Action for the Development of Marshall Islands Renewable Energies (ADMIRE) Project

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2013-2017, Fiji
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
05/2016
Completion Date:
11/2018
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

Share

Document Type Language Size Status Downloads
Download document UNDP GEF Terminal Evaluation Terms of Reference Template 2012_ADMIRE_final_6 October2015.doc tor English 197.00 KB Posted 176
Download document TE RMI UNDP Final 12 May 2016 Revised 2.pdf report English 795.12 KB Posted 289
Title Action for the Development of Marshall Islands Renewable Energies (ADMIRE) Project
Atlas Project Number: 00112837
Evaluation Plan: 2013-2017, Fiji
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 11/2018
Planned End Date: 05/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.4. Scaled up action on climate change adaptation and mitigation across sectors which is funded and implemented
SDG Goal
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG Target
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding: GEF Trust Fund
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 25,750
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Amitra Rath Evaluator arath@policyresearch.ca
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Action for the Development of Marshall Islands Renewable Energies (ADMIRE) Project
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: MSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID: 2568
PIMS Number: 3094
Key Stakeholders: Energy Department - Ministry of Public Utilities and Infrastructures
Countries: FIJI
Lessons
Findings
1.

3. FINDINGS

The findings begin with details of the planned project, which have been re-stated here with new tables of the activities planned, in order to simplify the narrative in this report. This is immediately followed by the Mid-Term Evaluation of ADMIRE, undertaken in 2012, which found that the project had run into “many challenges in execution”, “there was very little progress until 2012” and the MTR made a number of recommendations going forward. This report then focuses on the implementation of the recommendations of the MTR and the progress during the next period of ADMIRE, 2012-2015, covering activities, outputs, the use of resources and possible outcomes, within the context of developments and capacity needs in RMI most pertinent to ADMIRE.

3.2 PROJECT FORMULATION

The PRODOC provided for detailed guidelines for the project implementation, discussed in the next section, stated that as ADMIRE was a climate change project, the OEPPC would have the overall responsibility, on behalf of the RMI government, as it is the RMI focal point for all matter relating to the environment and climate change, for the GEF and related multilateral environment agreements. Hence they could execute ADMIRE with the bigger picture of CC in mind and how the outputs from the project will relate to the RMI's “obligations14” and positions under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol. It also stated that while OEPPC would coordinate, implementation would be with the MRD in the lead role15.  The MRD in turn would work hand-in-hand with the MEC – the agency responsible for the EU RE project in the RMI, (the key co-financing project to ADMIRE); and also with Tobolar16, for the copra processing in RMI for CNO as a diesel replacement. MEC is the main electrical utility; also wholly government owned and both report to the MRD). The plans required a Project Advisory Committee (PAC), to provide advice and guidance to the project. The PAC was to be made up of representatives from OEPPC, MRD, MEC, Government Ministries (Finance, Statistics, Health and Education), the Tobolar Copra Processing Authority, NGOs, private sector, mayors, donors, etc.; and was required to “meet at least twice a year, allowing for the stakeholders to agree on a coordinated annual project implementation plan” which would be endorsed at annual “Tripartite Review” meetings.

 

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Emission Reduction Energy Global Environment Facility fund Implementation Modality Oversight Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management

2.

3.2 Risk Analysis/Assumptions

The PRODOC had listed the following to be important - support from the RMI Government, with support by responsible ministers and government ministries to release energy data; political stability in RMI; effective and efficient country team; backstopping support and cooperation of national, regional and international experts; support from the atoll governments, the landowners, Tobolar and the Meteorology office; continued close collaboration with co-financing partners. In addition it required the co-operation of energy consumers, Tobolar and suppliers and widespread consultations and acceptance of new policies and plans.  

The project design appears to have focused too narrowly on its goals without taking into account the specific issues of RMI that would be most relevant to the project implementation. Its small size, the distribution of its land and people in many islands and atolls and its own acknowledged lack of “capacity”.

 


Tag: Challenges Donor relations Human and Financial resources Programme/Project Design Risk Management Country Government

3.

3.3 Implementation Arrangements

The project design stated that “since ADMIRE is a climate change project, it is viewed that the OEPPC will have the overall responsibility for the project” and was designated as the project-executing agency18. Hence they could execute ADMIRE with the bigger picture of CC in mind. It also stated that while OEPPC would coordinate, implementation would be with the MRD in the lead role19.  The MRD in turn would work hand-in-hand with the MEC, (the main electrical utility in RMI) the agency responsible for the EU RE project, (the key co-financing project to ADMIRE) and; and Tobolar, the national copra processing plant (see later on MEC and Tobolar, both government-owned).

The plans required a Project Advisory Committee (PAC20), which would provide advice and guidance to the project (see para 40), incorporate all stakeholders, “meet at least twice a year, allowing for the stakeholders to agree on a coordinated annual project implementation plan” which would be endorsed at annual “Tripartite Review” meetings. The ProDoc had also noted a number of resources that were to be available to the ADMIRE PM. There was to be one administrative / financial officer (AFO); a group of project coordinators (PCs) - contracted by ADMIRE and hosted in designated agencies in each of the outer atolls where work would be done.

It also provided for five task specialists (TS) - one for each of the five components (see Table 3 above); who would play the lead role in the implementation of activities under each component;  three Renewable Energy Assessment Experts (REAE) for Biomass, Solar and Wind reporting to the TS above; one RE EXPERT (REE); one energy planning expert (EPE); an energy systems financial expert (EEFE); an RE market development expert (RMDE). In addition to those persons supporting the PM, the project would subcontract the development of ADMIRE Website and RE Database; a Feasibility Study of Establishing Copra Trading Companies and Copra-Based Power Generation in the Outer Atolls; and finally a subcontract for the design of RE Module for Inclusion in School Curricula.


Tag: Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Partnership Project and Programme management Country Government National Institutions Private Sector

4.

3.4 Stakeholder analysis

The project plans in the PRODOC had stated that barriers to RE development and application in the RMI could only be removed with a high degree of participation from all stakeholders listed and described below. It had made a good and complete assessment of the stakeholders who must be involved closely in and during the project execution. Stakeholders’ participation and interaction was considered to be critical for the project.

 


Tag: Partnership Programme/Project Design Coordination

5.

3.5 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Project Design

The PRODOC largely followed PDF/PPG report which undertook the assessment evaluating the solar, wind and biofuel resources available in the Republic of Marshall Islands; Identification of potential project sites for the application of the available RE resources; a Logical Framework Analysis (LFA) workshop to analyze the identified barriers to RE development (under PIREP and the PDF-A exercise), and the project goal, purpose, outputs and activities. LFA is in the MSP Brief; interventions that will address the barriers to renewable energy access and remove them; project stakeholders/partners and documenting of all stakeholder consultation meetings; assessment of the institutional framework; cofunding possibilities and requirements; Local Project Assessment Committee (LPAC) Meetings.

