Success message
error message
warn message
Mid Term Review for Enhancing Effectiveness And Financial Sustainability Of Protected Areas In Malaysia
Commissioning Unit: Malaysia
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020
Evaluation Type: Project
Completion Date: 04/2019
Unit Responsible for providing Management Response: Malaysia
Documents Related to overall Management Response:  
1. Recommendation:

1.  Implement Key Actions to Achieve Performance-Based Sustainable Financing Standards

Currently many PAs are not well-funded and are not able to contribute effectively to the country’s sustainable development efforts. It is recommended that two key actions are put into effect to support the implementation of the project objective—namely, to establish a performance-based financing structure to support effective PA systems management.

Key Action 1: Ensure budget considerations for PAs are included under the Malaysia Plan, every 5 years.

This aims to translate the country’s aspirations towards green growth into strong financial commitments to PAs. The initiative would go beyond a traditional sectoral approach of budget requests and would be implemented through a collaboration between NRE and leadership from the EPU, Ministry of Finance, and key state governments. Such an initiative would help to ensure that the country’s commitments related to PAs under the Eleventh Malaysia Plan and Aichi Targets are effectively realised.

Key Action 2: Revisit the fundamental issues of performance based financing.

It is recommended that the project undertakes a thorough review of: (i) the rationale for adopting a performance-based approach to financing; (ii) its relevance, ownership, and viable funding sources; (iii) at which level performance-based approach can be implemented, and how it relates to the existing framework of outcome based financing, (iv) mechanisms to measure, verify, and certify performance; (v) how to build a system that can ensure effective implementation, evaluation and reporting; and (vi) how standards for performance based financing can be institutionalised12 The PMU would be the lead organisation to facilitate the review involving key partners including Federal and State EPU, MoF, Park Agencies and NGOs


Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2019/05/26]

Key Action 1

Currently the National Conservation Trust Fund is being operated by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) with an allocation of RM 10 million from the Government. The PA Financing Project helped NRE to develop the Operating Guidelines to operationalize the Fund, which include a set or criteria for project selection; approval and monitoring and evaluation.

In January 2018; the Project has initiated with the engagement of a resource person to undertake study on developing “Strategic Plan and Resource Mobilization for National Conservation Trust Fund”. The study will provide options and strategic directions for strengthening the management and ensuring long term sustainability of the Fund.

Key Action 2

PA Financing Project collaborating with BioFin Project developing guidelines and criteria for budget proposals and allocation for conservation of biodiversity related programmes and projects under the Malaysian Five Year Plan. It is envisaged that these guidelines will be incorporated into the planning process of 12th Malaysia Plan; and elements of biodiversity conservation will be made part of criteria for budget allocation to the line ministries and agencies.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Undertake study on developing “Strategic Plan and Resource Mobilization for National Conservation Trust Fund
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
KATS, DWNP, MEA and PMU 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
Developing BioFin guidelines which is to be submitted to MEA by the end of 2018
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
KATS & MEA 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
2. Recommendation:

Establish Action Plan on Protected Areas and Sustainable Finance

It is recommended that an appropriate form of policy intervention such as a draft “action plan” containing a consolidation of policies on PA management, be submitted to the MoF and EPU for
consideration. The NRE, as the focal point for CBD, IUCN, and NBSAP is to lead the formulation of the action plan in collaboration with the key stakeholders in government and beyond. Key elements of the action plan should include the rationale of a PA policy in Malaysia and the relevant programmes to support the policy.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

In January 2018, the Project initiated study on “The Economics of Economics and Biodiversity (TEEB)” for three target sites Taman Negara; Endau Rompin and Royal Belum. The study plans to develop evidence base for increased financial support and investment for the PAs by demonstrating its economics and non-economics contribution and values to the society.

