Assessment Development Results: Afghanistan

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2008-2009, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
05/2009
Completion Date:
05/2009
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
150,000

The ADR Islamic Republic of Afghanistan covered the period from 2002 to 2008. From its initial focus on early recovery, the UNDP programme has evolved towards an increasingly substantive contribution to the cause of security and development in Afghanistan. UNDP has increasingly understood the importance of the institutions of democracy, state and rule of law in ensuring a smooth transition process with prospects of long-term peace and development. Yet, not enough attention was paid from an early stage to stimulating and creating conditions and opportunities for sustainable livelihoods and employment creation. Following the approach of some donors, UNDP has focused on insecure provinces. By doing so, it has not sufficiently demonstrated the development dividend of the peace process in the more secure provinces, which received less attention and resources. While broad national development and poverty reduction strategies have been developed for Afghanistan, no focused strategy on peace-building has been devised by the United Nations or the international cooperation. This could have been a major contribution of UNDP, particularly in an integrated mission setting.

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Title Assessment Development Results: Afghanistan
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2008-2009, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 05/2009
Planned End Date: 05/2009
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Poverty and MDG
  • 2. Democratic Governance
  • 3. Crisis Prevention & Recovery
  • 4. Environment & Sustainable Development
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
Evaluation Budget(US $): 150,000
Source of Funding:
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Rajeev Pilay Team Leader
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: AFGHANISTAN
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 1: Where the United Nations is present under a Security Council mandate and the operation is integrated, UNDP should focus on supporting the objectives of the UN peacekeeping and peace-building operation: there should be no equivocation. UNDP should be more assertive in integrated UN Security Council mandated operations, requiring certain conditions to be met before taking on functions on behalf of the international community. While it has proved its ability to fill such a niche, UNDP should not accept a purely administrative role during early recovery at the expense of its longer term development functions.
2 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2: UNDP should advocate strongly for the international community to drop the phased approach to post-conflict situations in favour of one that immediately addresses the capacity of key institutions necessary for lasting peace and development. In this context, UNDP should lobby for assessed contributions associated with UN missions to include predictable and reliable funding for capacity development and institutional change in specific areas common to all post-conflict settings: democracy and participation; security sector reform and reintegration; the rule of law; effective budget and fiscal management; reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons; and support to sustainable livelihoods early in UN peace operations.
3 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3: One of the functions of UNDP in integrated missions should be to substantively support the UN coordination mandate through the preparation of sectoral and thematic strategies (in consultation with UN organizations and stakeholders as appropriate). At the outset of a post-conflict transition, UNDP should set up a technical advisory unit to provide thematic leadership in areas of critical importance to peace-building. In-house capacity created at the country level should be supplemented in all cases by broader substantive support from those parts of the house that are repositories of relevant expertise (such as Bureau for Conflict Prevention and Recovery [BCPR], Bureau for Development Policy [BDP], regional centres, Human Development Report Office and Bureau of Management). Capacity installed under UNDP NEX and DEX projects needs to be drawn upon as an important supplementary source of substantive capacity.
4 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4: More systematic consideration should be given to the application of the inter-country programme of UNDP as a source of substantive capacity and to address cross-border dimensions of conflict that are important in Afghanistan and virtually all post-conflict settings.
5 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5: UNDP Headquarters should review past evaluations and studies of UNDP experiences in post-conflict countries with a view to identifying and systematizing effective models of intervention so that they can be adapted and applied to countries such as Afghanistan without 'reinventing the wheel'.
6 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 6: Geographic focus-UNDP should reorient its principal focus to secure provinces, with a view to demonstrating a development dividend. It should encourage bilateral donors to do the same, even if these provinces are outside the purview of their Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs). Such a focus has the added advantage of rendering it easier to effectively monitor implementation, raising the overall reputation of UNDP programmes.
7 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 7: The duration of future country programmes in Afghanistan as well as of capacity building programmes should be commensurate with their longer term objectives. The current emphasis on two to three year programmes is insufficient to achieve the expected development outcomes. UNDP Afghanistan should also undertake a systematic review of its existing projects to eliminate or reorient those not focused on the achievement of UNAMA objectives.
