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Independent Country Programme Evaluation: Turkey
Commissioning Unit: Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2021
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Completion Date: 12/2019
Unit Responsible for providing Management Response: Turkey
Documents Related to overall Management Response:  
1. Recommendation:

UNDP is strongly positioned to support resilience programme models to address Turkey’s development gaps as well as the Syrian crisis response. UNDP should continue its programming emphasis to address regional inequalities and disparities in development, and drawing on its well-tested programme models, it should continue facilitating long-term solutions to the Syrian crisis. 

The approach and themes in the ISG portfolio are well thought through and UNDP should continue this engagement. UNDP should consider engaging in efforts to strengthen the enabling environment for the competitiveness agenda at the subnational level. This is essential to take further several successful UNDP pilots with potential for replication and upscaling. Within the overall competitiveness assessments, the critical importance of effective management of the external sector, and the finance and investment climate needs specific attention, as these areas impact all sectors of the national economy and impede competitiveness gains in strategic sectors: agriculture, efficient and clean energy, and tourism. While other actors are more specialized in this area, UNDP has strong justification as a knowledge integrator and disseminator to collaborate with specialized agencies working on macroeconomic resilience. 

UNDP in Turkey is uniquely positioned to leverage its existing ISG programme models to provide support to sustainable job creation, rather than support on the labour supply side. Building on its programme models in the ISG area, UNDP should support initiatives with a longer-term focus aimed  at providing more sustainable income and employment generation options.

UNDP has an important niche in environmental governance. Given the challenges in financing for energy efficiency models it promoted, UNDP should pursue a two-pronged strategy of policy advocacy as well as assess market potential, particularly engagement of the private sector. Greater synergy between the energy efficiency portfolio should be forged (completed, ongoing, and pipeline initiatives) for a more coherent engagement in the sector, in particular, competitiveness, energy security, resource efficiency, and renewable energy.

Despite the limited space for governance engagement, UNDP has been successful in establishing strong partnerships across institutions. Moving forward, UNDP should consolidate its core governance support by building on its municipal level engagement and local administration reform support. UNDP should consider stronger engagement in e-governance and digitalization, priority areas for Turkey.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will continue mainstreaming resilience in all its programs and operations as well as supporting Governmental efforts in line with its harmonization strategy as well as its promotion of best practices in the international arena. UNDP will ensure humanitarian-development linkages are established both in Strategic documents such as the new UNSDCF and CPD but also at the programmatic level through engaging different portfolios to maximize the impact of resilience-based development interventions.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. UNDP with its extensive experience and knowledge in the field of resilience especially its leading role in the area of Syrian crisis response will maintain its coordination and programmatic capacities to support the Government in its efforts on harmonization, social cohesion and livelihoods, as well as municipal service delivery responding to the Syria crisis in Turkey.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated
1.2. UNDP’s strong existing experiences to support local socio-economic development/reducing regional and local disparities in least developed regions will be further expanded and utilized to meet the needs of most vulnerable through a resilience-based development approach.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated UNDP has clearly addressed its lead role on resilience in framework of 3RP and its programmatic response to “Risk-informed, sustainable economy and environment” and “durable solutions to displacement” in its new CPD.
1.3. UNDP will strengthen its SDG integrator offer to UN system in Turkey through provision of its well-tested, scalable models for local socio-economic development with a strong environmental focus and rely on its solid partnerships at local, regional and national levels to catalyse new, innovative solutions
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management TeamUNDP CO Programme Unit , 2025/12 Initiated UNDP has clearly indicated its SDG integrator role within the new UNSDCF through provision of well tested models on local socio-economic development
2. Recommendation:

UNDP should respond appropriately to opportunities to support Turkey’s development cooperation and the indigenization of Turkish technology and development models in LDCs and lower MICs. The UNDP country office and the IICPSD should have a well-coordinated strategy to play a greater and concerted role in this area. 

UNDP has the advantage of a tripartite partnership with Turkey, at country, regional, and global programmes levels. This provides opportunities for facilitating Turkey’s LDC engagement building on the current country level engagements to share programme models, knowledge, and expertise. Programme models UNDP promoted in the area of energy efficiency, renewable energy, competitiveness, organic agriculture, and community tourism offer viable practices for sharing with other countries. 

