Independent Country Programme Evaluation: Central African Republic

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Evaluation Plan:
2018-2021, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
12/2021
Completion Date:
05/2022
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
25,000

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Title Independent Country Programme Evaluation: Central African Republic
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2018-2021, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 05/2022
Planned End Date: 12/2021
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Poverty
  • 2. Governance
  • 3. Gender
  • 4. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.1.1 Capacities developed across the whole of government to integrate the 2030 Agenda, the Paris Agreement and other international agreements in development plans and budgets, and to analyse progress towards the SDGs, using innovative and data-driven solutions
  • 2. Output 1.2.1 Capacities at national and sub-national levels strengthened to promote inclusive local economic development and deliver basic services including HIV and related services
  • 3. Output 1.2.3 Institutions and systems enabled to address awareness, prevention and enforcement of anti-corruption measures to maximize availability of resources for poverty eradication
  • 4. Output 2.1.1 Low emission and climate resilient objectives addressed in national, sub-national and sectoral development plans and policies to promote economic diversification and green growth
  • 5. Output 2.2.2 Constitution-making, electoral and parliamentary processes and institutions strengthened to promote inclusion, transparency and accountability
  • 6. Output 2.6.1 Capacities strengthened to raise awareness on and undertake legal, policy and institutional reforms to fight structural barriers to women’s empowerment
  • 7. Output 3.1.1 Core government functions and inclusive basic services4 restored post-crisis for stabilisation, durable solutions to displacement and return to sustainable development pathways within the framework of national policies and priorities
  • 8. Output 3.2.2 National and local systems enabled and communities empowered to ensure the restoration of justice institutions, redress mechanisms and community security
Evaluation Budget(US $): 25,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 25,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Nationality
Juan David Gonzales Lead Evaluator
Lucas Destrijcker Evaluation Consultant
Youri Bless Research Associate
Tina Tordjman-Nebe Lead Evaluator
Landry Fanou Associate Lead Evaluator
Mei Zegers Evaluation Consultant
Sue Nelson Evaluation Consultant
Mei Zegers Evaluation Consultant
Sue Nelson Evaluation Consultant
Juan David Gonzales Lead Evaluator
Tina Tordjman-Nebe Lead Evaluator
Youri Bless Research Associate
Landry Fanou Associate Lead Evaluator
Lucas Destrijcker Evaluation Consultant
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1

UNDP should capitalize on its integrator role by seeking to become a thought leader on ways for the United Nations to play a more transformative role in CAR. This could be through a structured reflection process led by academics, involving civil society, governmental and non-governmental organizations. This effort should recognize that State-building is an endogenous process and that State legitimacy is driven by State-society relations.

Drawing on lessons from other conflict-affected countries such as Afghanistan and Haiti, whose path to peace and development did not yield the expected results, and on the longstanding UNDP presence in CAR, UNDP should engage in structured reflection with its partners on the strategies to adopt to rebuild State authority and legitimacy (through a working group, with research institutions, etc.). The United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) will provide a broad technical framework to guide the work of the United Nations in CAR, but a more refined, longer-term, context-specific document should be elaborated to suggest more innovative solutions to the ongoing crisis in CAR.

Infrastructure support and capacity substitution might remain necessary in the medium term, but UNDP should seek to identify what else can be done to restore State authority and the rule of law. Complementing a UNDP-supported, nationally-owned transitional justice process, these concerted State-building strategizing processes should foster constructive State-society relations and give ample room to civil society, youth and women’s groups. UNDP should approach CSOs as more than implementing partners, but rather key protagonists of a functioning society.

 

 

2

UNDP should seek to improve the linkages between its upstream and downstream interventions, while also focusing on intervening more coherently, for longer periods of time, in a reduced number of locations at community level.