8 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 8: UNDP should widen its emphasis in governance from 'state building' to 'nation building', developing the role of civil society organizations alongside those of the institutions of state. UNDP should focus more on creating a conducive environment for civil society organizations, with a view to: creating an additional voice for the general public between elections; providing a source of checks and balances; creating legal and institutional protection for advocacy NGOs; developing policy and advocacy capacity outside government; and developing greater professionalism in civil society organizations.
9 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 9: Capitalizing on experience and generating value added-Experience gained in other post-conflict settings and in nation building by UNDP and other organizations should be brought to bear through greater involvement of key parts of the organization in which substantive expertise resides. Drawing on its regional centres, BDP and BCPR, UNDP should urgently mount interdisciplinary missions to help the government and UNDP define comprehensive strategies and approaches in the following areas: economic growth, pro-poor development and sustainable livelihoods; and development of civil society as an integral part of a broader governance strategy for Afghanistan.
10 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 10: UNDP should create a technical advisory team within the country office that reports to the Country Director, providing regular support to the SRSG and Deputy SRSGs as appropriate. It should be composed of highly experienced, qualified experts in the following disciplines: a macroeconomist with a strong background in pro-poor monetary and fiscal policy development; a governance specialist with strong experience in local governance and institutional change in a post-conflict environment; a peace-building and conflict adviser; a labour economist or specialist in sustainable livelihoods; a constitutional or human rights lawyer with strong comparative legal experience; and a rural development specialist with hand-on experience in the bottom-up management of multidisciplinary rural development programmes and the development of demand-oriented rural development policies.
11 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 11: Building on the Kandahar Model, UNDP should promote gradual decentralization of decision making, budget management and service delivery by all institutions of the government. Rather than the current emphasis of the application of this model as a modality for insecure provinces, the model should be replicated and applied to secure provinces to demonstrate a peace dividend.
12 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 12: If UNDP is to continue to perform an administrative role on behalf of bilateral donors in the immediate post-conflict period, it urgently needs to increase its flexibility, responsiveness and effectiveness. It is essential that the procedures for post-conflict settings and perhaps even low-income countries under stress be streamlined. At the global level, the UNDP Bureau of Management should streamline procedures for countries in conflict without compromising accountability and transparency.
13 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 13: Towards more sustainable programmes-There is an urgent need for a coordinated effort, led by Resident Representative, in his capacity as the Resident Coordinator and Deputy SRSG, to develop a coordinated policy to:  Bring coherence to the donor practice of paying government salaries and salary supplements, with the goal of reducing current levels and ensuring harmonization.  Move away from cash incentives to civil servants, to the creation of sustainable professional and material, non-cash incentives (such as official housing). A national endowment may be created under UNAMA and UNDP leadership for the purpose in order to finance such incentives  Ensure that donors and the UN system move away from the too common practice of creating project implementation units that are fully or largely externally funded.
14 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 14: Strengthening partnerships-Greater use should be made of UN specialized organization execution in the area of sustainable livelihoods. Collaboration based on past models in post-conflict settings should be considered with organizations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Cooperation should also be enhanced with UNV by identifying volunteers with appropriate skills from developing countries with relevant conditions and twinning them with institutions and functions in the Government of Afghanistan. Such twinning arrangements could be considered with rural development NGOs or government agencies in south or south-east Asia. Emphasis should be placed on governance programmes at the sub-national level, such as NABDP and ASGP, maximizing cost-effectiveness and relevance.
15 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 15: Programme management and coordination-UINDP should better integrate with, and support UNAMA in development coordination, governance and peace-building, in particular establishing at least one regional liaison officer in each region responsible for:  Coordinating with UNAMA in terms of policies and priorities and supporting joint programming, and collaborating with other UN organizations, and bilateral and multilateral donors in the region.  At the provincial and district level, liaising and coordinating with the government, PRTs and other bilateral and multilateral agencies.  Facilitating and ensuring the effective work of UNDP programming and monitoring of programme activities and ensuring coherence between UNDP projects and programmes in the field.
16 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 16: UNDP should help establish a programme to build country-level monitoring and evaluation capacity geared to identifying credible outcome indicators for UNDP interventions. This programme should have sufficient resources to collect and analyse such data on an ongoing basis even beyond the scope of any individual project, ensuring a basis for ex post evaluation. Realistic indicators for each thematic area and outcome area should also be identified and a baseline for each established with a view to determining trends.
