Thematic Evaluation on role of UNDP in conflict prevention and political stabilization in Lesotho

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Evaluation Plan:
2019-2023, Lesotho
Evaluation Type:
Thematic
Planned End Date:
08/2022
Completion Date:
10/2022
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
40,000

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Title Thematic Evaluation on role of UNDP in conflict prevention and political stabilization in Lesotho
Atlas Project Number: 00096045
Evaluation Plan: 2019-2023, Lesotho
Evaluation Type: Thematic
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 10/2022
Planned End Date: 08/2022
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Governance
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.2.2 Constitution-making, electoral and parliamentary processes and institutions strengthened to promote inclusion, transparency and accountability
  • 2. Output 2.2.3 Capacities, functions and financing of rule of law and national human rights institutions and systems strengthened to expand access to justice and combat discrimination, with a focus on women and other marginalised groups
  • 3. Output 3.2.1 National capacities strengthened for reintegration, reconciliation, peaceful management of conflict and prevention of violent extremism in response to national policies and priorities
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
  • Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
SDG Target
  • 16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
  • 16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
  • 5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
Evaluation Budget(US $): 40,000
Source of Funding: UNDP
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 25,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Nationality
Khabele Matlosa consultant
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Independant Electoral Commission, Ministry of Law and Constitutional Affairs, National Assebly, Civil Society Organisations
Countries: LESOTHO
Comments:

The Thematic evaluation on governance and conflict resolution due March 2022 and currently ongoing. Delays were largely due to difficulty in identifying local consultant with the needed experience to undertake the exercise. With the inception meeting now planned for Friday 16th June, we seek approval for extension of due date to August 2022.

Lessons
1.

The overall evaluation of the UNDP’s contribution to conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization in Lesotho is rated as Highly Satisfactory.

Relevance

Evaluating the relevance of the UNDP in conflict prevention and political stabilization in Lesotho entails as assessment of the extent to which its programmes and projects are designed and implemented in a way that responds directly and/or indirectly to the needs of beneficiaries and policy priorities of the country. It is about “doing the right thing” and “doing no harm”. Relevance is also assessed in terms of the extent to which programmes and projects resonate with interventions of local actors (both state and non-state) as well as other development partners.

Programme/project design and implementation has to be relevant to the specific socio-cultural, politico-economic and environmental context of Lesotho. Key to the relevance of the programme/project design is its context analysis, its value proposition and the theory of change. In order to maintain its relevance, the programme/project must continually adapt to either complex or changing environment, especially situations of conflict and instability, as is the case in the Lesotho context.

Assessed, based on their alignment to both the development context and the normative frameworks at global, regional, sub-regional and national levels, the performance rating for the UNDP programmes/projects to conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization in Lesotho, in relation to relevance, is Highly Satisfactory.

Effectiveness

Measuring effectiveness entails an assessment of the extent to which a particular programme/project intervention has achieved or is reasonably expected to achieve its intended results. It is about evaluating how the programme/project contributed to the overall objective of the development intervention at either the output level, the outcome level or the impact level.

Did the intervention achieve the intended output? Did the intervention achieve the expected outcome? Or did the intervention achieve a particular impact (either positive or negative)? What has worked and under what conditions? What has not worked and due to what conditions? Assessment of effectiveness of development interventions is crucial for, inter alia, institutional learning. The starting point for assessment of effectiveness is the programme logical framework, feasibility studies, M&E reports, implementation reports etc. Assessing effectiveness requires the availability of reliable and up-to-date data. 

Assessed on the basis of the level of achievement of outcomes and outputs of the UNDP thematic area on governance and peacebuilding and taking into account the challenges encountered thereby hampering the full realization of expected results, the performance rating for the thematic area in relation to effectiveness is Satisfactory.

Efficiency

Assessment of the efficiency entails evaluating the extent to which the programme/project intervention delivers (or is likely to deliver) expected results in the most economical and timely manner to achieve intended results. Related to this is the assessment of whether the same results could have been achieved with even lesser resources and in a lesser duration of time. Additionally, in assessing efficiency, due regard has to be paid to the quality versus quantity of the outputs emanating from the development intervention.