Internally, UNDP should pilot an area-based approach (or convergent programme) that seeks greater complementarity between upstream programmes (rule of law, decentralization, rehabilitation of infrastructure) where UNDP is already strongly positioned, and downstream interventions (emergency employment, economic empowerment, social cohesion). Such an approach would rely on both policy development and institutional strengthening, but also on more direct support at grassroots level to demonstrate what works and offers peace dividends. It would allow UNDP to “diversify its risk” of working very extensively with the Government, and should contribute to the creation of a more favourable context for the achievement of sustainable results at grassroots level. UNDP should pursue these efforts where there are reasonable chances to reach sustainable results.

At community level, UNDP should more consistently implement the 3x6 approach across implementing partners. Most importantly, it should seek to invest more time and resources in a reduced number of locations and create the necessary conditions to improve the likelihood of sustainability. In terms of resource mobilization, UNDP should capitalize on vertical funds to catalyse livelihoods outcomes while also tackling environment, energy and climate change adaptation as such opportunities have not been sufficiently exploited. Such funds could be the starting point for a more convergent energy and environment programme that encompasses both upstream and downstream efforts.

 

 

3

UNDP should move forward with the formalization of its portfolio approach by consolidating its projects into coherent, interconnected programmes. It should develop ‘nested’ ToCs for each of its portfolios to facilitate the process of moving away from the project-focused approach that still prevails in areas other than rule of law. These portfolio-level ToCs should be consolidated into a country programme level ToC and/or, if possible, a ToC at United Nations country team level.

The evaluation confirmed the added value for UNDP to consolidate various projects under a clearly defined portfolio, a process that the country office should replicate throughout its programme. Each portfolio should be structured around sound “nested” ToCs and complemented by a clearly defined portfolio strategy.142 The “nested” ToC should make explicit the underlying logic that ties together different projects and interventions under a specific portfolio, while the programme level ToC should demonstrate how different portfolios interact with one another in order to contribute to a common higher-level objective. The process of elaborating ToCs should help the country office to strengthen project and portfolio design. They should guide portfolio managers and donors to think about how new interventions complement or build upon existing efforts that are either internal or external to UNDP.

In addition to strengthening the internal coherence of its programme and facilitating internal communication on the way the office intends to reach its objectives, the ToC should facilitate communication with external stakeholders on the process through which UNDP intends to reach these expected results. A ToC could also be used as a resource mobilization tool, as it can give greater visibility to needs and funding gaps, helping UNDP to avoid getting dragged into donor-driven interventions.

 

 

4

UNDP should advocate through the Durable Solutions Working Group for the common adoption of an area-based approach by the United Nations country team and Humanitarian Country Team, to be informed by a review of United Nations/UNDP geographical positioning.

Complex humanitarian-development-peace issues can be tackled through geographically targeted, multidimensional and multisectoral interventions rather than geographically dispersed, programmatically-fragmented and short-term interventions, thus calling for the adoption of a United Nations-wide area-based approach. Such an approach can be informed by a thorough review of the geographic positioning of UNDP and key United Nations country team/ HCT actors, but also by the needs and preferences of local populations. This should involve taking a pragmatic stance to ensure that the context meets a minimal set of conditions, allowing for efficient implementation of actions with reasonable sustainability potential. In an effort to leave no one behind, the most deprived geographical areas and areas most significantly affected by SGBV should be prioritized.

UNDP should advocate for the inclusion of such considerations in the next UNSDCF. Most importantly, it should take advantage of its current co-lead role with UNHCR in the Durable Solutions Working Group, and the commitment of donors such as PBF to ensure concerted actions (studies, project, programmes) are undertaken by United Nations actors around commonly-defined challenges in specific locations.

Recognizing that such an approach would be more effectively implemented with the full buy-in of MINUSCA, UNDP and partners should seek to create the necessary conditions to strengthen that working relationship.

