Independent Country Programme Evaluation: Kosovo (UNSCR 1244)

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2018-2021, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
12/2019
Completion Date:
12/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
35,000

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Title Independent Country Programme Evaluation: Kosovo (UNSCR 1244)
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2021, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2019
Planned End Date: 12/2019
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.1.2 Marginalised groups, particularly the poor, women, people with disabilities and displaced are empowered to gain universal access to basic services and financial and non-financial assets to build productive capacities and benefit from sustainable livelihoods and jobs
  • 2. Output 1.2.1 Capacities at national and sub-national levels strengthened to promote inclusive local economic development and deliver basic services including HIV and related services
  • 3. Output 1.2.3 Institutions and systems enabled to address awareness, prevention and enforcement of anti-corruption measures to maximize availability of resources for poverty eradication
  • 4. Output 1.4.1 Solutions scaled up for sustainable management of natural resources, including sustainable commodities and green and inclusive value chains
  • 5. Output 2.1.2 Capacities developed for progressive expansion of inclusive social protection systems
  • 6. Output 2.2.3 Capacities, functions and financing of rule of law and national human rights institutions and systems strengthened to expand access to justice and combat discrimination, with a focus on women and other marginalised groups
  • 7. Output 2.3.1 Data and risk-informed development policies, plans, systems and financing incorporate integrated and gender-responsive solutions to reduce disaster risks, enable climate change adaptation and mitigation, and prevent risk of conflict
  • 8. Output 3.2.2 National and local systems enabled and communities empowered to ensure the restoration of justice institutions, redress mechanisms and community security
  • 9. Output 3.3.1 Evidence-based assessment and planning tools and mechanisms applied to enable implementation of gender-sensitive and risk-informed prevention and preparedness to limit the impact of natural hazards and pandemics and promote peaceful, just and inclusive societies
Evaluation Budget(US $): 35,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 35,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Alan Fox Chief of Section
Paul Georis Evaluation Consultant
Daniele Pedretti Evaluation Consultant
Silvana Rusi Evaluation Consultant
Tianhan Gui Research Consultant
Gedeon Djissa Research Consultant
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: KOSOVO
Lessons
Findings
1.

2.1 Good governance and rule of law

Finding 1. A coherent package of UNDP interventions has strengthened the strategic, legal and institutional anti-corruption framework, significantly contributing to progress made in recent years regarding the reporting and investigation of corruption cases. 


Tag: Effectiveness Sustainability Anti-corruption Civic Engagement e-Governance Justice system Local Governance Parliament Rule of law Human and Financial resources Knowledge management Monitoring and Evaluation Ownership Policies & Procedures Policy Advisory Technical Support

2.

Finding 2. UNDP helped establish a framework for addressing domestic violence in Kosovo, through successful joint programming with other UN agencies.


Tag: Coherence Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender-Based Violence Women's Empowerment Civic Engagement Election Human rights Justice system Local Governance Rule of law Health Sector Joint UN Programme Partnership Policies & Procedures UN Agencies Capacity Building Advocacy Policy Advisory Technical Support

3.

Finding 3. UNDP made important contributions to safety and security in Kosovo, with particularly noteworthy progress made on the investigation of gun crimes. 


Tag: Effectiveness Relevance Civic Engagement e-Governance Human rights Justice system Rule of law Knowledge management Policies & Procedures Extremism Security Capacity Building

4.

Finding 4. UNDP interventions have contributed to a new approach to the missing persons issue in Kosovo, however progress in resolving the issue has been limited.


Tag: Coherence Effectiveness Civic Engagement Justice system Parliament Public administration reform Rule of law Knowledge management Partnership Civil Societies and NGOs Capacity Building Policy Advisory Technical Support

5.

Finding 5. There was a high level of continuity across the inclusive and sustainable growth area, with new activities usually linking to results achieved under previous programmes. Several interventions were expanded after being successfully piloted. 


Tag: Effectiveness Sustainability Gender-Based Violence Anti-corruption Civic Engagement e-Governance Justice system Rule of law Health Sector Joint UN Programme Policies & Procedures Promotion of dialogue Inclusive economic growth

6.

2.2 Inclusive and sustainable growth

Finding 6. UNDP interventions contributed to the objectives of the outcome area and were in line with Kosovo’s priorities. Changes in the focus of a principle donor forced a narrowing of planned deliverables.


Tag: Agriculture Effectiveness Relevance Government Cost-sharing Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Local Governance Policies & Procedures Private Sector Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Trade and Development Youth Policy Advisory

7.

Finding 7. UNDP’s long-standing support to Kosovo on employment policy continues to produce significant results. However, the capacity of the Employment Agency remains weak and is insufficient to meet the challenges ahead.