It did not mention any donors as stakeholders and partners21, though it had mentioned that an “EU funded solar home system project in the outer islands provided for the co-financed component”. And besides the EU, the RMI has another half dozen important and large donors involved in multiple activities in the RMI on CC related work, many with RE elements, that link with ADMIRE (see later).

The PRODOC also missed some of the known challenges in RMI to PV systems, noted in the 2004 PIREP project report and later again in the PIGGAREP report (referred to in the PRODOC), page 74, of poor electricity tariff collection; lack of understanding among users and of commercial orientation; poor enforcement of project rules, political pressure to subsidize O&M, both leading to lack of collections, which had been noted in RMI. It noted also that the RMI Energy office had 2 staff (page 126), which was double that noted in PIREP in 2004, but clearly insufficient for the ambitious goals.

This evaluation finds the design had a number of useful features – in particular, the elements to provide for a strong PMU based in the MRD, with sufficient staff and technical knowledge to be able to boost the capacity at MRD, which would, in turn, support the larger ambitions of the GoRMI towards greater ownership and control, improve coherence and effectiveness of renewable energy developments in the country. It was largely built on the findings from a relatively good study of energy in RMI (PIREP). A key component of the plan required a strong, coherent and well-functioning Project Advisory Committee (PAC), to provide advice and guidance to the project and integrate the cooperation of the identified stakeholders; it was required to “meet at least twice a year, allowing for the stakeholders to agree on a coordinated annual project implementation plan” which would be endorsed at annual “Tripartite Review” meetings. Finally, the ProDoc had assumed and provided for a number of expert knowledge and human resources that were to be available to the ADMIRE PM (it is later seen that neither of these assumptions were fulfilled).


Tag: Energy Challenges Government Cost-sharing Partnership Programme Synergy Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Risk Management

6.

3.7 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

The project faced multiple challenges during implementation. As pointed out in the milestones (Table 4), it could not be minimally staffed with a project manager. With considerable effort on the part of UNDP, an Inception workshop was held in Majuro (4 March 2010) attended by 21 key stakeholders from RMI and two UNDP staff. The workshop24 concluded that ADMIRE activities would contribute directly to meeting RMI’s policy priorities outlined in the National Energy Policy & Energy Action Plan endorsed in September 2009. It commented that given “recent developments since project design in 2006, the inception workshop provided an opportunity to familiarize key stakeholders with project details – including its agreed strategy, expected outcomes and outputs, measurements of results, impacts and benefits and risk that must be mitigated to ensure project success”. The workshop was seen as an opportunity to review the strategic results framework (SRF or LFA), work plans, implementation arrangements” so, “new momentum is brought to the project after the relatively quiet period” since February 2008. The Inception Report noted there were “revisions made”. Table 3 presents the original goals, objectives and indicators/activities and in column 4, presents the revisions made. It is seen (colour-coded cells) that there was very little change in the content of the SRF but most changes focused on shifting the time line, given that two years had elapsed since the approval.

The UNDP PIR for 2010 and 2011 continued to report slow progress and the table of project expenditures by years 2008-2011 (Table 6 below) show little change in project expenditures between 2009 and 201125. The increasing concerns by UNDP, required the UNDP to send a mission in 2011 to attempt to improve the project implementation (and also three other UNDP projects in RMI).

The lack of progress until 2012, is detailed in the UNDP PIRs for the period and was followed by a Medium Term Review (MTR) in 2012 by an independent external consultant. The status of project expenditures between 2008 to 2011 is provided in the table below and a short summary of the status of ADMIRE as determined by the MTR in 2012 is provided after, together with the recommendations made in the MTR for improved project performance.

 


Tag: Clean Energy Energy Environment Policy Challenges Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality

7.

3.7.1 The Medium Term Evaluation (MTE) and Report (MTR)

The MTE of the ADMIRE project was undertaken in March 201227. It concluded that the project had “encountered severe implementation problems”. It noted that implementation did not even start after a delay of 12 months, when the Administrative and Finance Officer (AFO) began work in March 2009. Then the first Project Manager was appointed in June 2009, and resigned after about less than six months. Then a Local Counterpart, the OEPPC Financial Officer, was made responsible on a part-time basis. An “Inception Workshop” was only held in March 2010. The review of the Annual APR/PIR, project budgets and AWP, UNDP/GEF tracking tools and UNDP mission reports also confirm that there was very little progress until 2012 leading to considerable concern by UNDP.

The MTR proposed that the responsibility for ADMIRE be transferred from OEPCC as soon as possible, as the OEPPC did not have any real energy-specific capacity. The MTR also noted that the Energy Team at MRD was dedicated, but it also had a very small contingent of staff – “there are a maximum of four persons full time in the energy team at MRD, who were already overstretched to effectively handle the multi-million dollar projects provided by donors such as Japan, Taiwan, European Union and the ADB”, all at the same time as the UNDP/GEF project. The MTR noted that the implementation issues were related to the small size and inherent limitations of the human capacity of the Marshall Islands.

The transfer took place after the MTR, in middle 2012. A number of changes were implemented in 2012 following the MTR and it was then reported that the project made better progress. This is covered subsequently.

The MTR also critiqued the project design, as noted earlier. It suggested that the design could be improved by formulating three components in a more thematic fashion - 1) outer islands PV, 2) copra oil production and processing, 3) assessment of other RE (grid-connected and wind) options; and then to detail the activities needed according to perceived barriers for the goal, as appropriate - policy, institutional, capacity and finance, and these barriers may well differ in importance and not necessarily addressed in the same project.

It noted that the co-financing letter from the Ministry of Finance referred to a USD 1 million co-financing from the EU (European Union), as part of its REP-5 project28, which had ended in 2009, while ADMIRE had not really taken off yet by that time. It remarked that the new EU financed successor project, North-REP (implemented by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, SPC), did open a new opportunity for ADMIRE to combine the project’s technical assistance with the outer island electrification (largely hardware) activities supported by North-REP.


Tag: Challenges Government Cost-sharing Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/Project Design

8.

3.7.2 Implementation after the MTR: 2012-2015

The evaluation found that the transfer of all responsibility from OEPPC to MRD was completed in early 201229 and a first full-time project manager was hired at almost the same time. The new manager worked on the integration of ADMIRE activities with North-REP , in which ADMIRE could add value to the planned installation of 1,500 SPV systems in the outer islands, by exploring more sustainable technology support systems in RMI for SPV. The MTR suggested revised outcome indicators but the evaluation did not find any revisions to the LFA and to the outcome indicators for ADMIRE as recommended by the MTR. In fact, the subsequent Annual Work Plans reviewed continued to list the same six outcomes, with 18 activities (not counting learning and M&E). Hence the activities as revised at the Inception workshop and shown in Table 3, column 3, are used below to discuss the ADMIRE work done and results.

