Assessment of Development Results: Turkey

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Evaluation Plan:
2009-2013, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
03/2010
Completion Date:
05/2010
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
--

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Title Assessment of Development Results: Turkey
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2009-2013, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 05/2010
Planned End Date: 03/2010
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
Evaluation Budget(US $): --
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Team Leader
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: TURKEY
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 Recommendation 1: Ensure a strong programmatic thematic focus. Yet a strong thematic focus does not prevent UNDP from developing innovative partnerships which are in line with its policy on MICs.
2 Recommendation 2: UNDP country office should ensure balance between policy advice at the central level and project implementation work on the ground, guarantee stronger integration of social equity considerations at both programmatic and project levels, and pay greater attention to existing capacities regarding individual interventions.
3 Recommendation 3: Tangible outcomes, especially in politically sensitive areas, require resource-intensive and long-term interventions vis-à-vis budget and time lines. Therefore, UNDP, corporately, should consider financial and human-resource investments in these fields.
4 Recommendation 4: UNDP country office should continue strengthening consultation and coordination mechanisms with both national and international partners.
5 Recommendation 5: UNDP country office should continue its efforts in poverty reduction with a more widespread partnership with the private sector.
6 Recommendation 6: UNDP should continue combining its simultaneous efforts for gender mainstreaming and gender-specific project support along with strengthening cooperation among UN Agencies and investing in South-South cooperation.
7 Recommendation 7: UNDP should systematically develop sustainability and exit strategies.
8 Recommendation 8: Ensure systematic moni- toring and consider a more systematic follow- up on agreed Assessment of Development Results recommendations.
1. Recommendation: Recommendation 1: Ensure a strong programmatic thematic focus. Yet a strong thematic focus does not prevent UNDP from developing innovative partnerships which are in line with its policy on MICs.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

1.1 The CO is shifting to a stronger Programmatic and Thematic focus in ongoing activities and for the purpose, programme approaches for each of the three thematic portfolios had already been developed by end of 2010. This will be further strengthened for the new programming cycle 2011-2015 through, inter alia, establishment of new outcomes boards comprising government and non-governmental partners, academia and donors. 1.2 The process to conclude a new partnership agreement between UNDP and Turkey was initiated in 2010 building on Turkey?s MIC status, convening power and commitment to become a global development cooperation actor. This new agreement to be signed in first quarter of 2011 will include particular emphasis on: MDG priorities and other development objectives such as on poverty and gender equality; developing and supporting UNDP private sector in development activities internationally; and exploring and supporting south south cooperation modalities and triangular cooperation to help LDCs and other developing countries achieve their development goals.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Instituionalization of exchange of Turkey?s experiences with demanding countries
[Added: 2013/03/22]
RR, DRR, PMs 2014/12 Overdue-Initiated Proposals to enhance the institutional capacities of the line Ministries developed and opened to discussion following the Country Office?s facilitation of numerous delegations from different countries in the field of democratic governance, environment, private sector in development etc. In consultation with respective stakeholders, initiatives aiming to build synergies under certain thematic areas have developed and put into force
Programme approaches have been developed and reflected into the CPD and CPAP.
[Added: 2013/03/21] [Last Updated: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs 2011/09 Completed The recommendation has been reflected in the new programming cycle, namely the 2011-2015 CPAP call for: ...6.2 The new programme aims at a better integrated and focused programme approach with emphasis on cross-practice cooperation, coordination and knowledge management, including with external national and international partners. Strategic and programme level discussions are taken with the key coordinating institutions i.e. the Ministries of Development and Foreign Affairs.
Environment and Sustainable Development Outcome Board has been established
[Added: 2013/03/22]
ESD PM 2012/12 Completed This action responds to recommendation 7 as well.
Democratic Governance Outcome Board has been established.
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DG PM 2013/03 Completed This action responds to recommendation 7 as well.
Partnership Framework Agreement between Republic of Turkey and UNDP has been signed by both parties, and ratified by the Turkish Parliament
[Added: 2013/03/22]
RC, DRR, PMs 2011/12 Completed The Partnership Framework Agreement (PFA) has been signed between Republic of Turkey and UNDP on March 11, 2011, with the overall purpose to strengthen the cooperation and to develop further the relations between the two parties, in order to: (a) foster global development partnerships and contribute to addressing challenges of developing, least developed (LDC) and low income (LIC) countries to accelerate progress in achieving the internationally agreed development goals including the MDGs; (b) assist Turkey in maximizing its potential as a donor and global development partner towards the realization of its national development goals; and (c) increase the contribution of Turkey to the regional and global development capacity of UNDP
Establish and operationalize UN Task Groups
[Added: 2013/03/25]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established the use of UNTG in a way similar to outcome board - given the strategic discussions at outcome level with the participation of relevant government parties.
2. Recommendation: Recommendation 2: UNDP country office should ensure balance between policy advice at the central level and project implementation work on the ground, guarantee stronger integration of social equity considerations at both programmatic and project levels, and pay greater attention to existing capacities regarding individual interventions.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

