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Terminal Evaluation Report - Reducing Disaster Risks from Wildfire Hazards Associated with Climate Change (South Africa
Commissioning Unit: South Africa
Evaluation Plan: 2013-2020
Evaluation Type: Project
Completion Date: 12/2016
Unit Responsible for providing Management Response: South Africa
Documents Related to overall Management Response:
 
1. Recommendation:

Corrective actions for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the project

1.1. Development of the micro-insurance scheme was realized rather late in the project, and by the time of the terminal evaluation it had not yet been rolled out. During the course of the TE mission, the project team made a preliminary forecast of income generated and expenses incurred over the next few years, making several assumptions regarding level of policy uptake, amount of subsidies provided, and costs associated with guiding the process along, particularly in the initial period when the trust fund is being drawn from. A more detailed business analysis should be made prior to project closure, looking at additional scenarios, including slower rates of policy uptake. The deed of trust for the endowment fund should also be approved by the project steering committee prior to project closure.

1.2. Transfer of ownership and long-term operation and maintenance of the 33 automatic weather stations should be resolved prior to project closure.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/05] [Last Updated: 2017/01/10]

1.1 UNDP fully agrees with this recommendation. The micro-insurance scheme was realized late in the project. A revised detailed business analysis has been drawn up showing a more conservative approach (with a slower policy uptake) which indicates that the fund will only reach an annual surplus in Year Three of operation. The endowment fund is in process of being finalised for submission to the Master of the Court for approval. The draft was discussed at a PSC Meeting held in October 2016, with the content of the discussions focusing on clean and good governance aspects, fund risk management and administration. The submission to the Master of the Court for Approval has not been shared with CO. Key elements arising is that it should be designed with the intention to harmonize with other related funds and incentive schemes associated with disaster risk and fire protection, and in collaboration with key stakeholders, such as the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) and the South African National Disaster Management Center (NDMC) which falls under the auspices of the Department of Cooperative Governance (COGTA).

1.2 UNDP fully embraces this recommendation. The Working Group decided that it would be most beneficial for the 33 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) to be under the custodianship of one entity or organization. The PMU is in negotiations with the South African Environmental Observation Network, the DAFF and the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) as to which organization will be most suitable, and who could provide the data at no cost to the Fire Protection Associations (FPAs) and partners of the project. If a sole custodian cannot be found, then various entities on whose land, or in whose area the AWS are situated, could agree to take over the AWS.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 The implementing partner should share the endowment fund details with UNDP CO (and other members of the PSC) for inputs and agreement before submission to the Master of the Court for Approval. In assuming that further assistance may be required to enhance the design of the fund, then the African Risk Capacity (based in Pretoria), a 1.1 Specialized Agency of the African Union to help member states improve their capacities to better plan, prepare and respond to extreme weather events and natural disasters, should be engaged. Engaging with African Risk Capacity was advised by the UNDP CD at the PSC meeting in October 2016. Further, engagement with DAFF and NDMC is also necessary in order for the fund to play a complimentary/synergistic role with other existing and pipeline schemes and funds.
[Added: 2017/01/10] [Last Updated: 2018/04/20]
PMU, PSC, Kishugu 2018/04 Completed Initial Action: Draft to be sent before project closure for comments, with further actions ongoing throughout 2017. The PSC met on 10 July 2017. An Updated Action (23 Oct 2017): The project closed operationally in January 2017, but was reopened on October 2017, and will continue until April 2018. A supplementary TE will be done in Q1 2018. The endowment fund is no longer allocated as a capital for the fund (which was against UNDP rules) and is now allocated to a set of activities that can be meaningfully completely. CO and RSC has received information to strengthen the foundation of the establishment of a fund (which is not the establishment of the fund itself, but a critical step to ensure the ownership and the sustainability of the fund once established). History
1.2 The transfer of ownership, and long-term operation and maintenance of the 33 automatic weather stations must be resolved. Kishugu should deepen engagement with DAFF and NDMC on the AWS as a means to improve the institutionalization of integrated fire management. To this end, DEA might be able to assist and facilitate the process through inter-governmental MINTECH structures.
[Added: 2017/01/10] [Last Updated: 2018/04/20]
PMU, PSC, DEA, Kishugu 2018/04 Completed UNDP will monitor progress until Q4 2017. A key work stream in the new workplan (October 2017-April 2018) is submission of MiG proposals for at least two municipalities that will address the suitability of these weather stations. This is planned for end-November 2017. History
2. Recommendation:

Actions to follow up or reinforce initial benefits from the project

2.1. Lessons learned regarding consolidation and strengthening of FPAs should be shared with other FPAs and DAFF representatives. The project should sponsor a workshop for FPA managers from other regions in the country and relevant DAFF representatives. Apart from disseminating lessons learned, this workshop could also lead to new synergies and partnerships, possibly opening entry points for alternative financing options for the FPAs within the fynbos biome.

