Assessment of Development Results: Cambodia

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2009-2013, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
03/2010
Completion Date:
06/2010
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
--

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Title Assessment of Development Results: Cambodia
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2009-2013, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 06/2010
Planned End Date: 03/2010
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
Evaluation Budget(US $): --
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Team Leader
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: CAMBODIA
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 To enhance the effectiveness of its flagship programmes on democratization and decentralization, UNDP needs to change its approach towards civil society, strengthening it with a view to developing capacities of Cambodian citizens. A two-pronged approach is suggested: nurturing independent civil society organizations with financial and technical support so that they can carry out the essential function of social mobilization; and encouraging reforms that can create the democratic space in which an independent civil society can flourish.
2 UNDP needs more confidence in the viability of community-based conservation of fishing resources in the Tonle Sap region as well as elsewhere in Cambodia and should devise institutional structures that can forge the link between conservation and livelihood more effectively.
3 To better integrate livelihood concerns into conservation projects, UNDP should forge partnerships with other agencies, which, like UNDP, are concerned primarily with human lives and livelihoods while pursuing environmental objectives.
4 UNDP should introduce a more explicit pro-poor bias into its poverty reduction programme. One suggestion is for UNDP to take pro-poor projects, such as those under the Growing Sustainable Business Initiative, more seriously than it has done so far. In particular, it should integrate the Growing Sustainable Business Initiative more substantively into the mainstream trade project (or its successors), and seek collaboration with other development partners (including non-governmental organizations) so that successful pilots under the initiative can be scaled up to more substantial projects.
5 To accelerate poverty reduction, UNDP should engage more in agricultural and rural development activities, preferably by entering into collaboration with other development partners who have traditionally been more engaged in these sectors in Cambodia.
6 UNDP should exploit the potential synergies among its programme areas to the fullest. One suggestion is to link the local governance structure that it supports with the community-based natural resource management for sustainable livelihood and some of the pro-poor projects (including possible work on agriculture and rural development).
7 UNDP successfully involves other development partners at the stage of execution and implementation of projects, but it needs to do more to ensure cooperation at the stage of project design in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of outcomes.
8 UNDP needs to do more to bridge the conceptual divide among its partners in decentralization projects, helping RGC devise an efficient system for combining governance reform with service delivery.
9 Despite the existence of an elaborate structure of aid coordination in Cambodia, several critical parts of this structure?in particular, the Government Donor Coordination Committee and Technical Working Groups? have not functioned well in the recent past. UNDP could play a more active role in revitalizing these parts, making use of the goodwill it enjoys among both donor and government circles by virtue of the seminal role it has played in supporting aid coordination in Cambodia.
10 To enhance UNDP ability to offer imaginative ideas quickly in response to changing country needs, it should restore the flexibility and quick response ability of the Insight for Action Initiative, which has been missing in the recent past.
11 To enhance effectiveness and efficiency across the spectrum of outcomes, UNDP should move faster towards the programme-based approach from the conventional projectoriented approach.
12 UNDP Cambodia should, for the sake of greater efficiency and impact, make a systematic attempt to convert the pilot initiatives into larger-scale activities and seek out partners through whom the scaling up can be achieved.
13 To promote sustainability of outcomes, UNDP should make greater effort to separate technical support from capacity building support and find innovative ways of combining the two in a synergistic rather than competitive relationship.
14 UNDP should further strengthen its effort to mainstream gender in the work of sectoral ministries, and the UNCT that assists sectoral ministries should also mainstream gender in their work across the board. UNCT in Cambodia should seriously consider appointing a senior gender coordinator, preferably located at the office of the UN Resident Coordinator, so as to achieve more effective coordination of gender-related activities across UN organizations.
1. Recommendation: To enhance the effectiveness of its flagship programmes on democratization and decentralization, UNDP needs to change its approach towards civil society, strengthening it with a view to developing capacities of Cambodian citizens. A two-pronged approach is suggested: nurturing independent civil society organizations with financial and technical support so that they can carry out the essential function of social mobilization; and encouraging reforms that can create the democratic space in which an independent civil society can flourish.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
In the next Country Programme, UNDP will focus on strengthening capacity of CSOs to enable them to play their social mobilization role for marginalized groups, with a special focus on youth and women organizations. UNDP will ensure more systematic participation of CSOs in local decision making and interaction with Local Government. UNDP will provide micro grants to NGOs supporting the UNDP programme areas.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/29]
Governance Cluster 2011/12 Completed Strengthening democratic programme aims to support the interface between elected representative government, citizen, and civil society have been approved and is being implemented. ACCESS programme is being finalized to support the local government associations and their roles in supporting elected council.
2. Recommendation: UNDP needs more confidence in the viability of community-based conservation of fishing resources in the Tonle Sap region as well as elsewhere in Cambodia and should devise institutional structures that can forge the link between conservation and livelihood more effectively.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Partially agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will seek partnership with Ministry of Environment and Fisheries Administration (MAFF) to integrate livelihoods development into national policies, strategies, and programmes by drawing lessons from successful cases from UNDP conservation projects.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2013/03/20]
Environment and Energy Cluster 2014/12 Overdue-Initiated Through CCBAP, UN-REDD (development REDD strategy for Fishery sector) and CCCA projects.