The MTR also recommended focusing the training programs for the design, operation, and maintenance of stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems in the country; the use of copra as form of payment for electricity tariff for the outer island's households SHS; and user training and awareness campaigns in rural schools and health centers; to explore and conclude opportunity of cooperation (similar to North REP MoU) with Tobolar and ADB on copra oil processing. Any evidence that the recommendation for additional support to be provided by UNDP experts, together with close monitoring and technical support by UNDP office30, was fulfilled was not seen in the evaluation.

 


Tag: Implementation Modality Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Programme management Results-Based Management

9.

3.8 SOME KEY ADMIRE OUTPUTS & OUTCOMES

An effort was made during the field visit and subsequently to locate ADMIRE within the broader context of RMI and specific developments within the energy sector. Energy sources and use in RMI are very largely shaped by its geography and constrained by limited natural resources. There are few traditional indigenous energy sources other than biomass and given the small land area of the country and poor soils, any large-scale expansion of energy production from biomass is inherently limited. Traditionally, waste biomass in the form of agricultural waste (most likely some fuel wood, coconut residues – the shell, husk, and dried leaves/fronds) were most likely used for cooking and also for any small scale agricultural production that requires process heat such as crop drying.

PIREP stated that the RMI is overwhelmingly dependent on imported petroleum fuels, which accounted for 78% of gross energy supply in 1990, with the balance 22% being biomass. “Although there are no recent data on biomass consumption”, the mission estimated that in 2003 the share of petroleum, went up to 90% with biomass declining to 10%. IRENA (2013) stated – “there are no recent data on biomass consumption”, but it then estimated that only 2% of the energy use in 2011 was from biomass32. PIREP states - a rural energy study was carried out in the RMI in 1994 by ADB but it did not consider biomass use. As far as the PIREP team is aware, “there have been no biomass energy surveys in RMI”. Then PIREP noted a World Bank study of 1992 (page 28) that had estimated that 19,620 tonnes of biomass was used for copra drying and household cooking in 1990. Of the total, mostly coconut residues, 62% was for the drying of copra produced (5,100 tonnes), and the other 38% was for cooking. The most recent information that sheds some further light comes from the North-REP Socio Economic Baseline report33 (with which ADMIRE partnered) that in its outer island energy survey they found biomass was used “almost universally for cooking; coconut husks, shells, and wood were all used”.


Tag: Energy Natural Resouce management Waste management Effectiveness Relevance Data and Statistics

10.

3.8.1 ADMIRE SUPPORT FOR OUTER ISLAND ELECTRIFICATION

Energy surveys for the Outer Island Electrification project were conducted with the objective of establishing of baseline of socio-economic data34 for North REP project in RMI. Community consultation meetings were also conducted in all the communities surveyed. This process was undertaken to help explain to the communities the procedures and management of the North REP project and the importance of sustainability measures for the SHS. An Outer Island Energy Survey was conducted in Namdrik, Kili and Jaluit in 201235. In all the community consultations, the community showed support towards the North REP project and expressed their support and willingness to assist through manpower and transportation. Also, the community did not raise any objection to the collection of the registration/set up fee, monthly fee and the possible increase in the monthly fee to sustain the SHS maintenance. Possibilities for locations for storage during installation were also discussed. Common concerns were raised over-collection and disposal of non-operating batteries during all three consultations.

In Namdrik, concerns were expressed over the existing local technician and erratic shipping between Namdrik and Majuro. A consultation meeting was also conducted with Marshall Islands
Mayor’s Association where some mayors also expressed willingness to shift the responsibility of collecting a monthly fee to the local council, as it would be more effective. A recommendation put forth by MRD was that the collection of payments for maintenance of the SHS should be by the local government council and a collection and disposal mechanism for old non-operating batteries should be developed. In 2013 two separate energy surveys for the Outer Island Electrification project were conducted in Mejit and in Mili. In Mejit36, the household survey by the energy team found that solar panels were “in proper shape with only need to replace batteries and light bulbs”. The community consultation again explained the project, and the purpose of the monthly fee to support O&M. It was reported that a Finance officer at MEC was now in place to oversee the Outer Island SHS accounts and this would improve the coordination between MRD and MEC. Concerns were raised regarding the disposal of used batteries and the difficulty for the local technician to communicate with the MEC Majuro officer or MRD. The community residents emphasized the need to maintain the electricity and lighting for households.


Tag: Energy Government Cost-sharing Civic Engagement Local Governance Communication Human and Financial resources

11.

3.8.2 Wind Resources

Wind resources, can potentially be a very useful supplement to renewable sources in RMI, but remain unknown with regards to its potential to contribute to energy resources, leading to ongoing and unresolved debate over many years on the viability of wind turbines in RMI. The PIREP national report38 (2005) stated ’There is a moderate seasonal wind resource, with perhaps sufficient wind for energy development in the northernmost islands. However, there is very little data and none specifically designed for assessing energy potential (emphasis added). It would be reasonable to assess the wind energy potential for Majuro and Ebeye, where power demands are high’. More recently, IRENA stated39 there is “sufficient wind for energy development in the northernmost islands”. Wind energy can be a very useful supplement not only where current electricity demand is high, but in all islands where supplementing the SPV with wind is feasible. IRENA (2013) also stated – “Some small wind machines are used for battery charging although there are no reports regarding their performance or cost of operation” .Thus it was highly relevant for ADMIRE to support one component focused on wind resource measurements to move the discussions forward.

The procurement and installation of the Wind Monitoring Tower (funded by ADMIRE) was carried out in Jaluit (June 14 – 20, 2012) and in Wotje (September 15 – 21, 2012)40. This was also equipped to monitor solar irradiation. The installation was done with the technical support from SPC – North REP provided expert in wind energy, who has also prepared commissioning reports.

The goal here, as set by ADMIRE, was to determine the extent to which wind turbines could be used as a source of energy and if together with solar PV, wind turbines could complement the supply side, especially during the night time, to reduce battery back-up or diesel generation of electricity.

Unfortunately in August 2013, the tower in Jaluit fell down, as the guy wires snapped, the 32m mast fell down and damaged the steel pipes, the anemometers and the wind vane. Even more unfortunate the memory card in the data logger could not be located after the accident. After this event, the Energy Planning Division instructed the MEC to bring down the second mast in Wotje as visual inspection showed several snapped guy wires posing danger to school children in the nearby school. In this case, all components of the wind monitoring tower, except for the guy wires, remained in good condition.


Tag: Clean Energy Energy Challenges Gender Parity Data and Statistics

12.

3.8.3 Copra and biodiesel

Much of the income on the outer islands comes from copra sales, but often fluctuating and low export prices do not encourage efficiency in the production and sales. Tobolar, is the government-owned coconut processing company. Tobolar has little interest in using the coconut oil42 as a biofuel as the F.O.B prices for coconut oil it sells is almost always higher than the CIF prices for diesel, even though the diesel prices are high by world standards due to higher transport costs.

