Terminal Evaluation for Sustainable Transport in Egypt

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2018-2022, Egypt
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
05/2019
Completion Date:
10/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
25,000

Share

Document Type Language Size Status Downloads
Download document 3523_TOR STP TE_final.docx tor English 29.22 KB Posted 441
Download document 3523_Terminal Evaluation Report (1).docx report English 402.89 KB Posted 572
Title Terminal Evaluation for Sustainable Transport in Egypt
Atlas Project Number: 00045900
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2022, Egypt
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 10/2019
Planned End Date: 05/2019
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Governance
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.2.1 Capacities at national and sub-national levels strengthened to promote inclusive local economic development and deliver basic services including HIV and related services
SDG Goal
  • Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
SDG Target
  • 11.b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
  • 13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
Evaluation Budget(US $): 25,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 25,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Dalibor Kysela Evaluation Consultant dkysela@gmx.at
Rohini Balasubramanian Transport Advisor rohinib.lotus@gmail.com INDIA
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Terminal Evaluation for Sustainable Transport in Egypt
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-3
GEF Project ID: 2776
PIMS Number: 3523
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: EGYPT
Lessons
Findings
1.

FINDINGS

This section provides a descriptive assessment of the achieved results. In addition, several evaluation criteria are marked in line with the requirements for GEF Terminal Evaluations.

Analysis of the project results framework

The design of STP was based on the conceptualization and creation of pilot model demonstration projects to introduce and promote sustainable transport and urban mobility solutions to improve urban environment quality. Implementation of the pilot projects and the experience gained is expected to provide policymakers with experience and insight to develop and replicate similar sustainable transport interventions. One way of evaluating the quality of design of STP is to find out how the latter has been aligned to the “Avoid, Shift and Improve (ASI)” sustainable transport framework composed of the following three main avenues: - Avoid/Reduce - Shift/Maintain - Improve 

The design of STP Component 3 is in line with the Avoid/Reduce instrument and attempts to reduce the need to travel and the trip length through transport demand management approach. STP Components 1 and 2 are in line with the Shift instrument and seeks to improve trip efficiency. A modal shift from the most energy consuming mode (cars) towards more environmentally friendly modes such as NMT and public transport by high-quality buses). Although the latter also generate emissions, lower specific energy consumption per passenger/kilometer and higher occupancy levels imply that the associated CO2 emissions per passenger km will be lower compared to cars. The design of STP Component 4 is aligned to the Improve instrument and addresses the need to improve energy efficiency of freight transport and truck vehicle technology. A standard project results framework that was formulated at the time of project design outlines the project's overall objective and defines the project's outcomes and outputs. Furthermore, the results framework contains Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVIs) and their pre-project (baseline) as well as post-project (target) values that were selected for measuring the change in the indicators' values over time (from baseline to target values) and therefore for measuring the effectiveness of the intervention. Additionally, the results framework suggests verification sources for the OVI target values and assumptions for their achievement. As pointed out at the end of the previous section, the original project results framework consisted of 5 substantive outcomes and 27 substantive component outputs. The 6th outcome, consisting of 4 outputs, is related to monitoring, learning, adaptive feedback and evaluation. The complete project results framework as it was incorporated in the approved Project Document is provided as Annex 7 to this report. A number of modifications of the project log-frame were suggested at the time of the MidTerm Review (MTR) of the project. The 4th meeting of the Steering Committee was conducted on 13 March 2013 after receiving the MTR report. Modifications of the MTR were taken into consideration for preparation of the 2013 work plan that was presented to the meeting and approved by the PSC. The modified results framework is provided in Annex 7a. The indicators to determine the achievement of the Project results were fixed at the output level. However, in several cases there is a mix up between the outputs, indicators and activities as shown on the examples in Table 4 below.

In addition to the above, there were few outputs in the original results framework, that were found too ambitious to achieve. For example, there was a plan to establish semi-public authority to coordinate development of public transport systems (Output 5.3) and another authority to enforce parking policies (Output 5.4). The results framework suggested background studies for the two agencies and establishment of the agencies as the target indicators to measure the success in the achievement of the two outputs. These targets are in fact only the first and last milestones in the establishment process. Since a long and complicated process of approval by relevant central and local authorities is needed for establishment of new agencies, it is not realistic to expect going from the very first to the very last milestone within the project.The target values of indicators did not have time value hence it was anticipated that all will be implemented by the end of the project. This is conceptually not correct in case sequential implementation of outputs is necessary. For example, the last outputs under the Outcomes 1, 2, and 3 called for collection of experience from implementation of the new public transport services (Output 1.4), from use of the NMT corridors (Output 2.5) and from experience with operation of new TDM measures (Output 3.6). In all these cases it was implicitly expected that the establishment of the new transport services, NMT corridors and TDM measures would be completed sometime before the end of the Project. However, there was no time indication in the targets to measure the achievement of the outputs. 


Tag: Effectiveness Results-Based Management Risk Management Theory of Change

2.

Lessons from other relevant projects incorporated into project design

The project design took a lesson from the case of the earlier attempt on hydrogen fuel cell bus project in Egypt. In contrast with the latter, GEF funds for STP were not requested for subsidizing major “high-tech” demonstration fleets, but mainly for technical assistance activities and for sharing the costs and/or risks of selected pilot activities demonstrating, to the extent possible and depending on the type of measure to be promoted, the potential for full cost recovery. STP was in the first batch of GEF projects on promotion and support for sustainable transport and hence no experience from implementation of sustainable transport projects in other countries was available at the stage of STP inception.


Tag: Effectiveness Global Environment Facility fund Communication Knowledge management Capacity Building Technology Advocacy Technical Support

3.

Replication approach

The selected project strategy of the project was to focus initially on relatively small pilot initiatives in order to overcome the identified barriers first at the smaller scale. By building on the results and demonstrating early success, STP planned to facilitate and address their effective expansion and replication as well as the broader institutional and sector development needs.