Evaluated on the degree of the efficacy of the implementation of programmes and projects in respect of use of resources, coordination, management and harnessing partnerships and networks, the performance rating for the UNDP thematic area on governance and peacebuilding in relation to efficiency is Highly Satisfactory.

Sustainability

Evaluating sustainability of a programme/project relates to the assessment of the durability (or prospects thereof) of its net benefits beyond the intervention itself (i.e. upon completion of the development assistance). Its essence transcends the short-term results of the development intervention. It entails assessment of the institutional capacities of beneficiaries to sustain programme outputs even in the medium to long term horizon after the expiry of the programme period. Sustainability has financial, institutional, economic, social, technological and environmental dimensions.

In terms of guaranteeing continuity of the results and milestones registered by the UNDP thematic area on governance and peacebuilding in support of efforts by state and non-state actors towards conflict preventions, peacebuilding and political stabilization in Lesotho, the rating in respect of sustainability is likely.


Findings
1.

UNDP’s contribution in support of conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization in Lesotho, their relevance, while well-articulated, is confined to only national and international normative frameworks. Either by design or by default, this approach imposes a limitation of the scope of relevance of the programme and projects

Lesson I: Dialogue

The consultative and dialogue processes that kick-started the Lesotho reforms journey were inclusive, participatory and broadly representative adopting the whole-of-society approach and ensuring that that no one is left behind. This consultative and participatory approach led to a historic national consensus on the form, scope and substance of the constitutional, institutional and sectoral reforms. Importantly, marginalized and vulnerable social groups such as women, youth, children and persons with disabilities contributed their own common positions ensuring that their voices inform the reform agenda.

Lesson II: Reforms

The reform agenda was well defined as articulated in Plenary II report of the national multi-stakeholder forum of November 2019 cutting across seven thematic areas and mainstreaming gender equality, women’s empowerment and the empowerment of the youth and persons with disabilities. A dedicated statutory body was established in the form of the NRA to superintend the reform, reporting to parliament through the Minister of Law and Justice as per the 2019 NRA Act. However, the outcome of the reform process in the form of the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution Act, 2022 does not seem faithful to the national consensus as reflected in Plenary II report as well as the Consensus Agreement signed by Senate and Leaders of parties represented in parliament in August 2022. As such the reform agenda seems to have been caught in partisan party-political battles particularly at the twilight of the Tenth Parliament and in the context of heated politicking by the political elite ahead of the 7 October general election. It is possible that the reform suffered the unfortunate fate of becoming an electioneering gimmick to the detriment of the original intentions of citizens that they should serve a national purpose of entrenching democratic and participatory governance, inculcating a culture of peace, ensuring social cohesion, national unity, transitional justice, social healing, reconciliation and political stabilization. The reform agenda needs to be salvaged and the recent SADC Summit held in Kinshasa, DRC also acknowledged this reality its resolute decision to deploy its Panel of Elders (PoE) supported by the Mediation Reference Group (MRG) to oversee Lesotho’s reform process going forward.

Lesson III: Infrastructures for Peace (I4Ps)

National peace in Lesotho is threatened by both structural (e.g. poverty, unemployment,  inequality, a culture of violence etc) and proximate factors (e.g. weak intra-party democracy, fractious inter-party relations, politicized security sector and securitised political institutions, youth vigilante groups known locally as Manomoro-loosely translated as ‘those with numbers’, famo music gangs linked to illegal mining in South Africa and with strong ties to some political parties and some elements within the security establishment, etc). Despite its perennial and pervasive historical trends of instability, insecurity and crises, Lesotho has not developed formal and coherent national infrastructures for peace (I4Ps). Existing institutional arrangements (both state and non-state) promoting peacebuilding, peace-making and reconciliation in the country remain disjointed, uncoordinated and ineffective. Consequently, since 1994, Lesotho’s crisis situations have seen the heavy and direct involvement of South Africa and SADC in terms of peace-making, peace-building and peacekeeping. Interventions by South Africa and SADC have not completely eradicated Lesotho’s entrenched culture of violence that has seen the country jump from number 6 in 2021 to number 3 presently on the top ten countries with the highest homicide rate globally. In any case, Lesotho’s external dependence on efforts aimed towards conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization is unsustainable and undesirable.