17 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 17: Democracy and participation-UNDP needs to ensure that the shortcomings of past elections are directly addressed by the Independent Electoral Commission and other bodies involved in implementation. UNDP needs to ensure support to the Independent Electoral Commission in an ongoing public information campaign to communicate the remedial measures taken and to raise general public confidence in the process. UNDP should consider strengthening the capacity of select independent, non-partisan, national NGOs and media organizations, with a direct line to the Independent Electoral Commission and other bodies tasked with ensuring the integrity of elections, to monitor polling and to ensure that their views are heard. To fully develop democratic participation in Afghanistan, UNDP should consider: developing capacity of human rights organizations to analyse and provide an alternative opinion or viewpoint on bills that are submitted for consideration by the National Assembly, adequately representing women's organizations; and professionalizing media outlets that are not affiliated with political parties or warlords.
18 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 18: Rule of law and security sector reform-Given the 'crowding' of the justice sector, UNDP may consider withdrawing from the sector if its value added is likely to be limited.
19 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 19: Government institutions-Because of its political implications, it is recommended that the Deputy SRSG should, with the support of UNDP and with the direct involvement of the SRSG as necessary, take up the issue of the appropriate policy roles and distribution of functions between the centre of government and other agencies within the government. This can only be done after a clear set of policy recommendations are laid out along the following lines:  To the extent possible, key inter-ministerial functions should be serviced from the relevant line institution.  To the extent possible, the management of inter-ministerial, cross governmental processes should not be managed by project implementation units that will not be sustainable and undermine line capacities in the long run.  Adhere to the guidelines recommended in the section on sustainability regarding the payment of salaries or salary supplements to civil servants.
20 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 20: Sustainable livelihoods-UNDP urgently needs to leverage its involvement in both the Independent Directorate for Local Governance (IDLG) and MRRD under the ASGP and NABDP programmes and to systematically learn from experience gained with the Kandahar Model to foster more decentralized approaches and ensure local ownership of programmes, greater efficiency and sustainability. Much can be learnt from the design of area development programmes operated by UNDP in other post-conflict settings.
21 Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 21: Aid coordination and management-Recognizing the lead role of UNAMA in coordination, UNDP and UNAMA need to clarify their respective substantive roles in support of that coordination function under the ANDS and Joint Coordination and Management Board (JCMB) process at all levels. UNDP should position itself to provide substantive support for the preparation of strategy and policy papers and of UNAMA strategic positioning in this regard.
1. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 1: Where the United Nations is present under a Security Council mandate and the operation is integrated, UNDP should focus on supporting the objectives of the UN peacekeeping and peace-building operation: there should be no equivocation. UNDP should be more assertive in integrated UN Security Council mandated operations, requiring certain conditions to be met before taking on functions on behalf of the international community. While it has proved its ability to fill such a niche, UNDP should not accept a purely administrative role during early recovery at the expense of its longer term development functions.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed; "Early recovery" interventions which include the provision of administrative and fund management functions which are necessary to deliver crucial services in the country context are part of the UNDP programme portfolio in Afghanistan. UNDP's role in Afghanistan has been highly contingent on the role played by the international community. However, UNDP will consider reviewing the programme administrative and fund management functions as part of the country programme strategic review. In doing so, the CO will consider the strategic importance of the functions and will consider the possibility of including substantive content and options in the areas in which UNDP has a clear comparative advantage and that are relevant to the Afghanistan context.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Review of the programme portfolio
[Added: 2014/03/01] [Last Updated: 2014/03/10]
CO management No due date No deadline established
2. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 2: UNDP should advocate strongly for the international community to drop the phased approach to post-conflict situations in favour of one that immediately addresses the capacity of key institutions necessary for lasting peace and development. In this context, UNDP should lobby for assessed contributions associated with UN missions to include predictable and reliable funding for capacity development and institutional change in specific areas common to all post-conflict settings: democracy and participation; security sector reform and reintegration; the rule of law; effective budget and fiscal management; reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons; and support to sustainable livelihoods early in UN peace operations.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

