Final evaluation Peace and Community Cohesion project

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Evaluation Plan:
2019-2021, South Sudan
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
05/2020
Completion Date:
04/2020
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
40,000

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Title Final evaluation Peace and Community Cohesion project
Atlas Project Number: 00102663
Evaluation Plan: 2019-2021, South Sudan
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 04/2020
Planned End Date: 05/2020
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Governance
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 3.2.1 National capacities strengthened for reintegration, reconciliation, peaceful management of conflict and prevention of violent extremism in response to national policies and priorities
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
SDG Target
  • 16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
Evaluation Budget(US $): 40,000
Source of Funding: Japan, Sweden, UNDP
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 29,696
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
John Kimote International Consultant kimanthij@gmail.com KENYA
Philip Deng National Consultant dengajang@yahoo.com
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: UNDP, Government of South Sudan, Donors - Japan, Sweden, and Civil Society
Countries: SOUTH SUDAN
Lessons
1.

Complementing dialogue mechanisms with interdependency initiatives is an effective approach for peace building and promoting social cohesion.


2.

Capacity building and use of the youth and women peace committees in dispute resolution and dialogue mechanisms seems to be showing evidence of success, especially when combined with issues that are of broad concern to communities like social and economic empowerment activities and SGBV and psychosocial support. Evidence suggests that there is an increased 40 awareness and acknowledgement of communities of the role of women in building peace and dialogue.


3.

Effective mobilization of youth is key to ensuring the effectiveness and sustainability of peace building initiatives since the youth are capable of spearheading the peace building process even when the older community is more hesitant to engage. An example is youth in Bentiu and Rubkona who engaged with the youth in the PoC and were trained together. Youth can play an important role to stop local level violence and conflict if they are properly integrated in peace committees.


4.

There is value addition in working with local CSOs and other partners whose capacity is strong and have a wider geographic reach. The local CSOs were able to reach far, and hard to reach areas, where security restrictions would not allow UNDP staff to reach.


Tag: Partnership

5.

While there is scepticism in dealing with the Government at the national level, working at the local level required cooperation and collaboration with all actors including local government structures such as the peace commission. Working closely and jointly with the Government structure at the local level proved more effective.


Tag: Partnership

6.

Inclusive peace committees were instrumental in achieving community peace and social cohesion through dialogues and dispute resolution mechanisms. To play this role there is need for capacity building especially on conflict management.


Tag: Knowledge management

7.

Most local level conflicts are driven by poverty and therefore, linking local peace building initiatives with livelihood or economic empowerment activities create better impact and community cohesion.


Tag: Food Security

8.

Implementing a project in a volatile security context calls for flexibility of approach by adapting work programmes to cope with changing needs and implementation realities.


Findings
1.

Relevance

Given the country context, intercommunal conflicts and security situations, along with the lack of capacities within national and local authorities to address conflicts or provide basic services; a focus on increasing local-level social cohesion, reducing the risk of inter-communal violence at the local-level through dialogue processes and mitigating the risk of future conflicts by creating local conflict management mechanisms was both appropriate and relevant. project responded to community needs by creating dialogue mechanisms, establishing processes, and implementing interventions appropriate for increasing local-level social cohesion, conflict resolution, and transforming conflict resolution into economic opportunities. The evaluation finds that the project was relevant and appropriate to the needs of targeted communities and supported linkages with national and UNCT priorities and contributed to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 16 (promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies) and 10 (“reduced inequalities within and among countries).


2.

Effectiveness

The project achieved most of the targeted results according to the set indicators as per the results framework. The project initiatives strengthened positive relationships among communities through dialogue mechanisms and interdependency initiatives; increased peaceful coexistence among community members by strengthening local and traditional mechanisms for addressing conflict; and supported policy frameworks and institutional mechanisms to ensure strengthened inclusion in management of intra and intercommunal conflicts and tensions. The evaluation showed that addressing conflict issues over natural resources and basic and necessary services through non-violent and collaborative processes, mechanisms, and instruments has increased the target communities’ peaceful coexistence and therefore succeeded in creating foundations for greater social cohesion.


3.

Efficiency

The project minimized the cost of maintaining its field operations through partnering with UNMISS and other UN agencies to reduce costs, specifically, occupying common grounds to share common services, utilizing UNMISS logistics especially air travel and bulk procurement of some goods like fuel. Contracts or grants were negotiated and UNDP local terms agreements were used to save time and resources and to consolidate procurement requirements and early planning. Using the conflict cluster approach instead of geographical boundaries and ongoing situation analysis ensured project resources were allocated according to priorities. Juba University NTLI deployed qualified South Sudanese nationals as facilitators of their 10-days transformational leadership, SGBV and peacebuilding training programs and this proved to be less costly compared to hiring international facilitators.


4.