Lesson: Security Sector Reforms

Politicization of the security agencies (LMPS, LDF, NSS and LCS) and securitization of political institutions, including political parties, forms one of the core elements of the country’s instability, insecurity and instability. In his address to the SADC Summit of 17 August 2022, the Prime Minister, Dr. Moeketsi Majoro, recognised this problem noting that there is “a symbiotic alliance between sections of the security forces and factions of the political elites … that has led to … the politicization of the military and militarization of politics” . One of the perils of the reforms project in Lesotho is the pushback from some political leaders against the idea of depoliticization of the security establishment and de-securitisation of political institutions. One of the political leaders who has publicly led this pushback is the Deputy Prime Minister, Mathibeli Mokhothu, leader of the DC (a key partner in the current coalition government). In the absence of their depoliticization and professionalisation, the security agencies are likely to continue being mired in partisan politics. Conversely, politicians are likely to continue meddling in internal affairs of the security agencies with dire consequences for conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization.

Lesson: Justice, Rule of Law and Human Rights

A culture of constitutionalism, rule of law, human rights and justice is critical for democratic and participatory governance, conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization. Lesotho’s is a case of a country with a constitution without a culture of constitutionalism, i.e. a constitution exists, but its lived experience is deficient. A clear example here is the overwhelming hegemony of the executive over the other two organs of the state (judiciary and legislature), creating an imperial Prime Minister. This trend undermines the separation of powers and checks and balances as enshrined in the 1993 Constitution (as amended). This essentially means that while Lesotho has a constitution, its culture of constitutionalism, rule of law and human rights is not sufficiently institutionalized. In this situation where institutions are weak and personalities (especially the Prime Minister) are omnipotent, a culture of constitutionalism, rule of law, justice and human rights is enfeebled. Thus, while the country’s Constitution has a bill of rights (Chapter II), a culture of human rights is weak.

Lesson: Elections

Elections are a double-edged sword: under favourable conditions, they advance democracy and peace. But under unfavourable conditions, they become triggers for violent conflicts leading to insecurity, instability and political crises. Lesotho’s post-independence political history bears this reality out: some of its previous elections advanced democratization and peacebuilding (e.g. 1993 & 2002) and became assets to participatory and stable governance, while others became catalysts for violent conflict (e.g. 1970 & 1998), thus translating into liabilities to inclusive and stable governance. Ahead of the 2022 general election, Lesotho is at the crossroads: will the election become an asset or a liability for democratization, conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization? The signing of the Electoral Code of Conduct by political parties ahead of the polls has given the nation a glimmer of hope. Even the formal endorsement of the candidates by the Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) across all the 80 constituencies on Friday 8 September 2022 was conducted peacefully with colourful pomp and ceremony. At the time of writing this report, leaders of various political parties were engaged in interesting public debates and holding rallies outlining their manifestos in order to win the hearts and minds of voters ahead of the general election of 7 October 2022.  Hopefully the peaceful nature of the events of that day are a harbinger of the election day and its aftermath. Will the reform agenda be preserved, revamped and effectively implemented after the general election? Will the reform agenda be protected against ‘partisan capture’ by the political elites? Will the popular interests of citizens as expressed in Plenary II report be respected?