UNDP comparative advantage

UNDP is well equipped to help the recipient countries to address the transition to more inclusive and sustainable growth pathways. On the substantive side, UNDP's specific strengths include a proven ability to influence policy and develop capacity through its focus on policy-based and cross-sectoral approaches and collaboration with a wide range of local stakeholders (e.g. the central, regional and municipal governments and general public). Furthermore, UNDP's strength is anchored in the thematic focus on poverty reduction, propoor economic policies and environmental sustainability. Hence, the organization has tools to support countries in pursuing a balanced inclusive and sustainable growth patterns.

In Egypt, UNDP has built a very good reputation with diverse stakeholders including institutions of the Government of Egypt, the Governorates and municipality self-governments. The high esteem had helped in the inception phase of STP and involvement of UNDP in the project was found very conducive for facilitating access to and cooperation with diverse partners and stakeholders in the implementation phase. In general, UNDP's comparative advantage to other donor agencies is the role of knowledge management broker, i.e. in accumulation of first-hand experience from implementation of similar projects. As already pointed above, there was not much information from similar projects implemented abroad for inclusion into STP. However, given the delays in implementation of STP due to the period of political instability, UNDP could have used the time-lag for collection and sharing of experience from implementation of urban transport projects in other countries for the benefit of STP.

Linkages between project and other interventions within the sector

STP was built upon results of earlier interventions in the transport sector. In the design phase, it was built upon the vision of transformation of urban transport that was articulated in the “Greater Cairo Urban Transport Master Plan” (CREATS), prepared under support of JICA in 2002. The plan supported approaches to implementing a safe and environment-friendly transport system that would significantly reduce carbon emissions, offer an economically effective urban transport system, and provide equitable mobility for all transit users. Furthermore, STP design was affected by the “Proposed Urban Transport Strategy for Greater Cairo” that was prepared by the World Bank in 2006. This study provided an assessment of the urban transport system in Greater Cairo, identified the most pressing urban transport problems, and proposed a framework for urgent policy actions and investment priorities as a basis of a formal transport strategy to be adopted and implemented by the authorities of the metropolitan area of Cairo. The design of the project was linked to another study funded by JICA, namely the “Strategic Urban Development Master Plan Study for Sustainable Development of the Greater Cairo Region”. This study that was prepared for the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (MoHUD) and completed in 2008, emphasized the importance of integrating effective and balanced urban development with development transportation development outlined balanced urban development and formulating an implementation scheme for priority development corridor(s). 


Tag: Energy Green Economy Local Governance Partnership Programme Synergy Strategic Positioning Country Government Private Sector Technical Support

4.

Management arrangements

The project was executed in line with the established UNDP procedures for National Implementing Modality (NIM). The executing agency of STP was the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) following the UNDP national execution arrangements. In executing the project, the EEAA responsibility was to ensure the liaison and co-ordination with the other ministries and city administrations and the agencies and authorities under them, which had a stake in STP. The UNDP Country Office (CO) in Cairo assumed a role of the Supplier - being the GEF Implementing Agency represented in the country. It was responsible for monitoring and ensuring proper use of UNDP-GEF funds to assigned activities, timely reporting of implementation progress as well as undertaking of mandatory and non-mandatory evaluations and audits. In this context, UNDP provided necessary backstopping to ensure proper implementation progress and provided feedback to various products and documents from the Project and ensured the project results to be in line with overall objectives as well as GEFUNDP requirements.The day-to-day management of the project was carried out by a Project Management Unit (PMU) under the overall guidance of the Project Steering Committee (PSC). PMU was established within the premises of the executing agency, EEAA, for the convenience of reporting to EEAA and the PSC and was led by a full-time Project Manager that had been selected jointly by the executing agency and UNDP, in consultation with the UNDP/GEF Regional Co-ordination Unit. The Project Manager provided administered the project funds and payments to the different beneficiaries according to UNDP procedures and regulations The Project Steering Committee was established to oversee and supervise project planning and implementation processes monitor STP progress, to guide the Project implementation and to support the Project in achieving targeted outputs and outcomes. PSC membership included the CEO of EEAA, the Project Director, a representative of the UNDP CO, one representative each from the main stakeholder ministries (MoT, MoHUD, MoI, MFA) and of the Governorates of Fayoum and Menoufia

The evaluators consider the established managerial arrangements adequate for the size of the project. However, considering the level of complexity of the project, the role of the cooperating line ministries, such as Ministry of Transport and Ministry of Housing in STP implementation was not sufficient. As a result of the agreed managerial arrangements, EEAA assumed responsibility for delivery of all project results, even for outputs that were mostly within responsibility of the other ministries (particularly sunder Components 3 and 4). Despite consultations with the cooperating ministries took place, their respective roles in the project implementation were not prominent enough to ensure smooth and steady progress towards delivery of project results.


Tag: Effectiveness Global Environment Facility fund Implementation Modality Oversight Project and Programme management Country Government

5.

Project finance

According to the Project Document, the GEF grant was approved at 6,900,000 US$ and together with expected co-financing at 37,100,000 the total funding required for the project was 44,000,000 US$. Table 5 displays dynamics of STP implementation by years of the project implementation period. Table 5: STP expenditures by years of the implementation period (US$)

The STP expenditures by years demonstrate relatively continuous spending patterns. Lower expenditures in 2011-2013 reflect the period of political instability and an adaptive strategy of implementation that focused on conduct of feasible office and field work (technical studies, design of training courses, etc.). Once the Government was able to take implementation decisions the spending increased. Table 6 below provides comparison of the planned and actual expenditures by STP outcomes. 


Tag: Global Environment Facility fund Government Cost-sharing Private Sector Financing Local Governance Operational Efficiency Project and Programme management Risk Management

6.