2.1. The next programming cycle integrates and balances policy related work with project implementation. The two are, however, mutually reinforcing as policy level impact sustains results while project implementation helps to inform and test and validate new policies, methodologies and modules for possible upscaling and/or up-scoping besides monitoring their effective implementation. Over the past year, the CO has strengthened its cooperation with legislative bodies such as Parliament and legislative advisors to ensure greater presence and effectiveness in development new and sound policies. This is being further capitalized on and anchored in programmes in the next programming cycle. 2.2. While CO notes the ADR observations on limiting pilot projects, and as also referred to in our response to the Poverty Outcome evaluation concluded in 2010, the CO management believes that well thought out and targeted pilot projects, in an MIC like Turkey, play a critical role in testing an initiative for future replication or up-scaling as well as to inform and validate development and effective implementation of new policies and methodologies. Presence at project implementation level, also provides the CO with a strong access to local knowledge and a diverse network of critical local partners and stakeholders and in the course of implementation create opportunities to facilitate a bottom-up feedback and input to the national policy and planning processes . UNDP Turkey will continue to implement pilot projects, undoubtedly looking into the added value for policy findings and with a conscious effort and goal to replicate successful pilots scale up results to achieve policy development impacts and ensure sustainability. In this regard, the CO will pro-actively engage with Bratislava Regional Centre to benefit and contribute to the development of tools to facilitate replication and scaling up of successful pilots. 2.3 On Social Equity, indeed the ADR report itself indicates, ?The UNDP has made a strong contribution to social equity under its three Focus Areas. This was either achieved by directly focusing on vulnerable groups or implementation in Turkey?s least developed regions, or by raising awareness on sectoral policy implications for poverty?. Focus on vulnerable groups is, indeed, a priority for all thematic areas of the new CPD and CPAP and finds eloquent expression eg through geographic focus on poorest regions, or definition of target groups comprising the poorest, women, youth etc. It may also be underscored that the engagement of private sector in poverty reduction and incorporation of social equity consideration is being effected on a larger scale in the four eastern regions in conjunction with the Regional Development Agency and MARA through integrated rural development and investment promotion initiatives. This proposal will advance further in 2011.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Stronger integration of social equity considerations at programmatic level
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs 2011/09 Completed 2011-2015 CPD integrated social equity considerations both as a specific outcome as well as a cross cutting theme of other outcomes
Integration of project implementation and policy advice
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established Examples of progress: 1) Scaled up pilot actions such as women friendly cities, local security commissions is ensured through secondary legislation 2) project level work on clustering and competitiveness integrated into national legislation 3) central level capacity and policy development programme initiated with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, based on the findings of other sustainable community based tourism initiatives in Eastern Anatolia. 4) ? Draft bills of three primary legislation including mediation in civil law, legislation on the structuring of the High Council of Judges and Prosecutors, legislation governing local authorities were amended and enacted in line with the international standards
stronger integration of social equity considerations at project level
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established Examples of progress: UNDP CO's work on local economic development (including rural development) integrates social equity considerations at project level
greater attention to existing capacities regarding individual interventions.
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established Examples of progress:(1) New institutional mechanisms such as the mediation bureaus are established as part of the judicial system as a result of successful pilots , (2) staff of project counterparts and stakeholders are reviewed and capacity development activities are being implemented.
3. Recommendation: Recommendation 3: Tangible outcomes, especially in politically sensitive areas, require resource-intensive and long-term interventions vis-à-vis budget and time lines. Therefore, UNDP, corporately, should consider financial and human-resource investments in these fields.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