This also makes it uneconomical for MEC to encourage the substitution of diesel oil with coconut oil in any form. Both Tobolar44 and MEC are subsidized by the government (or technically the copra collection to processing is subsidized and so is the difference between MEC revenue collections and expenses, which are both subsidized by the government. The two corporations can and do argue that some or all the subsidies are in effect additional payments to poor farmers whose copra output is paid a high price under government directives and for MEC the price it can collect for electricity had caps which did not cover fuel price changes). However the gap is defined, certainly, if Tobolar sells some of its output at a lower price as fuel than as coconut oil and/or MEC purchases the same at a higher price than its current fuel input, the additional cost would have to be subsidized by the government or carried at a
loss. During the visit, the newspaper reported45 that the cabinet released a subsidy funding to Tobolar so that it could clear off its backlog in payments to growers. The FY2016 budget included a $1.2 million copra subsidy.


Tag: Clean Energy Energy Government Cost-sharing Trade and Development

13.

3.8.4 Other Partners and Related Activities

Concurrent with the UNDP/GEF project there were several parallel international cooperation projects in RMI also with EPD.

There are several more ambitious SPV projects planned and implemented. A “Pacific Partnership Fund” has been established with UAE, at the IRENA Pacific Leaders’ Meeting in Abu Dhabi in 2012, to provide up to $50 million in grants for renewable energy in Pacific island countries over five years. A $5 million allocated to the RMI is planned to be used to set-up a 600kWp PV system installed near the water reservoir near the Majuro airport, which will include water pumping and extra energy would be fed into the grid. The MEC is in charge locally and when completed would generate “953 MWh of solar in the first year, saving more than 62,000 gallons of diesel fuel and preventing 652 tons of CO2".

The government of Taiwan and the Japanese Pacific Environment Community (PEC) Fund, have supported the purchase and installations of over 380 solar streetlights in Majuro, Kwajalein and some of the outer islands. Another 100 units had arrived and plans were for installation in 2016.

The PEC Fund (Japan) is supporting the installations of small portable PV powered reverse osmosis (RO) water purification systems in 14 outer atoll communities, located at elementary schools. They provide 150 to 300 gallons of fresh potable water per day and help ensure reliable supplies of safe drinking water for the students and people in the community, who would get one gallon of safe drinking water per person per day. Periods of drought are common in the summer months when sometimes the government has needed to charter emergency ships to distribute drinking water to the affected communities at annual costs of between $100,000 to $250,00 annually.

Finally, the EPD and IRENA undertook a comprehensive study - Renewables Readiness Assessment has been completed. EPD staff participated in several workshops related to this and other capacity building and knowledge interchange workshops.

 


Tag: Emission Reduction Clean Energy Drinking water supply Energy Water resources Programme Synergy

14.

3.9 Energy and RMI 2008 - 2012

It was noted during the evaluation, that from the first initial request from the RMI Government to UNDP for ADMIRE in 2005, its approval in 2008 and now, there have been a number of developments in RMI on energy and especially on renewables which should be brought together, first for planning for the future.

The Marshall Islands remains heavily reliant on imported fossil fuels and it is estimated that about 92% of (commercial) energy use in 2015 is from petroleum and on-grid and off-grid solar could total around 6%49. Power generation consumes more than half of the fuel imported, with the balance used mainly as transport fuel and fuel imports consist of the largest single item in the country’s imports. The main petroleum imports are gasoline, for transport; diesel fuel, for transport and electricity production in the larger islands; kerosene for household use (and for aviation), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Biomass use is significant but there is little or no data available.

Electricity: MEC supplies electricity on Majuro, (and it is reported in Jaluit and Wotje) using 28 MW (nameplate rating) of diesel capacity, de-rated to 18.2 MW, while maximum demand was about 8.5 MW in 2011. On some atolls, a local island committee operates generators and acts as a local utility
company.

The government of RMI recognizes the energy and power sector as priorities from fiscal, environmental and development perspectives. The people of Marshall Islands also pay very high prices for electricity and for fuel51. The RMI is heavily dependent on external assistance, grants averaging 60% of gross domestic product (GDP) and of national expenditures. It is natural that many donors and development partners such as the Japan, USA, UAE, EU, SPC, ADB,UNDP, etc. have also focused their assistance on the energy sector.

Unemployment is high and human development indicators are generally low, with considerable poverty on the outer atolls52 Hence the idea of copra production for biodiesel has many apparent attractiveness and has been suggested in many reports, without careful thought. Many studies and discussions in RMI suggest that there are many challenges - the low quality of the trees which need more care, low quality of copra, which it was suggested was caused by poor housekeeping and certainly made much worse with the transport challenges in getting copra between the islands, when ships do not pick up the copra for over six months. Ultimately Tobolar and the government officials have said they are working towards improving these constraints, which if successful would make higher value coconut oil even more valued than now, and so its use as a fuel appears to be a highly unlikely option ever.

On the other hand there has been a rapid installation of SPV systems, beyond those that have been within the purview of the ADMIRE project. Given the almost complete coverage of the outer islands with SHS it is imperative that future work focuses on determining their sustainability, the value to the homeowners and to unmet energy needs to determine additional work requirements. In addition, there should be a more ambitious planning for future SPV use where two directions appear very attractive given the rapid fall in the price of panels. The first would be to go beyond individual home systems to consider fully connected, smart grids powered largely by SPV in the medium-sized islands which currently use supplemental small diesel generators. The second would examine the potential for SPV for electric powered and with diesel back up for marine transport53 between the island, currently very expensive and unreliable for many. Any future work on energy in RMI must invest in a new assessment of the status and needs that go considerably beyond the scope of this report.

 


Tag: Clean Energy Energy Challenges Jobs and Livelihoods

15.

4. ASSESSMENTS

The four principal evaluation questions – Relevance, Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Sustainability in the TOR were expanded and examined during the evaluation under twenty questions and issues, and are reported below. The TE examined all 18 activities across the planned outcomes/components, with comparisons between the initial plans, the recommendations made by the MTR with the results at the end of 2015 together with the perceptions of key stakeholders. This is described in tables 7 and 8.

4.1 RELEVANCE

The project is in full consonance with the main objectives of the GEF focal area and the priorities of enhancing national ownership of climate change activities and to strengthen countries’ capacities. The project goals are also highly congruent with the global agenda on climate change mitigation and to the environment and development priorities at the local and national levels as declared by the RMI in multiple policy statements and goals.

The project enabled a small South-South cooperation54, through the exchange of resources, and knowledge with SPC during the implementation of the SPV installations and in the installation of the wind tower.  

The Marshall Islands remains heavily reliant on imported fossil fuels, harming its environment and weakening its economy. It has reiterated its goal to become free of fossil fuels and with good planning and implementation this could be possible, with also reduced costs for energy and increased local employment. Its relevance is judged to be high.

 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Energy Environment Policy Relevance Global Environment Facility fund Ownership Jobs and Livelihoods Institutional Strengthening South-South Cooperation

16.