Monitoring and evaluation: design at entry and implementation

M&E design at project entry

The Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) Framework is in details described in the Project Document. The Framework consisted of the Project Inception Workshop, meetings of the Project Steering Committee, quarterly and annual Project Implementation Reports as well as a Mid-Term Review and a Terminal Evaluation. Responsibility for day-to-day monitoring of was given to PMU based on the project's Annual Workplan and its indicators. Periodic monitoring of implementation progress was the responsibility of the the UNDP-CO through meetings with PMU would allow the two parties to take stock and troubleshoot any problems pertaining to the project in a timely fashion and ensure smooth implementation of project activities. Annual monitoring was planned through a tripartite review conducted by PMU, UNDP-CO and UNDP-GEF RTA. The evaluators found the M&E plan in the Project Document was well articulated and sufficient to monitor results and track the progress toward achieving the objectives, except for some issues with the logframe discussed above. Also, the budgetary allocations for the M&E activities were found adequate. The evaluators concluded that design of STP M&E Framework followed the standard M&E frameworks for projects of this size and complexity and therefore rate it Highly Satisfactory (HS).


Tag: Global Environment Facility fund Monitoring and Evaluation Oversight Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Results-Based Management Theory of Change

7.

UNDP and implementing partner implementation / execution

STP had followed the management arrangements presented in the Project Document that were based on a common scheme for project management arrangements under the UNDP National Implementation Modality (NIM). The National Implementing Partner role had been assigned to EEAA that later signed a MoU with DRTPC to become the Responsible Party assisting the National Implementing Partner with delivery of project results. UNDP Country Office had provided overall programme, administrative, and financial oversight of the project progress in accordance with the common UNDP procedures and tracking tools. The STP management arrangements had been properly established and ensured UNDP's accountability for results and the use of GEF resources, while at the same time they had fostered national ownership of the Project and its alignment to national need and priorities. The EEAA had duly fulfilled its role of the National Implementing Partner and had provided overall guidance and leadership for soliciting support of key officials at various levels of the Governments as well as raising the STP profile in the country. PMU under the auspices of EEAA in close collaboration with UNDP CO had applied adaptive management approaches during the period 2011-2013 when the project was affected by the unstable political situation in the country. 


Tag: Coherence Relevance Global Environment Facility fund Implementation Modality Ownership Project and Programme management Quality Assurance Strategic Positioning Capacity Building Technical Support

8.

OVERALL RESULTS (ATTAINMENT OF OBJECTIVES)

The information presented in this section has been sourced from numerous project implementation reports and verified with information collected through interviews of key informants during the evaluation field missions to Egypt and various reports of national technical consultants to the project. The list of documents consulted is provided as Annex 5 to this report.

Relevance

The questions to be discussed under this section are to what extent is the Project linked to national development priorities and how is it in line with GEF and UNDP operational programs and strategic priorities under which the project has been funded? STP is closely linked to several studies undertaken by the Government of Egypt related to sustainable transport. The Greater Cairo Urban Transport Master Plan (CREATS), funded by JICA, has articulated its vision of sustainable urban transport. The plan elaborates approaches to implementing a safe and environment-friendly transport system that would significantly reduce carbon emissions, offer an economically effective urban transport system, and provide equitable mobility for all transit users. CREATS had provided several recommendations that were elaborated in subsequent studies. In 2008, the Government has followed-up with preparation of the Strategic Urban Development Master Plan Study for Sustainable Development of the Greater Cairo Region, funded by JICA. The study was prepared for the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (MoHUD) with the aim to formulate a master plan for comprehensive urban development in the GC metropolitan area and develop infrastructure for public transportation while considering impacts on land use and involuntary resettlement. In 2010, the World Bank funded the Proposed Cairo Urban Transport Strategy & Priority Program, prepared for the Ministry of Housing and the World Bank in 2010. This document provided short- and medium-term priorities that included development of public transport systems, traffic management, sustained funding for transport improvements and institutional strengthening.


Tag: Relevance Global Environment Facility fund Local Governance Country Government SDG Integration

9.

Effectiveness & Efficiency

The principal questions to be discussed in this section are whether and how the project outcomes as well as its objective have been achieved and whether the project results have been delivered with the least costly resources possible. The further text will also highlight positive and negative, foreseen and unforeseen changes and effects produced by the project intervention. In the series of tables below, the project results and achievements have been summarized and compared against the target indicators listed in the projectâ's logical framework. The initial information about the project results/achievements was extracted from the projectâ's PIRs and verified and updated through interviews and meetings held during the evaluation mission to Egypt. Additional information was supplemented from the project-related documentation provided by the project team. Each table below contains an overview of the actually achieved project results in bullet points followed by a short narrative with additional insight and details on how and how the results have been achieved. At the end, the narrative also explains the basis for rating of each project outcomes. The text following each table summarizes some important facts related to the project results that could not be captured in the tables but were considered important for the argumentation of the rating of the outcomes. 


Tag: Emission Reduction Clean Energy Green Economy Effectiveness Efficiency Global Environment Facility fund Local Governance Monitoring and Evaluation Results-Based Management Service delivery Theory of Change Country Government Technical Support Private Sector

10.

Effectiveness & Efficiency (continuation)

Output 2.1: DRTPC conducted urban surveys including detailed sidewalk inventories in Shebin El-Kom and Fayoud cities during fall 2010. Based on the inventories, DRTPC prepared three sidewalk upgrade scenarios including cost estimates for consideration of the local authorities. The scenario of only upgrading damaged sidewalks to the level of adjacent good sections was finally chosen with the cost estimated at around 8 million EGP in each of the two cities. Protocols for implementing two pilot projects for constructing non-motorized transport corridors for walking and cycling in the two cities were signed between the Ministry of Environment and the Menofia and Fayoum Governorates in April 2014 and September 2014, respectively. In order to ensure local ownership, there was a condition of 50% contribution of each of the two Governorates. For developing and upgrading the infrastructure and the utilities in the network of roads in the pilot project, Menofia Governorate agreed to contribute with more than 20 million EGP against 4.5 million provided from the project budget and exceeded the 50% requested costsharing condition. As the Fayoum Governorate could not make the cost-sharing contribution, the project made considerable efforts to mobilize co-funding for the pilot implementation through approaching the Social Fund for Development (SFD) and leveraged financial assistanceof 2.6 million EGP from SFD against 4.75 million EGP from STP. 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Impact Small Grants Programme Communication Knowledge management Quality Assurance Results-Based Management

11.