The CO is at present hiring a long term senior international expert to provide strategic and programme level advice in area of justice sector reform. Continued effort to use and benefit from Bratislava Regional Centre will also form part of ensuring top notch expertise and support provided by UNDP to Turkey in this field. Other politically sensitive fields such as anti-corruption will follow same approach ie use of senior international and BRC internal expertise. Continuous capacity development efforts are also done to continue strengthen the CO in-house capacity through active participation in Community of Practice, participation in the learning workshops, acting as regional resource for other CO programming etc. While TRAC allocations for Turkey is decreasing, deliberate effort is being made to strategically use these funds to access and seek entry points in politically sensitive areas as can be seen in TRAC allocations for 2009, 2010 and 2011. This approach has already started apying dividends in terms of UNDP?s ability to impact and influence reform agenda both for upstream policy and strategy frameworks as well as institutional capacity building.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Creation of a rich roster of experts to support UNDP?s interventions, especially in politically sensitive areas (e.g. judicial reform, anti-corruption and security sector governance.)
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DG PM 2012/12 Completed Status: roster has been created and being continuously expanded
Participation of the CO reps in relevant CoPs
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established Status: regular attendance to CoPs as a part of HR investment strategy
4. Recommendation: Recommendation 4: UNDP country office should continue strengthening consultation and coordination mechanisms with both national and international partners.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

Coordination is being strengthened and effected at three levels: (a) at UNCT level with new thematic groups established in 2010 in key outcome areas of the new UNDCS 2011-2015, UNDP co-chairs Thematic Groups on environment and regional development and is an active partner in that of women, youth and social inclusion (b) with other development partners to respond to overall coordination gaps at national levels in general and for the purpose, new coordination mechanisms were established in 2010 by the EU delegation where UNDP plays a key role, in particularly co-chairing the thematic groups on demcoratic governance, including human rights and access to justice/justice reform, as well as on environment and regional development; and (c) an effort is a foot in conjunction with WB and EU to explore and promote the possibility of government instituting and leading the coordination of donor assisted projects. This is being further augmented by regular high-level meetings with the State Planning Organization and other Government counterpart agencies. 4.2 The CO has also started disseminating and ensuring flow of more frequent information of our activities to our bilateral partners through the enhanced online newsletter, social media, etc. which would be further re-enforced by a new web-based knowledge and project information gateway to be launched in 2011. The new gateway has been shared with OIST at HQ and considered a model for other COs. At UNCT level, a new intra/extranet information platform was launched at the end of 2010 to facilitate sharing and disseminating knowledge, best practices and technical reports.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Development of an online knowledge management and dissemination platform
[Added: 2013/03/22] [Last Updated: 2014/10/03]
DRR, PMs, ICO 2015/07 Overdue-Initiated Beta version is under test stage.
Establishment of a UNCT-level knowledge sharing platform
[Added: 2013/03/22]
RR, DRR, IT 2012/01 Completed The platform is operational
Active participation to coordination meetings between international organizations
[Added: 2013/03/22] [Last Updated: 2013/03/25]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established UNDP actively participated to all coordination meetings and proactively advocated for strengthening consultation and coordination mechanisms between international partners
Establishment of UNCT-level thematic groups
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established Thematic groups have been established and are functional. UNDP actively participates to all meetings and provides inputs.
Development of systems for better use of emerging internet technologies to ensure flow of more frequent information
[Added: 2013/03/22]
ICO No due date No deadline established Online newsletter improved, social networks fully utilized and integrated into UNDP CO communication system, pod-casts developed, IPAD version of the CO newsletter produced
Introduction of stronger coordination with the World Bank
[Added: 2013/03/25]
DRR No due date No deadline established Intensified thematic coordination has begun on December 2012
5. Recommendation: Recommendation 5: UNDP country office should continue its efforts in poverty reduction with a more widespread partnership with the private sector.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