2.2.The sustainability of the FireWise communities should be enhanced by organizing a workshop with FireWise community representatives, FPAs, local governments, and relevant NGOs, introducing grant options, delivering proposal preparation skills, and describing support services available. The GEF Small Grants Programme (SGP) should be invited to participate.

2.3. The gap of not facilitating integration of wildland fire risk criteria into municipal disaster management plans and integrated development plans should be addressed prior to project closure. One option is to organize a workshop bringing together disaster management planners and land use planners from municipalities in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape, with the project FPA stakeholders, scientists, and consultants.

2.4.The envisaged “incentives toolbox” is also a gap that should be addressed. Developing incentives that encourage proactive behavior by landowners is a sensible approach to integrated fire management, and the incentives might have opened up opportunities for FPAs, possibly offering useful additions to the suite of sustainable financing options for the fynbos biome FPAs.

2.5. The project has initiated formulation of a sustainability plan, retaining the services of an experienced consultant, who has held consultations with project stakeholders, collected suggestions, and will be formulating a series of recommendations. The TE evaluator supports this process and recommends that roles and responsibilities be clearly articulated in the sustainability plan, costs for the suggested actions estimated, and possible funding sources identified.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/05] [Last Updated: 2017/01/10]

2.1 Lessons learned regarding consolidation and strengthening of FPA should be consolidated and shared widely with which UNDP agrees. For example, the project coordinator gave a presentation to DAFF head office in Pretoria (20 Oct 2016) about project outcomes and funding needs. The Toolkit and IFM handbook were presented to the Chief Directorate: Forestry Operations Management Committee, Subsequently the PMU sent 50 toolkits to DAFF to disseminate to their regional fire advisors. The Toolkit and IFM handbook were launched on 30 November 2016. Project outcomes and deliverables were presented at a Provincial Disaster Management Meeting in November 2016 and also at the Umbrella FPA meeting in October 2016. The PMU will do a roadshow to relevant stakeholders and can potentially organize a workshop between the two national fire seasons.

2.2 Community-based work involving FireWise should be enhanced. However, the project has already surpassed what was outlined with respect to the FireWise communities in the Project Document. Kishugu is currently planning a national workshop for FireWise communities which will include the Project communities and will entail lessons learnt and sustainability aspects. The PMU has already been in contact with the GEF Small Grants Programme who have indicated there is no funding available for any more projects.

2.3 The comprehensive integration of risk criteria of wildland fires in municipal disaster management plans and integrated development plans remains a concern. Although not formally integrated, it has happened on a level of cooperation between FPAs and Municipal Fire Chiefs. For instance, the District Fire Chief of the West Coast District is also the Chairman of the Greater Cederberg FPA. The Manager of the Greater Overberg FPA has an office next door to the District Fire Chief of the Overberg District, and he is on the FPA committee. Many Fire Chiefs have embraced the greater capacitated FPAs and there has been exceptional cooperation and a certain amount of work division and sharing between these entities. 

2.4 The incentives toolbox which is agreed in the Project Document and which UNDP encourages, did not materialize and hence, should be addressed. However, incentives do exist but have not been formally collated and documented during the project period.

2.5 The financial viability and professionalization of FPAs remain a concern as these are units that work on the ground. Hence, UNDP fully supports the notion of developing a sustainability plan, that is well-defined as per roles and responsibilities, costs for suggested actions and possible funding sources. The Working Groups formed under the project have already been absorbed into the UFPA, National Incident Command System Working Group and Provincial Disaster Management and so stakeholders still meet and discuss actions initiated by the project and funding sources.