Effectiveness & Efficiency (continuation)

Output 3.1: Formulation of this output is too general and inconsistent with the project logframe. 

Output 3.2: DRTPC elaborated a “park-and-ride” business model and prepared for implementation at the newly constructed bus terminals in Sheikh Zayed and 6th October cities. The pilots on alternative corridors in different cities could not be implemented due to lack of interest of the respective local regulatory activities. 

Output 3.3: The aim of this pilot was to complement modernizing the existing tram service on segregated lines with a bus priority system at Moustafa El-Nahas major arterial line in Cairo. STP conducted survey works and prepared a design outline for the bus priority system at traffic signals in Moustafa El Nahas corridor as well as RFP for international companies to provide detailed design, supply, installation and maintenance of the system. Although the Cairo Governorate was initially supportive to this pilot, later they changed their mind as they abandoned the tram service and wanted to use the tram segregated line for buses. Therefore, the Cairo Governorate did not provide an official approval to the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) to proceed with tendering for this pilot project.


Tag: Clean Energy Green Economy Effectiveness Efficiency Local Governance Results-Based Management

12.

Effectiveness & Efficiency (continuation)

Output 4.1: As pointed out above, the overambitious original output on adoption of legal and regulatory changes and incentives was replaced by a more realistic new output. DRTPC prepared a report on recommendations (excluding those relating to infrastructure) in previous transport studies from 2000-2012 to improve national freight transport on road, rail and river and submitted to the Minister of Transport for further discussion on sustainable transport priority measures that can be supported by EEAA. The essence of the report was a typological analysis of recommendations from 16 different studies on freight transport produced during the focus period. It was for the first time such analysis was conducted and submitted to the Ministry of Transport with the aim to raise awareness on the importance of the previous studies' full use. There was no response from the Ministry hence it can't be concluded whether any positive change was achieved as a result of this effort. Another group of national experts from the Cairo University conducted a study on estimation of the truck energy consumption, GHG emissions and air pollution in urban areas of Egypt and submitted a concise report in October 2018.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Local Governance Knowledge management Monitoring and Evaluation Policies & Procedures Results-Based Management Country Government Urbanization Capacity Building Private Sector

13.

Achievement of the Project Objective:

The Project development goal was to reduce the growth of the energy consumption and the related greenhouse gas emissions of the transport sector in Egypt, while simultaneously mitigating the local environmental and other problems of increasing traffic such as deteriorating urban air quality and congestion. The STP immediate objective was to create an enabling policy and institutional environment and to leverage resources for sustainable transport sector development, including an increased or sustained modal share of public and non-motorized transportation, reduced use of private cars and more energy efficient freight transportation by: 

- Demonstrating a concept for new, integrated, high-quality public transport services (to exert a shift from private cars) for Cairo and its satellite cities that is successfully introduced and replicated on the basis of concessions to private operators under city authority supervision; - Increasing and sustaining the modal share of non-motorized transport in middle-size provincial cities; - Successfully introducing Transport Demand Management (TDM) concepts with an objective to expand more aggressive TDM measures over time to effectively discourage the use of private cars, when good-quality public transport services are available; - Improving energy efficiency of freight transport; and - Strengthened institutional capacity to promote sustainable transport sector development during and after the project. It is clear from the discussion in the Effectiveness section above that with the exception of the energy efficiency improvements in freight transport the other parts of the STP immediate objective have been achieved to a great extent.


Tag: Emission Reduction Clean Energy Green Economy Efficiency Global Environment Facility fund Government Cost-sharing Private Sector Financing Local Governance Results-Based Management

14.

Sustainability

Institutional framework and governance: The institutional sustainability of the project activities is judged by the commitment of key project stakeholders to replicate the project activities after completion of the project. STP activities under Outcome 5 has created core group of young professionals from 17 cities committed to implementation of sustainable transport principles. In addition to building of capacities of this group, STP had also provided limited support to networking between the trainees. Through training of engineers and chemists on measuring and modelling emission factors and provision of two sets of on-board measuring equipment the Project has established a sound institutional base at EEAA and the Central Laboratory for future periodic updating of the measurements and calculations of traffic emission factors. Rating of institutional framework and governance sustainability: Likely (L) 


Tag: Sustainability Partnership Service delivery Country Government Capacity Building

15.

Progress to impact

According to the Project Document, STP was expected to produce cumulative, direct GHG reduction resulting from the implementation of the proposed sustainable transport concepts as several well as national and local benefits in terms of reduced local air pollution and congestion, improved public transport services, economic costs savings at the national level, and improved and safer facilities for NMT. Replications of the high-quality bus service have been the most tangible national and local benefits of STP. The replications have been achieved owing to the private bus operator participating in the STP pilot (Mwasalat Misr) and public sector authorities, namely the New Urban Communities Authority (NUCA) and the Sheikh Zayed City municipal government. Mwasalat Misr has already achieved the following replications of the STP concept of highquality bus lines: - Two new bus lines in Cairo that connect two main squares in Cairo with the Cairo International Airport; - Bus lines in New Cairo under a new contract with NUCA that operate as direct line to Cairo with a park & ride facility in the newly constructed bus station in New Cairo; - New bus line in Giza along the same principle of the direct line of the present Pilot.


Tag: Emission Reduction Results-Based Management Service delivery Advocacy Capacity Building Clean Energy Impact Private Sector Financing Local Governance Knowledge management Monitoring and Evaluation Partnership

16.