4.2 EFFECTIVENESS

The TE examined all 18 activities across the planned outcomes/components, with comparisons between the initial plans, the recommendations made by the MTR with the results at the end of 2015 together with the perceptions of key stakeholders. This is described in tables  9.

It has already been noted that the progress missed all milestones on timeliness. It has also been noted that the evaluation concurs with the MTR that there were too many components and too many ill-defined activities. The evaluation found that after 2012 with the appointment of the second full time project manager the progress improved and many of the activities planned were undertaken.

The project successes in the second period could be seen in Table 7, specifically in the support to training, for maintain SPV systems in the outer islands. The PM contributed to the increased (during the project) capacity within the EPD and MRD to manage both ADMIRE and the large portfolio of other donor supported programming in RMI, some are mentioned where they have a direct relations to ADMIRE and to SPV. The activities undertaken by the PMU was largely successful in providing support to increased awareness, and to the installations of RE and EE in schools, and in several partnerships with local NGO, private sector and community organizations. 

Communications, public awareness and outreach have been relatively good. This observation is based on the examination of the outreach work and the consultations during the field visit. The project has contributed to, in a small but positive way, to progress towards, increased use of RE in RMI, especially in the Outer Islands.

The major factors that negatively influenced the project’s capacity to successfully achieve results include the poor design, insufficient experience and low capacity in the government departments of RMI due to small staff size, high degree of donor funding compared to domestic, poor management of resources and the very small base of local expertise within and outside the government. The limited capacity within the government has been repeatedly noted in several reviews and statements including by the government of RMI (see RMI Climate Change Finance Assessment55). The very small size of both population and the economy, wide geographical distribution of the inhabited area, distance from major markets and between islands create intrinsic issues for RMI that cannot change.  

Beyond those, the fragmented and unfocused design and implementation of the projects, with very little sharing of resources, information and experience between departments and between the government and non-government actors, are additional factors. In addition it must be added that the Outer islands villages are very expensive in time and costs to access and also they suffer from the lack of frequent transport services, with some reports suggesting that no copra was collected from some outer island locations for over 6 months due to lack of ship arrivals. 

The key project stakeholders in RMI were well identified, but as mentioned earlier there was no recognition of the many donors, with the exception of the EU North REP project, who have a very large presence in energy assistance in RMI. The project made demands that the identified stakeholders be fully involved but it could not overcome the lack of practice in such cooperation in RMI. The lack of capacities of not only the executing ministries, but across the government and agencies and the lack of staff, had not been fully considered and was overlooked. Country ownership was ensured as stated by the government of RMI was ensured in the design as a NEX project, but “country driven-ness” could not be ensured, where driven-ness would have been shown by the active involvement of the PAC/SC in guiding the work, removing barriers and actively monitoring results with the real participation of the stakeholder. The government and public sector agencies have all “participated” in the project, but with low commitments in time and resources to achieving the outputs and outcomes. The Steering Committee was constituted and met a number of times, but with no notable impacts on the project implementation.

 


Tag: Challenges Effectiveness Communication Human and Financial resources Ownership Partnership Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Awareness raising Institutional Strengthening Civil Societies and NGOs Private Sector

17.

4.3 EFFICIENCY

The project implementation was highly inefficient. The project was designed for a period of five years and is yet to be completed after 8 years. Inefficiencies and delays were encountered at multiple levels in project management, fund disbursements, launching and completion of activities. They were largely due to institutional factors and not attributable to any individual. 

Similarly, or due to the above reasons, financial planning and management were weak. Supervision, guidance and technical backstopping remained problematic throughout the project. There were the processes of regular PIR, yearly progress and financial reports; monitoring reports and activity reports as specified. But there was inadequate qualitative information and feedback, and active processes used to adjust the project activities and outputs, overcome challenges and make a systemic contribution to the larger goal of improved capacity in RMI to assess and use RE more effectively.  

 


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Project and Programme management

18.

4.4 SUSTAINABILITY

The congruence of RMI needs in RE and the existence of multiple donor resources focused on RE support the long term continuation and enhancement of the efforts promoted by ADMIRE. On the other hand, the narrow and project related sustainability of the solar home systems provided by donors for rural electrification in outer islands remain in question at the end of ADMIRE (and North-REP), given the lack of solutions for the poor collections of maintenance fees, and the poor maintenance of equipment.  

 


Tag: Energy Sustainability Human and Financial resources Programme Synergy

19.

4.5 MAINSTREAMING

The TOR asked the evaluation to assess the extent to which the project was successfully mainstreamed with other UNDP priorities, including poverty alleviation, improved governance, the prevention and recovery from natural disasters, and gender.  

The project goals spoke to poverty alleviation in the outer islands and not to any of the others. The stated goals for poverty alleviation were not funded on any real basis. Provisioning of SPV for lighting and small electricity use has been repeatedly found to be beneficial for people who had been without electric power. It does have a poverty reduction effect in the beneficiary families because of reduction of the costs of kerosene for lighting, the improvements in the use of time with higher quality lighting for reading and school work leading to better education for school children and provides for a more healthy environment for women and girls. The ADMIRE project contributed to ongoing experiments in RMI to use products made by women and men in outer islands for payments for the electricity and also contributed to an experiment on using solar dryers for copra drying. But at this time the results remain unknown.  

The nature of the project to increase domestic capacity and remove barriers to RE, and to new policies could support improved governance, but neither the focus of work nor the results suggest any achievement in this dimension. The project manager did contribute to the integration of the RMI policy document combining mitigation with response and recovery from natural disasters.

 


Tag: Disaster Recovery Disaster Risk Reduction Gender Equality Rule of law Education Poverty Alleviation Women and gilrs

20.

4.6 GENDER

The project design, implementation and monitoring have been found to have taken into consideration, gender issues and the role of women.

The ADMIRE Prodoc does not specifically mention gender as an issue for the project and no special gender considerations were noted. At the same time, a goal of gender equality is to promote an active and visible policy of mainstreaming a gender perspective in all policies and programmes so that, before decisions are taken, an analysis is made of the effects on women and men.

While the project has not been focused on analytical work, it should be noted that its focus on SPV for the electrification of rural households would have a number of positive benefits for women and girls (as well as men and boys) because of the reduced use of kerosene for lighting with health and financial benefits and also with an increased ability to use the light in the evening for studies, leisure and improved productivity. ADMIRE also worked with the national NGO for women, WUTMI to enhance productivity through the use of solar driers.  

It’s approach to gender dimensions, as not narrowly focused on women, could be quite appropriate for a small country, where the President, the Secretary of MRD, the Head of Energy and the Project Manager are all women. But it is recommended that in any future work and drawing the project conclusions, the RMI and UNDP, keep the issue in mind and ensure that the project does consider the potentials for differential impacts by gender.  