Lessons Learnt: Cross-Cutting Issues-Towards broader representation and inclusiveness

Participatory and representative governance is hinged on a plethora of principles including, inter alia, inclusiveness and constructive management of diversity along various fault-lines such as gender, age, region, religion, race, political affiliation, ethnicity, disability, etc. Women form more that 50 percent of Lesotho’s population. Young people between the ages of 18 and 24 constitute about 70 percent of the population. It is important that the Lesotho reform process is the gender sensitive, empowers the youth and people with disabilities as well as children and elders.  In this regard, institutions charged with responsibility for conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization have to ensure meaningful representation and inclusion of all key sectors of society especially marginalised and vulnerable social groups such as women, youth, persons with disabilities, children, the elderly and minority groups.


Recommendations
1

UNDP should consider expanding the scope of relevance of its governance and peacebuilding programme and projects to include sub-regional (SADC) and regional (AU) normative frameworks, more so given that Lesotho is a Member State of both the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the African Union (AU) as inter-governmental organisations much the same way that it is a Member States of the United Nations (UN).

2

With a view to enhancing the relevance of its governance and peacebuilding portfolio and contributing to the inculcation of a culture of human rights, democracy and peace, UNCT should regularly commemorate, jointly with local state and non-state actors, key historical days such as the International Human Rights Day (10 December), the International Day of Democracy (15 September), the International Day of Peace (21 September), International Women’s Day (8 March) and International Anti-Corruption Day (9 December).

3

 Key Lesotho stakeholders (both state and non-state alike) should revive the pitso (citizen-based deliberative fora) tradition (King Moshoeshoe I’s signature social dialogue) to expand the frontiers of democratic and participatory democracy, anchor social cohesion and social contract and advance peacebuilding, national unity, transitional justice, social healing and reconciliation. The traditional face-to-face physical social dialogue fora (pitsos) should be enhanced through digital communication platforms as well. All these efforts should be pursued with effective support from development and diplomatic partners including the UN, EU, SADC, Commonwealth and AU.

4

Key Lesotho stakeholders (state and non-state) should make concerted efforts to revive national ownership of the reform. To this end, following the 2022 general elections, multi-stakeholder consultations are required in order to provide feedback to the people on the outcome of the NRA-led reform process and chart a new path in line with the recommendations of the recent SADC Summit held in August 2022 in Kinshasa, DRC. Similar institutions that drove the reform process from the beginning such as the National Leaders Forum, National Dialogue Plenaries as deadlock-breaking mechanisms should be resuscitated. A new coordinating structure to provide a technical steer for the reforms has to be established to replace the NRA. Civil society engagement in the reform process should be enhanced. Requisite technical and financial support should be mobilized from the development and diplomatic partners including the UN, EU, SADC, Commonwealth and AU.

5

Key stakeholders in Lesotho (both state and non-state) should wean the country from the overwhelming dependence on South Africa and SADC in terms of efforts towards conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization. They should, therefore, establish and/or strengthen existing national and/or community-based local peace architectures. The UNDP/CCJP peacebuilding and social cohesion initiative in Ribaneng should be nurtured, consolidated, scaled up and replicated elsewhere in the Mafeteng District (into other areas beyond Matelile, such as Thabana-Morena and Likhoele) and subsequently expanded to other poverty-stricken Districts such as Mohale’s Hoek, Quthing, Thaba Tseka and Qacha’s Nek where Famo gang wars are also rife. At the national level, Lesotho should establish the National Peace Commission as per the recommendations of the NRA national consultative forum of July 2021. UNDP, DPPA, UNCT in collaboration with government and no-governmental organisations, should mobilise technical and financial support for the development and operationalization of the I4Ps in Lesotho at national and community levels in the form of a National Peace Commission (NPC), in line with recommendations of the NRA Consultative Forum of July 2021 and with important lessons learnt from success stories of national I4Ps from Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. The NPC’s mandate should include, inter alia, conflict prevention, early warning and early response; peace training and education; negotiation, mediation and arbitration; research and documentation etc. Central to the mandate of the NPC should be robust and victim-centred transitional justice and reconciliation programme and strategies developed in line with the 2010 United Nations Approach to Transitional Justice and the 2019 AU Transitional Justice Policy. In implementing a transitional justice programme, partnerships with other regional organisations such the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) and the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR) should be explored. Furthermore, the armed vigilante groups and militias should be banned by an act of Parliament and political parties should be barred from aligning themselves with these militia groups such as Famo musical gangs.  Lesotho should learn important lessons on enactment of a ban on vigilante groups from Ghana through its 2019 legislation known as ‘Vigilantism and Related Offences Act, 2019’.

