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Evaluation of UNDP Contribution to Disaster Prevention and Recovery
Commissioning Unit: Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Plan: 2009-2013
Evaluation Type: Thematic
Completion Date: 12/2010
Unit Responsible for providing Management Response: Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery
Documents Related to overall Management Response:
 
1. Recommendation: Recommendation 1. UNDP should make clear that its principal area of focus in disaster prevention and recovery is to assist countries in the development dimensions of the issue, especially risk reduction and vulnerability.
Management Response: [Added: 2011/01/12] [Last Updated: 2012/02/21]

UNDP already recognizes the critical importance of reducing risk and vulnerability for achieving development outcomes, the Millennium Development Goals, and implementing priority 4 of the Hyogo Framework for Action. UNDP?s leadership in the global Cluster Working Group on Early Recovery together with the implementation of its early recovery policy, have already significantly promoted the development dimensions of post-disaster recovery, and the need to "build back better" to reduce risk and vulnerability to future natural hazards. UNDP intends to further build on its efforts to strengthen the country-level linkages between disaster prevention, recovery efforts and integrated development programming by taking the following actions: a) Establish a policy and operational framework for addressing DRR as a critical issue in global, regional and country office development programming with a view to: i. Establishing a technical support capacity to assist countries strengthen the linkages among disaster risk reduction, recovery and poverty reduction, environment/climate-change adaptation, governance and capacity development. Addressing the issue of climate-related risks, particularly those associated with droughts and floods, will be a priority. Within this approach, UNDP assistance will place special emphasis on helping the least developed countries (LDCs) develop long-term national capacities. ii. Supporting high-risk, disaster-prone countries, using a categorization based on assessed disaster risk levels and disaster risk reduction and recovery capacities. b) Formulate a partnerships strategy to foster increased South-South cooperation and increase partnerships with the private sector based on best practices and expertise at the country, sub-regional and regional levels. Partnerships will also be sought with other United Nations entities, international financial institutions, technical and academic institutions and civil society organizations that are already assisting countries in the area of disaster prevention and recovery. c) Establish a methodology for estimating the extent to which disaster losses have affected human development and the costs of restoring conditions needed for achieving the Millennium Development Goals through post-disaster needs assessments (PDNAs).

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.6 A methodology for costing and estimation of impact of disasters on Millennium Development Goals is established and implemented in five high-risk countries through post-disaster needs assessment and recovery frameworks. The methodology will be adopted for Millennium Development Goal monitoring and in Millennium Development Goal national and sub-national reports in those countries.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
BCPR leads BDP (Poverty Practice, Energy and Environment groups) and regional bureaux 2011/12 Overdue-Initiated A concept note on estimating the macro human development impacts of disasters, including on achievement of the MDGs, was drafted and reviewed by a UNDP cross-bureau team with representation from BCPR, the Asia Pacific Regional Centre, BDP, HDRO and the Pakistan country office. A methodology was piloted following Pakistan flooding and an earthquake in Chile in 2010. A revised version of methodology was to be applied following flooding in Lesotho in 2011 but this was delayed due to the unexpected departure of key staff and consultants. Work on improving the methodology has however continued and a new draft is available and being further refined. In addition to this, UNDP has also elaborated a methodology to estimate how interventions in Disaster Risk Reduction contribute to protect human development in areas regularly affected by disasters. This would serve to build evidence on the importance of investing in DRR. This methodology has been tested in three countries (Bangladesh, Philippines and Sri Lanka) though a pilot study completed in December 2013 with first results giving positive indications but not being yet conclusive. Based on the lessons learnt of this pilot phase, the methodology will be improved and taken forward in a second phase/study, which will methodology will be tested through a second study. Countries yet to be identified. To be completed by end-2014
1.1 UNDP-wide policy and operational framework formulated and adopted for promoting country-level disaster risk reduction and recovery preparedness according to assessed level of hazard risk, climate risk, policy and institutional alignment, risk management capacity, appropriate disaster risk reduction and recovery measures and integrated programmes and metrics through dialogue with governments (see also action 4.1 under management response to recommendation 4).
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
BCPR leads in collaboration with regional bureaux, Bureau for Development Policy (BDP), and country offices 2012/07 Completed A DRR Programming Guide has been compiled from an extensive survey of UNDP DRR programme preparation practice in 2012. The Guide was piloted in selected countries throughout 2013. Peer review has been completed and comments integrated in the final document.