Tag: Clean Energy Energy Gender Equality Education Women and gilrs

Recommendations
1

Issue (Sub-chapter 3.5 - Weaknesses of project design)

 Issue (Sub-chapter 3.2, paragraph 42):  Project Design. The project design appears to have focused too narrowly on its goals without considering the specific issues of RMI that would be most relevant to the project implementation. Its small size, the distribution of its land and people in many islands and atolls and its own acknowledged lack of “capacity”.

Paragraph 48: Exclusion of donors as stakeholders and partners.   The project document did not mention any donors as stakeholders and partners, though it had mentioned that an “EU funded solar home system project in the outer islands provided for the co-financed component”. And besides the EU, the RMI has another half dozen important and large donors involved in multiple activities in the RMI on CC related work, many with RE elements, that link with ADMIRE.

 

Paragraph 49: Exclusion of known challenges in RMI to PV systems.  The PRODOC also missed some of the known challenges in RMI to PV systems, noted in the 2004 PIREP project report and later again in the PIGGAREP report (referred to in the PRODOC), page 74, of poor electricity tariff collection; lack of understanding among users and of commercial orientation; poor enforcement of project rules, political pressure to subsidize O&M, both leading to lack of collections, which had been noted in RMI. It noted also that the RMI Energy office had 2 staff (page 126), which was double that noted in PIREP in 2004, but clearly insufficient for the ambitious goals.

 

Paragraph 52: Reporting nature, mélange of activities, absence of key data.  The design weaknesses stemmed from several factors. One is the patchwork nature of the reporting in the MSP PDF/PPG report, this has been mentioned at several places. It was unduly ambitious in its expected impacts. It mixed risks of country capacity issues, with RE barriers, and generic versus project specific risks. The mistaken notions of risk did not then allow for suitable risk mitigation strategy. The second stems from the mélange of activities and outcomes as listed in Table 3. The MTR for the project in 2012, also critiqued the project design, stating it had a “typical GEF format by having a capacity building, policy component, institutional component, financial and awareness component with various activities that relate to the two technologies (PV and oil from copra processing) scattered over various components”. Third, it was seen in during the evaluation, the absence of key data on energy use and more often, the lack of pulling together data that is available to create a coherent map of energy in RMI was noted in the design.

 

2

Issue (Sub-chapter 3.7– Implementation after the Mid-Term Review: 2012-2015):

 

Paragraph 64: Unrevised outcome indicators.  The MTR suggested revised outcome indicators but the evaluation did not find any revisions to the LFA and to the outcome indicators for ADMIRE as recommended by the MTR. In fact, the subsequent Annual Work Plans reviewed continued to list the same six outcomes, with 18 activities (not counting learning and M&E).

 

Paragraph 65: Lack of additional support by UNDP experts.   The MTR also recommended focusing the training programs for the design, operation and maintenance of stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems in the country; the use of copra as form of payment for electricity tariff for the outer islands households SHS; and user training and awareness campaigns in rural schools and health centers; to explore and conclude opportunity of cooperation (e.g., North REP MoU) with Tobolar and ADB on copra oil processing. Any evidence that the recommendation for additional support to be provided by UNDP experts, together with close monitoring and technical support by UNDP office, was fulfilled was not seen in the evaluation.

3

The Current Project

Clear recommendations which are included in Table 8: ADMIRE Activities and Outputs could be used to complete the ADMIRE project within the rules of UNDP and GEF. It is most important to have the wind data currently available fully analysed and used to resolve a mystery on wind speeds that has been stated for over a decade; the MRD should be able to reinstall the working wind tower and allow additional data to be collected and also must complete the demonstration and testing of the solar pump acquired as planned.  

Specifically for the ADMIRE project beyond completing the items listed above, the project should complete the activities as approved by MRD and shared with UNDP and listed in the AWP for 2016. The evaluation emphasizes the following from the outstanding activities listed in the AWP – improve the draft 2014 National Energy Policy document by updating all energy statistics in RMI up to 2015, using a much simplified energy balance tool provided by UNDP (the guide can be pared down by over 90% given the specific conditions for RMI with its highly limited uses of energy); coordinate with other agencies and review policies and practices for the maintenance of SPV in the outer islands; for the energy options related to the copra value chain – including  VCO and other waste products as renewable energy resource for RMI; and convene a project wrap-up meeting, where this report and all other results of ADMIRE are presented to the stakeholders both government and non-government at a final project wrap up meeting together with recommendations for the future.  

The above required MRD to provide support for the remainder of the project management, including the completion of the above, the dissemination of Terminal Evaluation and the final Project Completion reports.

4

Future Project Design

UNDP should take note of the individual and special circumstances of RMI in its future programming, facts which are highly specific to RMI, which require adjustments of standardized GEF project templates for the SRF/LFA that may work well in other countries to take these into account.

UNDP should examine the budgetary feasibility of more regular and in person follow up and support from the UNDP regional offices (Bangkok, Fiji and Samoa) to its portfolio of work in RMI and ways to work more closely with the local UN coordinating office established RMI.  

Ensure during its future involvement the actual and active participation in the work required beyond the formal signing of MOUs, of the broad range of stakeholders as listed (from government, the community leaders, private sector, financial institutions and NGOs and take note of the small populations of outer islands together with the difficulties of the participation of stakeholders living there) with the requirement for a strong and effective project/programme Steering Committee/Advisory Committee.

Determine mechanisms which can assist more effective collaborations between groups of relevant stakeholders who are needed to work together and facilitate linkages, collaboration and divisions of work with other energy/development/climate change projects/programs that are implemented in RMI by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, European Union and the principal bilateral donors, as well as integration with the energy-related work of other regional and PIC organizations to avoid duplication of efforts, increasing effectiveness through sharing of information and expertise, through sharing participation in steering/advisory committees, sharing staff, enabling efficient and effective consultations between various project managers and with stakeholders. In many countries, the national government and/or one of the development partners convenes periodic reviews of sectoral activities to share knowledge and work cooperatively, this should be explored by the UNDP given its global experiences with such mechanisms.  

Specifically in the area of Energy, follow up with an effort to prepare a consolidated report on the energy situation in RMI, (potentially updating and adding to the RMI reports discussed in para  111- 112 above) including better information on biomass energy use and availability without the long term focus hitherto on copra for biodiesel; the data collected needs to be reviewed by a wind energy expert to ascertain the results from the data available and the intact wind monitoring tower should be re- established and a new data collection plan started; a more ambitious and focused programme in the future should explore small scale smart grid PV with supplemental storage/generation for the one or more islands with population between 500 and 2000 in cooperation with other donors.

5

RMI Government

The human resources allocated to the climate change responses is low relative to the national priority accorded to climate change. EPD and MRD need strengthening with additional staff to enable it to more effectively coordinate energy activities and meet its international commitments and domestic obligations.

A number of mitigation options for RMI are win-win on multiple criteria, not only for GHG mitigation. Integration of planning of RE with water needs, use of additional RE resources such as biomass waste, and larger scale and ambitious integration in smart grid is way for RMI to lead.

