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End of Project evaluation - Support to Institutional Capacity Development and Support to Emerging State Formation projects
Commissioning Unit: Somalia
Evaluation Plan: 2011-2017
Evaluation Type: Project
Completion Date: 01/2018
Unit Responsible for providing Management Response: Somalia
Documents Related to overall Management Response:
 
1. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 1: SIP and StEFS are essentially two sides of the same coin. As such, future interactions of these projects should be designed and implemented as a whole, and rooted in the NDP and State Strategic Plans relevant to state capacity development.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

SIP/STEFS understands the recommendation and accepts that federal and state level support should be merged together as one larger project to bring synergy and coherence of the support at both the levels

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. Develop concept note for the new project design and get it endorsed by SDRF (as pipeline project) 1.2. Initiate consultation process with partners on the design of the new project and submit it to PWGs working group and SDRF for endorsement
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/13]
UNDP 2018/12 Completed A new concept note was developed for a combined project to attend to the core of government need (planning, civil service, M&E and planning) as well as another component to work on the states formation part. Consultations with government partners were carried out with Government officials from the FGS, and all the FMS at the Ministerial level as well as the donors. The concept was endorsed at the PWG and SDRF levels but failed to get traction on the donor side in 2018. Subsequently end of 2018 UNDP removed the states formation component and it became part of the Inclusive Politics Portfolio. The proposed projects in their original form are now dormant. History
2. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 2: UNDP should play the role of a catalyst

 

There is a need for a profound overhaul in the current way UNDP capacity development programming is designed and implemented in Somalia.  The focus of future programming needs to shift from what a government should look like to what it needs to do.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted

 

UNDP has been playing catalyst role to support FGS and FMS to create governance structures to deliver the services and we agree there is need to do more to be the facilitator of the change. The repeated comments of the evaluators that in the end government structures are relevant only if they provide added value to the citizens and provide services that answer to the expectations of the citizens are fully accepted. The next iteration of the support will focus more on the citizen – government interface, among others through a dedicated component on M&E&L focusing on getting to terms with change in a complex environment. However, the evaluators seem to underestimate the required support to the initial establishment of government structures as well as the need to ensure there is sufficient horizontal and vertical alignment in role and responsibility distribution.  

 

In addition, UNDP Somalia has redesigned its programme in the new Country Programme Document to reflect the New Way of Working.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. Restructure CD programme as Effective Institution support Portfolio, in line with NDP 2.2. Incorporate change and learning component/output in the new project
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2018/12/24]
UNDP 2019/03 Completed CD programme restructured an EI portofolio in line with the NDP. Change and learning components included in the new project History
3. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 3: Complex local dynamics suggests a shift from pushing to nudging

 

As in most post-conflict states, the complex set of human interactions in Somalia suggests that the international community can contribute best by providing suggestions to improve immediate action rather than overly concentrating on extended analyses and the creation of formal rule structures.  It was mentioned that UNDP will never be able to comprehend the political economy of Somalia, therefore it is best to focus down on smaller scale issues that are amenable to near-term resolution, and serve as learning opportunities for partner agencies to think for themselves how to improve their organizational dynamics.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted.

 

StEFS/SIP both projects have been working with counterparts to facilitate the governments partners(FGS/FMS) to deliver their mandate. The evaluators seem to interpret the attention the projects have given to formalized decision-making arrangements (like the approval of the NDP and State Development Plans, the establishment of the NDC, the Aid Coordination structure, the development of the FMS ministerial organizational structures and personnel requirements, the committee arrangements around the development of the Civil Service Law) as unnecessary ‘rule structures’. While UN/UNDP is conscious of not imposing agendas to the partners and limitations in comprehending the complex environment in which we operate, assisting the partners in developing and managing inter-agency coordination and decision-making structures as well as creating transparency and accountability around priorities for development do not seem to be overly rule based nor unnecessary arrangements. That said, more can be done in order to facilitate government counterparts to accomplish the development agenda.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1. Facilitate partnership learning forum to support partners to reflect on their agenda and priorities.
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/12/19]
UNDP 2019/12 Completed The recommendations have been taken up by the project and were recommended to the Federal Government of Somalia. History
4. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 4:  Limit efforts at the federal level to 2 or 3 organizations at most

 

Practical considerations require that the project be focused. The evaluators suggest that the project design restrict the range of partnerships at the federal level to two, at most three, organisations but engage with all FMS, with attention to ensuring all state ministries benefit.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted.