1.2 Technical support capacity established to assist high-risk, disaster-prone countries, and initial priority countries are identified.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/02/14]
BCPR and BDP co-lead in collaboration with regional bureaux, regional service centres (RSCs), country offices and Private Sector Division (PSD) 2011/12 Completed UNDP has established a DRR technical assistance support capacity baseline and initiated a series of measures through which that capacity is now being systematically augmented. Results are captured through annual documentation and analysis of the UNDP DRR global portfolio and its results and through systematic tracking and professional skills-development of UNDP?s DRR practitioner base. UNDP has identified an initial baseline of approximately 150 UNDP DRR practitioners at country level. In 2010 and 2011, 100 UNDP country-level DRR practitioners received additional training through BCPR-organized peer-to-peer capacity development workshops. BCPR has developed an on-line DRR training course through which to date 298 UNDP staff members have been enrolled. The professional skills of each of these practitioners will be tracked and augmented with in-depth training in specific areas of DRR-related work. In 2011 BCPR completed a major reorganization following which an additional approximately 35 staff BCPR have direct responsibility for DRR, while others have contributing roles in the area of policy and planning, country support and resource management. The reorganization is intended to strengthen BCPR's ability to support UNDP country programmes. BCPR has established and maintains a roster of consultants who can be deployed to countries to support various DRR-related functions and has established mechanisms for accessing seconded staff through three donor rosters. Finally, UNDP has strengthened its DRR support capacity through regional projects, in the ECIS and Africa regions. Baseline: Prior to 2010, although DRR Communities of Practice existed in different programme regions of UNDP, there was no systematic census of DRR practitioners across the organization nor a programme for systematically enhancing their capacities.
1.3 DRR to be mainstreamed into new UNDAFs in high-risk countries based on country demand.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
regional bureaux, country offices with BCPR support 2012/12 Completed UNDP has established a system for tracking the UNDAF preparation cycle and ensuring that DRR is incorporated in high-risk country UNDAFs as a basis for comprehensive, coordinated DRR programming UN system-wide at country level. A DRR Governance Senior Advisor has been recruited by BCPR to promote DRR mainstreaming into UNDAF processes in disaster prone countries in close coordination with the CPR Practice Coordinators in each region. UNDP has also engaged with DOCO and UN ISDR in the process of identification of upcoming roll out UNDAFs. UNDP systematically promotes integration of DRR, Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Environmental Sustainability (ES) at country level for the UN Country Team through its Global Mainstreaming Initiative (GMI) and the Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (CADRI) (see key action 3.2). From 2010-2012 these measures were applied to mainstreaming of DRR, CCA and ES into UNDAFs, Country Programme Action Plans, and Country Programme Documents in over 30 countries. In 2013, the DRR mainstreaming was undertaken in 25 additional UNDAFs.
1.4 A partnerships strategy will be formulated for South-South cooperation and partnerships with the private sector will be encouraged based on best practices and expertise at country, sub-regional and regional levels.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
BCPR and BDP lead in collaboration with regional bureaux, RSCs, and Partnerships Bureau (PB) 2012/12 Completed A private sector partnership is in place with Deutsche Post (DHL) through a Get Airports Ready for Disaster (GARD) programme that spells out what is expected and required of airport personnel during disaster operations and provides a mechanism for communicating and liaising with local disaster relief agencies and national disaster management authorities. DHL airport preparedness trainings were conducted in 3 countries in 2012: Turkey, Lebanon and Indonesia. USD 500,000.00 were mobilized from Germany for additional trainings in 2013-2014. A second partnership is under development with the World Economic Forum Disaster Resource Partnership to provide pro bono private sector services for DRR through national private sector networks. UNDP has established a system for donor secondments for DRR technical assistance and recovery support that has resulted in placement of DRR advisors in four countries: Morocco, Georgia, Jordan, and Ghana. In addition, UNDP under its ART Global Initiative is working towards to fostering cooperation on disaster risk reduction between cities/ municipalities in selected high-risk countries. A resource mobilization strategy has been developed and negotiations with donor governments for additional support are ongoing.