Tag: Effectiveness Impact Gender Equality Women's Empowerment e-Governance Donor relations Knowledge management Capacity Building Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Youth Coordination Policy Advisory Technical Support

8.

Finding 8. UNDP interventions have helped create jobs and income opportunities for local communities by strengthening coordination and cooperation among stakeholders. 


Tag: Agriculture co-operatives Effectiveness Civic Engagement Local Governance Partnership Capacity Building Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods Micro-credit Coordination Technical Support

9.

2.3 Resilience and environmental sustainability

Finding 9. Despite Kosovo suffering from environmental pollution and degradation of natural resources, environment and climate change have not been included among the top priorities of the National Development Strategy, and UNDP has been constrained by the special status of Kosovo in generating external funding for a robust environmental project portfolio. 


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Emission Reduction Adaptation Fund Energy Environment Policy Natural Resouce management Water resources Effectiveness Relevance Global Climate Fund Global Environment Facility fund Local Governance Parliament Health Crises Resilience

10.

Finding 10. UNDP has taken an inclusive approach to implementing DRR activities in Kosovo, yet project results have been limited and are highly vulnerable due to continued ethnic tensions and political mistrust. DRR and response is further compromised by insufficient funding, and low administrative capacity at central and local government levels. 


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Natural Disaster Effectiveness Efficiency Sustainability Resource mobilization Civic Engagement Local Governance Human and Financial resources Ownership Promotion of dialogue Social cohesion Advocacy

11.

2.4 Gender mainstreaming

Finding 11. The UNDP Kosovo office achieved good results in mainstreaming gender equality in programme design and implementation, contributing to improving gender equality and women’s empowerment.


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Environment Policy Effectiveness Impact Relevance Gender Equality Gender Mainstreaming Women's Empowerment Civic Engagement Local Governance Rule of law Policies & Procedures Programme/Project Design Project and Programme management Capacity Building Inclusive economic growth Jobs and Livelihoods

12.

2.5 Results management

Finding 12. While UNDP Kosovo should be credited for developing a comprehensive results framework in line with the UN Strategic Plan 2014-2017, the indicators and targets chosen do not capture the reality of the results achieved with UNDP support, nor are they appropriate for measuring the programme's contribution to achieving the SDGs.


Tag: Relevance Women's Empowerment Justice system Local Governance Monitoring and Evaluation Results-Based Management Theory of Change Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

13.

2.6 Portfolio coherence

Finding 13. While the UNDP programme is well aligned with the priorities of the Kosovo Government and the current UNDAF, some portfolios appear fragmented and unbalanced, reflecting funding difficulties and highlighting over ambitious CPD objectives and targets. 


Tag: Coherence Effectiveness Efficiency Donor relations Programme Synergy Results-Based Management Strategic Positioning Theory of Change Technical Support

14.

2.7 Joint programming and inter-agency cooperation

Finding 14. There have been encouraging examples of projects implemented jointly by UN agencies, despite constraints due to Kosovo’s status and limited engagement from UN specialist agencies.  


Tag: Coherence Effectiveness Gender Equality Gender-Based Violence Women's Empowerment Justice system Health Sector Joint UN Programme Partnership Project and Programme management UN Agencies UN Country Team Youth

Recommendations
1

Recommendation 1. To expand its funding base in response to development needs, UNDP should look to new partnerships and alternative financial sources. While endeavouring to expand cooperation with the European Union, UNDP should redouble its efforts to access alternative sources of funding via the private sector and development banks. 

With the decline in bilateral aid to Kosovo, UNDP is increasingly at risk of not being able to achieve the necessary critical mass to deliver meaningful interventions. Existing political obstacles are not likely to change in the short term, so UNDP will need to increase donor support for UNDAF priorities while accessing new funding sources.

Participating in regional projects like the Global Environment Facility funded Drin River Basin Project may present opportunities, and the Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States regional hub should expand its efforts to involve Kosovo in regional activities. Stronger cooperation with other UN agencies could strengthen UNDP’s strategic influence and programming opportunities. 

While endeavouring to expand cooperation with the EU, UNDP should redouble its efforts to access alternative sources of funding, via the private sector and development banks. It is worth noting that the European Investment Bank signed a Framework Agreement with Kosovo in 2013, and has also signed a memorandum of understanding with UNDP (2017) to boost cooperation between the two institutions. UNDP and the European Investment Bank intend to cooperate to support the SDGs and address global challenges by leveraging the private and philanthropic sectors and utilizing a broad range of financial instruments.

