Building Adaptive Capacity to Catalyze Active Public and Private Sector Participation to manage the Exposure and Sensitivity of Water Supply Services to Climate Change

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Evaluation Plan:
2015-2019, Sierra Leone
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
11/2018
Completion Date:
12/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
12,040

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Title Building Adaptive Capacity to Catalyze Active Public and Private Sector Participation to manage the Exposure and Sensitivity of Water Supply Services to Climate Change
Atlas Project Number: 00065210
Evaluation Plan: 2015-2019, Sierra Leone
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2018
Planned End Date: 11/2018
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.1.1 Low emission and climate resilient objectives addressed in national, sub-national and sectoral development plans and policies to promote economic diversification and green growth
Evaluation Budget(US $): 12,040
Source of Funding: GEF, UNDP
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 12,040
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Dinesh Aggarwal Mr.
Martin K. Gbonda Mr.
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Building Adaptive Capacity to Catalyze Active Public and Private Sector Participation to manage the Exposure and Sensitivity of Water Supply Services to Climate Change
Evaluation Type: Mid-term Review
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: EA
GEF Phase: GEF-1
GEF Project ID:
PIMS Number: PIMS# 4613
Key Stakeholders: GOSL, Ministry of Water Resources, SALWACO, Local Councils, UNDP,
Countries: SIERRA LEONE
Comments:

Evaluation report is still at the draft stage, yet to be finalized.

Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1

As was noted by the project team in the first PIR (PIR for 2016) the log-frame of the project is not able to adequately capture cumulative progress towards reaching the intended objective and outcomes of the project. For instance, the target for the indicator on mainstreaming of adaptation concerns within at least the Guma Reservoir management process under Outcome 1 is limited to the establishment of a climate change resilience plan. As the presence of a plan does not necessarily result in mainstreaming, this target needs to be revised. This issue got discussed during the Project Steering Committee meeting in April 2016 with a decision was taken, that a M&E expert be engaged to revise and strengthen the results framework. Somehow, this decision could not be implemented as yet. It is recommended that this decision of the Steering Committee be implemented and a M&E expert be hired to have a re-look at the result framework, the indicators and the targets. It may be noted that it is possible to make indicator level changes (as well as introduce new indictors) in the Outcomes, with the approval of RTA. However, procedurally it is not possible to change the project objectives and the Outcomes of the projects during the implementation of the project. 

2

 The PIR 2016 of the project has pointed out; insufficient investment by the private sector could pose a risk for the longer-term sustainability of the project. The PIR has also pointed out that the incentives of the private sector to invest in climate smart technologies will not only depend on increased awareness among key stakeholders of climate risks, but also on Government ability to adequately address barriers that may hamper private sector investment (e.g. tax-related issues), and the project presently does not adequately address this issue. The PIR 2016 of the project suggested that to mitigate this sustainability risk, the project should facilitate a consultancy aimed at obtaining insights in the current investment climate, recommend solutions for increased investment and present these to relevant stakeholders.” It is recommended that this suggestion contained in PIR 2016 be implemented.

3

The reasons for not that good results of the project at the MTR, includes lack of institutional capacity, inadequate staffing of the project implementation team. It is recommended that a project manager is taken on board, who will focus on the work planning, monitoring and ensure timely implementation of different activities. One of the other recommendations is to broad base the structure of the Steering Committee by including members from the local government, NGOs, academic institutions, donor agencies etc. Considering that appointment of the resources may be a time consuming process, the option of bringing on board the UNVs may be explored.
 

4

The project design has provided for more or less a uniform design of the water system (borehole size, size of solar panels, pump capacity etc.) for all the locations, accept for the size of the tank, the capacity of the tank depends on the yield of the source as for example for bore holes 20,000 litres tanks are provided. Due to this reason, at some of the locations, where the number of people being served is high, there is a possibility that the water system provided underserves the requirements. There should be some flexibility to allow for a bit of customization in the design to meet the site specific requirements.

5

At some of the pilot locations there is a possibility of availability of spare capacity of solar panels. This may be examined on a case to case basis and wherever feasible, a couple of lighting points and a community television may be provided. A couple of lighting points in the community centre will enable the children to study at night. This will also help the community members to charge their mobile phones. Presently, the community members travel long distances and also pay for getting the mobile phones charged.