Key factors that affected implementation and outcomes

Project design: A thorough preparation process provided STP with a solid technical base. The GEF PDF-B grant together with decisions and assessments undertaken by the Government constituted the basis for the project. With involvement of DRTPC in the preparatory phase, STP had a local champion that was able to provide high quality technical input into the preparation and implementation phases. STP had been approved in the first batch of GEF-financed sustainable transport projects. Therefore, at the time of the STP design, there was not much experience available from previous similar projects on urban transport in other countries. Although the project design team had anticipated that for successful reorganization of the urban transport service it was necessary to promote several legislative, institutional, and management changes at the national, regional and municipal levels, the implementation reality showed that such legislative and institutional changes were either not possible or were too slow, and STP implementation was affected by the fragmented institutional framework for urban transport in the country.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Global Environment Facility fund Local Governance Monitoring and Evaluation Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Results-Based Management Risk Management Technical Support

17.

(Continuation from Finding 6)

Feedback from M&E activities used for adaptive management

The discussion under this section is based on observations whether the logical framework was used during implementation as a management and M&E tool and the extent to which follow-up actions, and/or adaptive management were taken in response to monitoring reports (APR/PIRs). As discussed above, MTR highlighted challenges for implementation of the Project and provided total of 7 recommendations summarized in Table 8 below. Table 8: List of MTR recommendations. The most important effect of MTR was the request for extension of the Project by two years until the end of 2015 (Recommendation 5) and suggestion to revise the Project logframe targets (Recommendation 6). The Project results framework revision suggested by MTR is provided as Annex 7a to this report. While the Outputs under Components 1 and 2 remained unchanged, MTR suggested adjustments of the design of Output 3.2 and substantive changes in several Outputs under Components 4 and 5. MTR suggested to delete the original Output 4.1 that required policy and regulatory changes as well as the original Output 4.4 that envisaged construction and use of intermodal terminal facilities. The MTR Report did not provide justification for the deletion of the two outputs. It appears that MTR found Output 4.1 not achievable since the introduction and approval of legal and regulatory changes for energy efficiency of freight transport would require concurrence with numerous other stakeholders not directly involved in the implementation and therefore would be a lengthy process reaching far beyond the project implementation period. Output 4.4 was found outdated as there was no need for construction and use of two new intermodal terminals (substantive details provided in the section Effectiveness and Efficiency below). MTR suggested to introduce two new outputs, namely a comprehensive review and analysis of national freight transport studies for the last 15 years (new Output 4.1) and reporting on importance of inter-modality in freight transport (new Output 4.4). 


Tag: Efficiency Monitoring and Evaluation Policies & Procedures Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Results-Based Management

18.

Effectiveness & Efficiency (Continuation from Finding 9)

Output 1.2: In 2012-2013, DRTPC conducted routing studies and bus ridership surveys for a total of seven new bus lines in the 6 th October, Sheikh Zayed and Dreamland cities taking into consideration all necessary features of a high-quality bus service and targeting upper-middle and high-income population segments of the new cities. The suggested transit designs of the new lines link selected residential areas of the target beneficiaries with major attractions (e.g. shopping malls) and university facilities in order to ensure sufficient bus ridership for the new lines. The transit designs were discussed with and approved by the relevant local authorities in the new cities. Following the successful conduct of public tendering under the previous output the new lines in the 6 th October and Sheikh Zayed cities are prepared for commissioning pending completion of the construction works on the bus terminals, garage depots and bus stops. 

Output 1.3: In 2012, DRTPC completed a study on five feeder bus line designs serving Saraya El Koba and Maadi Metro stations and presented the designs to the Traffic Engineering and Planning Department of the Cairo Governorate. The Governorate delayed the decision about the progress towards commissioning was hampered by an unresolved question of regulatory mandate and authority between the central and local governments and was put on hold by the Cairo Governorate until the new Agency for Regulating Urban Transport in Greater Cairo, established under the Ministry of Transport, becomes operational. The core of the regulatory question is that the mandate of the new agency in relation to the mandate of the Cairo Transit Authority (CTA) has not yet been specified and announced. This situation was persisting for a number of years and was unchanged at the time of the evaluation mission.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Service delivery Urbanization Environmental impact assessment Challenges

19.

Effectiveness & Efficiency (Continuation from Finding 10)

Outputs 2.5 and 2.6: No work was conducted under these outputs. Not in the STP logframe: In August 2017, a Protocol for implementation of a new bikesharing pilot project was signed between EEAA, the Fayoum Governorate and the Fayoum University and STP launched a local tender for a bike-sharing scheme in Fayoum City. The best bidder (the Baddel Company) was awarded a contract for supply, installation, operation and maintenance of the bike-sharing scheme. The scheme will include 100 bicycles and 12 terminal points (6 in the University, 4 in the city and 2 near the bus stations). The scheme was not yet operational at the time of the evaluation mission. Due to the shortage of project funds and upcoming completion of STP, the duration of the contract had to be reduced from 12 to 6 months initial period and after STP closure it will be handed over to the Fayoum University. STP negotiated assistance of GEF/SGP Programme in Egypt in order to continue support of participation of local NGOs the initiative once STP is completed. Although many warrants are still requested by the University, it will be an example to follow, and the University should be urged to make the effort to encourage other Universities to replicate.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Resource mobilization Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming

20.

Effectiveness & Efficiency (Continuation from Finding 11)

Outputs 3.6 and 3.7: No reports were produced. The VMS system of the current Pilot is designed to allow expansion to serve other parking facilities in Cairo and any other city in the country upon installation of sensors and electrical cabinets are installed in the new parking facilities and of VMS sign posts in the related new locations. The current system also allows operation and control of the new VMSs from the existing OCC room without the need to have separate additional OCC rooms. After the success of the STP pilot, similar VMSs for off-street parking facilities were installed at the entrances to the premises of the Egyptian Shooting Sports Club (owner of 4 parking lots) and another replication of the same VMS has been implemented to display traffic information on one of the major freeways in Egypt. Moreover, VMS sign posts have been installed and operated after the STP pilot to inform about parking space availability at the entrances of the Dream Pegasus Club and the Mall of Egypt shopping center. However, the latter two applications are less sophisticated than the STP pilot because they inform only about free parking spaces in the parking garages but not about directions how to reach them. No reports planned under these two outputs were produced. 


