Government to Citizen Project

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Evaluation Plan:
2008-2013, Bhutan
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
09/2013
Completion Date:
09/2013
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
12,000

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Title Government to Citizen Project
Atlas Project Number: 00077719
Evaluation Plan: 2008-2013, Bhutan
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 09/2013
Planned End Date: 09/2013
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Democratic Governance
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Civil society, including civil society organizations and voluntary associations, and the private sector contribute to the MDGs in support of national planning strategies and policies
  • 2. Access to information policies support accountability and transparency
Evaluation Budget(US $): 12,000
Source of Funding: DGTTF
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Tshering Choden Mrs.
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: DLG-MOHCA; BCMD
Countries: BHUTAN
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 Numbers versus functionality and efficiency: The rationale to increase the number of CCs in the country needs to be examined closely. It might be more prudent to optimize the efficiency of the existing CCs instead of investing in more CCs. No CCs should be opened unless there is adequate internet access, in respect of speed as well as availability, and priority e-services of interest to rural citizens have been operationally validated.
2 The CC Management in Bhutan Post would benefit from extra personnel to respond to the needs of the CCs and development of experience and skills in CC management. Bhutan Post expressed that a dedicated CC Team is needed to ensure better management of the CCs. Capacity building in CC management, entrepreneurship skills development for CCs, Training of Trainers (ToT) for CC operations were some of the areas listed by Bhutan Post. Bhutan Post also said that technical experts in the areas of developing CC services like Citizen to Citizen (C2C) services and Business to Citizen (B2C) services would be of immense benefit. It would also be useful to provide change management specialists to support providers to understand the benefits of the G2C initiative.
3 Better awareness among citizens need to be created in terms of services that they are entitled to receive to develop the faith and confidence of users? in the new system. Regular measuring of satisfaction levels of citizens is also needed to determine service need trends and increase the quality of services. Support in the form of change management specialists is also needed to encourage users from adopting the new mode of service delivery.
4 Getting all CCs online at the earliest possible time should be a priority. However, since the offline services are more popularly used by citizens, there is a need to encourage citizens to use G2C services.
5 In order to determine the usage of CC services by women, CCs should be encouraged to maintain such records, in disaggregated form. Currently there are no data to support the increased participation of women in family transactions which the project envisaged.
6 Since services in the front end (websites and web services) have been completed, it is recommended that agencies that are yet to complete automation at the back end including data and database migration need to expedite to improve delivery of G2C services. Agencies have to recognize that G2C initiative is a combined effort of all stakeholders and delay of a few agencies affects the overall progress of the G2C initiative. The G2C office should take the lead role here.
7 There are still a few G2C services which require approvals and signatures. Thus the time to access services have not reduced. This has discouraged citizens from availing services from CCs. At this juncture, it would be beneficial to review the time taken to access G2C services that are automated and also services that are soon to be automated. Parent agencies along with G2C Project Office need to review the process for availing services and, wherever possible, reduce unnecessary procedures.
8 The issue of CC sustainability needs to be looked at closely from the perspective that they were originally started to bring service delivery closer to the rural people and not as a model of efficiency in terms of market parameters. It is timely to discuss and decide if the subsidy amounts are acceptable and fundable by the government. If not, the whole CC model is worth revising.
9 For the new CCs which are to yet to be established, it is worthwhile to consider other ways of service delivery such as continuation from the gups? offices, RNR centers, ?mini-CCs? run from local shops, through a farmers? cooperatives, or a CSO with a local presence.
10 A Needs Assessment is recommended to determine what specific services are needed by particular groups i.e. women, elderly population, vulnerable groups. The Needs Assessment would also address the service needs of populations with different incomes, languages and settings (urban/rural). A Capacity Needs Assessment (CNA) for service users and CC operators might also be worthwhile. During the assessment, support for capacity development was a recurring theme from Bhutan Post as well as CC operators.
11 Linkages between Local Government and (LG) and Community Centers (CC). There is a need to look at improving linkages and communications between LGs and CCs. In this respect, a good place to start with is: o making use of the technical capacities of the dzongkhag ICT officers o garnering the support of the dzongkhag census and immigration office (as census related services is the topmost priority among G2C services) o garnering the support of GAOs and Gaydrungs o providing a platform for dzongkhag-wide networking of CCs with certain involvement of the chairperson of the DT and/or Dzongda ranging from ceremonial roles to providing specific inputs and support needed by CCs
12 Enhancing the skills and continuous learning needs of CC operators, the first point of contact for service delivery, is an aspect that needs support in the future. CC operators listed capacity building in three areas as a priority for them to manage the CCs sustainably: i) ICT skills ii) Business skills and iii) writing legal documents. CC operators felt that business skills are necessary to enhance their capacity to make CCs self-sufficient in the long run. Participants of Focus Group Discussions expressed that it would be a value added service if CC operators were able to write legal documents for them.
13 The Swiss Development Cooperation and the Government of India have committed to support the Royal Government?s initiatives for efficient service delivery in the next plan. It will be a fruitful exercise for UNDP to discuss their interests in the initiative to avoid duplication and to complement each other.
1. Recommendation: Numbers versus functionality and efficiency: The rationale to increase the number of CCs in the country needs to be examined closely. It might be more prudent to optimize the efficiency of the existing CCs instead of investing in more CCs. No CCs should be opened unless there is adequate internet access, in respect of speed as well as availability, and priority e-services of interest to rural citizens have been operationally validated.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