2

Recommendation 2. UNDP should continue to emphasize gender equality and women’s empowerment and strive to integrate more gender-sensitive activities across its portfolio of projects. Interventions that specifically target women and challenge the norms, roles and relationships between men and women that perpetuate gender inequalities and discrimination should be scaled up, drawing on innovative models from other UNDP programmes. 

Considering the large gender gaps in Kosovo in many areas (education, employment, entrepreneurship, politics), UNDP should continue to vigorously promote gender equality and women’s empowerment through the implementation of its programme. Interventions that specifically target women and challenge the norms, roles and relationships between men and women that perpetuate gender inequality and discrimination should be scaled up, drawing on innovative models from other UNDP programmes. Pressure on central level institutions must be maintained to integrate the gender dimension into all major public policies.

3

Recommendation 3. UNDP should continue its efforts to enhance governance at central and local levels, through anti-corruption policies, safety and security, and increased attention to other important rule of law issues. UNDP should consider mobilizing advice and expertise to help develop policy frameworks in other rule of law areas, for instance addressing the informal economy, money laundering, terrorist financing and economic crime. 

UNDP is well positioned to work with Kosovo institutions to maintain progress on anti-corruption reforms at all government levels. Further support for law enforcement institutions in the implementation of the Anti-Corruption Strategy and related legislation should be considered. Some of the crucial issues, such as the absence of asset confiscation, could be addressed as a priority before the adoption of the anti-money-laundering strategy. UNDP should seek to cooperate with the EU on monitoring results, as the fight against corruption remains a major priority for the EU, with the 2018 EU progress report raising concerns about the functionality and capacity of anti-corruption institutions. Cooperation with the EU should focus on transparency and accountability in governance, with greater involvement of civil society and citizens in detecting and reporting corruption. 

UNDP’s experience supporting municipal governments in neighbouring countries, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia, provide interesting models for promoting accountability and transparency in the design and implementation of local policies, improving local government service delivery and financial management, and improving energy efficiency in public buildings and services. 

4

Recommendation 4. While continuing its current support frame for employment institutions, UNDP should consider complementary interventions in the field of vocational education and training and adult education to improve the effectiveness of employment policies. Over the long term, responsibility for implementing employment policies should transfer to national authorities, allowing UNDP to focus more on strategic aspects and design and evaluation activities. 

UNDP’s long-standing support in the area of employment has yielded valuable results in terms of job creation and income generation, with measures well-targeted towards people from disadvantaged groups. Given the limited capacity of local employment agency branches, it is essential that this support be maintained.

Emphasis should also be placed on improving the quality and relevance of vocational education and training, especially with courses focusing on raising the educational level and employability of young people, women and long-term unemployed. 

Although many strategies and instruments developed with UNDP support are now part of the Ministry of Labour and the Employment Agency’s toolbox, some management responsibility continues to rest largely with UNDP. Over the long term, responsibility for implementing employment policies should transfer to national authorities, allowing UNDP to focus more on strategic aspects and design and evaluation activities. In the interim, UNDP should continue its capacity-building efforts, particularly at the local level where many employment counsellors of retirement age will need to be replaced. UNDP should commence developing its exit strategy, enabling national structures to develop over time and assume full responsibility. 

Finally, as part of the donor coordination dialogue, UNDP should promote better coordination among the various donors that support employment and income generation in Kosovo. 

5

Recommendation 5. Employment and livelihood support in rural areas should be pursued and extended to encompass wider territories, with grant support for larger partnership-based projects promoting higher income opportunities in selected value chains. 

UNDP is supporting local government efforts to increase and sustain employment and livelihoods in rural and remote areas. These initiatives deserve to be scaled up into a programme that covers a whole region and encourages wider inter-municipal cooperation. Following stakeholder consultations, UNDP expertise should be mobilized to help participating municipalities analyse the potential for local development platforms, with a grant component established to help rural food producers, as well as manufacturers, move up the value chain and access new markets.

6

Recommendation 6. UNDP should promote integrated measures combining education, employment and social welfare to fight poverty and social exclusion, with emphasis on women and youth. 

Effective social inclusion and poverty reduction policies require addressing the needs of target groups in a comprehensive manner. Building on the results of the Youth for Kosovo Project, UNDP should encourage cooperation among responsible authorities to design and implement integrated measures in the field of education, employment and social welfare to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged groups, giving priority to women and young people. Given UNDP’s track record at the local level, pilot projects should be developed in selected municipalities to test new approaches, while addressing administrative and legal obstacles with central authorities to ensure mainstreaming of successful schemes. 

7

Recommendation 7. UNDP has an important role to play in Kosovo in strengthening administrative capacity for environmental policy implementation and disaster risk reduction at central and local level, but this will require much more substantial funding than at present. 

