Assessment of Development Results: Somalia

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2009-2013, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
12/2010
Completion Date:
09/2010
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
--

This evaluation examined the relevance and strategic positioning of UNDP support and its contributions to the country?s development results from 2005 to 2010. It assessed the UNDP Somalia interventions under the three main programme areas and cross-cutting themes, with the aim of providing forward-looking recommendations that are useful for the formulation of the new UNDP country programme. The evaluation found that UNDP contribution to development results in Somalia has varied considerably depending on the region where activities were implemented. The report highlights several challenges and shortcomings in programme management. It concludes that, despite these challenges, UNDP Somalia continued to seize opportunities as they emerged through the peace process and enjoy a privileged relationship with the authorities and donors. UNDP has initiated a process of change that should transform the institutional culture by emphasizing more cohesion and synergy between programmes, a results-based management as well as the mainstreaming of a rights-based approach and gender in programming. The evaluation strongly endorsed these approaches.

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Title Assessment of Development Results: Somalia
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2009-2013, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 09/2010
Planned End Date: 12/2010
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
Evaluation Budget(US $): --
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Team Leader
Team Leader
Team Leader
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: SOMALIA
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 Recommendation 1: UNDP Somalia needs to re-anchor its country programme to areas which build on its core competence and are central to its mandate. It should work towards finding an alternative ?provider? or mechanism to take over activities related to providing services to political processes or for simple administrative functions which are not central to its mandate.
2 Recommendation 2: The next country programme for Somalia should strike an appropriate balance between interventions in support of building capacity of government institutions and initiatives to help address, in the short and medium term, the chronic development needs of the vulnerable groups of population, with a view to achieving progress towards MDGs, including on pressing issues related to environment.
3 Recommendation 3: UNDP Somalia needs to reassert overall leadership on development issues within the UN community and ensure that development needs of the Somali population and support for achievement of MDGs receive increasing attention from authorities as well as development agencies, NGOs and the donor community.
4 Recommendation 4: In line with the decision to present for approval a five-year cycle for the 2011- 2015 country programme, UNDP Somalia should develop three region-specific five-year operational workplans in full consultation with relevant partners. This should be accompanied by a system of annual participatory reviews in order to increase ownership of the planning process and to address issues of predictability and transparency in UNDP planning and budgeting processes.
5 Recommendation 5: UNDP Somalia needs to engage with a wider range of actors, including independent observers, researchers, academics and civil society in order to sharpen its analysis and understanding of the complex context of its operating environment.
6 Recommendation 6: UNDP Somalia needs to ensure greater coherence within and between programmes and establish mechanisms that promote coherence, complementarity and synergy as key elements of the institutional culture.
7 Recommendation 7: UNDP Somalia should increase the presence of Nairobi-based staff in the field by making full use of existing possibilities, including slots, and increase interaction with Somali counterparts by using temporary proximity hubs easily accessible for the authorities with the aim of ensuring timely decision-making and resolution of problems.
8 Recommendation 8: UNDP Somalia should pursue a conscious strategy to enhance the quality of programme planning and the delivery of results and financial resources by: Securing necessary technical inputs in design/ implementation and monitoring processes Mainstreaming a results-oriented culture through monitoring and evaluation by ensuring that all programme staff are trained in monitoring and evaluation, seeking the necessary monitoring and evaluation technical expertise, and assuring adequate institutional arrangements and incentives Undertaking a review of existing programme management capacity and taking corrective actions to enhance quality and ensure good financial management Undertaking a systematic capacity assessment of implementing partners and monitoring contractors to ensure that they are capable of delivering to quality standards.
9 Recommendation 9: UNDP Somalia needs to develop a gender strategy and implementation framework. There is a need for dedicated staff resources to ensure that the necessary structures, systems and institutional culture are in place to promote gender mainstreaming.
10 Recommendation 10: UNDP headquarters needs to provide more active and timely support to UNDP Somalia, to develop guidance for offices
1. Recommendation: Recommendation 1: UNDP Somalia needs to re-anchor its country programme to areas which build on its core competence and are central to its mandate. It should work towards finding an alternative ?provider? or mechanism to take over activities related to providing services to political processes or for simple administrative functions which are not central to its mandate.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

