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City of Almaty Sustainable Transport
Commissioning Unit:Kazakhstan
Evaluation Plan:2016-2020
Evaluation Type: Project
Completion Date:11/2017
Unit Responsible for providing Management Response: Kazakhstan
1. Recommendation:

The project design of the CAST project is a city specific project. So much so, even the implementing agency for the project is the municipality of the city of Almaty. Due to this reason, there was minimal involvement of the central government of Kazakhstan (please see Section 3.1). Due to this, it became difficult (if not impossible) to address the issue / barriers relating to policy and regulations. For example, in the case of CAST project, a very important deliverable, ‘an improved version of the public services contract’ could not be worked out as this was in the jurisdiction of the central government. It is recommended that even in cases where the project is focused on a specific geographical area / city of a country, the government at the federal level should be effectively engaged in the execution of the project.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. Ministry for Investments and Development RK (MID) noted the importance of this PT reform highlighted during the implementation phase and introduces some changes during 2017. EBRD reported about intention to support the legal reform.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Transfer of all related documents to MID and presentation of the policy review report.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project MID RK 2017/11 Completed
Organization and delivery of Project Board meetings to discuss project progress, challenges and outcomes.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project staf 2017/11 Completed
2. Recommendation:

For the projects targeted at Urban Transport (or other urban infrastructure), there is very little scope of replication within a given city. For example, it is highly unlikely to have a number of LRT or BRT projects within a city. It is recommended that in such projects the design of the project should focus on other urban areas / cities for replication. The outreach and dissemination component of the project should be designed accordingly.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. This recommendation will be addressed to Regional Hub for portfolio management and to national partners (Ministry of Energy and Ministry for Investments and Development). Project transferred knowledge about preparation of pilots to other cities of Kazakhstan (Astana specifically) within other GEF project on sustainable cities and in frame of international conferences to address importance of such pilots of GHG mitigation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Transfer of the report to RTA, country office and discussion during final project board meeting (PB).
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Programme and project staff 2017/11 Completed
3. Recommendation:

In case of the CAST project, there is a mix up between the Outputs and Activities to be carried out as well as the indicators. Many of the indicators in this case are more of activities (rather than indicators of the achievements). Carrying out the activities doesn’t truly reflect the achievement of the desired Outcome. For example, if the desired Outcome is increased awareness level, organizing workshops, creating the website, etc. don’t indicate the achievement of the Outcome. The right indicator could be the percentage of targeted population having the targeted level of awareness. The level of awareness could be measured by a survey (at the baseline and end line). It is recommended that the indicators should be objective-oriented rather than activity-oriented.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. Travel habitat survey was conducted to understand level of awareness. Recommendation will be highlighted within colleagues from other transportation projects and with project board members.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Recommendation about set of reliable indicators will be addressed to other cities as part of recommendations and to the PB and discussed in frame of the final project conference.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project, UNDP CO 2017/11 Completed
4. Recommendation:

The timeframe assumed for implementation of the demonstration projects was not realistic. When it comes to the project goals for implementing the demonstration projects, the targets were a bit ambitious. It requires a number of time consuming sequential activities like carrying out the integrated transport plan, selection and detailing of the route, detailed engineering, detailed feasibility study, organizing the financing, acquiring the land and construction. The assumption that it would be possible to establish the urban transport infrastructure projects as demonstration projects within the implementation period of the project was unrealistic. This is one of the common problems with many GEF projects. This is considering that at times it is not possible to actually physically implement the basic infrastructure projects within the allowable timelines of four years for the GEF projects. It is recommended that in such cases for the future projects, only partial completion (e.g. funding and commitment organized for implementation of the demonstration project) may be considered as the target.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. Transportation projects like BRT and LRT, optimization of PT routes required huge investment and coordination of various agencies inside and outside of municipality. Recommendation will be delivered to Regional Hub and portfolio managers for design of other projects and will be discussed at the final conference.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Deliver of recommendation to portfolio manager and other cities.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
project staff 2017/12 Completed
5. Recommendation:

The demonstration project of the CAST project will get implemented only after the CAST project is closed. To ensure the benefits of the demonstration projects in terms of incorporation of good practices and lessons learnt in the replication projects, it is recommended that the process of dissemination of the results and lessons learnt from the demonstration projects be institutionalized. Also, it is recommended that towards the closure of the project a knowledge product be developed to capture all the good lessons learnt from the CAST project. Such a document also needs to be shared with the municipalities of other cities and other stakeholders.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. Project report will be presented in frame of CAST final conference as a basis for recommendations to other cities and as a case example for further SUMP guidelines development.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Preparation of LL report and presentation to stakeholders. Transfer of all project documents related to pilot projects to the public transport portal.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project staff 2017/12 Completed
6. Recommendation:

The problems of traffic congestion and the resultant air pollution are partially due to unplanned growth and development of cities. The unplanned growth in turn may be due to increase in urban population. It is important that urban planning (taking into account the projected population of a given city) be carried out and the urban transport plan needs to be an integral part of the urban plan. It is also important to plan for homogeneous development at an aggregate level (including urban, semi-urban and rural areas), so that the unnecessary rush towards the cities can be restricted. It is recommended that integrated urban transport planning be carried out in conjunction with the overall urban planning at the country level as well as for city planning.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. This land use and transport planning integration issue was addressed during several project events and will be highlighted during final CAST conference and ITMS project recommendations, as well as presented in the final report.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Delivery of recommendation to the project board and stakeholders (including Department of architecture and city planning).
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project 2017/12 Completed
7. Recommendation:

The CAST project missed out on the opportunity to address the issue of GHG emissions by focusing on the quality (standards) of fuels, standards of vehicles and driving habits. Fuel standards and vehicle standards are very effective means to address the underlying problem of GHG emissions and other air pollutants in urban areas. It is recommended that a separate project may be taken up based on the fuel standards and the vehicle standards

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23] [Last Updated: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. Fuel quality was out of project scope but discussed in general as limitation factor during preparation of energy efficiency report and other conferences.

 

 

CAST project addressed this issue (driving habits) partly via organizing eco-driving trainings for public transport drivers and auto school trainers and transferred training materials to the local training center/some of the recommendations were included in the energy efficiency report presented to the government in 2015. Training materials delivered to stakeholders. Eco-labeling workshop conducted and set of recommendations delivered to the Ministry of Energy. CAST project highlighted recommendation to foster implementation of the eco-labeling initiative to the Ministry of Energy.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Training materials, reports delivered to stakeholders. materials, reports delivered to stakeholders.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project staff 2017/11 Completed
8. Recommendation:

Kazakhstan is an oil rich country. Exploration of oil leads to production of lot of associated gas. Not very long ago, large amounts of this associated gas was being flared (in the absence of opportunity to evacuate and use the associated gas). From the national perspective and from the view point of reduction in the emission of GHG (both due to flaring of gas and due to use of fuel in the vehicles), it makes sense to encourage the use of natural gas / associated for transport needs. The use of natural / associated gas can be done either;

  • as compressed natural gas
  • indirectly in the form of electricity generated using the associated gas and using electrically operated vehicles. This will depend on the logistics and comparative cost economics of evacuating the gas viz. a viz. evacuating the electricity

after conversion of gas to methanol and use of methanol as fuel for the vehicles. This again will depend upon the volumes of gas, logistics and the comparative cost economics of the available options.

It is recommended that a detailed assessment may be carried out in this regard and the possibilities be explored. However, while exploring the option of use of gas as a transport fuel, the benefits of emission reductions (both GHG and air pollutants) can be fully realized only in cases where the vehicles with higher fuel efficiencies are used (please see recommendation 11 as well).

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. NAMA on compressed natural gas was designed by ADB and presented to government in 2016. OECD also conducted some studies related to financial incentives to introduce natural gas to the public transport operation. CAST project was a part of this consultation process. Some challenges and benefits of CNG as motor fuel will be discussed during the final training on GHG assessment in November.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Related studies could be recommended for further discussion and consultation with municipalities via “low carbon cities project”.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project staff, CO 2017/12 Completed
9. Recommendation:

The feasibility studies for the urban transport demonstration projects carried out under the CAST project had not considered advertisement as a source of revenue. Advertisement opportunities exist on the rolling stock, infrastructure and even on the printed tickets. The revenues due to advertisements can provide the desired sustained source of revenues for public transport operators, while at the same time reduce the cost of transportation. It is recommended that the municipality work out a comprehensive plan for advertisements on the public transport rolling stock and infrastructure. Advertisement as a source of revenue may also be considered for all the replications.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. Marketing of PT was recognized as a critical point for management reform proposed to Akimat/Municipality.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Delivery of recommendation in frame of project board meeting and final conference. Transfer of lessons learned reports to Department of Transport (Almaty Akimat/Municipality)
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Project staff 2017/12 Completed
10. Recommendation:

There was an initial delay in the start of the project implementation. It was due to time taken for staffing. The staffing took time as procedures are required to be followed in the process of recruitment of the staff. This is one of the common problems in many GEF projects, wherein the implementation timelines of the project generally do not have adequate provision for the time required for recruitment of the project team. One of the solutions to the problem could be, to identify the key members of the project team at the time of approval of the project.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. Recommendation will be transferred to the CO for application and reviewing HR procedure process.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Delivery of recommendation to related unit.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
CO staff 2017/12 Completed
11. Recommendation:

As evidenced from the estimation done under this assignment, the performance of CNG buses in Almaty (with average fuel efficiency of 66.8 m3/100 km) leads to higher GHG emissions compared to a baseline fleet of EURO V diesel buses. This is largely due to the fact that the CNG buses procured under the project do not meet the stringent fuel efficiency requirements. It is recommended that in case of fuel switching projects, the minimum energy efficiency levels of the rolling stock should be specified.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/11/23]

Accepted. This issue will be discussed and highlighted via recommendation during final training and addressed to municipalities for procuring CNG fleet.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Preparation of recommendation to the cities to address this challenge during design of new procurement standards.
[Added: 2017/11/23]
Programme and project staff 2017/12 Completed

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