Another study on “Sustainable Financing Plan” will be undertaken in 2018 targeting the three PA authorities: DWNP; JNPC and PSPC.  This study will explore various market and non-market based financial mechanisms that could be adopted by the PA agencies for generating additional revenues at site and agency level.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Study on “The Economics of Economics and Biodiversity (TEEB)” for three target sites Taman Negara; Endau Rompin and Royal Belum
[Added: 2019/05/26]
KATS, MEA, DWNP, JNPC, PSPC 2020/04 Initiated Two resource persons have been engaged in January 2018 to undertake study. In May 2018, the resource persons undertook extensive stakeholders’ consultation with participating states and implementing partners DWNP, JNPC and PSPC. The sessions helped to identify key areas for economic valuation for the 3 sites as well as targeted respondence (approximately 1300 for each site involving four categories) for the survey. Findings from the survey will provide fundamental inputs for the economic valuation for the 3 sites. PA Financing Project and UNDP are currently in the process of appointing a survey company and it is expected that the survey will start in June 2019.
Study on “Sustainable Financing Plan” will be undertaken in 2018 targeting the three PA authorities: DWNP; JNPC and PSPC
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
KATS, DWNP, JNPC, PSPC & State Govts 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
3. Recommendation:

3. Strengthen Budget Planning and Budget Platform

It is recommended that budget planning processes for PAs are strengthened at the Federal, State and site levels to ensure that:
• Budgets and identification of financing needs are tied to conservation goals and impacts.
• Budgets are effectively planned through collaborative budget planning with key partners to promote efficiency and cost savings.

At the national level, it is recommended that:
• the project should identify those ministries and agencies which are relevant for PA budgeting (e.g. Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia in relation to the implementation of the National
Ecotourism Plan) to encourage collaborative budget planning;
• efforts are made to build capacity among PA agencies in Malaysia on outcome-based budgeting and the development of a “Creativity Index (CI)” to be in line with the national budget framework with the support of the Economic Planning Unit and the Ministry of Finance Malaysia;
• the project identifies relevant funding avenues for PA management supported by federal resources such as federal funding for forest management in Sabah and Sarawak under the 11th
Malaysia Plan (e.g. for Heart of Borneo initiative), 1MBeon patrolling through the Blue Ocean Strategy, etc.;
• funding avenues or systems are established to ensure the continuous implementation of the national level PA programs such as the PA Managers’ Conference and World Rangers’ Day.

At the state level,
• Funding needs for PA management are identified.  
• The need for sustainable finance initiatives in relation to PA budgeting and management are recognized and institutionalized;
• Sufficient capacity and personnel are committed to work on sustainable finance and PA budget initiatives.

At the site level (for the sites under the PA financing project):
• Management plans that have been developed are adopted;
• Business plans that have been developed are adopted and implemented;
• Support, primarily in the form of capacity building initiatives, is provided for the implementation of the management and business plans.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

Capacity building programme will be conducted for the Federal and State agencies. The BioFin methodology will be introduced, a structured method of developing financial planning for conservation of biodiversity. Whilst findings of TEEB provides economical argument for increased investment for conservation; the BioFin methodology will able to enhance the planning capacity for incorporating elements of conservation into development projects and programme.

Another initiative is to explore the establishment of Business development unit in PA management unit. This recommendation was raised through the findings of Business Plans developed for the three PA agencies – stress the need of a dedicated unit focussing on financial planning for conservation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
BioFin training workshops for federal & state planning units, to introduce the BioFin methodology
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
MEA, MOF, PA Agencies 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
Establishing dedicated Business Development Units in the PA Managements
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
PA Agencies 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
4. Recommendation:

4. Develop and Pilot-Test Sustainable Financing Mechanisms

The MTR team recommends that, in cooperation with partners in government, the community, and private sector, one or more innovative mechanisms for sustainable financing be adopted to be put into action and tested. This should include such practical considerations as developing the processes and standard operating procedures for implementing the mechanisms, collection and channeling of funds, etc. Pilot-tested initiatives, if successful, could then be replicated at multiple sites. Decisions for selecting proposals for various pilot projects could be based upon the  following guiding criteria: financial returns, administrative needs, political acceptability, social acceptability and environmental impact. It should be noted that financing mechanisms may be
implemented at different levels.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

Business Plans have been developed for the three PA agencies (DWNP; JNPC and PSPC) highlighting funding options and mechanisms that could be adopted and implemented at site and agency level. These options and mechanisms will be further scrutinized assessing the viability of implementation with the Agencies in accordance with legal mandate vested with them. In addition,  the Sustainable Financing study also will able to provide some insights into this

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
(as Key Action 2.2) Sustainable Financing Plan study to be undertaken
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
PMU, NRE, PA Agencies 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
5. Recommendation:

5. Promote Institutional Strengthening at All Scales to Achieve Sustainable Finance Goals

it is recommended that the following measures at the institutional level are implemented to ensure that sustainable finance goals are met:
(i) Site level – NRE, MoF and State parks authorities are to put in place a practical mechanism whereby resources that are generated within or by a PA, can be retained and reinvested
back into the conservation and management requirements of the PA, building on from the proposed legal review of State enactments related to PA management;
(ii) PA network level – With endorsement from Federal and at State authorities, DWNP, JNPC, and PSPC are to establish business units, with competent personnel, to focus on enhancing
funding sources and investments (without compromising conservation objectives), as well as cost savings through partnerships, licenses, etc; and
(iii) National level – EPU, NRE, and relevant authorities at the national level are to prioritize institutional strengthening, particularly to support the national goals and objectives on PAs
(11th Malaysia Plan, National Biodiversity Policy, National Ecotourism Plan etc) and various commitments through regional and international agreements (e.g. Convention on Biological
Diversity Plan of Action for Protected Areas, Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand-Growth Triangle [IMT-GT] Implementation Blueprint, etc.).

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

IBD transformation plan to develop into a national training centre catering the capacity and skills development needs of PA agencies in the Country. The Project extends technical assistance to develop strategic actions particularly to strengthen IBD’s training portfolio. 

The six weeks training programme on “Effective Protected Area Management (EPAM)” will be strengthened further by acquiring professional accreditation for the programme.

Financing Project collaborating with BioFin initiative to introduce methodologies for biodiversity conservation financial planning at all level: Federal; State and Agencies. In addition to specialised training sessions; this will be carried out through Sustainable Financing Study.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
IBD restructuring plan developed
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
KATS, DWNP, JPA 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
Professional accreditation for the Effective Protected Area Management (EPAM) training programme obtained
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
DWNP, JPA 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
BioFin training workshops for federal & state planning units, to introduce the BioFin methodology
[Added: 2019/05/26]
PA Financing Project and BioFin 2018/12 Completed First training took place in March 2018 History
6. Recommendation:

6. Confirm That Government Actions Intended to Support and Strengthen Biodiversity Conservation, Actually Do So

In both the cases described above, mechanisms need to be put in place to ensure that government actions intended to support and strengthen the protection of vulnerable biodiversity
resources, actually do so. There are a variety of methods that can be employed to achieve this.

Implementation of this recommendation will require considerable coordination and cooperation among several parties. Financial analysis will need the involvement of personnel from Ministry of Finance and EPU. Identification of certification schemes may require that dialogue be undertaken (e.g., in seminars or workshops) among a wide range of stakeholders. Decision-making and policy recommendations will need to be coursed through the NSC. And the PMU will have to provide an overall coordinative function to ensure that this recommendation is effectively implemented


Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

The Government (NRE; DWNP and other key agencies will embark on National Policy on Biodiversity (NPBD) roadshow heightening the objectives;  programmes and targets to be achieved with the State Governments. The Policy will provide the basis for financial planning for biodiversity conservation related program and projects.

PA Financing Project provides support to PA Agencies in-terms of revision of respective “Enactments” and study on sustainable financing. There is general consensus amongst PA agencies and State governments to strengthen and the governing structure (legal framework) and study the options and mechanisms for creating improved financing modes for biodiversity conservation programmes.

Developing strategic plan and resource mobilization strategies for NCTF. The study will elaborate on the various strategic options to transform the fund into and independently managed ensuring long term sustainability of funding sources; and mechanisms to address the financing gaps amongst the PA agencies.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
NPBD policy roadshow
[Added: 2019/05/26]
MEA, MOF, KATS, DWNP, Federal & State agencies 2021/02 Not Initiated To be planned for 12 Malaysia Plan period
Technical support to reviews of state enactments relating to PA management
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
KATS, DWNP, Park Agencies 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
Study on NCTF strategic plan & resource mobilization strategies
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
KATS, MEA, DWNP 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
7. Recommendation:

7. Promote Greater Community Engagement and Empowerment

The project has had a strong impact in terms of community empowerment, especially in JNPC.For example, through the learning trips to Sabah, community members from Johor were motivated to develop their own cooperative. It is recommended that efforts be undertaken to continue, replicate, and scale-up project successes for community empowerment

One important component of promoting such engagement with the community, has to do with articulating and demonstrating benefit-sharing to community members. Once communities become more aware of the benefits that derive from improved management of the PAs, stronger grass-roots ownership, which in turn fosters more effective protection and enforcement within PAs, can be achieved under the leadership of each PA. It is also recommended that the project examine and encourage tourism packages that truly involve the participation of local and indigenous people as a basis to demonstrate the benefit-sharing model.