 

The projects accepts the recommendation that the next phase of SIP/StEFS cannot support all the ministries at FGS level. Building upon the support by the SIP and StEFS projects, support to FGS partners will be prioritized in line with the scope of the new project.

However, it does not accept the recommendation that on FMS level all ministries should benefit from the project. This is practically not possible (as it would lead to some 150 different partner agencies) and would lead to the new project being very fragmented, most likely overlapping with other support and requiring a knowledge base in the project that is not feasible.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1. The project will work with FGS/FMS counter parts to prioritize the interventions 4.2. Coordinate with other implementation partners to create synergies and collaboration and to avoid duplication
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/13]
UNDP 2019/03 Completed This was initially partially accepted by the project team. Accepting the recommendation would mean that on the FMS level all ministries would have to benefit from the project. This is practically not possible (as it would lead to some 150 different partner agencies) and would lead to the new project being very fragmented, most likely overlapping with other support and requiring a knowledge base in the project that is not feasible. History
5. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 5 State structures have been put in place, emphasis should now shift to practical engagement with citizens

 

At the State level, all cabinet ministries have undergone a functional analysis and restructuring.  They all have, or soon will have, access to RCRF funding for key posts.  Each State has an existing set of international support programs.  The most useful role for a future UNDP project would be to build the capability of the individual States to facilitate collaborative action among government agencies, and co-production with civil society and business communities.  The dual aim would be to engage the States (often together with the FGS) to create collaborative solutions to existing problems while identifying the most appropriate rules and structures that need to be put in place that can build bridging social capital among all stakeholders.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted.

 

Through StEFS and SIP, efforts have been made to engage with citizens. E.g in the context of the NDP development, the Puntland Coordination structures, as well as the Pilot Citizen reports that were developed in Jubaland and South West States, which are expected to expand to other states in next phase, and it is expected that in the different areas the new project will support, outreach to citizens will be scaled up.

However, some care is to be taken. In line with the nature of recommendation 2 and 3, UNDP is not in the position to make such decisions. Entering or not into collaborative arrangements concerning e.g. service delivery is a government decision, not a project decision. Also, the exact nature of roles and responsibility distribution between the three-tiers of the government is still to be designed as well as the policy intentions concerning the structure of service delivery – which indeed may include collaborative approaches, but may also more strongly veer into the direction of ‘outsourcing’ and other approaches.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1. Develop citizen reports by the State administrations. 5.2. Establish Public accountability forums in all State to bring together State governments and citizens together and enhance States’ legitimacy.
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/12/19]
UNDP 2019/12 Completed The Effective Institutions portfolio initiated an anti-corruption project, a media and freedom of expression project as well as a public engagement process under e media and it enhanced processes of public engagement following on from the recommendations. History
6. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 6: Focus attention on building government’s ability to collaborate with non-state actors

 

Given the paucity of resources available to the FGS, the focus on planning should be on building collaborative relationships with civil society and business to address problems of common concern.  The use of participatory planning exercises involving a broad set of stakeholders, government and non-state (civil and business) is the best approach to identifying problems that can be resolved through joint efforts, supported by external assistance as and where necessary.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

 

While being mindful of the cautionary comment under recommendation 5, this recommendation is in line with the implementation practices developed under SIP and StEFS.  SIP/StEFS supported FGS and FMS to develop National Development plan and State Strategic Plans, where CSOs and NGOs participated. The engagement of non-state actors can be further enhanced in next phase of the project.  Further, the project will continue to support Reconciliation efforts between State and non-state actors towards state building goals

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1. Conduct training on Participatory approach 6.2. Establish CSO-Government networks in all States 6.3. Support Reconciliation efforts towards State building process
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/15]
UNDP 2019/08 Completed New projects launched and proposed by the Effective Institutions portfolio highlight they need to work with non-state actors where this is necessary in its projects. History
7. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 7: Use the drought crisis to concentrate attention on building systems that can solve problems