 

 

5

To bolster progress on GEWE, UNDP should continue its upstream support to create a favourable policy environment. More efforts should be deployed at midstream and downstream levels to ensure that justice, security and political institutions are able to address gender inequalities and, most importantly, SGBV. This needs to be accompanied by the establishment of a more reliable system for the collection of robust statistical data on harmful practices and violence against women.

While efforts were deployed by UNDP to mainstream gender at policy level, operationalization at institutional level did not always yield the desired results. In the justice sector, UNDP should support the training of judges, prosecutors and law enforcement offices to ensure that they can address SGBV appropriately for all types of courts. Future transitional justice projects (SCC, TJRRC) should have specific gender outputs, outcomes or clear strategies showing how women and girls, especially victims of SGBV, will be prioritized.

Similarly, emergency employment and resilience-building interventions should be guided by a formal women’s economic empowerment strategy, in order to be more closely aligned to women’s capacities, needs, aspirations and realities. A more participatory project design process should be considered. More education and sensitization initiatives, targeting both women and men, should be supported in order to combat stereotypes. These downstream efforts should be results- rather than activity-oriented, and aim to change the knowledge, attitudes and practices of populations on gender issues.

Overall, all projects should strengthen monitoring in order to be able to measure the differential effects of specific interventions on men and women, and ensure that women are effectively benefiting at the transformational level from UNDP support.

 

 

1. Recommendation:

UNDP should capitalize on its integrator role by seeking to become a thought leader on ways for the United Nations to play a more transformative role in CAR. This could be through a structured reflection process led by academics, involving civil society, governmental and non-governmental organizations. This effort should recognize that State-building is an endogenous process and that State legitimacy is driven by State-society relations.

Drawing on lessons from other conflict-affected countries such as Afghanistan and Haiti, whose path to peace and development did not yield the expected results, and on the longstanding UNDP presence in CAR, UNDP should engage in structured reflection with its partners on the strategies to adopt to rebuild State authority and legitimacy (through a working group, with research institutions, etc.). The United Nations Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNSDCF) will provide a broad technical framework to guide the work of the United Nations in CAR, but a more refined, longer-term, context-specific document should be elaborated to suggest more innovative solutions to the ongoing crisis in CAR.

Infrastructure support and capacity substitution might remain necessary in the medium term, but UNDP should seek to identify what else can be done to restore State authority and the rule of law. Complementing a UNDP-supported, nationally-owned transitional justice process, these concerted State-building strategizing processes should foster constructive State-society relations and give ample room to civil society, youth and women’s groups. UNDP should approach CSOs as more than implementing partners, but rather key protagonists of a functioning society.

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2022/05/16] [Last Updated: 2022/07/04]

Le Bureau accepte la reccommandation entièrement. Pour alimenter la réflexion stratégique, le PNUD-RCA aura besoin de disposer des données nécessaires et récentes sur certaines thématiques. Vu que le Rapport national sur le développement humain 2008 avait traité la question du capital social, la réactualisation dudit rapport s’avère nécessaire. La réalisation des études prévues dans le cadre de l’élaboration de la vision RCA 2050 permettra compléter les lacunes en termes de données. C’est à la suite de cela que le PNUD engagera une réflexion stratégique inclusive sur la « construction de l’État » conduite par des universitaires, en utilisant comme point d’entrée la Décentralisation, dont les conclusions et les recommandations seront utilisées dans la mise en œuvre du prochain Programme.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.2 Finaliser les études dans le cadre de la prochaine Vision RCA-2050
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unité Politiques et Stratégie 2023/12 Initiated Certaines études ont déjà été finalisées et d’autres sont en cours.
1.1 Réactualiser le rapport sur le développement humain basé sur le capital social (RNDH 2008)
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unité Politiques et Stratégie 2023/12 Not Initiated
1.3 Conduire des réflexions structurées sur la décentralisation en RCA
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unités Résilience et Stabilisation & Gouvernance 2023/12 Not Initiated
1.4 Adapter le programme aux résultats des réflexions
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Chefs d'unités 2027/12 Not Initiated
2. Recommendation:

UNDP should seek to improve the linkages between its upstream and downstream interventions, while also focusing on intervening more coherently, for longer periods of time, in a reduced number of locations at community level.

