis based on what we requested as data for the study. Before our research they had nothing of this kind.

  • Not expected to get any change in policies through this project. Very complicated process in my country.
  • UNSTAT most important and very supportive. WAVES is re-emerging.
  • So far other researchers are the target group for us to get feedback on our methods and preliminary findings. In next step we will meet policy makers, the city administration and other stakeholders that will be targeted. These stakeholders must be clearly identified.

Tag: Ecosystem services National Regional Policies & Procedures

64.

5.6 Sustainability

5.6.1     Observations

Some steps have been taken to ensure sustainability (including, e.g. disseminating results, lessons and experiences). However, it is too early to know if the results, achievements and benefits are likely to be durable.

  • The project has created a lot of capacity in the participating countries. We have had interaction not only with economists but also many other academics. We have established a network = the team that will be a sustainable network. We have enabled countries to use geo-spaceal data.
  • Policy briefs, videos, expert meetings with practitioners.
  • The new methods will sustain and be further developed by other researchers. Knowledge is shared with other researchers in the participating countries. We provide opportunities for more research in these countries and can thus contribute to anti- brain-drain. Researchers that establish networks in their own country when they are young tend to stay.
  • The moment people are aware on the costs for cleaning water there will be a sustainable change in how they look at water purification. Thus, the work we have done will have an impact.
  • Publications are important in the academic field. However, never read by policy makers. Policy briefs would be good to make the results more digestible for policy makers. This must be focused in next step.
  • Next programme period must focus on how this can be used for other topics than the present three. Also, think about regional models.
  • Have been busy in drafting papers and not thought much about sustainability. Now we must draft policy papers, one page summaries, in local language and also present success stories. One page summaries make it readable for practitioners and policy makers.
  • Hope to achieve this, but it is not discussed yet. Must work hard on this in next phase/programme. Need to have a clear road map on how to achieve this.

The interviewees believe that the approach can be replicated (or scaled up) by national partners in some cases. However, it is noted that there are a number of limitations. Most of the studies have gone well but there have also been problems with some of the studies. Thus, the meta-analysis on the studies in all countries will be very important to find out which methods are possible to use under different circumstances.

  • The studies are very demanding financially and time-consuming. Therefore they cannot be done again in detail for other ecosystem services as the resources are not available.
  • Now we have focused on the largest cities in the participating countries. It should be possible to replicate the method in other areas (for example other large cities) and in other countries.

Tag: Sustainability Communication

65.

6.   Sub programme 4: Capacity development of staff at Swedish EPA

6.1  The Sub programme 

In order to more effectively contribute to the implementation of environmental legislation and other measures including Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) in partner countries the capacity at SEPA needs to be strengthened in different areas such as development perspective, local contexts and circumstances, the poverty-environment nexus and human rights based approaches in order to have a better ability to customize activities in different countries as well as bring these issues up in relevant fora.

The aim of this sub programme is that the staff at SEPA more effectively and efficiently can contribute to an improved sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystem services in developing and transition countries. This sub programme will contribute to the other sub programmes and also to SEPA’s international cooperation. It will, thus, contribute to strengthen the capacities in national public administrations, NGOs, civil society and the private sector relevant for the environment in partner countries and parties to the MEAs.

 


Tag: Ecosystem services Environment Policy Natural Resouce management Civil Societies and NGOs National Institutions Private Sector

66.

6.   Sub programme 4: Capacity development of staff at Swedish EPA

6.2  Relevance

6.2.1   Observations

SEPA had a similar component of capacity building in its previous Global Programme. A list on previous trainings can be found in Appendix 1 to the Baseline study. Most of the training was conducted during 2008-2011. Since then some of the staff have left SEPA and new staff have been assigned.

The competence profile for working with international cooperation may consist of a combination of several skills. In the baseline study the following competences were identified as important:

  • Expert knowledge in certain areas such as climate change and waste management,
  • Institutional competence and environmental governance,
  • Knowledge in developing perspective,
  • Knowledge in capacity development,
  • Knowledge in human rights based approaches,
  • Project management / methodology / evaluation and administrative procedures (and templates) for project planning, implementation and reporting
  • Social and intercultural competence
  • Security issues
  • Knowledge about the UN-system and their different organizations.

Tag: Ecosystem services Natural Resouce management Relevance Anti-corruption Knowledge management Partnership Capacity Building

67.

6.3  Effectiveness

6.3.1  Observations

In the Results Framework one indicator is specified on impact level (“Examples on how the gained knowledge has contributed to a better understanding in different international fora such as selected Multilateral Environmental Agreements and in bilateral collaboration etc”). Means of verification is “Minutes from meetings in different international fora, bilateral collaboration etc and other relevant documentation”. This has not been followed up and reported in the Annual Reports.