 

Humanitarian crises are fundamentally based on a failure of government.  The relatively better response to the current drought has been attributed to an improved government capacity to protect refugees and ensure equitable distribution of assistance. An underlying objective of future UNDP programming in governance capacity building could be placed on enhancing the capacity of both State and Federal governments to provide effectively coordinated support to the implementation of the early recovery plan following the recent drought and to identify developmental opportunities that can help mitigate the impact of future crises.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted

 

Humanitarian crisis has multiple causes and drivers. Some of them are related to government, others are not. While SIP/StEFS supported the initial establishment of drought Committees at FGS and FMS level and creation of Ministry of Humanitarian affairs and Disaster management(MoHADM)/FGS as part of capacity development support, now other programmes are providing dedicated support in the field of disaster management. Having said that, an overarching and important angle into the support UNDP provides to Somalia in the Humanitarian – development – peace/security nexus aims at addressing root causes and investing in areas that will help to avoid natural upheaval to evolve into humanitarian crisis. The follow up project for SIP/StEFS in a number of areas will contribute, e.g. in Planning, Statistics, M&E&L, reconciliation, service delivery arrangements.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1. Coordinate with Humanitarian implementing partners to create nexus between development and humanitarian affairs
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/12/19]
UNDP 2019/12 Completed UNDP projects are working with humanitarian agencies in Somalia and the coordination has been successful through the REINTEG and Durable Solutions projects. History
8. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 8: Shift from formal structures to improving capacity for direct action

 

Moving in the direction described above would necessitate a shift away from the dominance of expert-driven interventions aimed at producing strategies, policies and other written analyses towards a facilitation model that focuses on team efforts to solve immediate problems through direct action.  This will potentially facilitate a greater role for non-diaspora entrants in public service.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted

 

The evaluators seem to indicate that the FGS and FMS governments do not require longer term strategies and approaches, but need to focus on addressing immediate problems. This part of the recommendation is not accepted. All government partners have indicated that, in order to guide present and future action, a strategic approach is required. All government partners have equally indicated that external support in many cases is required (and this is also quite logical in a setting where governments are young and only partially staffed).

However, the other intention that seems to underlie this recommendation is that it is possible to support (Somali – Somali) platforms that have a more action-oriented approach to address urgent issues. And here we agree.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1. Support organizational level retreat and team building process in the target institutions 8.2. Develop organization level strategic, performance and implementation plans at FGS and FMS level 8.3. Support FGS and FMS partners in action-oriented collaboration to address urgent issues.
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/12/19]
UNDP 2019/12 Completed Team building exercises were supported for the MOIPC in Puntland. Communication lines and processes were opened between the project team at UNDP and different government officials to address process and management issues. History
9. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 9 Empower government partners to determine the problems to be addressed

 

This will mean allowing the government partner agencies to take the lead in identifying the problems to be addressed.  By this we mean a substantive, outcome-oriented problem rather than the identification of a lack of expert staff, physical infrastructure or financial resources.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

 

This is fully in line with the existing project implementation philosophy, and hence fully accepted. Thrust will be provided in the next phase of the project to empower government counter parts to help them determine the problems and address them.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
9.1. Develop Monitoring and learning/Change lab as dedicated output for next phase of the project
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/16]
UNDP 2019/03 No Longer Applicable [Justification: Project not taken forward after the failure to carry on with the new project. ]
History
10. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 10: Encourage a diversity of solutions

 

Focusing on local problem identification implies facilitating the creation of local solutions. This also suggests the need for a shift from classroom training of individuals towards creating a conducive environment for working in teams.  This approach would encourage the generation of diverse approaches to mitigating existing problems. 