UNDP Country Office Program and Mandate: With the development of the new Country Program Document, UNDP Somalia has ensured that the main outcome areas are those which build on UNDP?s core competence and are central to the UNDP mandate. A concerted effort was therefore undertaken to ensure that the new Country Program would have a stronger overall focus on peace-building and the promotion of gender equality and empowerment by dedicating two of the four outcomes under the CPD to these specific areas. UNDP will continue to work across the spectrum of state-building, peace-building and nation-building activities, providing lead support in the areas of rule of law, democratic governance and human development, all of which are working towards MDG attainment. In 2011, UNDP will move away from activities in which it has previously engaged in the past, which were not aligned to the UNDP mandate and areas of core competence. Examples include large-scale construction works taken on by UNOPS; aspects of support to prisons and custodial corps which have now been assumed by UNODC, and support to mine actions which has been handed over to UNMAS. Partnerships with UNPOS will be enhanced such that UNPOS takes the lead on political processes while UNDP plays its development role in support of political progress.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- Areas that are not core to UNDP mandates such Mine action activities have been discontinued and handed over to UNMAS. Additionally, UNDP Somalia has scaled down on its involvement in civil works especially projects of large scale nature. - Other areas for which we do not have comparative advantage like Prison support have been discontinued and taken on by UNOPS, with the exception of the SPU support which continues to be part of programme support due to practical reasons.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
CO 2009/01 Completed
2. Recommendation: Recommendation 2: The next country programme for Somalia should strike an appropriate balance between interventions in support of building capacity of government institutions and initiatives to help address, in the short and medium term, the chronic development needs of the vulnerable groups of population, with a view to achieving progress towards MDGs, including on pressing issues related to environment.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

Balance between Capacity Building Programs and Development Initiatives: UNDP also endeavors to develop evidence-based, problem-solving responses and will ensure more of a balance between a top-down state building approach working with and through authorities and their institutions, on the one hand, and a more bottom-up peace building approach, working with and through communities, on the other. Greater focus has been placed on the promotion of MDGs and support to recovery and sustainable livelihoods.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- A balanced programme has been developed with support directed at community, district, regional and federal levels.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
CO mgt 2009/01 Completed
3. Recommendation: Recommendation 3: UNDP Somalia needs to reassert overall leadership on development issues within the UN community and ensure that development needs of the Somali population and support for achievement of MDGs receive increasing attention from authorities as well as development agencies, NGOs and the donor community.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/10]

UNDP Leadership on Development Issues and Support to MDGS: UNDP Somalia under its new Country Programme plans to strengthen its leadership in and contribution to enhanced policy dialogue, advocacy and development responses to conflict. Continued support to the achievement of the MDGs also remains central to UNDP?s work with specific assistance directed to developing MDG planning, programming and policy implementation capacities among partners for robust, participative analysis. This includes in particular strengthening the capacity of the Ministry of Planning to collect MDG data, analyse it, create baselines and monitor progress in collaboration with relevant line ministries and development partners. MDG and gender awareness, planning and budgeting will further be enhanced at the local, district, regional and national levels.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- Key steps have been taken to ensure that Annual regional work plans are developed in close consultation with relevant sub offices and authorities, furthermore, regular reviews are held at the regional level and the new federal government assumed leadership of 2013 work planning process.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
2009/01 Completed
4. Recommendation: Recommendation 4: In line with the decision to present for approval a five-year cycle for the 2011- 2015 country programme, UNDP Somalia should develop three region-specific five-year operational workplans in full consultation with relevant partners. This should be accompanied by a system of annual participatory reviews in order to increase ownership of the planning process and to address issues of predictability and transparency in UNDP planning and budgeting processes.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

