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End of Term Evaluation of the National Climate Change Project
Commissioning Unit: Malawi
Evaluation Plan: 2012-2018
Evaluation Type: Project
Completion Date: 05/2017
Unit Responsible for providing Management Response: Malawi
Documents Related to overall Management Response:
 
1. Recommendation:

Develop a New Climate Change Management Programme following a Catchment Approach

There is a need to adopt a programmatic approach targeting catchments. Investments on climate change should follow a catchment management approach while maintaining the focus on the areas that most prone to the impacts of climate change. This approach will borrow a lot from Productive Public Works Programme (PPWP) under the Malawi Social Action Fund IV Project; which has already adopted a catchment management approach in its interventions. The Operational Manual of the PPWP indicates that a Catchment Management Approach aims at minimizing the adverse effects of natural disasters and improve the quality of life by using integrated bio-physical, social and economic techniques. The catchment forms a dynamic and integrated bio-physical, economic, social, environmental and political system containing people, agriculture, forestry, water, industry, etc. It is clear that since climate change is cross-cutting and affects several sectors at the same time, a holistic approach to addressing its impacts is necessary. What this means is that while ensuring synergies and complementarities across sectors at the district council level it is also necessary to build strong spatial linkages. There should be a clear division of labour among sectors with clearly defined roles in the catchment. It has already been demonstrated through the FICA funded project that a multisectoral approach generates better impact in the target communities. Further, for better visibility, reporting and policy guidance, district councils need to be strongly linked with the centre. In other words, district councils should serve as sources of information to inform policy in the various sectors. For this to happen, proper reporting structures and systems need to be established and/or strengthened. For greater impact these initiatives can be broadened by establishing linkages with other existing programmes in the country. For example, linkages could be established with such programmes as the Social Cash Transfers (SCT) with skills development for climate change related work on adaptation or mitigation activities. This will avoid continuity of free cash handouts every month. Appropriate activities could be identified for the target beneficiaries who in the current design of the SCT are considered labour constrained. This could be an entry point to the catchment management approach like working on nursery establishments for trees rather than receiving free cash alone. The activities that constitute a programme could be arranged into clusters within a broad catchment approach.

For example: ? Agriculture cluster; ? Early warning cluster ? Social support cluster ? Education cluster ? Water cluster ? Health cluster, and so on. Cross cutting issues of gender and social inclusion for example need to be incorporated in all the different clusters. Facilitating functions or special considerations are the following: 1. Catchment conservation requires a clear understanding of upstream and downstream relationships. This entails disregarding the boundaries of the districts, the Traditional Authorities etc but only consider the catchment area. 2. Standard Operating Procedures or guidelines are important when there are several organizations working together. They need to develop a common approach and “rules of the game” to dealing with the problems that they aim to address. 3. There is a need to scale up the training in all the districts and upstream particularly aimed at ensuring stronger coordination within and across sectors. UNDP still has a big role to play in this endeavour to ensure that requisite capacities are built for stronger coordination between downstream and upstream levels. There is a need to develop a more strategic arrangement at the higher policy level before going down to the lower levels - districts. The whole of this exercise needs to start with identification of the key catchments and the areas that are most prone to the effects of climate change. Once these areas have been defined, a mapping exercise of projects being implemented, their focus, scale and duration need to be conducted to guide the design of the successor National Climate Change Management Programme.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]


In principle, UNDP is in agreement with this recommendation. We see value in adopting attachment approach for the next CC program.  In formulating, the new program.  Consultative meetings will also be held at local level to validate the actions that will be included in the new program.  Targeting of interventions will link to existing initiative in the target areas.  Considerations of existing strategies, policies will form the back ground and will inform the type of interventions. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Formulate new project on climate change
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
Resilience and Sustainable Growth (RSG) 2018/10 Completed History
Conduct consultative meetings at local level for the new project.
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
RSG 2018/10 Completed Consultative meetings have been held during the formulation process of the project. History
Develop TORs for the new Climate Change program that incorporates a catchment approach
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/08/03]
Resilience and Sustainable Growth 2018/05 No Longer Applicable [Justification: The Country Office is no longer engaging a consultant to prepare the project. Hence, ToR are no longer necessary. Having said, the catchment approach is already included in other initiatives which the office is considering, namely: the Malawi Partnership for Resilience and the Catalyzing Climate Change Resilience for Vulnerable Communities in Malawi.]
History
2. Recommendation:

UNDP should adopt a more Participatory Approach in the Next Programme.

The End of Term Evaluation has revealed that despite a good start at the design stage of the NCCP where UNDP engaged with all key donors and development partners in the country; however, in the course of its implementation the level of engagement dissipated resulting in the loss of the broad perspective in the ownership of the programme. As a result, the NCCP has ended up to be viewed among the development partners as a UNDP-Government of Malawi (MoNREM-EAD) programme. This has among others led to weakening their support to the programme since they are less identified with it and yet there is growing interest among them to support the government of Malawi in its efforts in addressing the challenge of climate change. It is clear that UNDP missed an opportunity through implementation of the NCCP to mobilize more donor support to the climate change agenda in Malawi. As alluded to in this report, UNDP is viewed as a credible development partner who could play an effective liaison role between the donor-community on the one hand and the Government on the other in driving the climate change management agenda in the country. Besides, it has extensive experience in supporting the sector. Thus, guided by the recommendation above (5.2.1); UNDP needs to facilitate the development of a concept note for the next programme which should be used as a selling tool to other development partners. The entry point to selling the ideas contained in the concept note will be the Donor Group on Environment, Natural Resources and Climate Change. Pledges of support to specific thematic areas or indeed clusters as proposed above will be made and these will be used in the development of a comprehensive and coherent programme. While facilitating the development of a more accommodating National Climate Change Management Programme, UNDP’s defined role in the implementation of this programme should be coordination and provision of support to capacity building at all levels. This should include building the capacity of decentralized structures so that they too play a better role in supporting implementation of adaptation and mitigation initiatives at the community level.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

This recommendation is consistent with the on-going initiatives to strengthen the donor working group on environment and climate change which has expanded its role to include resilience issues hence changed to DCERCC.  In 2017 as chair of the Donor Group on Environment and Climate Change, ToRs were revised and agreed to by all the donors.  A secretariat to support the group was created and is funded by UNDP.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support coordination fora for the exchange of information, research funding’s and foster joint approaches to assisting govt. on climate change, Disaster Risk Management and Poverty reduction and Environment Management e.g the Climate Change week
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/09/10]
RSG 2018/12 Canceled Few programme frameworks have been developed which will foster coordination and joint approaches. eg Malawi Partnership for Resilience Initiative; the National Resilience Programme and SDGs Hotspots Platform. History
3. Recommendation:

There is a need to finalize the Sector Wide Approach (SWAp)

Under output 3 in the PSD of the NCCP, it was envisioned that a series of preparatory work would be conducted for setting up a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) around Climate Change, Environment and Natural Resources. Instead of developing a strategic plan, a National Climate Change Investment Plan (NCCIP) was developed; MTHAKATI ALEXANDER R PHIRI 71 some capacity assessments were already conducted under the first phase among others. But all these activities did not culminate in the establishment of a SWAp. As a means to mobilize the donor community and other development partners around Climate Change, Environment and Natural Resources; UNDP should support the finalization of the SWAp for this sector. This will be commensurate with the Catchment Approach and the broad donor involvement in the development of the successor programme to the NCCP as proposed in the two recommendations above. Under the SWAp, donors willing to support the sector will thus contribute to a single basket of funds, which in turn will contribute to the national plan as may be developed under the two recommendations above. It is expected that the Government of Malawi and its development partners as facilitated by UNDP, will agree on a more coherent resource allocation system and plans to be supported under such an arrangement. Since the funds will be used on priority areas as may be guided by the NCCMP and its Implementation Plan; such an approach will among others result in more efficient management of donor funds in the sector.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