 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 In its envisaged roadshow, NDMC, DAFF and DEA will be brought on board in order to benefit from gains of full government involvement and collaboration. The roadshow could be undertaken jointly with these departments with co-funding being possible. This could well be a starting platform for scaling up project outcomes gained to date, and for addressing TER recommendations on future directions underlining the main objectives.
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2017/11/17]
PMU, Kishugu 2017/11 Completed Monitoring throughout 2017. A comprehensive information dissemination exercise is planned at end-November 2017 (workshop, lessons learnt), not only involving government, but also communities. This will be essentially a strategic sensitization/outreach event. History
2.2 While the PMU suggests that UNDP tries to leverage funding for Kishugu to hold these workshops and set up project proposals, funding sources for community-based engagement involving climate change induced threats should continue to be sought more widely and more proactively. UN Volunteers which is administered by UNDP in South Africa, is one of several possibilities for a discussion.
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2017/01/10]
Kishugu No due date Initiated Ongoing History
2.3 While this level of cooperation is highly welcomed, it could be short-lived because it is based on personal relations between individuals and on institutional representation, rather than on institutionalized systems. It is urged to continue striving to integrate risk criteria of wildland fires in municipal disaster management plans and integrated development plans. NDMC should be engaged, as well as DAFF.
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2017/01/10]
DEA, Kishugu No due date Initiated Ongoing History
2.4 The PMU will prepare and disseminate a questionnaire for FPAs to identify and list the incentives they have for landowners to join. This will include aspects such as insurance rebates, discounted equipment and cheaper rates for Working on Fire teams
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2017/10/23]
PMU 2017/10 Completed The PMU is undertaking activities to strengthen further the preparedness and resilience to climate change-induced wildfire of more communities. For example, letters have been received from FPA as well as from an insurance company for mutual commitment to project partners and pilot a group insurance for the selected communities living in the area where wildfire risks have increased significantly due to climate change impacts. History
2.5 Work on the sustainability plan should be completed by a consultant which should be shared with the stakeholders.
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2018/04/20]
PMU 2018/04 Completed Not done, but this will be covered in the supplementary TE to be done in Q1 2018. History
3. Recommendation:

Proposals for future directions underlining main objectives

3.1. Fuel load management, particularly with respect to invasive alien vegetation, should be further advocated, consistent with National Climate Change Response White Paper published in 2014, which outlines the consolidation and expansion of the Expanded Public Works Programme and its sector components such as the Non-State Sector’s Community Works Programme and the suite of Environment and Culture Sector programmes including Working for Water, Working on Fire, and Working for Energy as these have proven effective in building climate resilience and relieving poverty.

3.2. The likelihood of securing additional funding for integrated fire management would likely be enhanced if a multi-focal approach is taken. For example, linking IFM with sustainable land management, climate change adaptation, and food security might be a feasible nexus to pursue.

3.3. Leveraging off the unique biodiversity values among the fynbos biome, project results could be built upon by developing and demonstrating a payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme that incentivizes landowners to implement sustainable adaptation measures.

 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/01/05] [Last Updated: 2017/01/10]

3.1 This recommendation is aimed at informing the content on proposals for future directions underlining the main objectives. It covers fuel load management with respect to alien invasive vegetation, as per the National Climate Change Response White Paper 2014. UNDP is neutral and open to this recommendation. 

3.2 This recommendation is aimed at informing the content on proposals for future directions underlining the main objectives. It explains a multi-focal approach, linking integrated fire management with sustainable land management, climate change adaptation and food security. UNDP is neutral and open to this recommendation.

3.3 This recommendation is aimed at informing the content on proposals for future directions underlining the main objectives. It covers payment for ecosystem services as a scheme that incentivizes landowners to implementation sustainable adaptation measures. UNDP is neutral and open to this recommendation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 UNDP will follow up with DEA and/or DAFF regarding the required support.
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2017/01/10]
DEA and/or DAFF No due date Initiated Ongoing History
3.2 UNDP will follow up with DEA and/or DAFF regarding the required support.
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2018/04/20]
DEA and/or DAFF 2018/01 Completed Ongoing History
3.3 UNDP will follow up with DEA and/or DAFF for the support required.
[Added: 2017/01/06] [Last Updated: 2017/01/10]
DEA and/or DAFF No due date Initiated Ongoing History

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