Development of Regional Workplans: Different development, security and political conditions exist in South-Central Somalia, Puntland and Somaliland. As such, greater differentiation needs to be applied in the design of detailed implementation plans that reflect the differences in each region. In order to address this operational challenge, the Country Office has developed Outcome Implementation Plans. The aim behind the plans is to increase UNDP?s strategic impact and the achievement of development results. Each of these plans has regional workplans, based on region specific priorities which will guide the implementation of the outcomes on the ground. The Heads of Sub Office and the staff in each region will play key roles in this effort. In terms of overall project management, systems are in place for quarterly work plan and expenditure reviews as well as quarterly, regionalized project board meetings. Annual reviews of the program will be undertaken in concert with regional authorities and development partners. This will support a longer term planning horizon which contributes to the overall impact of UNDP programs in Somalia.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- Key steps have been taken to ensure that Annual regional work plans are developed in close consultation with relevant sub offices and authorities, furthermore, regular reviews are held at the regional level and the new federal government assumed leadership of 2013 work planning process.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
Co mgt 2009/01 Completed
5. Recommendation: Recommendation 5: UNDP Somalia needs to engage with a wider range of actors, including independent observers, researchers, academics and civil society in order to sharpen its analysis and understanding of the complex context of its operating environment.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

Engagement with a Wider Range of Actors: UNDP is seeking to expand its base of partners towards a broader multi-stakeholder approach and has made a commitment to engage much more strongly with youth, women, elders and traditional/religious leaders, given the pivotal contribution they can make towards positive societal transformation. UNDP will continue to maximize national/local ownership with a strong focus on capacity building, including by emphasizing participation and inclusion of local partners in decision-making.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- UNDP has expanded its range of partners beyond government to include a much broader set of actors that includes civil society, academia, women?s groups and youth.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
CO mgt 2009/01 Completed
6. Recommendation: Recommendation 6: UNDP Somalia needs to ensure greater coherence within and between programmes and establish mechanisms that promote coherence, complementarity and synergy as key elements of the institutional culture.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

Greater Coherence within and between Programs: As a first step, and in order to strengthen internal synergies, UNDP has established Outcome Teams comprised of a cross-representation of staff from the different programs and projects to review how collectively they could contribute to the achievement of the outcomes. UNDP is also seeking to improve the way in which it works internally to promote closer integration across programs which will subsequently be reflected in more integrated approaches on the ground that are also balanced across regions with a view to avoiding pockets of exclusion in areas of most need.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- The CO has endeavored to further consolidate its programming for more coherence and synergies. Consequently, the Governance and rule of law programmes have been merged into one. Others include the RSL and HDEV merged into PREP. To create more synergies Inter programme and inter project synergy sessions are held, and synergies noted in work plans and reviewed during quarterly reviews
[Added: 2013/04/02]
CO mgt 2009/01 Completed
7. Recommendation: Recommendation 7: UNDP Somalia should increase the presence of Nairobi-based staff in the field by making full use of existing possibilities, including slots, and increase interaction with Somali counterparts by using temporary proximity hubs easily accessible for the authorities with the aim of ensuring timely decision-making and resolution of problems.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

Increased Staff Presence in Somalia: Due to the fluctuation of security conditions inside Somalia, the Country Office has faced challenges in deploying staff to the field. Staff presence inside Somalia is critical to driving UNDP?s work in the field. To date, the CO has made efforts to work with UNDSS rules and regulations in light of prevailing security conditions. However, with the recent upgrading of the security phase in Somaliland to Phase 3, 2011 will see more staff deployed to Hargeisa and also to Garowe. As security permits, increased missions to South Central Somalia will also be undertaken as deemed necessary. A functional review of the country office will take place and selected international staff will be deployed to sub-offices from Nairobi, to the extent the security situation will allow. UNDP looks forward to being able to expand its full presence inside Somalia where and when it is deemed permissible.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- In line with the recommendations of the ADR, the office has gradually increased staff presence in Somalia: In 2011, select functions moved to Hargeisa and Garowe, in 2013, a full CO relocation plan was developed and an initial additional 11 functions are scheduled to move as part of the first phase to join the Country Director who moved to Mogadishu in December 2012.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
2013/01 Completed
8. Recommendation: Recommendation 8: UNDP Somalia should pursue a conscious strategy to enhance the quality of programme planning and the delivery of results and financial resources by: Securing necessary technical inputs in design/ implementation and monitoring processes Mainstreaming a results-oriented culture through monitoring and evaluation by ensuring that all programme staff are trained in monitoring and evaluation, seeking the necessary monitoring and evaluation technical expertise, and assuring adequate institutional arrangements and incentives Undertaking a review of existing programme management capacity and taking corrective actions to enhance quality and ensure good financial management Undertaking a systematic capacity assessment of implementing partners and monitoring contractors to ensure that they are capable of delivering to quality standards.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