There is a need for further clarity on the role of the country office, and IICPSD, particularly the role the policy centre would play; there should be a greater distinction between IICPSD activities from that of those of country office. While IICPSD should have a greater focus on providing strategies and technical support, the country office and the regional hub should play a greater role in the facilitation of Turkey’s LDC cooperation.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP CO will facilitate promotion and dissemination of Turkey’s innovative and technology-based development solutions to LDCs in order to transfer best practices. In order to do this, UNDP CO will engage with IRH and IICPSD to establish a more coordinated and clarified working modality.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. UNDP will extend its cooperation with the Government of Turkey to leverage the opportunities to support Turkey’s development cooperation through transfer of technology-based solutions for key development challenges to LDCs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit, UNDP Turkey Accelerator Lab 2023/12 Initiated UNDP has initiated its formal partnership with UN Technology Bank for LDCs to replicate SDG accelerator programme of Government and UNDP Turkey in context of two LDCs, namely Uganda and Bangladesh.
2.2 UNDP CO will seek to come up with a strategy on how to get better engaged with the IRH and the IICPSD in a more coordinated way in order to promote Turkish technology and development models in LDCs and MICs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team 2023/12 Not Initiated
3. Recommendation:

UNDP has taken measures to accelerate its private sector engagement beyond corporate social responsibility and use its subnational presence to facilitate private sector partnerships in development and Syrian crisis response. Such efforts should be sustained and further accelerated using a diverse set of tools to engage private sector appropriately. UNDP should prioritize development areas for a more concerted private sector engagement with commensurate resource investments to implement appropriate tools.

UNDP is well-positioned to enable a stronger engagement with Turkey’s private sector for accelerating the sustainable development agenda and resilient approaches to the Syrian crisis. UNDP should focus more at the subnational level where it has well-tested programme models and strong partnerships with Development Agencies and municipal governments. UNDP should explore a mix of tools, both financial and nonfinancial, flexible tools that are fit for the purpose that can maximize the impacts of partnership at the Development Agencies and municipal levels. Similarly, it should explore the possibility of establishing integrator platforms to engage the private sector at the subnational level in selected themes. 

As outlined in Recommendation 2, UNDP should strategize to engage Turkey’s private sector in development support to LDCs, a key agenda of Turkey’s LDC cooperation. There is considerable scope across UNDP programme areas to engage the private sector more effectively, bringing Turkish knowledge, intellectual capital and technological innovations into instruments of development cooperation for LDCs and other lower MICs.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will mobilize private sector more effectively to orient the eco-system actors to provide solutions to SDG achievement in the form of innovative financing frameworks, impact investing, joint work with other UN agencies as well as continued dialogue and research.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1. Partnerships across government, local authorities, private sector and civil society, and action through inclusive platforms at national and local level with the involvement of all relevant actors will be at the centre of UNDP’s work in its new CPD
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated
3.2. Based on the prioritization of the areas for sustained private sector engagements by Business for Goals Platform (B4Gs) (May 2019), UNDP CO will execute research, studies and dialogues to transform the private sector’s role from the conventional approach of supporting the economic development to more inclusive and elaborated public-private partnerships for the achievement of SDGs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2023/12 Initiated UNDP Turkey and UNCT has been utilizing the Business for Goals Platform to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemics on the economy through extensive networks of business partners in Turkey and by participating to the CBI Global Network discussions. During the COVID-19 crisis, a daily coordination mechanism has been established by CBI Turkey /Business for Goals Platform.
3.3. UNDP CO will seek the support of the Government of Turkey and the IICPSD to strengthen the impact investment ecosystem and establish a task force that brings together the investors and businesses for financing SDGs at national and subnational levels.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2023/12 Not Initiated UNDP in cooperation with UNIDO and UN Women and with technical assistance of IICPSD designed a joint programme on Impact Investment to strengthen the ecosystem in Turkey and support the local socio-economic development efforts on the ground.
4. Recommendation:

Given the upper MIC status of Turkey, working on substantive policy spaces are bound to be limited in the area of governance. Based on its partnerships, UNDP is well-positioned to support Turkey in its local administration reform efforts. UNDP over the years provided policy support and has piloted several subnational programme models across its portfolio that can inform local administration reform processes. UNDP should leverage on its work for a more coherent engagement in this area. 