Another important element of strengthening community involvement relates to gender. Gender is not highlighted in the project design, and as a result, gender awareness as demonstrated by the project has been weak. Therefore, it is recommended that the project incorporate greater gender sensitivity, and build it into the implementation of project activities

However, gender sensitivity needs to also be introduced in a culturally sensitive manner, and methods for introducing it need to be developed on a case-by-case basis. Sex disaggregated data need to be gathered to factor in gender intervention that is cognizant of the local culture.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

Collaborating with PA agencies, developing mechanisms to engage the local communities for co-management in line with management plan of Endau Rompin (JNPC).  With support of Project the local Community have formed a Cooperative which will help them to develop income generating opportunities as well as addressing land tenure issues faced by them. The Cooperative also can be used as a platform by the PA authority to engage the Community in an effective manner.

To prioritize the strategies and action plans elaborated in Management Plans for three Parks, related the co-management of the parks with the engagement of local communities.

To collaborate with IC – CFS with focused intervention for engaging local communities and CBOs. IC-CFS will built upon the capacity building platform developed for CBOs and local community; developing income generating opportunities at site levels.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Engagement with local communities through cooperatives formed for developing income generating activities
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
UNDP, DWNP, PSPC, JNPC, MOTAC, JAKOA, PMU 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
involving local communities through engagement platforms established
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
DWNP, JNPC and PSPC 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
Utilising capacity building platform developed by IC-CFS project to engage local communities
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
PMU, DWNP, JNPC, PSPC, IC-CFS PMU 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History
8. Recommendation:

8. Extend the Project Timeframe

There are inherent opportunities to build on some of the successes already achieved by the project, through scaling up and replication. Also, some of the other recommendations being made as part of the project and this MTR that are critical for the success of the project would require additional funds and time to be committed (but still within remaining project budget), in order to implement them.

As determined through the financial analysis, a very significant portion of the project budget is still unutilized. A number of factors have contributed to this situation, among them, higher-thananticipated cofinancing contributions, and beneficial currency exchange fluctuations. Thus an extension of the project timeframe would be possible, at no additional cost.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

The Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) as implementing partner of PA Financing Project will submit the request for extension of project timeframe.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Submission of project extension
[Added: 2019/05/26]
DWNP and UNDP 2018/06 Completed Taking into account government procedural and decision -making process; extended project timeframe is necessitated to realize some of the Project’s outputs and results.
9. Recommendation:

9. Continue High-Level Engagement For Greater Buy-In and More Effective Implementation of the Project

To ensure that policies, plans, and proposals for more effective conservation efforts in PAs can be better implemented, it is essential to have the commitment and support of key decision-makers at the highest level of government. In order to achieve this, it is recommended that ongoing engagement with ministers and other top officials be maintained, and where possible, strengthened.

Key Actions proposed:

1. Increase awareness of policy-makers on the importance of PAs

2. Promote discussion of the urgent need for sustainable environmental financing in Malaysia, at the highest level


Management Response: [Added: 2019/05/26]

Processes have already been put in place to communicate the Project’s outputs and intended results to the decision makers particularly in Johor and Perak. This process will be continued by producing appropriate project communique assisting the PA authorities and State Government to adopt and implement Project’s outputs.
This includes: Management Plans for PAs; review of legal framework and mechanisms for sustainable financing.

The Project will provide additional support by assisting the PA agencies to prioritize strategies and action plans from the Management Plans for implementation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Developing knowledge products such as PA Management Plans, legal framework reviews, and sustainable financing mechanism report, as well as action plans
[Added: 2019/05/26] [Last Updated: 2020/01/03]
PMU, DWNP, JNPC, PSPC 2020/03 Overdue-Initiated History

Latest Evaluations

Contact us

1 UN Plaza
DC1-20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Tel. +1 646 781 4200
Fax. +1 646 781 4213