UNDP should make efforts to expand its cooperation with local civil society organizations to advocate for raising awareness on the importance of environmental protection. Long-term projections suggest that without policy change, economic growth and development may have serious unintended consequences for natural resources and ecosystems across Kosovo. UNDP should advocate for green growth and an economic model that fosters “economic growth and development, while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which our well-being relies”

UNDP-supported efforts to prepare local disaster risk plans with local communities need continuity and a strong commitment by central and local institutions to be sustainable. Moreover, the predominantly urban focus of DRR support should widen to encompass more rural municipalities. 

It is not expected in the short term that Kosovo will have access to vertical financing mechanisms such as the Global Environment Facility and Green Climate Fund, yet Kosovo can benefit from these funds indirectly through participation in regional transnational programmes. UNDP Kosovo should continue cooperating with sister agencies in neighbouring countries to maintain these opportunities, while approaching other donors and exploring alternative funding mechanisms to significantly increase the budget available for the sector. The UNDP team should examine the current composition of the environment portfolio, analyse what factors hindered the achievement of planned results in the current CPD, and determine the possible resources (core, cost sharing, bilateral/multilateral resources, vertical funds, private sector, etc.) to expand the portfolio. 

Given the poor air quality in the capital and its impact on citizens’ health, the next CPD should have a strong focus on air pollution. UNDP should work with central and local institutions to develop strategies and implement innovative pilot projects designed to reduce air pollution in Pristina and other cities in Kosovo with air quality issues. As part of a multi-year plan for air pollution abatement, UNDP could assist the government in areas such as ambient air quality monitoring, strengthened emission limits and increased enforcement. Pilot projects could address specific pollutant problems, for instance support to households to replace obsolete coal boilers with cleaner and cheaper heating systems.

8

Recommendation 8. The results framework for UNDP’s work in Kosovo should include better defined indicators capturing the real effects of UNDP interventions, with targets better adjusted to the size and scope of the programme portfolio.

More guidance and quality control at all stages are needed to strengthen future results frameworks to better reflect and report on UNDP’s achievements in Kosovo and the overall contribution of the programme to the SDGs. Monitoring and evaluation practices should be enhanced at project level, with better links between project and country programme levels. The possibility of adjusting the results framework as the portfolio takes shape should also be considered. 

1. Recommendation:

Recommendation 1. To expand its funding base in response to development needs, UNDP should look to new partnerships and alternative financial sources. While endeavouring to expand cooperation with the European Union, UNDP should redouble its efforts to access alternative sources of funding via the private sector and development banks. 

With the decline in bilateral aid to Kosovo, UNDP is increasingly at risk of not being able to achieve the necessary critical mass to deliver meaningful interventions. Existing political obstacles are not likely to change in the short term, so UNDP will need to increase donor support for UNDAF priorities while accessing new funding sources.

Participating in regional projects like the Global Environment Facility funded Drin River Basin Project may present opportunities, and the Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States regional hub should expand its efforts to involve Kosovo in regional activities. Stronger cooperation with other UN agencies could strengthen UNDP’s strategic influence and programming opportunities. 

While endeavouring to expand cooperation with the EU, UNDP should redouble its efforts to access alternative sources of funding, via the private sector and development banks. It is worth noting that the European Investment Bank signed a Framework Agreement with Kosovo in 2013, and has also signed a memorandum of understanding with UNDP (2017) to boost cooperation between the two institutions. UNDP and the European Investment Bank intend to cooperate to support the SDGs and address global challenges by leveraging the private and philanthropic sectors and utilizing a broad range of financial instruments.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

UNDP Kosovo is actively exploring opportunities for new strategic part- nerships and alternative financing by engaging with international financial institutions, the EU, Kosovo Institutions, the private sector and diaspora. In its capacity as technical lead for the UNKT Socio-Economic Response Plan to COVID-19, and based on UNDP’s Programmatic Offers, the UNDP Kosovo office will deploy leading international expertise both to support its efforts in enriching the government’s economic recovery programme with partic- ular emphasis on green recovery, digitization and social protection, and will seek to partner with international financial institutions, the private sector and other development partners in mobilizing alternative financing.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1. Establish an Innovation & Digitalization Team to identify best practices and innovative financing opportunities for UNDP Kosovo
[Added: 2020/12/23]
UNDP Kosovo Programme 2020/02 Completed Ecosystem mapping of key actors in innovation and alternative finance conducted with support of UNDP Istanbul Regional Hub’s Innovation Team & Alternative Finance Lab to identify potential partnerships and approaches. Roundtable on alternative finance organized with key players.
1.2. Crowdfunding initiative in response to COVID-19
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2020/06 Completed The crowdfunding campaign was piloted in response to immediate needs for testing kits and 3-D printing of face shields.
1.3 Conduct Problem Space exercise on UNKT Socio-Economic Response Plan to COVID-19
[Added: 2020/12/23]
UNDP Programme 2020/06 Completed With support the Innovation Team of UNDP Regional Hub, the problem space methodology was applied to 1) de?ne an intent and identity of the UNDP Kosovo as a technical lead for the UNKT Socio-Economic Response Plan (SERP), 2) articulate the problem space structures on the development areas in relation to COVID-19 in Kosovo, 3) map the immediate and long-term response offers, and 4) analyze the SERP based on the mapping, identifying gaps and needs in the offers.
1.4 Conduct Development Finance Assessment and Development Financing Roadmap for Kosovo
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/30]
UNDP Kosovo programme, supported by Geopolicity 2020/10 Completed The DFA was fully completed in March.2021 History
1.5 Develop recommendations for Building Back Greener in consultation with IFIs, other development partners, and Kosovo Institutions
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/30]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2020/12 Completed The measures for increasing the green dimensions of Kosovo's economic recovery to COVID.19 were completed in December 2020 History
2. Recommendation:

Recommendation 2. UNDP should continue to emphasize gender equality and women’s empowerment and strive to integrate more gender-sensitive activities across its portfolio of projects. Interventions that specifically target women and challenge the norms, roles and relationships between men and women that perpetuate gender inequalities and discrimination should be scaled up, drawing on innovative models from other UNDP programmes. 

Considering the large gender gaps in Kosovo in many areas (education, employment, entrepreneurship, politics), UNDP should continue to vigorously promote gender equality and women’s empowerment through the implementation of its programme. Interventions that specifically target women and challenge the norms, roles and relationships between men and women that perpetuate gender inequality and discrimination should be scaled up, drawing on innovative models from other UNDP programmes. Pressure on central level institutions must be maintained to integrate the gender dimension into all major public policies.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

UNDP Kosovo will continue to promote women’s political and economic empowerment, and mainstream gender in a balanced manner throughout its programme. In addition, UNDP Kosovo will ensure that projects and programmes are designed in a gender-sensitive manner and include gender-disaggregated indicators and targets. Initiatives such as empow- ering young women who aspire to politics, with support of experienced women politicians as their mentors, over the last year was one of the most effective leadership and innovative interventions. Specific attention as we go forward will be given to women’s economic empowerment, and access to social and legal services in our efforts to Build Back Better and respond to COVID-19 impacts.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Projects indicators and targets are gender-sensitive and gender-disaggregated throughout the entire UNDP Kosovo programme
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2025/12 Initiated Maintain 30% for women beneficiaries for interventions related to institutional reform; maintain 50% criteria for women beneficiaries for all interventions related to economic empowerment History
2.2 Access to justice for women
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2025/12 Initiated Ensure a minimum of 30 percent women’s participation in institutional events and strive for 50 percent of women beneficiaries for project interventions. The interventions will entail design and implementation of advocacy campaigns on mediation as an effective dispute resolution mechanism, through development of information materials and outreach activities throughout Kosovo. A manual on mediation will be developed and distributed to 350 judges and prosecutors. In addition, capacities of legal aid actors according to the amended legislation will be increased. Women, especially those who live in more rural areas and other women considered marginalized will be the target group of the interventions. History
2.4 Implement Wage Subsidy and Self-Employment measures
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2021/12 Initiated Current Active Labour Market Programme interventions will support reintegration of the repatriated persons from the western Europe. The CO will expand its support through wage subsidy programme, in close working with Public Employment Service and micro, small and medium sized enterprises. In both cases, not less than 50% of beneficiaries will be women.
2.3 Impact of Corruption on Women Survey
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/06/29]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2021/06 Completed The impact assessment is conducted and the report is finalized. The report is currently being translated and will be launched shortly. History
3. Recommendation:

Recommendation 3. UNDP should continue its efforts to enhance governance at central and local levels, through anti-corruption policies, safety and security, and increased attention to other important rule of law issues. UNDP should consider mobilizing advice and expertise to help develop policy frameworks in other rule of law areas, for instance addressing the informal economy, money laundering, terrorist financing and economic crime. 

UNDP is well positioned to work with Kosovo institutions to maintain progress on anti-corruption reforms at all government levels. Further support for law enforcement institutions in the implementation of the Anti-Corruption Strategy and related legislation should be considered. Some of the crucial issues, such as the absence of asset confiscation, could be addressed as a priority before the adoption of the anti-money-laundering strategy. UNDP should seek to cooperate with the EU on monitoring results, as the fight against corruption remains a major priority for the EU, with the 2018 EU progress report raising concerns about the functionality and capacity of anti-corruption institutions. Cooperation with the EU should focus on transparency and accountability in governance, with greater involvement of civil society and citizens in detecting and reporting corruption. 