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Local Governance Project and Programme management Results-Based Management Technology Urbanization Private Sector

21.

Effectiveness & efficiency (Continuation from Finding 12)

Output 5.1: For implementation of this output, DRTPC conducted a comprehensive survey and analysis of the existing cars in Greater Cairo in order to identify representative samples in terms of vehicle age, engine capacity, etc., and selected ten loops on the road network that represented various local driving conditions. An on-board measurement equipment was purchased for EEAA and the Central Laboratories and measurements were conducted on about 100 cars of several types. The obtained data were subject to quality-assurance and analysis and three reports were produced as a result of the survey. In 2014, after ADF/FFEM representatives visited the DRTPC Transport Programme at Cairo University, they decided to allocate part of the budget of their project to finance a new study for on-board measurement and modelling to determine emission factors of buses, microbuses (informal shared taxis) and goods vehicles in Greater Cairo, driven by diesel engines. The ADF/FFEM project also provided an on-board measuring equipment suitable for diesel engines for EEAA and the Central Laboratories. It was the first time ever EEAA and the Central Laboratories had acquired the two types of measuring equipment. In 2018, another study on determination of emission factors from urban freight transport was completed under funding from the STP budget. All three studies used the same methodology for measurement and calculation. The calculated emission factors were integrated in the Egypt's Third National Communication Report to UNFCCC. Determination of emission factors of CO2 and pollution emissions CO, HC and NOX for cars and taxis in GC was conducted for the first time ever in Egypt. This allows EEAA not to depend on imported models of emission estimation calibrated in other countries where vehicle conditions, driving behavior and traffic flow characteristics are different than those prevailing in GC. Hence, this provides EEAA with robust information base for proper assessment of pollutant emissions as foundation for development of countermeasures and mitigation policies. DRTPC trained 44 EEAA and Central Laboratory engineers and chemists on measuring and modelling emission factors. EEAA continues financing of the regular maintenance of the onboard measuring device and periodic updating of emission factors utilizing the training provided in the present component.


Tag: Energy Effectiveness Efficiency Local Governance Knowledge management Quality Assurance Technology Urbanization Capacity Building

22.

Effectiveness & Efficiency (Continuation from Finding 13)

Country ownership: As discussed above, STP is fully aligned with the national development priorities and plans of the Government of Egypt for the transport sector. Despite numerous changes of senior officials during the project timeframe, sustainable transport development remains high amongst priorities of the central and regional Governments as well as the municipalities. Regarding the ownership of the project by the key project stakeholders, there are issues largely originating from the implementation of the Project. EEAA assumed a key role in implementation of the entire project in line with the National Implementation Modality and consequently developed a very strong ownership of STP not only by the Agency itself but also by the Ministry of Environment. On the other hand, there was only a limited role for other key stakeholders, namely MoT and MOHUD and the Governorates. Their respective roles in the STP implementation were limited to the participation in the Project Steering Committee and to conclusion of individual MoUs with EEAA for implementation of specific project activities. The latter operational agreements were instrumental for securing commitment to Outputs under the Components 1 and 2 that had been fully taken on board by the Ministries and Governorates. However, although the key project stakeholders had agreed with all STP Outputs and Outcomes at the project inception stage, later some of them changed their position and were no longer fully committed to implementation of some Outputs under Components 3 and 4. This was the case of the HQ bus feeder lines, micro-pedestrian zones and bus priority lines in Greater Cairo under Outcome 3 and the legal and regulatory changes related to freight transport policy measures and freight transport intermodal terminal facilities under Outcome 4. Regarding the capacity building for strengthening national institutional capacities for ST sector development, there were also reported challenges in getting response from some cities to the invitation to the training and reluctance of senior engineers and staff to approve participation of young engineers to attend the training.


Tag: Energy Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Integration Ownership Poverty Reduction

23.

Progress on Impact (Continuation from Finding 15)

The above facts demonstrate the value of public-private partnerships for promotion and replication of ST concepts. There is no doubt that private sector is much more flexible and can make decisions about introduction of new public transport services and extension of the existing ones quickly. The STP pilot was instrumental in designing incentives for private bus operators in terms of out-of-fare-box revenue generation. There is a specific role for public entities in the partnerships, namely monitoring of the new services since the quality of the services will be the decisive factor upon which will depend the retention of the services. Successful operation of the VMS parking system in the Cairo Central Business District is another result of STP that has already produced a tangible impact. Introduction of the onstreet parking ban in Cairo CBD is directly related to the success of the STP pilot. The ban was a long- awaited TDM measure that reduced traffic congestion in the central area of Cairo. The STP VMS pilot demonstrated that introduction of such uncompromising parking policy measure was possible due to the professional design and implementation of the complementary parking management. Further impact will depend on efforts of the Cairo Governorate top officials and chief engineers for replication of the STP pilot by simply encouraging owners and operators of major off-street parking facilities located out of the CBD to join the current VMS system.

There was also impact of the training programme for young Urban Planning Engineers that learned principles of sustainable transport as a follow-up to the training programme, DRTPC invited 9 engineers who had proven top of their training classes to two workshops organized by international organizations in Cairo. Four of the participants of the STP training reportedly applied some of the acquired knowledge on sustainable transport and contributed to ST measures in their respective cities.One example of the indirect impact of the STP training was the initiative of the Director of Urban Planning in Kafr El-Shaikh, the capital of Kafr El-Shaikh Governorate, for relocation of the old bus terminal station from the inner city to its peripheries in order to avoid traffic congestions and reduce noise. Also, a bicycle lane was established on a main street on the same city. This initiative is being replicated in other cities of the Kafr El-Shaikh Governorate, e.g. Baltim. Other examples of the indirect impact of the ST training component are as follows: - Moving old transport terminal station from inner city to city periphery in El Mahalla Al Kobra; a major city in the middle of Delta. - Moving old transport terminal station from inner city to city periphery in Tanta, the capital city of El Gharbia Governorate. - Moving old transport terminal station from the inner city to the periphery in Luxor city (in upper Egypt).