We very much welcome the recommendation for longer timeframes for interventions. However, donor predictability in Afghanistan is currently not sufficient even to cover a 2-3 years timeframe. The recommendation will be considered as a new programme will be formulated. UNDP will advocate for this and hopes that this will improve as the international community increases coordination and harmonization. Additionally, the CO will consider mainstreaming capacity development and its measures across all UNDP programmes. The CO will consider increasing the proportion of our portfolio implemented through joint programming including with UNAMA and will build on the strong relationship with ILO.

Key Actions:

3. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 3: One of the functions of UNDP in integrated missions should be to substantively support the UN coordination mandate through the preparation of sectoral and thematic strategies (in consultation with UN organizations and stakeholders as appropriate). At the outset of a post-conflict transition, UNDP should set up a technical advisory unit to provide thematic leadership in areas of critical importance to peace-building. In-house capacity created at the country level should be supplemented in all cases by broader substantive support from those parts of the house that are repositories of relevant expertise (such as Bureau for Conflict Prevention and Recovery [BCPR], Bureau for Development Policy [BDP], regional centres, Human Development Report Office and Bureau of Management). Capacity installed under UNDP NEX and DEX projects needs to be drawn upon as an important supplementary source of substantive capacity.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/23]

We strongly agree that we need to increase our policy value-added. Over the last several months in 2009, we have initiated a new core-funded project, entitled "Policy Analysis for Development" which provides key government ministries with targeted policy analysis and advisory capacity on demand. The CO has also hosted a mission from the BCPR in order to assess ways in which the CO can adopt an approach that is more conflict sensitive and peace building-oriented. We also intend to hire a strategic advisory team made up of conflict prevention and recovery adviser, a capacity building adviser, an economist focused on MDG analysis; a gender equality expert, and a regional cooperation adviser (short term and fixed positions). We also invited the UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery to visit the Country Office. The BCPR team conducted an in-depth assessment of the programme, including significant stakeholder consultation, and will report back in the near future on how we can increase the peace building dividend of our work.

Key Actions:

4. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 4: More systematic consideration should be given to the application of the inter-country programme of UNDP as a source of substantive capacity and to address cross-border dimensions of conflict that are important in Afghanistan and virtually all post-conflict settings.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/10]

Agreed, the CO will assess ways in which the programme can adopt a more conflict sensitive and peace building-oriented and foster greater synergies.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Engage with / seek support and advice from BCPR
[Added: 2014/03/10] [Last Updated: 2014/03/23]
2010/12 Overdue-Initiated A BCPR mission came to assess ways in which the programme can adopt an approach which is more conflict sensitive and peace building-oriented.order to assess ways in which we can adopt an approach which is more conflict sensitive and peace building-oriented
5. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 5: UNDP Headquarters should review past evaluations and studies of UNDP experiences in post-conflict countries with a view to identifying and systematizing effective models of intervention so that they can be adapted and applied to countries such as Afghanistan without 'reinventing the wheel'.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11]

Key Actions:

6. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 6: Geographic focus-UNDP should reorient its principal focus to secure provinces, with a view to demonstrating a development dividend. It should encourage bilateral donors to do the same, even if these provinces are outside the purview of their Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs). Such a focus has the added advantage of rendering it easier to effectively monitor implementation, raising the overall reputation of UNDP programmes.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

We acknowledge that the majority of recovery programmes seems to be guided by short-term interests and security concerns, rather than sustainability overall. In the next programme, UNDP will consider a longer-term support for Afghanistan covering a wider geographical area. UNDP will advocate with development partners to move from short-term recovery to a longer-term sustainable development and to make programming more conflict sensitive

Key Actions:

7. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 7: The duration of future country programmes in Afghanistan as well as of capacity building programmes should be commensurate with their longer term objectives. The current emphasis on two to three year programmes is insufficient to achieve the expected development outcomes. UNDP Afghanistan should also undertake a systematic review of its existing projects to eliminate or reorient those not focused on the achievement of UNAMA objectives.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

As mentioned in the response to the recommendation number 2, the CO understands the value for longer timeframes for interventions. However, donor predictability in Afghanistan is currently not sufficient even to cover a 2-3 years timeframe. We will continue advocating for longer time framefor projects and hope that this will improve as the international community increases coordination and harmonization.