1.5 Strategy to mainstream disaster prevention for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, including financial implications of assisting disaster-prone, high-risk countries, to be presented to the Executive Board as an input to the formulation of the 2014 UNDP Strategic Plan.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2015/06/26]
BCPR leads BDP (Poverty Practice, and Energy and Environment groups) in collaboration with PB, regional bureaux, RSCs and Executive Board 2014/07 No Longer Applicable In 2013 UNDP worked with other UN system partners, such as UNICEF, UNISDR, and the World Bank to organize global thematic consultations on integration of DRR in the post-2015 development agenda. As part of this process several proposals for DRR-related targets and indicators were developed. In 2014, these targets and indicators were piloted in selected countries.
2. Recommendation: Recommendation 2. A stronger commitment is needed to implement UNDP?s corporate gender policies and advance gender equality in crisis-related programming.
Management Response: [Added: 2011/01/12] [Last Updated: 2011/04/08]

UNDP?s Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) has led the allocation of funding for gender and women?s empowerment by ensuring that all new initiatives funded from Target for Resource Assignments from the Core (TRAC) 1.1.3 and the Crisis Prevention and Recovery Thematic Trust Fund have at least 15 per cent allocated for women?s empowerment related issues. UNDP will advocate for all bureaux to follow this same approach along with adequate monitoring. As such, UNDP will improve capacities for the systematic application of gender policies in disaster risk reduction and recovery-related programme planning and implementation. At all levels, both policy and programming will pay increased attention to distinct socio-economic vulnerabilities and to the capacities of men and women for effective disaster risk reduction and recovery.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Guidelines for addressing gender in PDNAs and post-disaster recovery programmes are finalized.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/02/14]
BCPR leads in collaboration with Gender Team 2013/12 Completed Gender guideline for post disaster needs assessment has been formulated in consultation with UN Women and UNFPA.
2.2 Guidelines for addressing gender in the formulation of UNDP disaster risk reduction and recovery programmes are finalized.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/02/14]
BCPR leads in collaboration with Gender Team 2011/12 Completed The DRR programming guide completed in 2013 also addresses gender concerns in DRR programming.
2.3 A minimum of 15 per cent of disaster risk reduction and recovery-related budgets in all UNDP-funded programmes is allocated to women?s empowerment issues. Accountability mechanisms for the achievement of gender-related results are in place. BCPR will also advocate this allocation in all programmes implemented jointly with BDP, as is currently the case with all BCPR-funded programmes.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
BCPR leads in collaboration with regional bureaux, BDP, RSCs and country offices 2013/12 Completed In 2012-2013, the UNDP?s DRR-related project budgets allocated 15% of the expenditures to women?s empowerment issues. This information is based on the gender marker data for the UNDP projects that have significantly contributed to gender equality (GM 2 and GM 3 ratings).The BCPR continues to advocate this minimum allocation for all UNDP projects, and ensures that this commitment is followed through its Programme Appraisal Committee.
3. Recommendation: Recommendation 3. The UNDP disaster risk reduction strategy should be revised to more directly address adaptation to climate change.
Management Response: [Added: 2011/01/12] [Last Updated: 2011/04/08]

UNDP is fully cognizant of the link between disaster risk management and climate change. However, UNDP now recognizes the need to undertake a comprehensive approach and the adoption of a strategy for managing the integration of disaster risk management and climate-change adaptation which covers policy development and programme implementation aspects such as country support, resource mobilization and funding strategies. The strategy will emphasize, in particular, the specific capacity needs of the LDCs. Best practices from UNDP country programmes and from related ongoing BCPR/BDP initiatives will guide the strategy with an emphasis on creating opportunities for South-South cooperation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 Development of a country-focused strategy on disaster risk management and climate change adaptation.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2015/06/26]
BCPR Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery Team (DRT) and BDP Energy and Environment Group (EEG) lead, regional bureaux and RSCs 2014/06 Completed A strategy to guide country offices on the DRR and climate risk management (CRM) measures indicated for specific country situations based on assessed level of risk and country DRR/CRM capacity has been drafted and comments are being incorporated. The document was finalized in June 2014.