3. Recommendation: To better integrate livelihood concerns into conservation projects, UNDP should forge partnerships with other agencies, which, like UNDP, are concerned primarily with human lives and livelihoods while pursuing environmental objectives.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP CO has forged partnership with Danida's livelihood programme to promote sustainable forest management by integrating community based forestry management and livelihood improvement.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2013/03/20]
Environment & Energy Cluster 2015/03 Overdue-Initiated Partnership with Sweden on CCBAP and GEF, and with International NGOs on SFM projects.
4. Recommendation: UNDP should introduce a more explicit pro-poor bias into its poverty reduction programme. One suggestion is for UNDP to take pro-poor projects, such as those under the Growing Sustainable Business Initiative, more seriously than it has done so far. In particular, it should integrate the Growing Sustainable Business Initiative more substantively into the mainstream trade project (or its successors), and seek collaboration with other development partners (including non-governmental organizations) so that successful pilots under the initiative can be scaled up to more substantial projects.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Partially agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The next CPAP 2011 - 2015 will include explicit pro-poor bias in the Country Programe and more specifically within the poverty reduction programme. The two pro-poor programmes include: i) localizing of MDGs by influencing pro-poor decision making and budgeting at sub-national level; and, ii) Local Economic Development.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/26]
Poverty Reduction Cluster 2011/12 Completed 1-Linking Policy and Practice for accelerating MDG1 project is being implemented. 2-NSPP/MDG Monitoring Support Programme is being implemented.
5. Recommendation: To accelerate poverty reduction, UNDP should engage more in agricultural and rural development activities, preferably by entering into collaboration with other development partners who have traditionally been more engaged in these sectors in Cambodia.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Partially Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
To address climate change vulnerability of poor farmers, UNDP has established partnership with IFAD to promote climate change resilience in agriculture and water resource sector through IFAD agricultural programme.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2013/03/20]
Environment & Energy Cluster 2011/06 Completed IFAD/Rulip programme integrate CC adaptation into transforming field scale. - NAPA follow-up piloted community Based livelihood and resilience in 6 communes. - SGP supports CCBAB and livelihood in 160 villages, 18 provinces.
UNDP CO has also developed partnership with IFAD to promote rural livelihood improvement through piloting of deconcentration and devolution of functions from MAFF to sub-national administrations.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2013/03/20]
Environment & Energy Cluster 2012/12 Completed UNDP has involved in the development IFAD new country strategy. Also, UNDP piloted project on climate change adaption in water and agriculture sector has been generating lessons learnt and good practices have been taken forward by IFAD new supported programme.
6. Recommendation: UNDP should exploit the potential synergies among its programme areas to the fullest. One suggestion is to link the local governance structure that it supports with the community-based natural resource management for sustainable livelihood and some of the pro-poor projects (including possible work on agriculture and rural development).
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP CO will use the newly established local government structure to integrate climate change and community based natural resource management concerns in local planning process
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2013/03/20]
Environment & Energy Cluster 2012/12 Completed Under CCCA programme in collaborating with UNCDR a piloted project to top-up climate change fund to the commune/Sangkat funds using the national treasury system has been successfully implemented and replicated to other areas.
7. Recommendation: UNDP successfully involves other development partners at the stage of execution and implementation of projects, but it needs to do more to ensure cooperation at the stage of project design in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of outcomes.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP is engaging DPs systematically in its new progammes being formulated (i.e. climate change programme; decentralization programme; sustainable forest management)
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/26]
Environment & Energy Cluster; Governance cluster 2014/12 Overdue-Initiated Partnership with Sida, Danida and EU on CCCA project. With Sida on CCBAP and GEF and International NGOs on SFM project.
8. Recommendation: UNDP needs to do more to bridge the conceptual divide among its partners in decentralization projects, helping RGC devise an efficient system for combining governance reform with service delivery.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP supported the drafting of the UN positioning note on D&D reform that reconciles service delivery and democratic concerns. The new UNDP programme gives equal weight to strengthening capacity to maximize efficiency in service delivery and participation
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/29]
Governance Cluster 2011/12 Completed Through SDP and ACCESS Programme
9. Recommendation: Despite the existence of an elaborate structure of aid coordination in Cambodia, several critical parts of this structure?in particular, the Government Donor Coordination Committee and Technical Working Groups? have not functioned well in the recent past. UNDP could play a more active role in revitalizing these parts, making use of the goodwill it enjoys among both donor and government circles by virtue of the seminal role it has played in supporting aid coordination in Cambodia.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Under the new CPAP, UNDP will strengthen central and sector Government leadership over aid management through targeted support to the best performing PBAs and strengthening of the Joint Monitoring Indicators (JMIs) mechanism. UNDP will play a lead role in TWG - Gender, de-mining, climate change, and D&D to promote PBAs. The DP-Government Cambodia Development Cooperation Forum will transition into a Cambodia Development Forum with full engagement of private sector. UNDP will support CDC take a lead role in promoting South-South cooperation.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/26]
Poverty Cluster 2011/12 Completed Partnership for Development Results is being implemented.