6

UNDP, DPPA, UNCT, in collaboration with the EU, Commonwealth, SADC and AU should leverage their diplomatic power to implore Lesotho stakeholders (state and non-state) to stay the course of security sector reforms aimed at professionalizing and depoliticizing the security agencies to dissuade politicians from interfering in affairs of the security agencies for partisan interests. Heads of the security agencies should not be appointed and dismissed by the Prime Minister. They should be appointed and dismissed by an independent oversight body established through an act of Parliament in order to insulate the security sector from undue political influence and control.

7

The establishment of the Human Rights Commission (HRC) with technical support from UNDP, DPPA and UNOHCHR should form part of the reform agenda following the forthcoming general election of 7 October 2022. Institutional capacity of key democracy promotion institutions such as the DCEO, the Ombudsman and the Auditor-General should be enhanced and their independence safeguarded against undue influence and control by the political elites. In advancing the culture of constitutionalism and rule of law, these institutions should work collaboratively and harmoniously with the proposed National Peace Commission (NPC) in order to promote and protect human rights as well as advancing human rights, transitional justice, social harmony and reconciliation at national and local levels with requisite technical support from the UNDP, UNOHCHR, UNWomen, DPPA, EU, SADC, AU, the Commonwealth and other development/diplomatic partners. 

8

Efforts aimed at enhancement of institutional capacity of the EMB should be sustained on a longer-term duration across the entire electoral cycle (pre-election, election and post-election phases) and not restricted merely to the election phase. Domestic and international observers should be deployed early enough in order to ensure the democraticness, credibility, integrity and peacefulness of the 7 October general election. LCN should organize a post-election national consultative forum on the reforms including imperatives for conflict prevention, peacebuilding, human rights, transitional justice, all aimed at recalibrating social cohesion and strengthening the state-society social contract. This forum should be all-inclusive and broadly representative including women, youth, children, persons with disability, minorities, the elderly and the diaspora to ensure that no one is left behind. Requisite technical and financial support should be mobilized from the development and diplomatic partners including the UN, EU, SADC, Commonwealth and AU.

9

There is an urgent need for the enhancement of capacities and resilience of governance and peacebuilding institutions at national and local levels, insulating them from undue political control and influence to ensure sustainability of the national comprehensive reforms.

1. Recommendation:

UNDP should consider expanding the scope of relevance of its governance and peacebuilding programme and projects to include sub-regional (SADC) and regional (AU) normative frameworks, more so given that Lesotho is a Member State of both the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the African Union (AU) as inter-governmental organisations much the same way that it is a Member States of the United Nations (UN).

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/09]

Recommendation accepted and will be taken on board as new Country Programme Document (CPD) is developed for the relevant time frame 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Include SADC and AU normative frameworks in analysis of CPD 2024-2028 as well as reflected in output indicators.
[Added: 2022/10/10]
Thabo Mosoeunyane 2023/09 Not Initiated
2. Recommendation:

With a view to enhancing the relevance of its governance and peacebuilding portfolio and contributing to the inculcation of a culture of human rights, democracy and peace, UNCT should regularly commemorate, jointly with local state and non-state actors, key historical days such as the International Human Rights Day (10 December), the International Day of Democracy (15 September), the International Day of Peace (21 September), International Women’s Day (8 March) and International Anti-Corruption Day (9 December).