UNDP’s experience supporting municipal governments in neighbouring countries, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia, provide interesting models for promoting accountability and transparency in the design and implementation of local policies, improving local government service delivery and financial management, and improving energy efficiency in public buildings and services. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

UNDP Kosovo is well placed to deliver results against this specific recom- mendation, having just embarked on the third phase of the Support Anti-Corruption Efforts Project that, among others, addresses issues of money laundering, asset confiscation and repatriation of stolen assets.  The office will also continue to support the security sector in the area of cyber security, small arms and explosives control, community engagement in the design and implementation of prevention of violent extremism programmes and set up of a referral mechanism for the prevention of violent extremism.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.2 Development of the Anti-Corruption Strategy
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/06/29]
Peacebuilding Programme Governance 2021/12 Initiated Due to change of government 3 times within 2020, the anti-corruption strategy development is not developed as per original dates in this plan (06/2021) History
3.3 Design policy and mechanisms for asset confiscation
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/06/29]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2022/01 Initiated The CO is supporting the development of law for asset confiscation. Due to 3 changes in government last year, the deadline is postponed to Jan 2022 History
3.4 Increased effectiveness of Border Police, Forensics, and Investigations teams on illicit arms trafficking
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2021/07 Overdue-Initiated UNDP is using a people-processes-technology approach to strengthen individual and institutional capacities on identification, tracing, seizing and destruction of illicit arms trafficking.
3.6. Strengthen the Public Employment Service’s (PES) community outreach capacities
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2025/12 Initiated In addition to support to PES, to reach out to communities to encourage them to register their job seeking profiles, the CO will explore opportunities with PES to target informal economy through awareness and proactive approaches that encourage people to seek employment through PES. History
3.7 Strengthen capacities of Rule of Law institutions and the coordination among them
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2025/12 Initiated The office supports strengthening the capacities of judges and prosecutors, as well as Kosovo’s Judiciary Council and Prosecutorial Council coordination. To increase the transparency and accountability of justice institutions, UNDP supports the digital transformation of processes related to asset and income declaration, tracing of illicit transactions, and human rights-based approaches in the judiciary, through the human rights and SDG database. History
3.1 Money Laundering typologies developed to help identify suspicious activities, detect, and repatriate stolen assets
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2020/06 Completed Money laundering typologies for Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs) are developed in close cooperation with Financial Investigation Unit and Private sector. The objective of the typologies to illustrate alleged money laundering schemes so as to ease the identification of suspicious activities and improve early detection, disruption of illicit activities, the success rates of prosecutions, and ultimately the amount of repatriated stolen assets.
3.5 Kosovo Police’s specialised cyber-crime unit can conduct darknet investigations
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/06/29]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2022/12 Not Initiated Kosovo Police has not reached the required capacities and the infrastructure to conduct darknet investigations. hence, the training foreseen will be carried out in 2022 and the activity's implementation is expected to be complete in Dec 2022 History
4. Recommendation:

Recommendation 4. While continuing its current support frame for employment institutions, UNDP should consider complementary interventions in the field of vocational education and training and adult education to improve the effectiveness of employment policies. Over the long term, responsibility for implementing employment policies should transfer to national authorities, allowing UNDP to focus more on strategic aspects and design and evaluation activities. 

UNDP’s long-standing support in the area of employment has yielded valuable results in terms of job creation and income generation, with measures well-targeted towards people from disadvantaged groups. Given the limited capacity of local employment agency branches, it is essential that this support be maintained.

Emphasis should also be placed on improving the quality and relevance of vocational education and training, especially with courses focusing on raising the educational level and employability of young people, women and long-term unemployed. 

Although many strategies and instruments developed with UNDP support are now part of the Ministry of Labour and the Employment Agency’s toolbox, some management responsibility continues to rest largely with UNDP. Over the long term, responsibility for implementing employment policies should transfer to national authorities, allowing UNDP to focus more on strategic aspects and design and evaluation activities. In the interim, UNDP should continue its capacity-building efforts, particularly at the local level where many employment counsellors of retirement age will need to be replaced. UNDP should commence developing its exit strategy, enabling national structures to develop over time and assume full responsibility. 