Coherence

There was internal synergy created by working jointly with other UNDP projects such as Access to Justice and Livelihoods projects. To leverage on partnerships and comparative capacities/expertise, the project worked with partners at national, state and local levels such as South Sudanese Peace and Reconciliation Commission SSPRC, the Intergovernmental Authority on Governance and Development (IGAD)– Conflict Early Warning and Response System (CWERAR) (at national and local level), Bureau For Community Security and Small Arms Control (BCSSAC), local administration, (Chiefs, office of the governor etc.), COTAL, Juba university National Transformation Leadership Institute NTLI, specialized UN agencies, INGOs, CSOs, CBOs, FBOs and the private sector. These partnerships leveraged existing capacities in achieving common development outcomes specially to expand reach and coverage to areas inaccessible by UNDP.


5.

Sustainability

Most of the accrued benefits of the project including capacity building and increased confidence and attitude among the youth, men and women towards conflict resolution would continue to stimulate dialogue processes in the respective conflict clusters post project. The capacity building activities and knowledge passed on to the project beneficiaries enabled them to effectively continue participating in dispute resolution and community dialogues, and promoted a sense of social inclusion and participation. Through investment in the ToTs, the project facilitated the availability of, and access to these skills at local levels, which promote the sustainability of the project interventions and results. In addition, the majority of the identified and resolved conflicts were driven by social and economic factors including marriage related disputes, conflicts over water points and grazing land, rather than ideological or tribal factors. Sustainability of the results of these interventions can be expressed in terms of the continued benefits from interdependency initiatives such as continued provision of basic services projects. There has been community ownership of handed over infrastructure projects such as boreholes though a major challenge in sustainability of these projects is the lack of spare parts, technical skills and financial resources to manage the projects long-term. Though completed projects were handed over to the local communities through their elected management committees and cost recovery schemes established, there was lack of technical capacity to carry out servicing and maintenance of these infrastructures and therefore there was risk of breakdown and deterioration. The implementation of field activities through local NGOs, CSOs, and CBOs, as local partners, helped empower them to support conflict resolution and promoted the links and positive relationships between local NGOs, CSOs, and CBOs, local communities and leaders.


6.

Cross Cutting Issues

The PaCC project integrated the four principles of Human Rights Based Approach (Non-discriminatory, transparency, participation and accountability) in the implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes. Through capacity building initiatives and dialogue mechanisms led by peace committees, human rights abuse including abduction of girls and early forced marriages have significantly reduced. The project provided social and economic empowerment opportunities and support to the most vulnerable in the society (Youth, women, persons with disabilities and marginalized groups). Project initiatives/benefits were appropriately aligned and packaged to meet specific gender needs and priorities which is in line with the four priority areas of the UNDP gender equality strategy (2018-2021). There was Increased women participation in local and regional peace and development committees including increased participation of women in the national dialogue consultations and local dialogue meetings. Use of young South Sudanese women and girls as training facilitators by Juba University NTLI created an opportunity for others to look up to them as role models and mentors. It also empowered women by challenging traditional or idealized norms and negative masculinities that deny girls and women equal access to opportunities hence reducing their vulnerabilities.


Recommendations
1

Given the positive outcome accrued from the project, it is recommended that future projects and programmes of similar nature be given priority by UNDP. This successful model of reversing conflicts using dialogues and interdependency initiatives as a tool to social cohesion and peace needs scale up and to be replicated and transferred to other neighbouring geographical areas.

2

As part of capacity building, many community members benefited from Training of Trainers (ToTs) in various thematic areas such as SGBV and psychosocial Trainings. However, there was no mechanism put in place to cascade this knowledge and experience to other beneficiaries(trainees) or for peace committees to train and establish other peace committees at Payam and Boma level. The evaluation recommends planning and facilitation of such cascading mechanisms

3

SSPRC and BCSSAC have shown genuine commitment to support peace and social cohesion efforts. At the local level, staff of the commissions played a central role in the implementation of PaCC project. To ensure sustainability and to consolidate the gains, future programming should continue collaborating and enhancing their capacity especially creating awareness on the dangers of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW), Conflict Early Warning and Response Systems (CEWERS) and IGAD-Conflict Early Warning and Response Networks (CEWARN) and civilian disarmament strategy on policy control of small arms. There is also need to strengthen SSPRC capacity in line with its strategic role in the R-ARCSS

4

Different levels of peace committees were formed- for men, women and the youth. However, each group/committee seemed to be working in isolation. An effective coordination mechanism should be established for communication and to ensure the work of these different committees within an area complements each other

5

Ongoing situation analysis and mapping to inform strategic planning and implementation strategies should be conducted through a scientific and participatory approach involving all stakeholders at national and community levels. This will help identify some of the interlocking interests at national and subnational levels that instigate inter/intra communal conflicts

Management Response Documents
1. Recommendation:

Given the positive outcome accrued from the project, it is recommended that future projects and programmes of similar nature be given priority by UNDP. This successful model of reversing conflicts using dialogues and interdependency initiatives as a tool to social cohesion and peace needs scale up and to be replicated and transferred to other neighbouring geographical areas.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/25]

UNDP appreciates the recommendation and plan to scale up intervention through another phase of the Project.