Key Actions:

8. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 8: UNDP should widen its emphasis in governance from 'state building' to 'nation building', developing the role of civil society organizations alongside those of the institutions of state. UNDP should focus more on creating a conducive environment for civil society organizations, with a view to: creating an additional voice for the general public between elections; providing a source of checks and balances; creating legal and institutional protection for advocacy NGOs; developing policy and advocacy capacity outside government; and developing greater professionalism in civil society organizations.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

We accept this point: civil society is a vital source of policy dialogue and a catalyst for change. The CO is committed to work closely with civil society in the future. The CO will look into how CSOs can engage with UNDP, and how UNDP/ CSOs can work more effectively.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Engage in consultation with CSOs to define potential area of involvement
[Added: 2014/03/06]
senior management No due date No deadline established The CO, as part of 2011 strategic review 2011 consulted National NGOs and they have expressed a willingness to partner with UNDP in a variety of capacities: as an implementation agent for selected UNDP projects; as an agent to monitor and report on UNDP project implementation; and as a source
9. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 9: Capitalizing on experience and generating value added-Experience gained in other post-conflict settings and in nation building by UNDP and other organizations should be brought to bear through greater involvement of key parts of the organization in which substantive expertise resides. Drawing on its regional centres, BDP and BCPR, UNDP should urgently mount interdisciplinary missions to help the government and UNDP define comprehensive strategies and approaches in the following areas: economic growth, pro-poor development and sustainable livelihoods; and development of civil society as an integral part of a broader governance strategy for Afghanistan.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

An Inter-Bureau Task Force on Afghanistan (IBTFA) is created in UNDP headquarters under the leadership of RBAP to help provide and monitor coordinated corporate support to the country office. The primary purpose of the IBTFA would be to coordinate and oversee the six-month Work Plan designed to initiate the implementation of the Transformation Agenda for UNDP Afghanistan. The BCPR, the BDP, the BOM, and BERA could be requested to participate in the IBTFA.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Implementation of IBTFA six-month Work Plan
[Added: 2014/03/08] [Last Updated: 2014/03/10]
2012/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
10. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 10: UNDP should create a technical advisory team within the country office that reports to the Country Director, providing regular support to the SRSG and Deputy SRSGs as appropriate. It should be composed of highly experienced, qualified experts in the following disciplines: a macroeconomist with a strong background in pro-poor monetary and fiscal policy development; a governance specialist with strong experience in local governance and institutional change in a post-conflict environment; a peace-building and conflict adviser; a labour economist or specialist in sustainable livelihoods; a constitutional or human rights lawyer with strong comparative legal experience; and a rural development specialist with hand-on experience in the bottom-up management of multidisciplinary rural development programmes and the development of demand-oriented rural development policies.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed in part. The country office will constitute a Policy Unit, with a minimal staffing including a macroeconomist and policy specialists. For other areas conflict resolution and human rights and justice will consider hiring/ contracting part time advisors who would not be resident in the country but would make specified allocations of time to Afghanistan-specific work and also be available for specific missions as needed.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Establishing a Policy Unit in the UNDP country office
[Added: 2014/03/06]
Country Director 2011/12 Overdue-Initiated
11. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 11: Building on the Kandahar Model, UNDP should promote gradual decentralization of decision making, budget management and service delivery by all institutions of the government. Rather than the current emphasis of the application of this model as a modality for insecure provinces, the model should be replicated and applied to secure provinces to demonstrate a peace dividend.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed, UNDP will advocate for / consider this as part of the overall discussion on the sub national strategy.