6

From sustainability point of view, it is important to have availability of skilled and trained resources to carry out maintenance and repair of the solar pumping system. The project may facilitate establishment of a short duration curriculum at one of the technical training institutes / university to impart training on operation, repairs and maintenance of the solar water pumping systems.

7

During the mission it was felt, that at the pilots for making the water available to the communities, there are technical issues due to which the operational efficiency of the systems will get hampered. It is recommended that an independent consultant (or a team of consultants) may be appointed to carryout technical due diligence to identify the technical issues and suggest corrective measures. The issues which may be examined by the consultant (apart for other issues) may include the following:
• Orientation of the solar panels (angle and direction and shading from the surrounding trees/ structures)
• Depth of the bore hole (may be restricted to as recorded. As the time of drilling of the hole)
• Adequacy of the control system provided for the operation of the pumping system (provision of the start-up capacitor of adequate rating etc.)
• Rated capacity of the submersible pump (including motor) and the solar panels
• Adequacy of the civil structure (construction as per approved drawings, angle of the roof of the control room etc.)
• Layout of the piping network for supplying the water

8

In case of the problems with the systems, it would not be possible for the communities to get the systems repaired, firstly due to the cost involved and secondly due to lack of availability of the skilled human resources. It is recommended that the vendor responsible for the supply and operationalization of the water system be made responsible for maintaining the system for two years. This can be achieved either by way of a separate maintenance contract or by way of provisions in the original contract of the vendor. 

9

 Review of technical specifications / design of the pilot projects to make them robust, so that the panels / water tanks do not get blown away and also the theft of the solar panel and the pump system is prevented. This can for example, be achieved by welding the frame of the solar panel to the structure (provided to support the solar panels). For preventing the blowing off of the solar panels / water tanks the space below the solar panels may be covered by brick work. 

10

The project has successfully demonstrated the use of technology of solar PV pumping for meeting the water requirements. The community members where, the pilots were carried out are contributing money on a monthly basis to take care of any possible need of expenses to carry out repair and maintenance of the system. It is considered that it may be possible to replicate the interventions by involving either private sector investment or by forming the community groups, which borrow the funds from commercial banks. It is recommended that proper feasibility study be carried out to examine the replication of the business model wherein the ‘Capital Cost’ is provided by the private sector / commercial bank as loan and the revenues comes from a monthly subscription.

11

The project is weak in terms of private sector participation and attracting investment by the private sector. Other than mention in the project title and at a number of other places in the Project Document there is hardly any provision to take the private sector on board.

1. Recommendation:

As was noted by the project team in the first PIR (PIR for 2016) the log-frame of the project is not able to adequately capture cumulative progress towards reaching the intended objective and outcomes of the project. For instance, the target for the indicator on mainstreaming of adaptation concerns within at least the Guma Reservoir management process under Outcome 1 is limited to the establishment of a climate change resilience plan. As the presence of a plan does not necessarily result in mainstreaming, this target needs to be revised. This issue got discussed during the Project Steering Committee meeting in April 2016 with a decision was taken, that a M&E expert be engaged to revise and strengthen the results framework. Somehow, this decision could not be implemented as yet. It is recommended that this decision of the Steering Committee be implemented and a M&E expert be hired to have a re-look at the result framework, the indicators and the targets. It may be noted that it is possible to make indicator level changes (as well as introduce new indictors) in the Outcomes, with the approval of RTA. However, procedurally it is not possible to change the project objectives and the Outcomes of the projects during the implementation of the project. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

 A chief Techinical Adviser and a Monitoring Expert will be hired who will take a re-look of the project result framework to ensure that cumulative progress of the project is captured

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Establishment of the hydrological monitoring system
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/09]
Team Leader IGSE/ HR 2019/05 Completed The Hydrological monitoring stations (for both ground & surface water) have been installed History
To revise M&E framework especially outcome one
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/13]
CTA and M&E Expert 2019/06 No Longer Applicable [Justification: CTA was not hired.]
History
2. Recommendation:

 The PIR 2016 of the project has pointed out; insufficient investment by the private sector could pose a risk for the longer-term sustainability of the project. The PIR has also pointed out that the incentives of the private sector to invest in climate smart technologies will not only depend on increased awareness among key stakeholders of climate risks, but also on Government ability to adequately address barriers that may hamper private sector investment (e.g. tax-related issues), and the project presently does not adequately address this issue. The PIR 2016 of the project suggested that to mitigate this sustainability risk, the project should facilitate a consultancy aimed at obtaining insights in the current investment climate, recommend solutions for increased investment and present these to relevant stakeholders.” It is recommended that this suggestion contained in PIR 2016 be implemented.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