This recommendation is consistent with its proposed activities for implementation during the bridging period where support for coordination activities has been given prominence. The actual finalization of the SWAP has been linked to the climate change fund which is envisaged to be sector-wide. This will be done as part of the new program on climate change yet to be developed. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support establishment of climate change fund
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
RSG 2018/12 Completed Mechanisms for establishment of a Climate Change Fund has been done. The rest of the work is beyond the influence of the project, History
Support National coordination structures: Environment and Natural Resources Sector working groups
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
RSG 2018/10 No Longer Applicable [Justification: There efforts to review the number of sector working groups. This is an initiative in reference to the MGDS III.]
History
Finalize the SWAp for Climate Change
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
RSG 2019/12 No Longer Applicable [Justification: There s no traction on sector working groups.]
History
4. Recommendation:

Facilitate Establishment of a Climate Change Management Fund

 The NCCMP proposes enhanced prioritization of financing for implementation and coordination of climate change management activities through increased national budgetary allocation, establishment of a Climate Change Management Fund, improved access to international climate financing (both multilateral and bilateral) and private sector investments. The special focus of this evaluation is on the establishment of the Climate Change Management Fund and its implications for the future role of UNDP in this area. The main question is what form should this fund management agency take to gain confidence of both bilateral and international development partners? There is convergence of ideas on the need to establish a body that will operate impartially with no or minimum government influence. The need to have no or limited government influence is, inter alia, to ensure that climate change work is not politicized which does not usually please the donor community. It is expected that the proposed SWAp in the recommendation above (5.2.3) will evolve into a fully-fledged Climate Change Management Fund. The SWAp should therefore be viewed as a transition into the establishment of the Fund. With these views in mind EAD would not be the best to manage this fund. As a guide to the design of the climate change management fund agency, whatever form it takes, it should have two components as follows: 3. A fully-fledged secretariat with a technical team that has technical know-how on Climate Change issues; and 4. A strong accounting office or system to manage the funds. MTHAKATI ALEXANDER R PHIRI 72 Both of these units should be under one body – the National Aids Commission (NAC) model has generally been perceived as the best structure. The Reserve Bank of Malawi and the Ministry of Finance could serve as Trustees to this body to play an oversight role to ensure that donor funds are appropriately (financial prudence) used for the interest of the country. Overall, the Board to this body should have a strong financial background. On the other hand, the technical secretariat will be responsible for scrutinizing project proposals and small grants applications from a cross section of agencies with expertise in implementation of climate change adaptation and/or mitigation activities. All such project proposals will be developed within the broad framework of interventions that will be developed by the agency. It is strongly believed that such an arrangement would win the trust of donors. Since such a fund management organization will be accredited to existing multilateral green fund bodies such as the Global Environmental Fund (GEF); the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and others, UNDP’s role with regards the coordination of international financial support to Climate Change and Environmental and Natural Resources work in the country would be significantly weakened. Once this is achieved, it will be a major milestone in UNDP’s support to the sector in Malawi. The fund would sustain itself through levies that it would draw from the funds mobilized for various activities in the country. But there is need for its capitalization in the early stages before it could become self-sustaining. 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

This recommendation is also consistent with the proposed activities during the bridging period of 2017-2018, where resources have been allocated for development of a CC fund. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct a study on sources of domestic finance to capitalize the climate change fund.
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
RSG 2018/12 Completed History
Support formulation of climate change fund
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
RSG 2018/12 Completed History
Support Environmental Affairs Department (EAD) in Climate Finance readiness
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/09/12]
RSG 2018/12 Completed UNDP has supported establishment regulation for establishment of the Fund. History
5. Recommendation:

Need for a robust M&E system for climate change investments

The NCCP was implemented without a comprehensive M&E system. Although a broader and more detailed M&E system was eventually developed, but this was late in the project cycle and developed for the National Climate Change Investment Plan and not much focusing on climate change in general. The difficulty of operationalizing the M&E system also arose from the fact that the MGDS II was already running and was toward the end of the cycle. In pursuance of the four recommendations above, what needs to be done is to develop a robust and comprehensive M&E framework on climate change. This could be similar to the M&E framework for Food Security Policy for example, where all agencies involved in implementing various climate change related activities (on adaptation and mitigation) should be reporting to this national M&E framework with clear indicators to which they are contributing. The comprehensive M&E Framework should be linked to the MGDS M&E system, which is the overarching system for monitoring development programmes in Malawi.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

This recommendation is also consistent with the proposed activities during the bridging period of 2017-2018,  where resources have been allocated for development of a CC fund.  TORs of the development of the new program will incorporate robust monitoring that links with the MGDS and the SDGs.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support creation of Management Information System for climate finance
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/09/12]
RSG 2018/12 Completed A M&E system pro-type has been developed. History
Inclusion of M&E system for CC investments in the new project
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/09/12]
RSG 2018/09 Completed The M&E system for the National Climate Resilience project includes tracking of climate finance investments. History
Formulation of TORS for new program that incorporated a study to identify CC investments
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/08/21]
RSG 2018/08 No Longer Applicable [Justification: The exercise will be carried out in-house.]
Draft terms of reference for a study to explore sources of domestic financing have been developed to replace the Climate Change investment study. History
6. Recommendation:

Consolidate Climate Change Management and Disaster Risk Management

The End of Term Evaluation has established that Climate Change Management and Disaster Risk Management are being implemented in Malawi as if they are totally different. The two use different coordination institutional structures (SC and TC). But in reality, Disaster Risk Reduction initiatives cannot be implemented without making reference to climate change. To many, these terms address the same problems but only have different historical perspectives or time horizon. In essence, Climate Change Adaptation is the same as Disaster Risk Reduction. It has also been reported that usually, the same people participate in meetings of the Steering Committee and Technical Committee for DRM and CCM. It is therefore recommended that the two coordination structures should be merged. However, collapsing the two structures should be limited to the Steering Committee (SC). This is due to the fact that both CCM and DRM are very broad. Thus combining them at Technical level will result in not adequately discussing and addressing issues within each thematic area or sub-sector. Hence, only the Steering Committees should be merged into one while maintaining separate Technical Committees where more membership could be co-opted as necessary. Nevertheless, the fact that DoDMA is anchored to the Office of the President and Cabinet while Climate Change Management is in the Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mining calls for careful consideration of how the restructured Steering Committee will be chaired. This will definitely require extensive high level consultations to ensure that a practical and politically acceptable structure is established. What is critical, however, is to isolate all related issues that require high level coordination to be brought at this level.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

This recommendation is consistent with on-going initiatives to combine the two Steering committee meetings.

 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Formalize the combining of the two steering committees through a consultative meeting to identify the chair and agree on TORs for the new steering committee.
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/05/02]
RSG 2018/04 No Longer Applicable [Justification: Following discussions and careful review of the scope and composition of the two steering committees, it has been recommended that it would not be appropriate to combine the steering committees of disaster risk management and national climate change projects. Instead, it was agreed that only the technical committees of the two projects can be combined.]
History
7. Recommendation:

Create Awareness of the National Climate Change Management Policy

It has been noted through this evaluation that strategies for communication and awareness creation of climate change issues are not yet comprehensive enough. Communication strategies have mainly remained at the high level and not focused enough at the districts and communities. The National Climate Change Management Policy launched at the end of November, 2016 should be taken as an opportunity for creating more awareness of Climate Change at all levels within the country. The awareness creation should start with sensitization campaigns of the general public about the existence of the NCCMP, its purpose and objectives. Several tools for disseminating the messages could be used. These could include radio and Television messages and jingles; short plays aired on the radio and Television; thematic discussions by experts aired on the radio and Television; policy briefs which could be handed out to participants during major events as well as Press Releases widely published in the Local Press. This would also entail translating key aspects of the policy document for wider dissemination and outreach. The Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mining should take the lead in these campaigns.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