The Outcome of the sub programme is “The staff of the Swedish EPA has used the tools, knowledge and skills they have acquired from the programme in relevant fora such as international development collaboration and selected Multilateral Environmental Agreements.” The indicator is “Follow up with staff off the Swedish EPA and other relevant organizations“. This has not been followed up and reported in the Annual Reports. In the evaluation we have asked programme staff, stakeholders and beneficiaries if the experts from SEPA that have been involved in the Global Programme have relevant knowledge and skills for their tasks and have used relevant tools in the support. The interviewees praise the staff at SEPA in all these aspects and also for their commitment to the peer to peer process. Interviewees underline that the experts´ efforts many times have gone beyond what has been expected. Of course is it not possible for the interviewees to know to what extent this can be attributed to the activities under sub programme 4.

In the two tables below the indicators and means of verification for the two outputs are specified. This information is to some extent reported in the Annual Reports. We have in the evaluation studied all documents that have been made available. After the two tables we have summarized our observations regarding the outputs.


Tag: Effectiveness Operational Efficiency Capacity Building

68.

Gender mainstreaming was focused 2016. SEPA was actively involved in the preparation of two workshops on gender mainstreaming in development work targeting governmental agencies. Furthermore, Sida’s Gender Help Desk was engaged to analyze the SEPA’s International Unit’s capacity and gave SEPA recommendations for gender mainstreaming of the projects in Georgia and Serbia. Two SEPA employees participated in a two day course on gender integration in development cooperation, organized by Sida Partnership Forum.

In 2017 focus was on 1) to work with other Swedish government agencies through N4L, 2) to encourage and fund SEPA staff to participate in relevant trainings, and 3) to work through e.g. the EGP (sub programme 1).

During 2017, the Network for Learning, Sida and MSB (the Swedish Contingency Agency) initiated a process to clarify what additional support is needed to strengthen Swedish government agencies’ capacities to contribute to partner capacity development within the framework of Swedish development cooperation. A first workshop was conducted in April 2017 – Effective Learning and Support for Capacity Development. This resulted in a report and a follow up workshop in Kosovo. Researchers at Lund University have partly based on this workshop proposed a study on Swedish government agencies performance on capacity development in international development cooperation programmes. The study aims to provide a systematic and constructive critical assessment of how Swedish public agencies conceptualize and operationalize their capacity development in different partner contexts. As this process in on-going, and will also benefit SEPA, SEPA has decided not to duplicate this work and work in parallel with this process but to engage in it. In this sense, SEPA is also deviating from the initial Proposal to Sida.


Tag: Effectiveness Gender Mainstreaming Awareness raising Capacity Building

69.

6.4  Efficiency

6.4.1  Observations

According to the interviewees resources (funds, human resources, time, expertise, etc.) have been allocated strategically to achieve results. The resources have been used efficiently and timely.

Working through the Network N4L has increased efficiency. More activities have been carried out. The exchange of experiences with other Swedish agencies has contributed to the learning processes also within SEPA.

The programme management capacities have been adequate and efficient. The Programme Manager is praised in the interviews for her commitment to the task and the initiative to N4L.

During 2016 three members of SEPA staff left the project and were replaced with other SEPA colleagues as the programme took shape and relevant experience and expertise were identified.


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Project and Programme management

70.

6.5  Degree of change

6.5.1  Observations

In the baseline study capacity is defined as the ability of people, organizations or society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully. Capacity development is defined as the process whereby people, organizations or society as a whole unleash, strengthen, create, adapt and maintain capacity over time. Capacity is needed at both individual level and institutional level.

The ToC and the Results Framework for this sub programme is focused on the individual level. The activities are mainly training, exchange of experience and other interventions on the individual level.

According to interviewees the link between human rights and environmental governance is more widely acknowledged at SEPA and among participants in N4Ls activities.


Tag: Theory of Change Capacity Building

71.

6.6  Sustainability

6.5.1  Observations

According to the interviewees a number of steps have been taken to ensure the sub programmes sustainability. SEPA is not working in isolation on strengthening capacity in relevant areas. Instead SEPA has initiated the network N4L. Lessons and experiences are shared with other Swedish agencies. The initiative has also resulted in a number of courses at Sida Partnership Forum. Thus, the sub programme´s results, achievements and benefits are likely to be durable. Also, this means that the results are anchored in national institutions like Sida and these activities can be maintained at the end of the sub programme.


Tag: Sustainability Knowledge management

72.

Investment in the Kenyan mining sector has boomed in recent years, and the sector is considered by the Government to be a key driver to achieve the 2030 Agenda. The Government of Kenya recently amended the Mining and Minerals Policy (2016), the Mining Act 2016 and associated mining regulations. In 2017, these, as well the broader institutional and policy framework for environmental governance, were assessed by the EGP from the perspective of social and environmental protection.

The EGP in Kenya also focused on improving public participation in decision making in mining governance and to address inter-agency coordination challenges between the Environmental regulator (NEMA) and the Ministry of Mining (MOM) for more sustainable outcomes in mining.