Finally, as part of the donor coordination dialogue, UNDP should promote better coordination among the various donors that support employment and income generation in Kosovo. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

The office initiated discussions with the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare regarding the diversification of employment programmes and vocational education in line with development trends in the region and labour market needs. On the latter, UNDP will continue to provide support to the ministry with a market needs assessment to identify skills gaps and potential for more strategic employment programmes. Expert advice will be provided to policymakers to enhance strategic planning. In the mean- time, the office will facilitate the work of the public employment service, especially at municipal level, for more effective and efficient service delivery until full implementation of existing financing agreements between UNDP Kosovo and the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare. UNDP will play its convening role in bringing together key stakeholders from the private sector, educational institutions and employment authorities to facilitate joint planning for training that will allow for the development of future skills.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.2 Develop new employment programmes and guidelines for implementation
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2021/12 Initiated The office will utilize resources from the Global Policy Network and Sustainable Development Team in the Istanbul Regional Hub who will, based on best regional and global practices, support the country office design and promote new employment programmes that are strategic and in line with labour market needs in Kosovo.The focus will be on digital skills for youth and profiles that are in line with the development of technology in different production sectors and the IT sector.
4.1 Provide recommendations for employment policy reform
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/30]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2020/12 Completed Operational measures to cover the economic recovery programme for Kosovo completed in December 2020. History
4.3 Carry out two Business Pulse surveys
[Added: 2021/01/12] [Last Updated: 2021/03/30]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2020/12 Completed Two Socio Economic Impact surveys conducted in 2020 and 2021 on Covid.19 impact on general population and had specific focus on business sector. History
5. Recommendation:

Recommendation 5. Employment and livelihood support in rural areas should be pursued and extended to encompass wider territories, with grant support for larger partnership-based projects promoting higher income opportunities in selected value chains. 

UNDP is supporting local government efforts to increase and sustain employment and livelihoods in rural and remote areas. These initiatives deserve to be scaled up into a programme that covers a whole region and encourages wider inter-municipal cooperation. Following stakeholder consultations, UNDP expertise should be mobilized to help participating municipalities analyse the potential for local development platforms, with a grant component established to help rural food producers, as well as manufacturers, move up the value chain and access new markets.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

UNDP will continue its implementation of the Active Labour Market Programme and aim to expand the programme to engage particularly with youth in all sectors through self-employment and targeted wage subsidy programmes, especially in response to COVID-19.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 Continued implementation of the Active Labour Market Programme
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2021/12 Initiated The action will support reintegration of the repatriated persons in a gender-sensitive manner.The target group will be specifically those living in rural areas that through self-employment programmes will benefit from skills and tools to operate in sectors of dairy production, honey production, wood processing and the service sector, which will ultimately improve livelihoods.
5.2 Expand on Active Labour Market Programme target groups with focus on youth and future skills
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programme 2021/12 Initiated The action will target regular beneficiaries through a wage-subsidy scheme for private sector small and medium enterprises and the development of skills for the future, based on domestic market needs and beyond, with a focus on digital skills.
6. Recommendation:

Recommendation 6. UNDP should promote integrated measures combining education, employment and social welfare to fight poverty and social exclusion, with emphasis on women and youth. 

Effective social inclusion and poverty reduction policies require addressing the needs of target groups in a comprehensive manner. Building on the results of the Youth for Kosovo Project, UNDP should encourage cooperation among responsible authorities to design and implement integrated measures in the field of education, employment and social welfare to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged groups, giving priority to women and young people. Given UNDP’s track record at the local level, pilot projects should be developed in selected municipalities to test new approaches, while addressing administrative and legal obstacles with central authorities to ensure mainstreaming of successful schemes. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

The office will support the development of digital solutions for addressing skills gaps, with a focus on future skills required in the labour market. This will also be part of the package of self-employment and wage subsidy programmes. In parallel, the office will support addressing issues aiming  to improve key governance aspects, in close coordination with the central government, municipalities and centres for social welfare. In doing so, it will upgrade the existing monitoring system into an innovative one for effective targeting and provision of the right level of support in a gender equitable manner for vulnerable groups and individuals and those harder to reach. The ultimate aim is to strengthen coordination and communi- cation between line ministries and the local level – municipalities and centres for social welfare – for improved quality of social service delivery and reporting against service delivery standards.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.1 Review the existing database for case registration
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Governance and Peacebuilding and Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programmes 2022/05 Not Initiated The office will carry out a needs assessment and identify areas which require updating, including the alignment of processes between centres for social welfare and NGOs, and coordination and information sharing between municipal and central levels.
6.2 Upgrade the service-based case management system
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Governance and Peacebuilding and Sustainable Growth and Resilience Programmes 2022/09 Not Initiated The office will engage closely with the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, municipalities and centres for social welfare to support them with the design of a service-based case management system, entailing the drafting of administrative instructions and guidelines, and the development of service-based case management modules.
6.3 Develop a manual for service providers linking social services with legal services
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/06/29]
Governance and Peacebuilding Programme 2021/12 Not Initiated History
7. Recommendation:

Recommendation 7. UNDP has an important role to play in Kosovo in strengthening administrative capacity for environmental policy implementation and disaster risk reduction at central and local level, but this will require much more substantial funding than at present. 