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Recommendation accepted. UNDP is already supporting and jointly commemorating the mentioned days with relevant partners. With the advent of Resident Coordinator’s office, such events could be jointly commemorated by UNCT and not only UNDP. In the same manner, the involvement of other stakeholders such as civil society could be improved better.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Joint commenoration of International Human Rights Day (10 December), the International Day of Democracy (15 September), the International Day of Peace (21 September), International Women’s Day (8 March) and International Anti-Corruption Day (9 December) with RCO
[Added: 2022/10/10]
Thabo Mosoeunyane 2023/12 Not Initiated
3. Recommendation:

 Key Lesotho stakeholders (both state and non-state alike) should revive the pitso (citizen-based deliberative fora) tradition (King Moshoeshoe I’s signature social dialogue) to expand the frontiers of democratic and participatory democracy, anchor social cohesion and social contract and advance peacebuilding, national unity, transitional justice, social healing and reconciliation. The traditional face-to-face physical social dialogue fora (pitsos) should be enhanced through digital communication platforms as well. All these efforts should be pursued with effective support from development and diplomatic partners including the UN, EU, SADC, Commonwealth and AU.

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Recommendation is accepted; UNDP to work to enhance platforms of engagement and dialogue as part of enhancing democractic governance

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
As part of programme development for new CPD, ensure inclusion of digital platforms for engagement, community engagement, as part of accountability and feedback mechanisms
[Added: 2022/10/10]
Thabo Mosoeunyane 2024/05 Not Initiated
4. Recommendation:

Key Lesotho stakeholders (state and non-state) should make concerted efforts to revive national ownership of the reform. To this end, following the 2022 general elections, multi-stakeholder consultations are required in order to provide feedback to the people on the outcome of the NRA-led reform process and chart a new path in line with the recommendations of the recent SADC Summit held in August 2022 in Kinshasa, DRC. Similar institutions that drove the reform process from the beginning such as the National Leaders Forum, National Dialogue Plenaries as deadlock-breaking mechanisms should be resuscitated. A new coordinating structure to provide a technical steer for the reforms has to be established to replace the NRA. Civil society engagement in the reform process should be enhanced. Requisite technical and financial support should be mobilized from the development and diplomatic partners including the UN, EU, SADC, Commonwealth and AU.

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Accepted . UNDP was almost embarking on popularising the Omnibus Bill through faith-based institutions and civil society entities, but this was cut short by the failure of Parliament to pass the omnibus bill into an act. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Once Omnibus Bill is passed undertake community awareness campaigns to inform population of reform content.
[Added: 2022/10/10]
Charles Majunk 2023/06 Initiated
5. Recommendation:

Key stakeholders in Lesotho (both state and non-state) should wean the country from the overwhelming dependence on South Africa and SADC in terms of efforts towards conflict prevention, peacebuilding and political stabilization. They should, therefore, establish and/or strengthen existing national and/or community-based local peace architectures. The UNDP/CCJP peacebuilding and social cohesion initiative in Ribaneng should be nurtured, consolidated, scaled up and replicated elsewhere in the Mafeteng District (into other areas beyond Matelile, such as Thabana-Morena and Likhoele) and subsequently expanded to other poverty-stricken Districts such as Mohale’s Hoek, Quthing, Thaba Tseka and Qacha’s Nek where Famo gang wars are also rife. At the national level, Lesotho should establish the National Peace Commission as per the recommendations of the NRA national consultative forum of July 2021. UNDP, DPPA, UNCT in collaboration with government and no-governmental organisations, should mobilise technical and financial support for the development and operationalization of the I4Ps in Lesotho at national and community levels in the form of a National Peace Commission (NPC), in line with recommendations of the NRA Consultative Forum of July 2021 and with important lessons learnt from success stories of national I4Ps from Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. The NPC’s mandate should include, inter alia, conflict prevention, early warning and early response; peace training and education; negotiation, mediation and arbitration; research and documentation etc. Central to the mandate of the NPC should be robust and victim-centred transitional justice and reconciliation programme and strategies developed in line with the 2010 United Nations Approach to Transitional Justice and the 2019 AU Transitional Justice Policy. In implementing a transitional justice programme, partnerships with other regional organisations such the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) and the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR) should be explored. Furthermore, the armed vigilante groups and militias should be banned by an act of Parliament and political parties should be barred from aligning themselves with these militia groups such as Famo musical gangs.  Lesotho should learn important lessons on enactment of a ban on vigilante groups from Ghana through its 2019 legislation known as ‘Vigilantism and Related Offences Act, 2019’.