GRMI has largely accessed the majority of its funding from bilateral sources and its portfolio of multilateral funding is low and poorly performing. It should consider the two sources to have important complementarities in achieving its national goals and take steps to make more effective use of both sources.  

The government of RMI should explore the possible use of a small portion of the considerable amount of grant funds available to examine the possible role of solar powered vessels of different sizes and using solar, with supplemental wind and diesel (several are now operating globally) that can increase the flexibility of inter-island transport and also reduce costs, thereby resolving a number of development problems including isolation, moving goods to market, education and health, that stem from the difficulties and high costs of such transportation.

6

RMI Government

The human resources allocated to the climate change responses is low relative to the national priority accorded to climate change. EPD and MRD need strengthening with additional staff to enable it to more effectively coordinate energy activities and meet its international commitments and domestic obligations.

A number of mitigation options for RMI are win-win on multiple criteria, not only for GHG mitigation. Integration of planning of RE with water needs, use of additional RE resources such as biomass waste, and larger scale and ambitious integration in smart grid is way for RMI to lead.

GRMI has largely accessed the majority of its funding from bilateral sources and its portfolio of multilateral funding is low and poorly performing. It should consider the two sources to have important complementarities in achieving its national goals and take steps to make more effective use of both sources.  

The government of RMI should explore the possible use of a small portion of the considerable amount of grant funds available to examine the possible role of solar powered vessels of different sizes and using solar, with supplemental wind and diesel (several are now operating globally) that can increase the flexibility of inter-island transport and also reduce costs, thereby resolving a number of development problems including isolation, moving goods to market, education and health, that stem from the difficulties and high costs of such transportation.

7

For all development partners working with the RMI government

Development partners supporting the country should consider formal arrangements to strengthen the sharing of information and lessons learnt across whole of the development portfolio and in energy to gain from more effective coordination and harmonisation among them and the GRMI.  

The development partners and GRMI should examine options to go beyond such coordination to examine the options for budget support mechanisms that have been used currently in RMI and its expansion in the energy sector and related to climate change.

1. Recommendation:

Issue (Sub-chapter 3.5 - Weaknesses of project design)

 Issue (Sub-chapter 3.2, paragraph 42):  Project Design. The project design appears to have focused too narrowly on its goals without considering the specific issues of RMI that would be most relevant to the project implementation. Its small size, the distribution of its land and people in many islands and atolls and its own acknowledged lack of “capacity”.

Paragraph 48: Exclusion of donors as stakeholders and partners.   The project document did not mention any donors as stakeholders and partners, though it had mentioned that an “EU funded solar home system project in the outer islands provided for the co-financed component”. And besides the EU, the RMI has another half dozen important and large donors involved in multiple activities in the RMI on CC related work, many with RE elements, that link with ADMIRE.

 

Paragraph 49: Exclusion of known challenges in RMI to PV systems.  The PRODOC also missed some of the known challenges in RMI to PV systems, noted in the 2004 PIREP project report and later again in the PIGGAREP report (referred to in the PRODOC), page 74, of poor electricity tariff collection; lack of understanding among users and of commercial orientation; poor enforcement of project rules, political pressure to subsidize O&M, both leading to lack of collections, which had been noted in RMI. It noted also that the RMI Energy office had 2 staff (page 126), which was double that noted in PIREP in 2004, but clearly insufficient for the ambitious goals.

 

Paragraph 52: Reporting nature, mélange of activities, absence of key data.  The design weaknesses stemmed from several factors. One is the patchwork nature of the reporting in the MSP PDF/PPG report, this has been mentioned at several places. It was unduly ambitious in its expected impacts. It mixed risks of country capacity issues, with RE barriers, and generic versus project specific risks. The mistaken notions of risk did not then allow for suitable risk mitigation strategy. The second stems from the mélange of activities and outcomes as listed in Table 3. The MTR for the project in 2012, also critiqued the project design, stating it had a “typical GEF format by having a capacity building, policy component, institutional component, financial and awareness component with various activities that relate to the two technologies (PV and oil from copra processing) scattered over various components”. Third, it was seen in during the evaluation, the absence of key data on energy use and more often, the lack of pulling together data that is available to create a coherent map of energy in RMI was noted in the design.

 

Management Response: [Added: 2018/11/19] [Last Updated: 2021/02/04]

Regarding the design of the project, lessons learned from the TE findings and recommendations can be taken into account for future CCM project development in the RMI. The TE pointed out the shortcomings in the Project Document, even though the evaluator has been advised that he should be evaluating the Project Brief not the Project Document. Since the Project Document, as it was the format at that time, is indeed some sort of an executive summary. The details are in the Project Brief. The evaluator instead focused on the Project Document that it does not provide detailed descriptions of what should be done, when in fact the details are in the Project Brief. The TE Report just mentioned the Project Brief 4 times (2 in the main report and 2 as footnotes).

 

In GEF-4 the GEF did not allow the use of GEF funds for hardware, just for soft interventions. Hence, the design covered mostly soft interventions such as capacity building (training courses, studies, researches), policy work, institutional capacity building, and technical assistance. The interventions involving the deployment of hardware are mainly funded through co-financing. Most of these are from the EU-funded RE-based energy generation (e.g., solar home systems). ADMIRE supplemented the EU-funded REP-5 project in RMI with soft measures and interventions.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Noted. This recommendation will inform newly designed project for RMI in future.
[Added: 2021/04/29]
UNDP and RMI goverment 2018/12 Completed completed
This will inform future projects
[Added: 2021/04/29]
UNDP/RMI government 2018/12 Completed completed
2. Recommendation:

Issue (Sub-chapter 3.7– Implementation after the Mid-Term Review: 2012-2015):

 

Paragraph 64: Unrevised outcome indicators.  The MTR suggested revised outcome indicators but the evaluation did not find any revisions to the LFA and to the outcome indicators for ADMIRE as recommended by the MTR. In fact, the subsequent Annual Work Plans reviewed continued to list the same six outcomes, with 18 activities (not counting learning and M&E).