10. Recommendation: To enhance UNDP ability to offer imaginative ideas quickly in response to changing country needs, it should restore the flexibility and quick response ability of the Insight for Action Initiative, which has been missing in the recent past.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP recognizes the need to maintain its ability to be responsive to the changing country needs. At the same time it has been recognized that the policy support extended needs to be strategic with a long term vision and in line with the UNDP CPAP. In response, the CO has formulated a development policy initiative project under the Poverty cluster (a successor to the IFA)
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/26]
Poverty Cluster & DPI 2011/12 Completed The initial DPI concept has been expended to the LPP focused at the 3 levels: 1) priority policies and sectors for inclusive growth and human development, 2) Institutional capacity development of selected sector, and 3) support to scaling up effective local community based income generation practice.
11. Recommendation: To enhance effectiveness and efficiency across the spectrum of outcomes, UNDP should move faster towards the programme-based approach from the conventional projectoriented approach.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Under the new CPAP, UNDP will align to existing Programme Based Approach and advocate with other development partners to support PBA modalities in a number of sectors: D&D; de-mining; climate change; gender; etc.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/29]
All Clusters 2011/12 Completed EE cluster completed through CCCA and UN-REDD Programme. Governance cluster completed through PGE. Poverty cluster completed through PFDR project.
12. Recommendation: UNDP Cambodia should, for the sake of greater efficiency and impact, make a systematic attempt to convert the pilot initiatives into larger-scale activities and seek out partners through whom the scaling up can be achieved.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Systematic attempt will be made to scale up successful pilot initiatives by seeking out partnerships. For example, the best practices generated through the Access to Justice project will be scaled up by other development partners. The outputs of the Trade Project will serve as a basis for WB funded Trust Fund with Ministry of Commerce.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/12/29]
Governance Cluster 2011/12 Completed Through DDLG project
13. Recommendation: To promote sustainability of outcomes, UNDP should make greater effort to separate technical support from capacity building support and find innovative ways of combining the two in a synergistic rather than competitive relationship.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Under the new programme, UNDP will prioritise capacity development of a limited number of national counterparts for a long term engagement. The approach will include a gradual phasing out of TA , supported by solid M&E, using systematic capacity assessments to establish baseline to prepare a CD plan.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/03/03]
All Clusters and UNDP Senior Management 2015/12 Overdue-Initiated
UNDP will design a more holistic package of capacity development interventions that includes both technical and "functional" (management) skills to enable organisations to deliver their mandate effectively.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/02/27]
All Clusters and UNDP Senior Management 2015/12 Overdue-Initiated
South-South cooperation will be integrated as an integral part of UNDP's approach to capacity development to provide solutions that are more contextualised, demand-led, responsive, flexible, cost-effective and sustainable for Cambodia.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2011/02/27]
All Clusters and UNDP Senior Management 2015/12 Overdue-Initiated
14. Recommendation: UNDP should further strengthen its effort to mainstream gender in the work of sectoral ministries, and the UNCT that assists sectoral ministries should also mainstream gender in their work across the board. UNCT in Cambodia should seriously consider appointing a senior gender coordinator, preferably located at the office of the UN Resident Coordinator, so as to achieve more effective coordination of gender-related activities across UN organizations.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2010/10/12]

Agreed & partially agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Two-pronged approach will be pursued in mainstreaming gender: 1) strategic support to policy, coordination and implementation capacity of the government, and 2) incorporation of gender-related objectives into all key UNDP programmes. i) Strategic support for gender mainstreaming: Targeted assistance will be provided to implement Gender Mainstreaming Action Plans (GMAPs) of selected line ministries (e.g. State Secretariat for Civil Service, Office of Council Minister, Ministry of Economic and Finance, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Land Management, Urbanization and Construction, National Institute of Statistic).Support will be provided for strengthening of Government's M&E capacity to monitor progress in a coherent and systematic manner at both sectoral and national level. ii) integrating gender-related objectives in UNDP programmes: Gender equality objectives will be integrated across the proposed country programme through addressing participation of women in politics and decision-making at national level and sub-national level; through mainstreaming gender in climate change and environment; and, through supporting gender based analysis in the design of economic governance reform.
[Added: 2010/10/12] [Last Updated: 2012/06/21]
All Clusters 2012/12 Completed - Gender Responsive Policy (PGE) - UNDP Gender Mainstreaming Strategy (UNDP).
The recommendation has been discussed at the UNCT meeting. This function will be performed by the Representative of the UN Women, an entity which was established in June 2010. The Secretariat of the UN Women will provide the necessary support to the UNCT.
[Added: 2010/10/12]
UN Women 2010/06 Completed

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