5.1 This ADR recommendation is fully in line with the Poverty Outcome Evaluation completed in 2010 and as such poverty reduction and achievement of MDG is retained as one of three main objectives of the new CPD and CPAP 2011-2015. A new poverty outcome board will be established to further strengthen UNDP?s contribution in this field. 5.2 On social equity, see responses 2.4 above. 5.3 In response to the stronger private sector involvement in Eastern regions, UNDP?s work for reducing regional disparities increasingly has a private sector focus, both as funding agency and beneficiary. An example is the Efes Pilsen partnership in Eastern Anatolia region, focusing on sustainable tourism development. This project will be completed in 2012 and a replication model will be developed in conjunction with the UNJP on cultural tourism in Kars for implementation elsewhere in the country. A stronger private sector presence in one of the emerging business capitals in the East has also been ensured with the Innovation Research and Advisory Center that will be established in Malatya University by 2012 within the textile UN joint prorgramme funded by the MDG-F. Private sector engagement in national and local development, using corporate social responsibility (CSR) and Global Compact (GC) modalities increased in substance and quality over the past 5 years. Sustainable corporate capacities have been installed in the key private sector companies. 160 private companies and SMEs from Turkey signed the GC over the same period. Major private sector companies have adopted CSR as a corporate governance strategy. Companies such as Microsoft, Coca-Cola, Vodafone and Intel have units established with focal points assigned for CSR. The CO will continue to operate through its office in Istanbul and in context of new partnership agreement (see 1.4 above) an International Centre for Private Sector in Development (ICPSD) will be established in Istanbul in 2011 further capitalizing on the results achieved with support from UNDP to private sector in development and CSR. The centre is expected to also strengthen UNDP?s further support to this area in Turkey over the next programming period. (For further input, see responses 1.4 and 2.3 above)

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Establishment of International Centre for Private Sector in Development
[Added: 2013/03/22] [Last Updated: 2013/03/25]
RR, DRR 2012/12 Completed The agreement that facilitated establishment of the centre was signed in March 2011, and was later ratified by the Turkish Parliement. First executive board meeting held in Istanbul in 2013.
UNDP CO continues its work on poverty reduction and social inclusion, based on priorities of Turkey, as a MIC: Partnership with private sector continued and further expanded on poverty reduction and social inclusion.
[Added: 2013/03/21] [Last Updated: 2013/03/22]
Programme Manager for Poverty Cluster No due date No deadline established
Continued engagement in the poverty reduction/social inclusion in partnership with private sector
[Added: 2013/03/25]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established Examples of engagement include, inter alia, financial literacy, skills for disabled, entrepreneurship training - employability of youth.
6. Recommendation: Recommendation 6: UNDP should continue combining its simultaneous efforts for gender mainstreaming and gender-specific project support along with strengthening cooperation among UN Agencies and investing in South-South cooperation.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

With regard to gender, the UNDP?s efforts have been instrumental in promoting the concept of gender mainstreaming in Turkey, whilst specific projects focusing on women have contributed to increasing women participation in politics. These efforts will continue and will be strengthened in the new programming cycle through a two pronged approach; continuing to mainstream gender in all projects and programmes with help of checklists, active gender focal point and in house gender team as well as enhanced coordination within UN and with EU and World Bank; as well as with targeted interventions on women?s economic and political empowerment as can be witnessed in the UNDCS and new CPD of Turkey. New projects, including preparatory project on gender mainstreaming in legislation making and focusing on gender equality were developed and approved in 2010. This includes one joint project in partnership with UNIFEM, funded by SIDA, to be implemented by the Gender Equality Commission of the Turkish Parliament as well as joint project with UNFPA and private sector to promote gender equality at local level both to be launched in 2011. Gender mainstreaming will also be ensured through CPD/CPAP and UNDCS monitoring frameworks. As for the south-south cooperation (SSC), and in response to the observation in the report ?...there is potential for exchanges with other upper-middle income economies facing similar challenges in the environmental and poverty reduction Focus Areas, as well as with regard to gender.?, it may be amplified that UNDP embarked in 2009 on a revamped partnership with the Turkish International Development Cooperation Agency (TIKA) to strengthen their capacity as a development cooperation agency. The project is implemented with support from BRC expertise and includes training on M&E and RBM concepts for TIKA staff by UNDP to strengthen the effectiveness of their development cooperation abroad. As part of the project, a talent bank of Turkish experts is being established. The project and its outputs will be completed in 2012. Building on this initiative and in context of new partnership agreement (refer to response 1.2) between UNDP corporate and Government new triangular cooperation and south-south cooperation initiatives will be developed in 2011-2012 with Ukraine and other developing countries in the RBEC region and beyond and would also constitute an integral part of the new CPD and CPAP and as such will be monitored accordingly.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Combine simultaneous efforts for gender mainstreaming and gender-specific project support
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established Efforts to mainstream gender in all policies and practices are ongoing through advocacy, policy recommendation and activities Efforts on gender mainstreaming also continued with corporate tools such as gender marker, looking in to the gender aspect of projects.
Promote enabling environment in Turkey to foster gender equality
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PM (Gender focal point) No due date No deadline established First phase of the program to promote enabling environment in Turkey to foster gender equality has been implemented successfully. The second phase of the program, enriched with different pillars including media, gender-based analysis and legal empowerment will be implemented in a year time
Invest in south-south coop in the field of gender mainsreaming
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PR PM No due date No deadline established The support for Turkey?s strengthened development cooperation continues, with support in strategy making of TIKA as well as staff trainings.
7. Recommendation: Recommendation 7: UNDP should systematically develop sustainability and exit strategies.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