Tag: Impact Partnership Service delivery Urbanization Awareness raising Capacity Building Private Sector

24.

FINDINGS (Continuation from Finding 1)

Risks and assumptions

The Project Document identified the main risks for STP those closely related to the institutional and public perception barriers that have prevented the transport sector to develop measures that had been recommended before for development and/or enforcement in practice. The strategy for addressing these risks under STP is to focus initially on relatively small pilot projects that have a small number of key stakeholders. Successful implementation of these small pilot initiatives would create foundations for addressing the institutional, public awareness and perception barriers on a broader and expanded scale.


Tag: Challenges Efficiency Operational Efficiency Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Risk Management Private Sector

Recommendations
1

UNDP and EEAA should find ways to further support technical and capacity building support for improvements in the freight transport sector. Studies and reports on the freight transport produced by STP should be presented to relevant donors such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and to private sector associations in order to mobilize necessary funding

2

GOE and UNDP should find financial support for wider dissemination of experience and results from the demonstration pilots.

3

UNDP in cooperation with the GOE should support extended monitoring of parameters needed for calculation of CO2 emission reductions originating from STP.

4

UNDP in cooperation with EEAA should ensure that the technical and informational materials prepared by the project, are posted on the website of a relevant agency of the Government and eventually create a dedicated part of the website related to sustainable transport.

5

UNDP in cooperation with GEF/SGP and the Fayoum University should collect experience from the initial phase of the bike-sharing scheme in Fayoum City and find a mechanism for sharing the experience with other universities in Egypt.

6

For preparation of projects with components on infrastructure building, UNDP should consider less ambitious targets (e.g. completion of technical work and commitment of financing) that do not include actual completion of infrastructure works.

7

UNDP should carefully select concrete topics and areas for projects supporting broad national agendas and limit the support to a smaller number of topics/areas that are inter-related or reinforce each other and that have the strongest ownership and commitment by relevant stakeholders. Hence, in hindsight, it would have been preferable to limit the project scope to the parts of with the strongest ownership and commitment of relevant national stakeholders.

8

For implementation of complex projects, UNDP and Government of Egypt should consider a matrix project implementation structure with more national implementing partners and assign implementation responsibility according to substantive mandates of the national implementing partners.

9

UNDP should not include under the future projects procurement events that depend on involvement of multiple decision makers and are not under full control of the project implementing teams.

10

Recommendation 10 UNDP should ensure that target indicators in the results framework have timeframes for achievement and that a risk mitigation plan is included in all project documents.

11

Recommendation 11: For future transport projects, UNDP should use the M&E and Reporting Guidelines to ensure that gender is properly monitored and reported on throughout the projects’ implementation.

1. Recommendation:

UNDP and EEAA should find ways to further support technical and capacity building support for improvements in the freight transport sector. Studies and reports on the freight transport produced by STP should be presented to relevant donors such as the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and to private sector associations in order to mobilize necessary funding

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Freight transport component was the less successful in the project.  The freight transport studies have been presented to Ministry of Transport.  UNDP will source for interested donors to fund such activities.  

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. Present fright transport studies to relevant stakeholders
[Added: 2019/11/04]
UNDP 2019/07 Completed
1.2. Source for interested donors to fund activities
[Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/08/12]
UNDP/Ministry of Environment 2020/03 Completed UNDP tried to source for donors to fund freight transport studies but there was no interest and accordingly the case is considered closed History
1.2. Source for interested donors to fund activities
[Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/08/12]
UNDP/Ministry of Environment 2020/03 Completed UNDP tried to source for donors to fund freight transport studies but there was no interest and accordingly the case is considered closed History
2. Recommendation:

GOE and UNDP should find financial support for wider dissemination of experience and results from the demonstration pilots.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP has consulted with Ministry of Environment next steps to build on the results of the pilot projects.  Ministry of Environment has requested to handover deliverables of the bus component to Ministry of Housing.  Accordingly, UNDP has agreed with UNHABITAT to build on the deliverables within their urban mobility project with NUCA, Ministry of Housing.  Meanwhile, the Ministry of Environment is interested to continue with the promotion of the bike sharing programmes in the Egyptian Universities and requested to mobilize funds for replication and upscaling probably through a new project with UNDP

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. Project team to finalize documentation of tips and lessons learnt to support replication of pilot projects to hand over to implementing partners
[Added: 2019/11/04]
UNDP/EEAA 2019/12 Completed
2.2 Handover deliverables of the bus component to UNHABITAT urban mobility programme with NUCA, Ministry of Housing to link with urban mobility programme
[Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/08/12]
UNDP/EEAA 2020/03 Completed UNDP shared with UNHABITAT and Ministry of Housing the experience with the bus component. The bus pilot project was inaugurated in February 2020 in presence of Ministers of Environment and Housing. A documentary video was prepared summarizing the experience gained and knowledge developed from work on this component that was shown in the event History
2.3 UNDP to source donor support for the expansion of the bike sharing programme
[Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2021/04/14]
UNDP/EEAA 2020/10 Completed UNDP has approached the Embassy of the Netherlands and acquired some funds to complete the demonstration of the first bike sharing programme. Resource mobilization efforts will continue after the successful demonstration of the pilot bike sharing scheme History
3. Recommendation:

UNDP in cooperation with the GOE should support extended monitoring of parameters needed for calculation of CO2 emission reductions originating from STP.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Estimation of GHG emissions reductions from transport projects is one of the most complicated sectors.  However, UNDP will work with the Fourth National Communication Report Project team and other climate change capacity building initiatives with the Ministry of Environment to utilize the data generated from STP to utilize in the development of an MRV system for modal shift from private cars to buses in Egypt and bike sharing