Internally, UNDP should pilot an area-based approach (or convergent programme) that seeks greater complementarity between upstream programmes (rule of law, decentralization, rehabilitation of infrastructure) where UNDP is already strongly positioned, and downstream interventions (emergency employment, economic empowerment, social cohesion). Such an approach would rely on both policy development and institutional strengthening, but also on more direct support at grassroots level to demonstrate what works and offers peace dividends. It would allow UNDP to “diversify its risk” of working very extensively with the Government, and should contribute to the creation of a more favourable context for the achievement of sustainable results at grassroots level. UNDP should pursue these efforts where there are reasonable chances to reach sustainable results.

At community level, UNDP should more consistently implement the 3x6 approach across implementing partners. Most importantly, it should seek to invest more time and resources in a reduced number of locations and create the necessary conditions to improve the likelihood of sustainability. In terms of resource mobilization, UNDP should capitalize on vertical funds to catalyse livelihoods outcomes while also tackling environment, energy and climate change adaptation as such opportunities have not been sufficiently exploited. Such funds could be the starting point for a more convergent energy and environment programme that encompasses both upstream and downstream efforts.

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2022/05/16] [Last Updated: 2022/07/04]

Le Bureau accepte la reccommandation partiellement. Les besoins sont tellement énormes et divers que l’approche locale et intégrée pendant une plus longue période pourrait être mal perçue par les communautés et contribuer à aggraver les inégalités géographiques dans développement. Le PNUD envisage l’ « approche locale et intégrée » dans certaines interventions spécifiques telles que les solutions durables, mises en oeuvre en partenariat avec les autres agences dans des zones de convergence bien définies. Dans ces zones, les interventions en matière de stabilisation et de relèvement, seront couplées en synergie avec les interventions en amont (état de droit, décentralisation, remise en état des infrastructures etc.) et en aval par l’accès aux énergies renouvelables, pour une plus grande durabilité des résultats.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1 Appuyer le Gouvernement dans la mobilisation des fonds verticaux
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Environnement et développement durable 2025/12 Initiated Le PNUD intensifiera les actions de plaidoyer auprès du Gouvernement pour être désigné comme récipiendaire et assistera le point focal national dans l’élaboration des notes conceptuelles.
2.3 Mettre à profit les acquis des projets du programme actuel du PNUD pour identifier les zones propices à la relance du développement économique et aux solutions durables pour y mettre en place un programme intégré
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unités Résilience/stabilisation et environnement 2025/12 Initiated Il s’agit d’utiliser les résultats obtenus dans le cadre du programme actuel pour identifier les zones les plus propices à une approche intégrée à long terme (« area-based approach »).
2.2 Renforcer la synergie entre les portefeuilles énergie et stabilisation/résilience dans le cadre du nouveau CPD
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unité Environnement et développement durable 2025/12 Not Initiated
2.4 Mener le plaidoyer pour la mobilisation des ressources afin de planifier les activités sur le long terme pour la consolidation de la paix
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Adjoint Résident Représentant Programme 2025/12 Not Initiated Peu de partenaires financiers sont enclins à soutenir le relèvement, les solutions durables en Centrafrique car on note « une fatigue des partenaires financiers » due à la longue crise, l’organisation d’une conférence des bailleurs pourra susciter des intérêts pour la consolidation des acquis de relèvement et la relance économique dans le pays.
3. Recommendation:

UNDP should move forward with the formalization of its portfolio approach by consolidating its projects into coherent, interconnected programmes. It should develop ‘nested’ ToCs for each of its portfolios to facilitate the process of moving away from the project-focused approach that still prevails in areas other than rule of law. These portfolio-level ToCs should be consolidated into a country programme level ToC and/or, if possible, a ToC at United Nations country team level.