Key Actions:

12. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 12: If UNDP is to continue to perform an administrative role on behalf of bilateral donors in the immediate post-conflict period, it urgently needs to increase its flexibility, responsiveness and effectiveness. It is essential that the procedures for post-conflict settings and perhaps even low-income countries under stress be streamlined. At the global level, the UNDP Bureau of Management should streamline procedures for countries in conflict without compromising accountability and transparency.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11]

Key Actions:

13. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 13: Towards more sustainable programmes-There is an urgent need for a coordinated effort, led by Resident Representative, in his capacity as the Resident Coordinator and Deputy SRSG, to develop a coordinated policy to:  Bring coherence to the donor practice of paying government salaries and salary supplements, with the goal of reducing current levels and ensuring harmonization.  Move away from cash incentives to civil servants, to the creation of sustainable professional and material, non-cash incentives (such as official housing). A national endowment may be created under UNAMA and UNDP leadership for the purpose in order to finance such incentives  Ensure that donors and the UN system move away from the too common practice of creating project implementation units that are fully or largely externally funded.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed. Sustainability of salary payment is a serious concern for both the civil service and also the Afghan National Security Forces. For the civil service, the Government of Afghanistan has taken an important first step in this regard by standardizing the Tashkeel and thereby identifying a core civil service that is paid through the Government's budget. We will continue to work with the Government to building sustainable capacity in the ministries with a view to moving towards a complete core-funded Afghanistan civil service in the long term. With respect to the Law and Order Trust Fund for Afghanistan, which coordinates the paying of police salaries by the international community, was always meant it to be a temporary measure. In the short term, however, there is strong consensus that this mechanism is extremely important to the maintenance of stability in the country.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Begin discussions on an exit strategy for LOTFA as medium term target.
[Added: 2014/03/06]
PU and DCD,P No due date No deadline established
14. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 14: Strengthening partnerships-Greater use should be made of UN specialized organization execution in the area of sustainable livelihoods. Collaboration based on past models in post-conflict settings should be considered with organizations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Cooperation should also be enhanced with UNV by identifying volunteers with appropriate skills from developing countries with relevant conditions and twinning them with institutions and functions in the Government of Afghanistan. Such twinning arrangements could be considered with rural development NGOs or government agencies in south or south-east Asia. Emphasis should be placed on governance programmes at the sub-national level, such as NABDP and ASGP, maximizing cost-effectiveness and relevance.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed. In the context of the UNDAF implementation, UNDP will make efforts at reaching out to its sister Agencies and identify areas of common interest to formulate joint programmes. This will improve the quality of UNDP programme and its relevance.

Key Actions:

15. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 15: Programme management and coordination-UINDP should better integrate with, and support UNAMA in development coordination, governance and peace-building, in particular establishing at least one regional liaison officer in each region responsible for:  Coordinating with UNAMA in terms of policies and priorities and supporting joint programming, and collaborating with other UN organizations, and bilateral and multilateral donors in the region.  At the provincial and district level, liaising and coordinating with the government, PRTs and other bilateral and multilateral agencies.  Facilitating and ensuring the effective work of UNDP programming and monitoring of programme activities and ensuring coherence between UNDP projects and programmes in the field.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/08]

Agreed; the United Nations organizations in Afghanistan are considering, with the support of the government, stronger collaboration mechanisms among themselves including the possibility of "delivering as one". Also of relevance is the exploration of joint physical presences or offices among UN agencies at the sub national levels in Afghanistan.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Joint physical presences in selected region.
[Added: 2014/03/08]
RCO 2012/12 Overdue-Not Initiated
16. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 16: UNDP should help establish a programme to build country-level monitoring and evaluation capacity geared to identifying credible outcome indicators for UNDP interventions. This programme should have sufficient resources to collect and analyse such data on an ongoing basis even beyond the scope of any individual project, ensuring a basis for ex post evaluation. Realistic indicators for each thematic area and outcome area should also be identified and a baseline for each established with a view to determining trends.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Partly agreed. UNDP acknowledges the importance of monitoring and evaluation as a key function to monitor progress and assess its efficiency and impact. However, instead of designing a stand alone programme to address this need, UNDP will establish dedicated M&E positions at both the project and country office levels.