 

Paragraph 65: Lack of additional support by UNDP experts.   The MTR also recommended focusing the training programs for the design, operation and maintenance of stand-alone and grid-connected PV systems in the country; the use of copra as form of payment for electricity tariff for the outer islands households SHS; and user training and awareness campaigns in rural schools and health centers; to explore and conclude opportunity of cooperation (e.g., North REP MoU) with Tobolar and ADB on copra oil processing. Any evidence that the recommendation for additional support to be provided by UNDP experts, together with close monitoring and technical support by UNDP office, was fulfilled was not seen in the evaluation.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/11/19]

Because of the delays in the project implementation (mainly due to the absence of project manager, which also led to the replacement of the original implementing partner by the MRD – Ministry of Resources & Development), the project implementation spilled over to the phase 5 of GEF. In GEF-5, it was acceptable with GEF to use the GEF funds for hardware. Because of that the ADMIRE project could include some hardware-based interventions, as also suggested in the project MTR. However, many of the hardware-based activities where not completed at the time of the TE. The TE should have considered the circumstances that constrained the design of the ADMIRE project design. It is easy to point out defects and shortcomings during the TE but most of the comments are retrospective, without giving due consideration of the circumstances that limited the project design to what it was. Another fault of course was the delayed retrofitting of the project activities after the MTR. Poor project management was the main factor as can be gleaned from the PIR reports.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Lessons learned will informed future project management in RMI
[Added: 2021/04/29]
RMI government and UNDP 2018/12 Completed COMPLETED
3. Recommendation:

The Current Project

Clear recommendations which are included in Table 8: ADMIRE Activities and Outputs could be used to complete the ADMIRE project within the rules of UNDP and GEF. It is most important to have the wind data currently available fully analysed and used to resolve a mystery on wind speeds that has been stated for over a decade; the MRD should be able to reinstall the working wind tower and allow additional data to be collected and also must complete the demonstration and testing of the solar pump acquired as planned.  

Specifically for the ADMIRE project beyond completing the items listed above, the project should complete the activities as approved by MRD and shared with UNDP and listed in the AWP for 2016. The evaluation emphasizes the following from the outstanding activities listed in the AWP – improve the draft 2014 National Energy Policy document by updating all energy statistics in RMI up to 2015, using a much simplified energy balance tool provided by UNDP (the guide can be pared down by over 90% given the specific conditions for RMI with its highly limited uses of energy); coordinate with other agencies and review policies and practices for the maintenance of SPV in the outer islands; for the energy options related to the copra value chain – including  VCO and other waste products as renewable energy resource for RMI; and convene a project wrap-up meeting, where this report and all other results of ADMIRE are presented to the stakeholders both government and non-government at a final project wrap up meeting together with recommendations for the future.  

The above required MRD to provide support for the remainder of the project management, including the completion of the above, the dissemination of Terminal Evaluation and the final Project Completion reports.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/04]

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
noted.
[Added: 2021/04/29]
RMI Government 2018/12 Completed completed
4. Recommendation:

Future Project Design

UNDP should take note of the individual and special circumstances of RMI in its future programming, facts which are highly specific to RMI, which require adjustments of standardized GEF project templates for the SRF/LFA that may work well in other countries to take these into account.

UNDP should examine the budgetary feasibility of more regular and in person follow up and support from the UNDP regional offices (Bangkok, Fiji and Samoa) to its portfolio of work in RMI and ways to work more closely with the local UN coordinating office established RMI.  

Ensure during its future involvement the actual and active participation in the work required beyond the formal signing of MOUs, of the broad range of stakeholders as listed (from government, the community leaders, private sector, financial institutions and NGOs and take note of the small populations of outer islands together with the difficulties of the participation of stakeholders living there) with the requirement for a strong and effective project/programme Steering Committee/Advisory Committee.

Determine mechanisms which can assist more effective collaborations between groups of relevant stakeholders who are needed to work together and facilitate linkages, collaboration and divisions of work with other energy/development/climate change projects/programs that are implemented in RMI by the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, European Union and the principal bilateral donors, as well as integration with the energy-related work of other regional and PIC organizations to avoid duplication of efforts, increasing effectiveness through sharing of information and expertise, through sharing participation in steering/advisory committees, sharing staff, enabling efficient and effective consultations between various project managers and with stakeholders. In many countries, the national government and/or one of the development partners convenes periodic reviews of sectoral activities to share knowledge and work cooperatively, this should be explored by the UNDP given its global experiences with such mechanisms.  

Specifically in the area of Energy, follow up with an effort to prepare a consolidated report on the energy situation in RMI, (potentially updating and adding to the RMI reports discussed in para  111- 112 above) including better information on biomass energy use and availability without the long term focus hitherto on copra for biodiesel; the data collected needs to be reviewed by a wind energy expert to ascertain the results from the data available and the intact wind monitoring tower should be re- established and a new data collection plan started; a more ambitious and focused programme in the future should explore small scale smart grid PV with supplemental storage/generation for the one or more islands with population between 500 and 2000 in cooperation with other donors.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/04]

Key Actions:

5. Recommendation:

RMI Government

The human resources allocated to the climate change responses is low relative to the national priority accorded to climate change. EPD and MRD need strengthening with additional staff to enable it to more effectively coordinate energy activities and meet its international commitments and domestic obligations.

A number of mitigation options for RMI are win-win on multiple criteria, not only for GHG mitigation. Integration of planning of RE with water needs, use of additional RE resources such as biomass waste, and larger scale and ambitious integration in smart grid is way for RMI to lead.

GRMI has largely accessed the majority of its funding from bilateral sources and its portfolio of multilateral funding is low and poorly performing. It should consider the two sources to have important complementarities in achieving its national goals and take steps to make more effective use of both sources.  

The government of RMI should explore the possible use of a small portion of the considerable amount of grant funds available to examine the possible role of solar powered vessels of different sizes and using solar, with supplemental wind and diesel (several are now operating globally) that can increase the flexibility of inter-island transport and also reduce costs, thereby resolving a number of development problems including isolation, moving goods to market, education and health, that stem from the difficulties and high costs of such transportation.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/04]

Key Actions:

6. Recommendation:

RMI Government

The human resources allocated to the climate change responses is low relative to the national priority accorded to climate change. EPD and MRD need strengthening with additional staff to enable it to more effectively coordinate energy activities and meet its international commitments and domestic obligations.

A number of mitigation options for RMI are win-win on multiple criteria, not only for GHG mitigation. Integration of planning of RE with water needs, use of additional RE resources such as biomass waste, and larger scale and ambitious integration in smart grid is way for RMI to lead.

GRMI has largely accessed the majority of its funding from bilateral sources and its portfolio of multilateral funding is low and poorly performing. It should consider the two sources to have important complementarities in achieving its national goals and take steps to make more effective use of both sources.  

The government of RMI should explore the possible use of a small portion of the considerable amount of grant funds available to examine the possible role of solar powered vessels of different sizes and using solar, with supplemental wind and diesel (several are now operating globally) that can increase the flexibility of inter-island transport and also reduce costs, thereby resolving a number of development problems including isolation, moving goods to market, education and health, that stem from the difficulties and high costs of such transportation.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/04]

Key Actions:

7. Recommendation:

For all development partners working with the RMI government

Development partners supporting the country should consider formal arrangements to strengthen the sharing of information and lessons learnt across whole of the development portfolio and in energy to gain from more effective coordination and harmonisation among them and the GRMI.  

The development partners and GRMI should examine options to go beyond such coordination to examine the options for budget support mechanisms that have been used currently in RMI and its expansion in the energy sector and related to climate change.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/04]

Key Actions:

Latest Evaluations

Contact us

1 UN Plaza
DC1-20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Tel. +1 646 781 4200
Fax. +1 646 781 4213
erc.support@undp.org