3.2 DRR and climate-change adaptation integrated into common country assessments and UNDAFs and into joint training in all new UNDAF preparation processes.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2012/02/22]
BCPR (DRT) and BDP (EEG) lead in collaboration with regional bureaux, country offices and DOCO 2011/12 Completed In 2009 and 2010, BCPR and BDP contributed to the elaboration of the UNDG guidelines for mainstreaming DRR, Environmental Sustainability and Climate Change (ES/CC) into CCA UNDAFs. These guidelines provide tools for UN Country Teams to prepare coherent UNDAFs across these three related areas. As part of this UNDG effort, BCPR, through the Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative (CADRI) and using funds available from the Global Mainstreaming Initiative (GMI), co-funded three regional training workshops on ?Mainstreaming DRR, climate change and environmental sustainability into the CCA/UNDAF?, in Nairobi, Panama and Bangkok in 2011. The objective of these events was to enable UNCT staff members rolling out their UNDAF in 2011 and 2012 to identify opportunities and tools for mainstreaming ES, CC and DRR as part of the UNDAF preparation process. A total of 83 participants took part in the workshops (63 UNCT participants, 19 regional UN participants, and 1 government representative) and 38 UNCTs were represented (23 of the 27 UNCTs rolling out their UNDAF in 2011; 13 of the 15 UNCTs expected to roll out in 2012; 2 UNCTs had prepared theirs in 2010). In addition, the workshop facilitation teams were drawn from the pool of trained resource persons from earlier Training-of-Trainers events on DRR (2009) and ES/CC (2010).
3.3 Climate risk management capacity development needs have been identified in the most disaster-prone countries as a basis for the design of comprehensive national climate risk management programmes. Upon request from governments, UNDP stands ready to support the design of such programmes in up to 20 countries over the next 12 months.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/02/14]
BCPR (DRT) and BDP (EEG), regional bureaux and country offices 2011/12 Completed As part of the Climate Risk Management-Technical Assistance Support Project (CRM-TASP), comprehensive climate risk and risk management capacity reports have been finalized for Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Uganda, Kenya, Niger, Mozambique, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Mongolia, Timor-Leste, Indonesia and Armenia. Baseline: Few countries identify climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction related needs in an integrated manner. Isolated examples exist of integrated analysis (e.g. Madagascar with WB technical support) but the practice has not been systematized and expanded to other countries.
4. Recommendation: Recommendation 4. UNDP should minimize micro-level, short-term recovery activities that do not contribute to strengthening national capacities, policies or practice.
Management Response: [Added: 2011/01/12] [Last Updated: 2011/04/08]

While recognizing that micro-level short-term recovery activities on their own may not be effective in building national disaster risk reduction and recovery capacity, UNDP would also like to re-emphasize the importance of continuing and scaling up early recovery actions to generate quick wins that are highly relevant for stabilization and mitigating the urgent recovery needs of affected populations, for instance, restoration of core governance functions at national and local levels and protection and promotion of livelihoods with a special focus on women. Such approaches also hasten the phase-out from humanitarian relief and lay the foundations for long-term recovery in line with UNDP?s leadership of the early recovery cluster. UNDP will ensure that a full recovery approach linking short-term recovery activities to sustained recovery priorities at local and national levels is adopted, promoting full recovery of livelihood systems, reducing vulnerability to natural hazards and ensuring resilience. As part of an overall strategy for DRR, UNDP will develop a disaster recovery strategy for both pre- and post-disaster initiative which includes early recovery activities, strengthened incorporation of DRR in disaster recovery, and the sustained engagement of affected populations and key national institutions. The important role of the private sector as one of the main driving forces of sustainable recovery will also be included in the strategy.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 A Disaster recovery strategy for UNDP is finalized as part of an overall UNDP strategy on disaster risk reduction and recovery (see action 1.1 under management response to recommendation 1). The recovery strategy will emphasize UNDP?s signature recovery products that link short-term post-disaster recovery to medium and long-term development, with a particular focus on women?s participation and empowerment ( for example, restoration of core government functions at national and local levels, protection and promotion of livelihoods including through rapid employment generation, and reduction of disaster risks during recovery).
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
BCPR lead in collaboration with regional bureaux, BDP (EEG, Democratic Governance Group, Poverty Group, Capacity Development Group) and PSD 2014/06 Overdue-Initiated Work on a number of documents which will contribute to the Recovery Strategy is underway. The UNDP signature products focused on promotion of livelihoods and emergency employment generation were developed and launched in January 2013. The recovery strategy will build on these documents and further developed by mid -2014.