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

 

SIP/StEFS agrees with the recommendation and has been promoting home grown solutions and facilitating local ownership. Having said that, care needs to be taken that locally defined solutions remain in line with overall federal arrangements.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
10.1. Provide conducive working environment to the target institutions to work in teams 10.2. Establish CSO-Government networks in all States
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/16]
UNDP 2019/03 Completed Platforms have been created through the provision of office spaces for FGS Ministries such as the MOPIED, MOIFA and several Ministries in the FMS to have one stop shop government complexes such as in Galmudug that was built in 2017 through STEFS. History
11. Recommendation:

Recommendation No.11 Frequently share lessons across partners and celebrate success

 

An important part of building a team approach is the provision of frequent opportunities to celebrate success with peers in other parts of the country.  Solutions that work in one part of Somalia have a greater chance of being adapted in other parts of the country than will ‘international best practices’ introduced by a consultant who has no ‘skin in the game’.  A substantial part of future UNDP programming should be devoted to peer-based exchange of experiences, joint assessment of lessons and codification of those lessons in simple to use guides that can be widely disseminated.  Such an approach provides a framework for double-loop learning to assist partners go institutionalize new learning by continually assessing it within the local socio-economic context.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

 

Peer-to-Peer learning and exchange is important and such initiatives will be intensified in the next phase of the project. Both SIP and StEFS have supported multiple activities in this sense e.g. the NDC, the Aid Coordination arrangements, the discussion series around the NDP and many others. While dumping of external solutions is generally unproductive, the Somali project partners have expresses great interest in learning from experiences in the region and globally. SIP/StEFS supported a series of regional exchange and this has led to emerging cooperation and exchange arrangements with Ugandan, Ethiopian, Rwandan and Kenyan (sister) organizations.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
11.1. Conduct Inter-State learning and exchange visits/forum 11.2. Support regional exchange and collaboration
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/16]
UNDP 2019/03 Completed This is part of project implementation. Where projects have components on South – South cooperation this is included. The FGS has taken upon itself and through UNDP support has gone on missions to FMS to share best practices. The SIP project for a long time worked with the Puntland government to have exchange visits with different MOPIC Ministries from other FMS as well as hosting meetings on aid management in Garowe. History
12. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 12: Shift from analytical skills to communication skills

 

A focus on team-based efforts calls for the provision, and use, of communication tools and skills.  Identification, provision and support for such tools should dominate UNDP assistance, replacing the current over-emphasis on the preparation of written technical analyses.  There are enough of these in circulation that needs to become institutionalized already.  Communication should be supported both for horizontal (including with non-state actors) and vertical (beginning at the level of the District Commission and ending with the FGS) linkages

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
12.1. Establish Horizontal coordination and communication mechanism at FMS level 6.2. Establish Inter-state and FGS forum on federalism/State building
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/16]
UNDP 2018/12 Completed Initiated SIP/StEFS projects are working with OPM/MoIFAR to establish intergovernmental forum on federalism and enhance communication and joint action on the state building agenda. Similarly, efforts have been made to develop horizontal coordination mechanism at FGS and FMS to enhance communication and coordination between the executive bodies, this will be further expanded in the next phase of the project. History
13. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 13: Build a base of information from the ground up

 

Concentrate on building a system of ground level data that can be used in identifying opportunities for citizen-government and business-government collaborations.  One way to do this can be the joint collection and sharing of place-based data in a common information system linking district and state data collection with federal analyses.  Such detailed data can tell the story of the constraints and opportunities of people in ways that aggregated sectoral analysis can never do.  Localized information can become a part of a common national system, but they can also be developed explicitly for local problem solving.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted.

 

While the recommendation that appropriate data is essential and that collection systems need further attention is accepted, the government is presently supported by various actors to build the required systems, including institutional, policy, legal and regulatory arrangements. Several projects and actors are collecting data, and the challenge in the short term is more in the field of accessibility than sheer unavailability. The new project – coordinated through the sub working group on Planning, M&E and statistics of the Pillar Effective Institutions – will support the relevant Somali institutions to sustainably improve the availability, accessibility and quality of statistical information. The Stabilization/CRESTA Pillar Working Group equally is looking into the data availability on the district level. The focus of the new project is more likely to be on supporting he coordination aspects than on becoming an additional actor in the actual collection of data.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
13.1. Organize discussion with MoPIED/FGS and FMS planning ministries to initiate establishment of data base system 13.2. Support MoIPED to establish national wide data base and information system
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/12/19]
UNDP 2019/12 Completed Project closed History
14. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 14:  Facilitate the creation of a diversity of alliances

 

Enhancing the capacity to communicate and collaborate will build the ability to identify what government at state and federal level can do to help people to get on with their own development.  This would likely involve support to the creation of a diverse set of alliances, some formal some informal, that would be expected to continue such collaborative engagement after the end of the project period.  Public-private partnerships in small towns for water distribution is one example of a localized alliance.  The National Development Council is an example of one at the other end of the spectrum. 