UNDP should make efforts to expand its cooperation with local civil society organizations to advocate for raising awareness on the importance of environmental protection. Long-term projections suggest that without policy change, economic growth and development may have serious unintended consequences for natural resources and ecosystems across Kosovo. UNDP should advocate for green growth and an economic model that fosters “economic growth and development, while ensuring that natural assets continue to provide the resources and environmental services on which our well-being relies”

UNDP-supported efforts to prepare local disaster risk plans with local communities need continuity and a strong commitment by central and local institutions to be sustainable. Moreover, the predominantly urban focus of DRR support should widen to encompass more rural municipalities. 

It is not expected in the short term that Kosovo will have access to vertical financing mechanisms such as the Global Environment Facility and Green Climate Fund, yet Kosovo can benefit from these funds indirectly through participation in regional transnational programmes. UNDP Kosovo should continue cooperating with sister agencies in neighbouring countries to maintain these opportunities, while approaching other donors and exploring alternative funding mechanisms to significantly increase the budget available for the sector. The UNDP team should examine the current composition of the environment portfolio, analyse what factors hindered the achievement of planned results in the current CPD, and determine the possible resources (core, cost sharing, bilateral/multilateral resources, vertical funds, private sector, etc.) to expand the portfolio. 

Given the poor air quality in the capital and its impact on citizens’ health, the next CPD should have a strong focus on air pollution. UNDP should work with central and local institutions to develop strategies and implement innovative pilot projects designed to reduce air pollution in Pristina and other cities in Kosovo with air quality issues. As part of a multi-year plan for air pollution abatement, UNDP could assist the government in areas such as ambient air quality monitoring, strengthened emission limits and increased enforcement. Pilot projects could address specific pollutant problems, for instance support to households to replace obsolete coal boilers with cleaner and cheaper heating systems.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

Due to Kosovo’s status, it is not eligible for funding from the global envi- ronmental vertical funds (e.g. Global Environment Facility and Green Climate Fund). This is well noted in the evaluation report. The office is actively developing a plan, which entails advancing the European Green Deal, utilizing UNDP’s Climate Promise and embarking on dialogue with development partners for potential partnerships towards ‘Building Back Greener’ in response to COVID-19. UNDP will continue to support the government’s efforts to step up climate action and strengthen DRR efforts, and will actively explore new strategic partnerships and financing.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1 Enhance capacities of the Kosovo's Committee for Climate Change (KCCC) and other relevant institutions for setting quantitative and qualitative targets on climate change (CC) mitigation and adaptation and for more effective implementation of climate change priorities.
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/30]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience 2023/12 Initiated History
7.2 Support the Kosovo's Institutions and strengthen their capacities to accelerate nature and climate actions to advance Kosovo towards green recovery, low-carbon development and improved climate resilience.
[Added: 2020/12/23]
Sustainable Growth and Resilience 2025/12 Not Initiated CO is actively exploring the possibilities to best position Kosovo and support its efforts towards carbon neutrality and climate resilience in line with the European Green Deal. CO, in close cooperation with IRH, is increasing efforts to seek ways to include Kosovo in regional environmental projects.
8. Recommendation:

Recommendation 8. The results framework for UNDP’s work in Kosovo should include better defined indicators capturing the real effects of UNDP interventions, with targets better adjusted to the size and scope of the programme portfolio.

More guidance and quality control at all stages are needed to strengthen future results frameworks to better reflect and report on UNDP’s achievements in Kosovo and the overall contribution of the programme to the SDGs. Monitoring and evaluation practices should be enhanced at project level, with better links between project and country programme levels. The possibility of adjusting the results framework as the portfolio takes shape should also be considered. 

Management Response: [Added: 2020/07/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]

UNDP Kosovo has developed its Results and Resource Framework for the CDP 2021-2025. Based on initial recommendations of the IEO, the office paid specific attention to include well-defined and measurable indicators and targets in the Framework, reflecting an adequate balance between programme portfolios and realistic targets based on the foreseen size of the programme over the next five years.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1 Yearly monitoring of the RRF progress
[Added: 2020/12/23]
All programme teams 2025/12 Initiated Progress will be measured against the set targets and their timeline of achievement History
8.2 Adjust targets and indicators during programme implementation cycle, as needed
[Added: 2020/12/23] [Last Updated: 2021/01/12]
All programme teams 2025/12 Initiated Based on developments as we go forward and emerging priorities, the office will review the indicators and targets to assess if adjustments are required, by preserving the Results and Resource Framework objectives. History

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