The evaluation confirmed the added value for UNDP to consolidate various projects under a clearly defined portfolio, a process that the country office should replicate throughout its programme. Each portfolio should be structured around sound “nested” ToCs and complemented by a clearly defined portfolio strategy.142 The “nested” ToC should make explicit the underlying logic that ties together different projects and interventions under a specific portfolio, while the programme level ToC should demonstrate how different portfolios interact with one another in order to contribute to a common higher-level objective. The process of elaborating ToCs should help the country office to strengthen project and portfolio design. They should guide portfolio managers and donors to think about how new interventions complement or build upon existing efforts that are either internal or external to UNDP.

In addition to strengthening the internal coherence of its programme and facilitating internal communication on the way the office intends to reach its objectives, the ToC should facilitate communication with external stakeholders on the process through which UNDP intends to reach these expected results. A ToC could also be used as a resource mobilization tool, as it can give greater visibility to needs and funding gaps, helping UNDP to avoid getting dragged into donor-driven interventions.

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2022/05/16] [Last Updated: 2022/07/04]

Le Bureau accepte la reccommandation entièrement. Dès 2021, le bureau a commencé une restructuration des projets du programme en portefeuilles pour réduire les coûts de transaction de la conception, du suivi, de la mise en oeuvre, de la supervision et de la rédaction des rapports. Pour mettre en oeuvre cette recommandation, le PNUD-RCA va conduire une analyse de la structure par portefeuille du programme actuel, combler les lacunes identifiées et élaborer les documents de portefeuille avec des théories du changement imbriquées, en relation avec la théorie du changement du nouveau programme.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 Faire une analyse de la structure du programme actuelle par portefeuille et identifier les portefeuilles supplémentaires pour le nouveau programme le cas échéant
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Représentant résident adjoint Programme 2023/12 Initiated Une première analyse a été faite pour le CPD 2018-2022
3.2 Élaborer les documents des portefeuilles existants et déjà entamés, avec des TdC tenant compte des TdC des projets du portefeuille et de celle du Programme
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Chefs d’unités 2023/12 Not Initiated
3.3 Mobiliser les ressources additionnelles pour la mise en oeuvre des portefeuilles du nouveau CPD
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Chefs d’unités 2027/12 Not Initiated
4. Recommendation:

UNDP should advocate through the Durable Solutions Working Group for the common adoption of an area-based approach by the United Nations country team and Humanitarian Country Team, to be informed by a review of United Nations/UNDP geographical positioning.

Complex humanitarian-development-peace issues can be tackled through geographically targeted, multidimensional and multisectoral interventions rather than geographically dispersed, programmatically-fragmented and short-term interventions, thus calling for the adoption of a United Nations-wide area-based approach. Such an approach can be informed by a thorough review of the geographic positioning of UNDP and key United Nations country team/ HCT actors, but also by the needs and preferences of local populations. This should involve taking a pragmatic stance to ensure that the context meets a minimal set of conditions, allowing for efficient implementation of actions with reasonable sustainability potential. In an effort to leave no one behind, the most deprived geographical areas and areas most significantly affected by SGBV should be prioritized.

UNDP should advocate for the inclusion of such considerations in the next UNSDCF. Most importantly, it should take advantage of its current co-lead role with UNHCR in the Durable Solutions Working Group, and the commitment of donors such as PBF to ensure concerted actions (studies, project, programmes) are undertaken by United Nations actors around commonly-defined challenges in specific locations.

Recognizing that such an approach would be more effectively implemented with the full buy-in of MINUSCA, UNDP and partners should seek to create the necessary conditions to strengthen that working relationship.