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
14.1. Develop Synergies with other international partners and programmes 14.2. Support FGS/FMS to establish alliances forums to forward development agenda
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/16]
UNDP 2019/03 Completed UNDP Somalia is establishing a dedicated support team to assist the partners as well as the UNDP teams in the LoA management arrangements. This is not a project specific action and requires more corporate level intervention. History
15. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 15:  Require output achievement and reciprocal contributions in the LOA

 

A specific operational improvement would involve two changes in the LOA.  First, the LOA should be structured so that a theoretical maximum of support would be made available to a partner, which would be an individual agency at the Federal level, but should be the State Government at the sub-national level.  The utilization of such funds would be tied to the preparation of a series of specific requests for joint action on a problem identified by the partner.  Second, each request would require the specification of the output to be achieved and the level of the contributory obligation by the partner, which most likely would be in the form of committed staff time, facilities and equipment.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Partially Accepted.

 

The mutual accountability and result orientation parts of the recommendation are fully accepted. The LoA management arrangements at UNDP Somalia level are under review and issues concerning procedures, alignment with national systems and coherence in approach are being addressed to further strengthen this successful cooperation instrument. In line with global regulations concerning transfer of funds and based on HACT assessments, in the large majority of cases already the theoretical maximum of funds is advanced to be managed by the partners. However, each LoA has a defined partner and cannot be engaged on government level. UNDP Somalia is establishing a dedicated support team to assist the partners as well as the UNDP teams in the LoA management arrangements.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
15.1. Review and develop the LOA with UNDP Progamme assurance team 15.2. Develop LOA action/work plan for each partner to reflect the key outputs to be obtained with the resources provided by the project 15.3. Conduct Hact Assessment of all the partners
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/16]
UNDP 2019/08 Completed Advice taken on board. All processes observed with strict adherence to LPAC review, all LOAs have a clear workplan and all projects have to go through HACT assessments. History
16. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 16: Measure and compare costs at the activity level as a means of enhancing financial efficiency

 

As noted, only Puntland management provided evidence of what it cost to deliver the outputs agreed in each LOA.  This could have been more detailed, but it represents a good start.  The budget prepared for the proposed AIMS program is broken down to the activity level.  Resources budgeted for activity level use should always be fungible, but creating accounting codes at this level is a valuable step towards aiding efficient project management.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
16.1. Develop annual work plans with the partners and budget tracking system
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/09/16]
UNDP 2019/03 Completed Actions in the Finance Unit of the project have been taken to improve recording of transactions in Atlas as well as at the government level. History
17. Recommendation:

Recommendation No. 17: Create a high-level Third Party Monitoring mechanism

 

Any program that is operating in a FCAS needs continual feedback from a non-participant’s perspective.  The TPM currently used by UNDP cannot provide the sort of policy-informing advice needed.  The next program should incorporate a learning component that involves regular (perhaps quarterly) visits by a recognized academic body that has requisite understanding of FCAS development, federalism, and sub-Saharan Africa.

Management Response: [Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/29]

Management Response: Accepted.

 

While the present TPM do provide useful information concerning activity verification, it remains challenging to gain evidence for higher level result realization, especially when change in society are concerned. The new project will be endowed with the dedicated output (on M&E and Learning) to come to terms with the instruments that would be required to gain insight in change and be able to formulate responses to that change, should this be required. These ‘real-time’ feedback loops are an essential characteristic of agile management. However, instead of focusing on project management, the activity will focus on thematic areas where the government requires these feedback loops, both to steer its own action and to steer the project support arrangements.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
17.1 Initiate discussion with partners on having M&E and Learning output in the next phase of the project 17.2. Initiate M&E and Learning process implementation plan
[Added: 2018/02/23] [Last Updated: 2019/12/19]
UNDP 2019/12 Completed Project closed History

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