4.2 A programme of comprehensive recovery preparedness addressing all aspects of post-disaster recovery and resilience is developed and rolled out in 15 high-risk countries over five years.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
BCPR lead, BDP (DGG, Poverty Group, EEG), Capacity Development Group, PSD in consultation with regional bureaux and country offices 2015/12 Overdue-Initiated Recovery preparedness programmes are under way in two countries in Latin America in Bolivia and Ecuador. Ongoing DRR and recovery programmes in Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh in the Asia Pacific and in Tajikistan & Uzbekistan in Europe have components of preparedness for recovery. Preparedness measures implemented through these programmes lead to recovery processes that reduce risks of future disasters. Additional countries are in the process of being selected, identified in funding proposals presented to Japan and other donors. UNDP work in this area builds on its experience of building disaster preparedness capacities in other countries where tangible reduction in losses have been achieved such as in Mozambique where flood related mortality in 2010 was less than 25% of the ten-year average and the number of people affected less than 10% of the ten-year average. Progress on this action is on track. Expected completion date: December 2015.
4.3 UNDP, in cooperation with the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and other Inter-Agency Standing Committee members, provide country offices with a comprehensive, coordinated package of preparedness support in five initial countries on the basis of country demand.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/02/14]
BCPR in consultation with OCHA, Development Operations Coordination Office (DOCO) and IASC working group on preparedness along with country offices 2011/06 Completed UNDP in cooperation with OCHA and other Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) members are providing country offices with a comprehensive, coordinated package of preparedness support in Nepal, Ghana, Haiti, Uganda and the Philippines. A position paper on preparedness capacity development detailing the responsibilities of IASC member organizations for further supporting this work in these and other countries was officially endorsed by the IASC principles on 13 December 2011. Baseline: Isolated support is provided to UN country teams to support UN system preparedness at the country level. Sporadic efforts have been made to support contingency planning at the country level in a few high risk countries.
5. Recommendation: Recommendation 5. UNDP administrative procedures should be improved so that they no longer constrain effective programming in natural disasters.
Management Response: [Added: 2011/01/12] [Last Updated: 2011/04/08]

The recently rolled-out UNDP fast-track provisions are continually reviewed for effectiveness in accelerating and improving the efficiency of UNDP support to crisis response in countries where they are currently being applied. These reviews will feed into further revisions of the provisions in 2011 to increase their flexibility and efficiency. In 2011, the organization will invest in increasing country-level, regional and Headquarters knowledge of and preparedness for effectively using the fast-track provisions in crisis response. Significant barriers have been experienced when attempting to formalize partnerships with specialized organizations working in the area of disaster risk reduction and recovery because of the lack of appropriate partnerships mechanisms. More flexible mechanisms that allow UNDP to engage in joint activities with non-United Nations partners towards the achievement of shared objectives are needed. Specifically, UNDP will explore the establishment or expansion of mechanisms for partnerships in which each partner contributes financial or other resources and in which the criteria for establishing partnerships are not limited to cost considerations but rather to the overall value of the partnerships in relation to the achievement of priority results.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 Fast-track procedures for crisis response reviewed and operationalization plan developed and made available to country offices.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/02/14]
BCPR and Bureau of Management (BOM) lead in collaboration with regional bureaux and country offices 2011/06 Completed In 2010 and 2011 UNDP applied newly developed Fast Track Policies and Procedures (FTP); at year end 2010 they had been used in 21 UNDP country offices. As of June 2011 the following additional actions were completed: ? Five additional COs have used the FTPs ? Publication of Programme and Operations Policies and Procedures (POPP) for Fast Track Policies and Procedures ? Development of Information and Communication Technology Support to Fast Track ? Establishment of Fast Track Decision Centre Site ? Dissemination of Frequently Asked Questions for Fast Track. - Five additional COs have used the FTPs - Publication of Programme and Operations Policies and Procedures (POPP) for Fast Track Policies and Procedures - Development of Information and Communication Technology Support to Fast Track - Establishment of Fast Track Decision Centre Site - Dissemination of Frequently Asked Questions for Fast Track.
5.2 Country offices have access to new mechanisms to facilitate partnerships requirements for disaster risk reduction and recovery.
[Added: 2011/04/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/13]
BCPR and the PB lead in collaboration with BOM and BDP and country offices 2011/06 Completed This key action is completed with the establishment of a UNDP partnership mechanism(s) for cooperative agreements. In 2011, UNDP signed Memorandum of Understanding with two agencies: the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and the Canadian Civilian Reserve (CANADEM). In 2012-2013, additional MOUs were signed with The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), Danish Refugee Council, DFID?s Stabilization Unit and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). Through these MOUs, country offices have access to expertise in the area of disaster risk reduction and recovery during immediate response to crisis/post-crisis situations.

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