We welcome this recommendation and will use every opportunity in 2018 to raise awareness on the new climate change policy.  Awareness raising will be combined with the plans on raising awareness about the amended Environment Management Act. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Sensitise stakeholders including the private and the public sector on the Environment Management Act and the new Climate Change policy
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/09/12]
RSG 2018/12 Completed This has been done on an ongoing basis by the Environmental Affairs Department. For instance, the government has issued a ban on thin plastics. This was preceded by awareness efforts on the Environment Management Act and the new Climate Change Policy. History
Translate Climate Change management policy briefs into Chichewa in liaison with the Adapt Plan project for community level dissemination
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/09/12]
RSG and Adapt Plan Project Team 2018/10 Completed The translation was done. History
8. Recommendation:

Establish a “Think-Tank” on Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management

The evaluation has established that engagement of local leaders, such as Members of Parliament, serves as an effective means of encouraging further interest on climate change issues from communities. However, Climate Change is a very new phenomenon and is still poorly understood by many including policy makers. Therefore, in terms of moving forward on this subject including on how government could be induced to allocate more budgetary resources to climate change management, there is a need to establish a “Think Tank” responsible for generating research results and packaging them in a way that policy makers and other decision makers could understand and use. It is clear in this regard, that the academia and research institutes need to be mobilised and organized to play this role. Research Guidelines developed under this project could be used to manage a competitive grant scheme. What is crucial in this endeavour is to generate information that will demonstrate to policy makers that action is needed. For them to be convinced there is a need to generate information that demonstrates various impacts of climate change. One of the platforms for sharing such research results is the Parliamentary Committee on Environment, Natural Resources and Climate Change. In addition to presentation and discussion of research results, policy briefs should be prepared from each one of the studies so that policy makers could use these as reference materials in lobbying for more resources for the sector.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

We welcome this recommendation as it touches on some of the challenges with regard to what happens with the knowledge products from the different UNDP programs.

Several knowledge products have been developed from several UNDP projects, these will be reviewed in course formulation project development to identify gaps for further research

The available information will be publicized not only during the climate week as has been the norm but other innovative fora.  available to the and in the new program.

The programme initiated development of climate change research guidelines which will be finalized in 2018

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support fora where different actors are appraised and can comment on the available information to guide further research work on CC
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/11/11]
RSG 2018/10 Completed Avenues are available to guide actors for research in CC, History
Review existing knowledge products developed in the RSG portfolio in the past five years in order to identify information gaps
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2019/09/12]
RSG 2018/12 No Longer Applicable [Justification: The approach is now to call for proposals for research work. The review of existing knowledge products will be conducted as part of the research work.]
History
Review existing knowledge products developed in the RSG portfolio in the past five years in order to identify information gaps
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/08/03]
RSG 2018/06 No Longer Applicable [Justification: This action has been repeated.]
History
9. Recommendation:

Design “Tailor-made” Mechanisms for Engaging with the Private Sector

Modalities of enticing the private sector and Civil Society Organizations to get engaged should also be devised.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2021/01/20]

We welcome this recommendation. In the design of the new UNDP program, integration of the SDGs in an approach for UNDP support to the MGDS III in the next country program. Further there is an on-going initiative to strengthen the integration and linkages within the RSG portfolio  and with the RICE portfolio. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
TORs for new climate change program formulation to include involvement of the private sector
[Added: 2017/12/27] [Last Updated: 2018/08/03]
RSG 2018/05 No Longer Applicable [Justification: TOR ar no longer required as the project formulation exercise will be undertaken internally.]
History

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