UNDP programme models should move towards more focused engagement and consolidation for policy impact. UNDP has established strong partnerships at the RDA and municipal levels and has a robust working relationship with the national agencies. Building on programme models that are successful at the subnational level, UNDP should engage in policy advocacy in the areas of competitiveness, energy efficiency, service delivery, and local administration reforms. 

Breaking programme and project silos is fundamental to enhancing UNDP contribution to local administration reform processes. UNDP should have a deliberate approach to overcoming programme silos within/between programme areas and themes. Similarly, the consolidation of programme areas will strengthen UNDP’s response and improve contribution to policy processes. UNDP should identify key themes for a consolidated engagement. 

There is greater scope to leverage partnerships at the national and local level for policy engagement. With the restructuring of government institutions, finding the balance between national-level engagement and implementation support at the decentralized levels calls for the more effective articulation of UNDP value-added in both areas.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will employ a two-tiered approach in addressing issues related to governance: firstly via engaging central government institutions to uphold principles of governance and secondly by promoting participation, transparency and accountability at the local level to increase local government capacities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1. UNDP will utilize the long-lasting experience and know-how in strengthening central level institutions in line with key principles of governance at a time when state institutions are being transformed in line with the newly introduced executive presidency system.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated Both the new UNSDCF and the new CPD adopts governance as cross-cutting issue for structural transformation as well as a standalone priority on effective and modern governance systems.
4.2. UNDP will accelerate its efforts on strengthening local service delivery and local governance mechanisms based on principles of participation, transparency and accountability in scope of all its interventions supporting the local authorities.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit, UNDP CO Accelerator Lab 2025/12 Initiated
5. Recommendation:

UNDP has made considerable progress in strengthening gender mainstreaming in UNDP programme and operations. This momentum should be sustained to enhance GEWE-related programme outcomes. 

UNDP should continue the ongoing measures to address gaps in GEWE mainstreaming identified by the Gender Seal. For more targeted interventions, UNDP should build partnerships to boost the scale and scope of initiatives.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will accelerate its efforts to promote gender quality in all programmes and operations by improving human resource capacity at CO and also by improving gender mainstreaming in its strategic documents guiding all UNDP interventions.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.2. Gender Seal process for upgrading the certification will be completed and a full-time gender adviser will be recruited.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit, Gender Analyst 2020/12 Initiated The CO has been informed by the Global GES Team to be a candidate for Gold certification in February 2020. The GES mission will pay a virtual monitoring visit to UNDP Turkey CO in October 2020. The recruitment of Gender Advisor position was advertised and recruitment has been finalized. She is on board since June 2020.
5.3. UNDP jointly with UN Women will lead the development of a joint UN strategy on gender equality and its mainstreaming in the work of private sector for concerted efforts in the field.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit 2020/12 Initiated
5.1. Upcoming UN Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) and UNDP CPD will be prepared in a comprehensive manner to highlight interlinkages between all programmatic areas and will integrate gender as an embedded crosscutting action.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2020/04 Completed Gender has been made a cross-cutting issue both in the narrative and in the RRF of the new CPD where outcomes and outputs are clearly sex disaggregated and gender sensitive.
6. Recommendation:

The 3RP mechanism evolved stronger over the past two years. Given the protracted nature of the crisis, UNDP should revisit the form and the purpose of 3RP and its engagement in Turkey. 

Given the government emphasis on development approach to addressing Syrian crisis issues, and limited acceptance of 3RP framework by key donors and IFIs, the scope and purpose of UNDP’s engagement in 3RP needs to be revisited. There should be a greater focus on/use of initiatives that demonstrate a holistic approach to humanitarian challenges rather than investments in coordination mechanism. 