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Accepted; Regional Good practice and expereince will be critical as well as building upon the recommendtaion of the National Reconciliation Coference held in 2021.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
In concert with RCO and Peace Development Advisor scale up pilot on community peace architecture and work on national framework of peace mediation with RCO
[Added: 2022/10/10]
PDA and UNDP Governance Team 2025/12 Initiated
6. Recommendation:

UNDP, DPPA, UNCT, in collaboration with the EU, Commonwealth, SADC and AU should leverage their diplomatic power to implore Lesotho stakeholders (state and non-state) to stay the course of security sector reforms aimed at professionalizing and depoliticizing the security agencies to dissuade politicians from interfering in affairs of the security agencies for partisan interests. Heads of the security agencies should not be appointed and dismissed by the Prime Minister. They should be appointed and dismissed by an independent oversight body established through an act of Parliament in order to insulate the security sector from undue political influence and control.

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Accepted; ongoing as part of security sector refrom project

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Continued engagement for passage of omnibus bill and related security policy and regulation
[Added: 2022/10/10]
UNDP Governance unit 2023/12 Initiated
7. Recommendation:

The establishment of the Human Rights Commission (HRC) with technical support from UNDP, DPPA and UNOHCHR should form part of the reform agenda following the forthcoming general election of 7 October 2022. Institutional capacity of key democracy promotion institutions such as the DCEO, the Ombudsman and the Auditor-General should be enhanced and their independence safeguarded against undue influence and control by the political elites. In advancing the culture of constitutionalism and rule of law, these institutions should work collaboratively and harmoniously with the proposed National Peace Commission (NPC) in order to promote and protect human rights as well as advancing human rights, transitional justice, social harmony and reconciliation at national and local levels with requisite technical support from the UNDP, UNOHCHR, UNWomen, DPPA, EU, SADC, AU, the Commonwealth and other development/diplomatic partners. 

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Accepted; ongoing as part of reform agenda

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Continued engagement for passage of Omnibus Bill to include robust clauses on Human Rights Commission, Anti-Corruption Commission.
[Added: 2022/10/10]
UNDP Governance Unit 2023/10 Initiated
8. Recommendation:

Efforts aimed at enhancement of institutional capacity of the EMB should be sustained on a longer-term duration across the entire electoral cycle (pre-election, election and post-election phases) and not restricted merely to the election phase. Domestic and international observers should be deployed early enough in order to ensure the democraticness, credibility, integrity and peacefulness of the 7 October general election. LCN should organize a post-election national consultative forum on the reforms including imperatives for conflict prevention, peacebuilding, human rights, transitional justice, all aimed at recalibrating social cohesion and strengthening the state-society social contract. This forum should be all-inclusive and broadly representative including women, youth, children, persons with disability, minorities, the elderly and the diaspora to ensure that no one is left behind. Requisite technical and financial support should be mobilized from the development and diplomatic partners including the UN, EU, SADC, Commonwealth and AU.

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Accepted. However, it cannot only be LCN tasked but all democratic forces, including Government and IEC which should take responsibility

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
organize a post-election national consultative forum on the elections including imperatives for conflict prevention, peacebuilding, human rights, all aimed at recalibrating social cohesion and strengthening the state-society social contract.
[Added: 2022/10/10]
Governance Unit 2023/03 Not Initiated
9. Recommendation:

There is an urgent need for the enhancement of capacities and resilience of governance and peacebuilding institutions at national and local levels, insulating them from undue political control and influence to ensure sustainability of the national comprehensive reforms.

Management Response: [Added: 2022/10/10]

Accepted, this is the intent of ongoing national reform efforts

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Continued advocacy for passage of omnibus bill with robust clauses on independence of key institutions
[Added: 2022/10/10]
Governance Unit 2023/06 Initiated

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