 UNDP alone cannot meet the requirements of this recommendation, we will however share this information with the government and support the Ministry of Water Resource to organise water conference to encourage private sector invokvement in the water sector. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
To share recommendation with the Ministry of Water Resources
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/09]
Project Manager & Associate 2019/04 Completed Key issues bothering on this recommendation to be discussed with stake holders at the Public Private Partnership water conference History
3. Recommendation:

The reasons for not that good results of the project at the MTR, includes lack of institutional capacity, inadequate staffing of the project implementation team. It is recommended that a project manager is taken on board, who will focus on the work planning, monitoring and ensure timely implementation of different activities. One of the other recommendations is to broad base the structure of the Steering Committee by including members from the local government, NGOs, academic institutions, donor agencies etc. Considering that appointment of the resources may be a time consuming process, the option of bringing on board the UNVs may be explored.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

 The project will hire the services of a Chief technical Adviser (CTA) who will be responsible for providing overall technical guidance to the Project. He/she will provide technical support to the project staff including the National Project Manager (NPM), and other government counterparts. 
The CTA will coordinate the provision of the required technical inputs, reviewing and preparing Terms of Reference and reviewing outputs of consultants and other sub-contractors to ensure effective project delivery. 
Added to the above, a UNV will also be hired who will work closely with the project manager to carry out field level activities and monitor ongoing activities in the flied. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Prepare a TOR for CTA and UNV and complete hiring processes
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/09]
SG Team Leader and HR, UNDP 2019/05 Completed CTA has been recruited, to start work soon History
4. Recommendation:

The project design has provided for more or less a uniform design of the water system (borehole size, size of solar panels, pump capacity etc.) for all the locations, accept for the size of the tank, the capacity of the tank depends on the yield of the source as for example for bore holes 20,000 litres tanks are provided. Due to this reason, at some of the locations, where the number of people being served is high, there is a possibility that the water system provided underserves the requirements. There should be some flexibility to allow for a bit of customization in the design to meet the site specific requirements.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

Project team will meet with the respective contractors to address the inadquacies to the respective constructions and the project is flexible to allow communities to inprove on the water services after UNDP intervention and this will also enhance sustainability. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
To train WASH committees on the village savings and Loan Scheme
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/10]
Project Manager 2019/05 Completed Done History
5. Recommendation:

At some of the pilot locations there is a possibility of availability of spare capacity of solar panels. This may be examined on a case to case basis and wherever feasible, a couple of lighting points and a community television may be provided. A couple of lighting points in the community centre will enable the children to study at night. This will also help the community members to charge their mobile phones. Presently, the community members travel long distances and also pay for getting the mobile phones charged.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

 Bsased on expert advise, connecting from the pannels on the constructed towers may reduce it capacitry to pump water into the water tanks, however, UNDP will work with the WASH committes in the respective project locations and  train them on VSLA which could sarve as a source of income for the communities and eventually they  will be able in the near feature to buy extra solar  pannels for community electrification. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Training of WASH committees on VSLA
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/10]
UNDP through a Consultant 2019/05 Completed WASH Committee members trained in VSLA History
6. Recommendation:

From sustainability point of view, it is important to have availability of skilled and trained resources to carry out maintenance and repair of the solar pumping system. The project may facilitate establishment of a short duration curriculum at one of the technical training institutes / university to impart training on operation, repairs and maintenance of the solar water pumping systems.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

Each community will identify talented individual who will  be trained to carry out regular maioontainance on the constructed water facilities. WASH committes with galvanise community support to ensure regular mainanance. This is already part of the contract modalitieis with the respective contractors for the various water facilities. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Training of local pump technicians in the respective communities
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/10]
UNDP through a consultants/Contractors 2019/10 Completed After every construction of water facilities in project communities, selected members from the WASH committee are trained to carry out maintenance on the facilities to ensure sustainability History
Roll out maintenance training
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/13]
Project manager 2019/05 Completed This is part of the contract arrangement signed with the contractors History
7. Recommendation:

During the mission it was felt, that at the pilots for making the water available to the communities, there are technical issues due to which the operational efficiency of the systems will get hampered. It is recommended that an independent consultant (or a team of consultants) may be appointed to carryout technical due diligence to identify the technical issues and suggest corrective measures. The issues which may be examined by the consultant (apart for other issues) may include the following:
• Orientation of the solar panels (angle and direction and shading from the surrounding trees/ structures)
• Depth of the bore hole (may be restricted to as recorded. As the time of drilling of the hole)
• Adequacy of the control system provided for the operation of the pumping system (provision of the start-up capacitor of adequate rating etc.)
• Rated capacity of the submersible pump (including motor) and the solar panels
• Adequacy of the civil structure (construction as per approved drawings, angle of the roof of the control room etc.)
• Layout of the piping network for supplying the water

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

An independent consultant to be hired to do an assessment of facilities and make recommendation to the project team for action 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct independent monitoring on the respective facilities and make recommendation to the project steering committee.
[Added: 2019/03/28]
Project manager and Associate 2019/03 Completed
8. Recommendation:

In case of the problems with the systems, it would not be possible for the communities to get the systems repaired, firstly due to the cost involved and secondly due to lack of availability of the skilled human resources. It is recommended that the vendor responsible for the supply and operationalization of the water system be made responsible for maintaining the system for two years. This can be achieved either by way of a separate maintenance contract or by way of provisions in the original contract of the vendor. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

The project is working in collabouration with the Ministry of Water Resources and the District councils who alredy have trained and qualified engineers. After compleection, all facilities will be handed over to the commuinties through the respective councils, and a MOU will be signed with the councils to take ownership and countrols of the facilities.  The community WASH committes will then work directly with the councils and report any maintainance issues that they cannot handle as a community. This approach is cost effective and more sustainable than working with the countractors only for two years which may involve addational costs as well. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Hold meetings with the respective councils and wash committees before handing over all completed constructed facilities to the coumminity through the councils.
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2020/02/05]
Project Manager 2019/12 Completed The project has met with the Local council leadership and the community WASH committees on the sustainability of the water facilities. They are responsible for the regular maintenance of the water facilities through their WASH committees who have expertise in effective water management. History
9. Recommendation:

 Review of technical specifications / design of the pilot projects to make them robust, so that the panels / water tanks do not get blown away and also the theft of the solar panel and the pump system is prevented. This can for example, be achieved by welding the frame of the solar panel to the structure (provided to support the solar panels). For preventing the blowing off of the solar panels / water tanks the space below the solar panels may be covered by brick work. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

The project team will  meet with the steering committee and subsiquently with the respective contractors and find a better approach to this across all project location

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Steering committee monitoring and meeting with the respective contractors to discuss possible modifications of on going constructions of water facilities.
[Added: 2019/03/28]
UNDP/Steering committee 2018/12 Completed This action has been completed. see attached report History
10. Recommendation:

The project has successfully demonstrated the use of technology of solar PV pumping for meeting the water requirements. The community members where, the pilots were carried out are contributing money on a monthly basis to take care of any possible need of expenses to carry out repair and maintenance of the system. It is considered that it may be possible to replicate the interventions by involving either private sector investment or by forming the community groups, which borrow the funds from commercial banks. It is recommended that proper feasibility study be carried out to examine the replication of the business model wherein the ‘Capital Cost’ is provided by the private sector / commercial bank as loan and the revenues comes from a monthly subscription.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

The project will contract CBOs/NGOs to carriout Participatory Rural Appraisals and also train WASH committee member on VSLA, the module will include strategies on how communities can replicate this approach and also encourage private sector involvement in water management intervention. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct Participatory Rural Appraisal and training of WASH committees on VSLA and private sector engagement for investment in water sector.
[Added: 2019/03/28] [Last Updated: 2019/09/10]
UNDP 2019/05 Canceled
11. Recommendation:

The project is weak in terms of private sector participation and attracting investment by the private sector. Other than mention in the project title and at a number of other places in the Project Document there is hardly any provision to take the private sector on board.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/03/28]

This cannot be achieved by UNDP alone, however, management will share the information with the government of Sierra Leone and continue to provide technical support to the Ministry of Water resources. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP to Share recommendations with the Government of Sierra Leone (Ministry of Water Resources)
[Added: 2019/03/28]
Project manager 2019/02 Completed Recommendations have already been shared and discussed with the Ministry of Water Resources History

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