Conscious Strategy to Enhance Quality of Program Planning and Delivery of Results: The outputs under each outcome were by and large selected based on whether they directly address at least one of the key identified drivers of conflict or directly support one of the capacities for peace; whether they contribute to at least one point of the UNDP Eight-Point Agenda (8PA); whether they target and/or maximize involvement of youth, women and/or traditional and religious leaders; and whether they are based on some (or all) of the principles guiding good development practice in crisis and post-conflict situations. By prioritizing its interventions based on these key factors UNDP hopes to contribute more significantly to peace-building and gender equality in Somalia over the next five years. The new CPD will be complemented by outcome level reporting based on a robust RBM system. UNDP recently recruited an international Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist whose work will focus on the development and management of a monitoring and evaluation framework and plan. Efforts are underway for the recruitment of a national M & E officer to boost the CO?s M & E capacity. This will be accompanied by a more astute focus on improved results-based management and result reporting. UNDP will maintain a direct execution modality over all its programming, but with parallel efforts to support the leadership, ownership, management and direct contribution of national counterparts. All activities will take place on the basis of maximizing opportunities to empower stakeholders in an inclusive and participatory manner. The CO will continue to exercise clear and transparent principles and practices of governance over the entire portfolio, using a range of zonal, program and project boards that ensures participation of all partners in consultations and decision-making over the design, management, monitoring and evaluation of all substantive investments made in Somalia. The CO will approach new international development partners with a prospective interest in Somalia and seek to lever additional South-South and regional cooperation opportunities. UNDP will continue to play a major role as part of the United Nations Country Team in support of the coordinated UN efforts in Somalia. UNDP will also continue to invest fully in the vital and robust strategic partnership with donors.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
To enhance programme planning quality and ensuring delivery of results, the CO has developed a fully-fledged M&E plan, designed and implemented a quarterly reporting template with online capability, which is used to also monitor programme and project performance. A dedicated M&E specialist has been recruited to ensure that these functions perform. Quarterly programme review meetings are held and reports are produced and disseminated.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
CO Mgt 2009/01 Completed
9. Recommendation: Recommendation 9: UNDP Somalia needs to develop a gender strategy and implementation framework. There is a need for dedicated staff resources to ensure that the necessary structures, systems and institutional culture are in place to promote gender mainstreaming.
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/01/07]

Development of Gender Strategy and Implementation Framework: In the new CPD, one of the four outcomes has been devoted entirely to the promotion of gender equality and women?s empowerment. Key focus areas will include promoting participation of women in political, economic, social and cultural spheres; their participation in decision making structures at all levels, raising awareness of women?s rights, working in particular with religious leaders, clan and traditional elders; and ensuring legal protection and support of women?s rights through international instruments. Given the challenges in addressing gender issues in Somalia, some outcomes were selected based on whether they contributed to the UNDP Eight-Point Agenda. UNDP has developed a draft gender strategy and implementation framework and is in the process of recruiting a full time gender specialist to provide guidance to gender mainstreaming and to lead on the design and implementation of gender specific initiatives not captured under the other three outcomes.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
- A gender project document has been developed to ensure effective gender mainstreaming into all existing programmes. Additionally, a stand-alone gender programme has been developed and being implemented by a gender specialist with a support team.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
CO Mgt 2010/01 Completed
10. Recommendation: Recommendation 10: UNDP headquarters needs to provide more active and timely support to UNDP Somalia, to develop guidance for offices
Management Response: [Added: 2010/09/07] [Last Updated: 2011/05/24]

UNDP HQ remote management guidelines will be ready by October 2011.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
HQ has provided active support in terms setting JP's etc.
[Added: 2013/04/02]
HQ 2009/01 Completed

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