7.1 The CO agrees very much with this point and would have appreciated a more precise and elaborated set of recommendations from the ADR exercise in this regard. Nevertheless, CO has already started pursuing and outlining the exit strategies as an integral element of the implementation process to ensure that activities and interventions by the end of the project life cycle are institutionalized and internalized in the national business processes. For the purpose, special focus is being paid to: (a) ensuring that UNDP programmes/projects even at the local level do contribute to upstream activities e.g., policy/strategy frameworks, action plans etc. (b) capacity strengthening and institution building; (c) development of models, methodologies and best practices for upscaling and possible replication; and (d) forming part of the national knowledge resource. 7.2 The new knowledge management tools, elaborated above at UNDP and UNCT level will also help to ensure sustainability and facilitate exit strategies. Furthermore, the importance of sustainability and appropriate exit strategies are important dimensions of LPAC discussions and as such are elaborated on in both LPAC minutes as well as project documents. The CO will continue to pay attention to this during the new programming cycle, also as mentioned in the new CPD and CPAP.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Continue to develop sustainability and exit strategies at project-level interventions
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established All projects have clear sustainability and exit strategies: specific examples include but are not limited to local economic development initiatives in southeast anatolia, cluster development, corporate social responsibility etc. Pilots are designed to be testing of new approaches, methodologies and practices, which are scaled up through primary and secondary legislation
Tailor made training (including training of trainers) programs are supported by creation of resource persons to enable and ensure sustainability of the initiatives
[Added: 2013/03/22] [Last Updated: 2013/03/25]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established
8. Recommendation: Recommendation 8: Ensure systematic moni- toring and consider a more systematic follow- up on agreed Assessment of Development Results recommendations.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/08] [Last Updated: 2011/01/11]

8.1 As for more systematic monitoring, UNDP developed in 2010 a Project Monitoring tool, which is being reviewed by BRC, and will be tested for implementation in first quarter of 2011. The new system will be fully established and functional by mid 2011. In the meantime, the CO has included M&E function as an integral part of all our projects and will develop in-house monitoring expertise for long term impact. The CO is also building a strong monitoring system in liaison with BRC including building in-house capacity on RBM, which included a one-week training for project and programme staff in 2009 with 30+ Prince 2 certifications, and two day refresher in 2010 with focus on formulation of outputs, indicators, targets etc to facilitate monitoring and reporting. . 8.2 Outcome evaluation for the poverty portfolio was completed in 2010 and two other outcome evaluations of the remaining two thematic portfolios will be completed by mid 2011. The recommendations of these evaluations will be fed into CO programme development and implementation and partnership building. 8.3 The evaluation function is, however, being strengthened by nomination of a focal point with responsibility to on a regular basis follow up on evaluation issues and make sure BSC is on track, including reporting on ADR recommendation follow up. The Monitoring function will be strengthened during 2011 with plans to integrate this function into the programme advisory specialist position. 8.4 The CO has during 2010 been consulted by a partnership initiative between the World Bank and SPO to strengthen the national M&E system. This initiative will continue in 2011 with requests from SPO to organize a training in 2011 on M&E as well as RBM concepts. 8.5 A strengthened M&E system for the UNDCS and consequently for the CPD/CPAP will also be developed in 2011 for which assistance from the Regional Director?s Group has already been sought.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Use corporate tools such as (IWP, ROAR etc.) as a means to follow up on ADR recommendations
[Added: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs, 2015/12 Overdue-Initiated Most of the recommendations of the ADR followed up on through ROAR, IWP etc.
Outcome Evaluations
[Added: 2013/03/21] [Last Updated: 2013/03/22]
DRR, PMs No due date No deadline established ESD Outcome Evaluation completed in 2012. DG Outcome Evaluation is completed in 2013.

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