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 Handover STP deliverables to Climate Change Central Department in EEAA and Fourth National Communication Project team
[Added: 2019/11/04]
UNDP/EEAA 2019/11 Completed
3.1 Handover STP deliverables to Climate Change Central Department in EEAA and Fourth National Communication Project team
[Added: 2019/11/04]
UNDP/EEAA 2019/11 Completed
4. Recommendation:

UNDP in cooperation with EEAA should ensure that the technical and informational materials prepared by the project, are posted on the website of a relevant agency of the Government and eventually create a dedicated part of the website related to sustainable transport.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

In coordination with the Ministry of Environment, technical and information products of the project will be disseminated to relevant government and non-government stakeholders

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 Disseminate project technical documents to relevant stakeholders
[Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/08/12]
EEAA 2020/03 Completed All project technical documents and knowledge products are handed over to the EEAA and EEAA sent documents to relevant stakeholders History
5. Recommendation:

UNDP in cooperation with GEF/SGP and the Fayoum University should collect experience from the initial phase of the bike-sharing scheme in Fayoum City and find a mechanism for sharing the experience with other universities in Egypt.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Ministry of Education has announced in August 2019 about a national programme to promote cycling in all Egyptian universities.  STP efforts have developed a model that Ministry of Higher Education can replicate in other universities. It is planned that SGP will support the new bike sharing scheme for at least one year until the scheme is fully operational and reaches self-financing.  After one year of operation the scheme will be assessed, and lessons learnt will be documented to be used to promote replication in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Higher Education

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 GEF SGP project proposal to be prepared and approved by the NSC
[Added: 2019/11/04]
UNDP/SGP-GEF 2019/11 Completed
5.2 Inaugurate the bike sharing scheme in Fayoum
[Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/08/12]
EEAA/UNDP 2020/03 Completed The bike sharing scheme in Fayoum was inaugurated in Feb 2020 History
5.3 Evaluate the bike sharing scheme after on year of operation to share results and lessons learnt
[Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2021/04/14]
UNDP/SGP 2020/11 Completed The operation of the bike sharing scheme was intermittent since its launch in March 2020 because of pandemic crisis and the frequent close down of the university or shift to online classes. Hence evaluation after one year was not viable option History
6. Recommendation:

For preparation of projects with components on infrastructure building, UNDP should consider less ambitious targets (e.g. completion of technical work and commitment of financing) that do not include actual completion of infrastructure works.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Construction of infrastructure under UNDP NIM projects is sometimes challenging but sometimes it cannot be avoided as an essential part of the pilot and complete demonstration

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
No action needed
[Added: 2019/11/18]
N/A 2019/11 Completed
7. Recommendation:

UNDP should carefully select concrete topics and areas for projects supporting broad national agendas and limit the support to a smaller number of topics/areas that are inter-related or reinforce each other and that have the strongest ownership and commitment by relevant stakeholders. Hence, in hindsight, it would have been preferable to limit the project scope to the parts of with the strongest ownership and commitment of relevant national stakeholders.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

The evaluation confirmed the relevance of STP outputs/outcomes and its alignment with national priorities.  The ownership and commitment by relevant stakeholders is evident in the supporting letters at the project design phase.  Despite the full support that the project received from senior government officials, the implementation experience has clearly showed the need for the GEF project to remove the barriers towards the realization of the planned outputs/outcomes.  Today it is acknowledged that the efforts of the STP team were successful in removing large barriers that blocked investment in some aspects of sustainable transport.  The evaluator comments might be valid that the scope of project could have been limited to one or two components to enable more concentration of efforts

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
No action needed
[Added: 2019/11/18]
N/A 2019/11 Completed
8. Recommendation:

For implementation of complex projects, UNDP and Government of Egypt should consider a matrix project implementation structure with more national implementing partners and assign implementation responsibility according to substantive mandates of the national implementing partners.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Point noted.  Nevertheless, it has to be noted that there are institutional gaps in several of the transport issues addressed by the project where it did not fall under the mandate of any agency.  Hence the project strategy was meant to implement a successful pilot projects that will encourage the relevant institutions to assume responsibility for these activities and expand later on.  It can be claimed that the technical assistance provided by STP has succeeded in several cases to engage national authorities to assume responsibility for new transport interventions in Egypt that are originally out of their mandate such as the establishment of Transport Unit in the New Urban Communities Agency  (NUCA)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
No action needed
[Added: 2019/11/18]
N/A 2019/11 Completed
9. Recommendation:

UNDP should not include under the future projects procurement events that depend on involvement of multiple decision makers and are not under full control of the project implementing teams.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

It is true that procurement that are not under full control of the project can be delayed and hamper achieving outcomes  of GEF projects. However, allowing government to issue contracts under NIM is actually instrumental in removing regulatory and institutional barriers towards sustainability and replication of outputs.  Hence, these types of contracts may delay implementation but certainly have other benefits in particular facilitating replication and upscaling

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
No action needed
[Added: 2019/11/18]
N/A 2019/11 Completed
10. Recommendation:

Recommendation 10 UNDP should ensure that target indicators in the results framework have timeframes for achievement and that a risk mitigation plan is included in all project documents.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/11/04] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Point noted and should be considered in the new GEF projects

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
No action needed
[Added: 2019/11/18]
N/A 2019/11 Completed
11. Recommendation:

Recommendation 11: For future transport projects, UNDP should use the M&E and Reporting Guidelines to ensure that gender is properly monitored and reported on throughout the projects’ implementation.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/11/17] [Last Updated: 2021/04/15]

Point noted and gender will be properly monitored and reported in future UNDP transport projects while we do not have any current plans for any new transport projects

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
No action needed
[Added: 2021/04/15]
N/A 2020/12 Completed

Latest Evaluations

Contact us

1 UN Plaza
DC1-20th Floor
New York, NY 10017
Tel. +1 646 781 4200
Fax. +1 646 781 4213
erc.support@undp.org