NEMA has carried out Kenya’s Strategic Environmental and Social Assessment (SESA). By bringing together a wide range of national stakeholders to analyse and understand the underlying social, human rights and environmental weaknesses in Kenya’s mining policy framework, the consultative process of developing the SESA has been an important achievement in itself. The SESA process was finalized in a national validation and adoption workshop. The NEMA launched the SESA jointly with the Swedish Embassy on the World Environment Day on 5th June 2018. The EGP will support the Government on following up on three priority recommendations within the purview of the sub programme.


Tag: Environment Policy Challenges Relevance Human rights Coordination

73.

The institutional vision of the EGP Mozambique team was to have: transparent, accountable, inclusive and sustainable mining. To achieve this vision, the EGP played a significant role in bringing together the different stakeholders to establish alliances and a collaborative platform to discuss common issues of interest. As a result of this meeting, gaps were identified in the mining sector using the RoLPAM. The interviewees expect that institutional capacity will be strengthened subsequently, so as to provide a strong base in the long run for effective community participation, empowered community to negotiate, resolve conflicts and maximize the benefits deriving from mining in the community.


Tag: Anti-corruption Institutional Strengthening

74.

In Kenya a community guide illustrating entry points for participating in decision making across each stage of the large-scale mining cycle has been finalized and is being translated into several local languages at the request by the Ministry of Mining.

In 2017, the EGP supported the Ministry of Mining to develop a community guide on illustrating entry points to participation in decision making across the mining cycle in large scale mining in Kenya. This guide was developed to address the fact that administrative practices often disregard existing procedural rights to information, participation and redress in mining governance, and both rights holders and duty bearers are seldom familiar with these rights. The guide helps local governments and communities that host large-scale mining operations better understand rights and duties linked to procedural rights.


Tag: Sustainability Communication Knowledge management

Recommendations
1

Considering the good results of the first phase of the programme it should be expanded in the next phase.

2

In order to expand the programme in the next phase it is important to get other donors on board. Therefore, it is necessary to allocate enough time for discussions with other donors.

3

The private sector should be included in the partnership at all levels.

4

The local level should be prioritised in the next Global Programme in addition to the national level.

1. Recommendation:

Considering the good results of the first phase of the programme it should be expanded in the next phase.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/12/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/07]

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Country consultations to gauge demand for support and the design of a next programme phase that consolidates the findings in the on-going programme. Explore possibilities to add bilateral funding to expand the country level work.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
Project Manager 2019/05 Completed Submission of proposal for a new global programme in March 2019. Country consultations led by the UNDP management team, February–April 2019. EGP now provides targeted support to 10 countries, including three phase 1 countries. Swedish embassy in Lusaka has earmarked funds for bilateral support (5 million SEK per year) Conversations with the Swedish Embassy in Monrovia planned for January to explore additional bilateral funding. Evidence: DOAs for 2020: Final report for 2020 (pending):
2. Recommendation:

In order to expand the programme in the next phase it is important to get other donors on board. Therefore, it is necessary to allocate enough time for discussions with other donors.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/12/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/07]

Consideration will be taken throughout programme preparation and, if funded, implementation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Share newsletters and promote the EGP work in international for a and events; schedule conversations and meetings with potential donors (including Norway, Finland, Germany, Canada and others). Bilateral funding in countries might also be explored.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
SEPA and UNDP joint management team and UNDP Bureau for External Relations. 2023/12 Initiated Conversations with Norway has started. Likely a new programme will include closer collaboration with UNEP and the IGF, and joint meetings with donors are planned for 2020; Swedish embassy in Lusaka has earmarked funds for bilateral support (5 million SEK per year); Conversations with the Swedish Embassy in Monrovia planned for January to explore additional bilateral funding.
3. Recommendation:

The private sector should be included in the partnership at all levels.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/12/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/07]

Private sector is part of CO level work and coordination bodies in some countries.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Consider inviting relevant representatives for the private sector to reflect on project document and participate in inception meetings at global and national level to inform the design of global and regional activities and theory of change. Also invite them to be part of the country-level multi-stakeholder steering committees and project platforms, depending on funding for a new global programme.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
UNDP project management team. 2023/12 Initiated Private sector is part of CO level work and coordination bodies in some countries. Collaboration with OECD on due diligence in value chains initiated. Evidence: OECD email/CN CO workplans and challenge notes
4. Recommendation:

The local level should be prioritised in the next Global Programme in addition to the national level.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/12/31] [Last Updated: 2021/01/07]

Outcome 2 of the planned prodoc will focus on local level work

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Make sure that there is an appropriate balance of funding allocation between local, national, regional and global level in favour of local and national level in the new global programme proposal. Ensure that there is strong national ownership, e.g. through developing strong national steering mechanisms, ensure broad participation of local governments and stakeholders in all workshops and activities aimed at design, implementation and evaluation of the project.
[Added: 2020/12/31]
SEPA and UNDP Project management team. 2020/07 Completed Outcome 2 of the prodoc focuses on local level work. Around 39 % of UNDP resources are budgeted for this outcome. There are both global and national level activities designed to strengthen capacities of local governments and communities. Evidence: EGP prodoc. (RRF) EGP annual report 2020 (due March 2021)

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