Issues such as larger humanitarian programme windows that are now sidling into development programme windows and their implications for resilience need wider discussion among humanitarian agencies and donors. Given its notable engagement and coordinating role in the 3RP, UNDP should take a leadership role in facilitating such strategic discussions, in collaboration with other UN agencies and donors.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will continue engaging and leading 3RP actors to expand humanitarian programme windows into development programmes and showcase the long-term value added of 3RP interventions to donor community and IFIs to create stronger collaboration and partnership.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1. UNDP will continue to lead the 3RP together with UNHCR and provide strategic advice to Syria Response Group (relevant heads of agencies) and the Resident Coordinator to further evolve the overall support provided to the Government of Turkey.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team UNDP CO Management Team, Syria Crisis Response and Resilience Team 2020/12 Initiated
6.2 In line with the changes in the scale and impact of the Syrian crisis in Turkey, UNDP will scale up efforts to expand cooperation with other development actors providing support to the Government of Turkey, including with IFIs, to ensure complementarity of efforts.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, Syria Crisis Response and Resilience Team 2020/12 Initiated
7. Recommendation:

UNDP should clarify its SDG integrator role to national actors and donors. Building on the momentum of the Accelerator lab and initiatives such as the B4G, UNDP should explore developing signature solutions that would be used in Turkey as well as applied in LDC support of Turkey.

UNDP should outline areas where UNDP can provide integrator platforms at the national and subnational level. Given the Turkey context, there should be a more structured engagement of the private sector in specific SDG activities. Lessons from initiatives such as the Global Compact will be important for enabling a more structured and well-coordinated platform.
 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will illustrate its SDG integration offer by firmly integrating it in strategic documents such as CPD and enhance its support to Government for a stronger South-south cooperation for technology transfer and promote innovative methods via the utilization of Accelerator Lab.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1. UNDP will offer SDG integration and signature solutions for the implementation of the new National Development Plan through its new CPD and its integrated support in UNSDCF.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2020/12 Initiated In new CPD of UNDP Turkey, UNDP’s integration offer to UNCT was reflected along the lines of policy response on SDGs and its coordination mechanism; resilience approach in humanitarian-development nexus, private sector partnerships and platform way of working. UNDP Accelerator Lab’s innovative and fast solutions in urbanization and COVID-19 response was also stressed.
7.2. UNDP will enhance its South-South and triangular cooperation efforts of the Government in prioritized areas of development, including but not limited to humanitarian-development nexus, technological transformation, agricultural development, etc.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team, UNDP CO Programme Unit 2025/12 Initiated
7.3. UNDP CO Accelerator Lab will promote working models from Turkey via its Accelerator lab network in LDCs.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Unit, UNDP CO Accelerator Lab 2025/12 Initiated UNDP has initiated its formal partnership with UN Technology Bank for LDCs to replicate SDG accelerator programme of Government and UNDP Turkey in context of two LDCs, namely Uganda and Bangladesh. The cooperation is also exemplary in knowledge and experience sharing among the Lab network.
8. Recommendation:

Despite a shared responsibility of cost-sharing agreements with the UN, UNDP headquarters should review the corporate cost-recovery policy to enable greater resource mobilization for sustaining UNDP’s engagement in Turkey. Considering the funding challenges faced by UNDP in an upper-middle-income country like Turkey, the country office should adopt strategies to further diversify its funding mechanisms. An issue beyond UNDP fund mobilization strategy is the urgent need for donor response to funding efforts to promote humanitarian and development linkages. 

UNDP headquarters should revisit the policy of the cost-recovery changes, and explore the possibility of a more realistic slab distinguishing programme support versus operations support, and small-scale versus large-scale programmes. Headquarters should strategically engage in fund mobilization involving specific streams such as EU funding at scale for the Syrian crisis response in Turkey. While the country office has been successful in mobilizing programme resources, it should explore non-traditional donor funding opportunities to ensure continued support in strategies programmatic areas. The challenge in responding to Syrians in Turkey as well as Lebanon and Jordan, with the high refugee influx, is that there is a need for simultaneous humanitarian and development support. As this and other evaluations point out, donors and relevant actors should discuss how to ensure that humanitarian and development needs are correctly targeted for more sustainable humanitarian and development outcomes.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/15] [Last Updated: 2020/08/30]

UNDP will continue its efforts for diversification of the donor base as well as accelerated fund-raising so that humanitarian-development linkages are firmly established

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1. UNDP will continue its efforts for diversification of the donor base, with a portfolio-based approach to further ensure a programme financial sustainability beyond 2020, through new partnerships with IFIs, the Government, private sector and bilaterals.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Management Team , UNDP CO Programme Team 2025/12 Initiated
8.2. UNDP will advocate for an accelerated donor response to fund efforts that promote humanitarian and development linkages.
[Added: 2020/08/27]
UNDP CO Programme Team 2025/12 Initiated

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