 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Design PaCC Phase two project and looking for scaling up opportunities;
[Added: 2020/05/25]
PaCC Project Manager 2020/04 Completed PaCC Phase II design is completed History
Finance the project;
[Added: 2020/05/25] [Last Updated: 2020/05/27]
PaCC Project Manager 2020/04 Overdue-Initiated Funds for PaCC Phase II has been secured History
Implement the project
[Added: 2020/05/25] [Last Updated: 2020/05/27]
PaCC Project Manager 2024/12 Initiated Implementation of PaCC Phase II is on going History
2. Recommendation:

As part of capacity building, many community members benefited from Training of Trainers (ToTs) in various thematic areas such as SGBV and psychosocial Trainings. However, there was no mechanism put in place to cascade this knowledge and experience to other beneficiaries(trainees) or for peace committees to train and establish other peace committees at Payam and Boma level. The evaluation recommends planning and facilitation of such cascading mechanisms

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/27]

UNDP notes the recommendation of the evaluation team. The Phase II of the project will include cascading the peace committees and trauma volunteers to the Payam and Boma level. This will involve training also and especially using the TOTs.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Establish peace committees at Payam level on the second phase of PaCC project
[Added: 2020/05/27]
PaCC Project Manager 2020/12 Initiated Establishment of peace committees is on going. History
Use PaCC I trained peace committees, in collaboration with PaCC program staffs, to facilitate the training for the Payam level committees
[Added: 2020/05/27]
PaCC Phase II Project Manager 2020/12 Not Initiated The training of Payam level committees on trauma counseling will begin after COVID-19 is brought under control.
Document the progress and share the result for learning
[Added: 2020/05/27]
M&E Specialist 2020/12 Initiated Documentation will be captures in quarterly and annual reports
3. Recommendation:

SSPRC and BCSSAC have shown genuine commitment to support peace and social cohesion efforts. At the local level, staff of the commissions played a central role in the implementation of PaCC project. To ensure sustainability and to consolidate the gains, future programming should continue collaborating and enhancing their capacity especially creating awareness on the dangers of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW), Conflict Early Warning and Response Systems (CEWERS) and IGAD-Conflict Early Warning and Response Networks (CEWARN) and civilian disarmament strategy on policy control of small arms. There is also need to strengthen SSPRC capacity in line with its strategic role in the R-ARCSS

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/27]

UNDP has taken note of this recommendation.  The phase two project will reinforce the collaboration with SSPRC and BCSSAC to extend the result obtained in previous phase.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Strengthen the collaboration with SSPRC and BCSSAC in PaCC II, particularly on areas of conflict early warning and response and small arms control.
[Added: 2020/05/27]
PaCC Project Manager 2020/12 Initiated Strengthen the collaboration with SSPRC and BCSSAC in PaCC II is on going
Support work on strengthening conflict early warning system and civilian disarmament strategy within the first.
[Added: 2020/05/27]
Peace-building analyst 2020/12 Initiated Support work on strengthening conflict early warning system and civilian disarmament on going
4. Recommendation:

Different levels of peace committees were formed- for men, women and the youth. However, each group/committee seemed to be working in isolation. An effective coordination mechanism should be established for communication and to ensure the work of these different committees within an area complements each other

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/27]

UNDP appreciates the recommendation and will work to create synergy between these groups for collective result  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Document the different types of committees established during PaCC I in each conflict cluster and explore opportunities for collaboration during the PaCC II phase
[Added: 2020/05/27]
PaCC Project Manager 2020/12 Initiated The documentation of the different types of committees established ongoing
Strengthen the linkage and collaboration within these groups and with other partners to increase their influence
[Added: 2020/05/27]
PaCC Project Manager 2020/12 Initiated Strengthening of partnerships and collaboration on going
5. Recommendation:

Ongoing situation analysis and mapping to inform strategic planning and implementation strategies should be conducted through a scientific and participatory approach involving all stakeholders at national and community levels. This will help identify some of the interlocking interests at national and subnational levels that instigate inter/intra communal conflicts

Management Response: [Added: 2020/05/27]

UNDP will continue to conduct analysis and assessment   to inform programming.  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct at least one conflict analysis for previous clusters including the new location included in the Phase II project ; Expand the Social Cohesion and Reconciliation Index assessment to cover more states.
[Added: 2020/05/27]
National Conflict Advisor 2020/12 Not Initiated Ongoing of the context analysis is undertaken as implementation continues and conflict sensitive approaches are being adopted

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