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2022/05/16] [Last Updated: 2022/07/04]

Le Bureau accepte entièrement la recommandation. Les besoins sont tellement énormes et divers que l’approche locale et intégrée pendant une plus longue période pourrait être mal perçue par les communautés et contribuer à aggraver les inégalités géographiques dans développement. Le PNUD envisage l’ « approche locale et intégrée » dans certaines interventions spécifiques telles que les solutions durables, mises en oeuvre en partenariat avec les autres agences dans des zones de convergence bien définies. Dans ces zones, les interventions en matière de stabilisation et de relèvement, seront couplées en synergie avec les interventions en amont (état de droit, décentralisation, remise en état des infrastructures etc.) et en aval par l’accès aux énergies renouvelables, pour une plus grande durabilité des résultats.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 Poursuivre le plaidoyer pour la mise en place du Nexus H-P-D (Humanitaire-PaixDéveloppement)
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unités Résilience et Stabilisation 2022/12 Initiated Les concertations ont commencé et sont en cours. La fréquence des VBG va être ajoutée comme critère.
4.2 Poursuivre les concertations autour des zones favorables à la mise en oeuvre des Solutions durable
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unités Résilience et Stabilisation 2022/12 Not Initiated Les concertations ont commencé et sont en cours. La fréquence des VBG va être ajoutée comme critère. History
4.3 Conduire le plaidoyer pour la mise place d’un Fonds commun pour les SD.
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Représentant résident adjoint Programme 2023/12 Not Initiated
5. Recommendation:

To bolster progress on GEWE, UNDP should continue its upstream support to create a favourable policy environment. More efforts should be deployed at midstream and downstream levels to ensure that justice, security and political institutions are able to address gender inequalities and, most importantly, SGBV. This needs to be accompanied by the establishment of a more reliable system for the collection of robust statistical data on harmful practices and violence against women.

While efforts were deployed by UNDP to mainstream gender at policy level, operationalization at institutional level did not always yield the desired results. In the justice sector, UNDP should support the training of judges, prosecutors and law enforcement offices to ensure that they can address SGBV appropriately for all types of courts. Future transitional justice projects (SCC, TJRRC) should have specific gender outputs, outcomes or clear strategies showing how women and girls, especially victims of SGBV, will be prioritized.

Similarly, emergency employment and resilience-building interventions should be guided by a formal women’s economic empowerment strategy, in order to be more closely aligned to women’s capacities, needs, aspirations and realities. A more participatory project design process should be considered. More education and sensitization initiatives, targeting both women and men, should be supported in order to combat stereotypes. These downstream efforts should be results- rather than activity-oriented, and aim to change the knowledge, attitudes and practices of populations on gender issues.

Overall, all projects should strengthen monitoring in order to be able to measure the differential effects of specific interventions on men and women, and ensure that women are effectively benefiting at the transformational level from UNDP support.

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2022/05/16] [Last Updated: 2022/07/04]

Le Bureau accepte entièrement la recommanadtion. Certaines actions en cours (élaboration de la stratégie/politique sectorielle genre, la mise en oeuvre de la stratégie d’autonomisation économique des femmes et la réalisation de l’étude socio-anthropologique sur le VBG) s’inscrivent parfaitement dans cette perspective.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 Appuyer l’élaboration de la stratégie/politique sectorielle genre
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unités Gouvernance/Genre & Unité des politiques sociales 2022/12 Initiated Le processus est en cours.
5.2 Élaborer et mettre en œuvre une stratégie d’autonomisation économique des femmes
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unité Gouvernance/Genre 2022/12 Initiated Le processus est en cours.
5.3 Mettre en œuvre les recommandations de l’étude socio-anthropologique sur les VBG.
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unité Gouvernance/Genre 2027/12 Not Initiated
5.4 Renforcer le système de collecte de données judiciaires désagrégées Hommes-Femmes
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unité Gouvernance/RoL 2027/12 Not Initiated
5.5 Actualiser périodiquement (tous les 2 ans) le profil genre de la RCA.
[Added: 2022/07/04]
Unité Gouvernance/Genre 2027/12 Not Initiated

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