Key Actions:

17. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 17: Democracy and participation-UNDP needs to ensure that the shortcomings of past elections are directly addressed by the Independent Electoral Commission and other bodies involved in implementation. UNDP needs to ensure support to the Independent Electoral Commission in an ongoing public information campaign to communicate the remedial measures taken and to raise general public confidence in the process. UNDP should consider strengthening the capacity of select independent, non-partisan, national NGOs and media organizations, with a direct line to the Independent Electoral Commission and other bodies tasked with ensuring the integrity of elections, to monitor polling and to ensure that their views are heard. To fully develop democratic participation in Afghanistan, UNDP should consider: developing capacity of human rights organizations to analyse and provide an alternative opinion or viewpoint on bills that are submitted for consideration by the National Assembly, adequately representing women's organizations; and professionalizing media outlets that are not affiliated with political parties or warlords.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed. These recommendations will be taken into consideration in the context of the work that the ELECT project is implementing with the IEC.

Key Actions:

18. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 18: Rule of law and security sector reform-Given the 'crowding' of the justice sector, UNDP may consider withdrawing from the sector if its value added is likely to be limited.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

As the ADR report rightly points out, UNDP's role in Afghanistan has been highly contingent on the roles of the many other members of the international community. We have often sought to fill gaps in aid delivery, implement programs on behalf of partners, and respond to requests of the Government of Afghanistan. In doing so, we have sometimes faced challenges in focusing our programme on the areas in which we have a clear comparative advantage, so as to maximize our impact and encourage coherence amongst the development community. The ADR report rightly points out the need for increased coherence in the justice sector, which currently suffers from a crowding of actors. UNDP has taken action by harmonizing its activities into a single project "Justice and Human Rights in Afghanistan Project". However UNDP intrinsically engaged with the police through disbursement of Afghanistan National Police salary payment, and as such UNDP has a place in the sector that should meaningfully be complimented by Rule of Law Development interventions.

Key Actions:

19. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 19: Government institutions-Because of its political implications, it is recommended that the Deputy SRSG should, with the support of UNDP and with the direct involvement of the SRSG as necessary, take up the issue of the appropriate policy roles and distribution of functions between the centre of government and other agencies within the government. This can only be done after a clear set of policy recommendations are laid out along the following lines:  To the extent possible, key inter-ministerial functions should be serviced from the relevant line institution.  To the extent possible, the management of inter-ministerial, cross governmental processes should not be managed by project implementation units that will not be sustainable and undermine line capacities in the long run.  Adhere to the guidelines recommended in the section on sustainability regarding the payment of salaries or salary supplements to civil servants.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed. This issue will be brought to the attention of the DSRSG's office for further implementation

Key Actions:

20. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 20: Sustainable livelihoods-UNDP urgently needs to leverage its involvement in both the Independent Directorate for Local Governance (IDLG) and MRRD under the ASGP and NABDP programmes and to systematically learn from experience gained with the Kandahar Model to foster more decentralized approaches and ensure local ownership of programmes, greater efficiency and sustainability. Much can be learnt from the design of area development programmes operated by UNDP in other post-conflict settings.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed. This recommendation will be implemented through consultation with IDLG and MRRD in the context of the implementation of ASGP and NABDP

Key Actions:

21. Recommendation: Evaluation Recommendation or Issue 21: Aid coordination and management-Recognizing the lead role of UNAMA in coordination, UNDP and UNAMA need to clarify their respective substantive roles in support of that coordination function under the ANDS and Joint Coordination and Management Board (JCMB) process at all levels. UNDP should position itself to provide substantive support for the preparation of strategy and policy papers and of UNAMA strategic positioning in this regard.
Management Response: [Added: 2009/06/11] [Last Updated: 2014/03/24]

Agreed. UNDP will engage consultations with UNAMA to clarify respective roles and responsibilities, highlight synergies and ensure that no duplication that could lead to confusion among Government and international community takes place.

Key Actions:

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