A number of stakeholders are involved in the support towards and development of the CCs. The outcomes of this evaluation and other reviews that have been undertaken should be carefully considered when developing the overall support programme towards the CCs. UNDP?s support is likely to continue to focus on support towards software and training, as opposed to infrastructure aspects of the work and the development of new CCs, so the recommendation is not directly relevant. Decisions with regard to the opening of further CCs will be made by the Royal Government of Bhutan with Bhutan Post, and support for further CCs has already been secured.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will ensure that any future support to CCs under the UNDAF 2014-2018 includes improvement of existing services.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
UNDP 2015/06 Completed History
2. Recommendation: The CC Management in Bhutan Post would benefit from extra personnel to respond to the needs of the CCs and development of experience and skills in CC management. Bhutan Post expressed that a dedicated CC Team is needed to ensure better management of the CCs. Capacity building in CC management, entrepreneurship skills development for CCs, Training of Trainers (ToT) for CC operations were some of the areas listed by Bhutan Post. Bhutan Post also said that technical experts in the areas of developing CC services like Citizen to Citizen (C2C) services and Business to Citizen (B2C) services would be of immense benefit. It would also be useful to provide change management specialists to support providers to understand the benefits of the G2C initiative.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

A well instituted management team at Bhutan Post would certainly enhance the overall operation of the CCs, including the need to keep updating the technical capacity of the CC operators. It will be up to Bhutan Post to propose a viable business management model incorporating all the mentioned requirements. Technical Assistance in the areas of management and delivery expertise will definitely be of great help to all the stakeholders.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Bhutan Post may include proposed considerations in their future business model.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
Bhutan Post 2015/06 Completed History
3. Recommendation: Better awareness among citizens need to be created in terms of services that they are entitled to receive to develop the faith and confidence of users? in the new system. Regular measuring of satisfaction levels of citizens is also needed to determine service need trends and increase the quality of services. Support in the form of change management specialists is also needed to encourage users from adopting the new mode of service delivery.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

Awareness raising activities were a key component of the UNDP supported project. It is clear that with the services being relatively new, awareness raising work will need to continue in the future. In order to develop the faith and confidence of users, the services also need to be operational across the board. The measuring of satisfaction levels and incorporation of options for feedback will also play an important role. The Voice of Customer portal was already developed with UNDP support in order to fulfill this role, but efforts should continue to ensure that it is functional (currently estimated to be operational by end of 2013). The option of supporting change management specialists should be investigated, but may be beyond the UNDP?s field of support.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Awareness raising activities of the services provided and feedback mechanisms to remain a part of any projects supported by UNDP in the future.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
UNDP 2016/06 Completed History
4. Recommendation: Getting all CCs online at the earliest possible time should be a priority. However, since the offline services are more popularly used by citizens, there is a need to encourage citizens to use G2C services.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

DITT is aiming towards completing and making the CCs in the remaining gewogs functional by the end of 2013. Once the CCs are equipped with the basic connectivity and infrastructure, it is very much hopeful that the use of the online G2C services will drastically increase.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
G2C/DITT will aim to ensure that the services are available from all the CCS and undertake awareness raising activities.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
DITT 2016/06 Completed History
5. Recommendation: In order to determine the usage of CC services by women, CCs should be encouraged to maintain such records, in disaggregated form. Currently there are no data to support the increased participation of women in family transactions which the project envisaged.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

For future projects, more needs to be done at the inception and needs assessment stage, as well as throughout the project, to ascertain the impact of the project, and use of the facilities by women. Gender disaggregated data should also be collected in the future.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
In any future projects supported by UNDP, the gender aspect should be fully incorporated, including measuring the impact of the project on women and understanding their needs or barriers for using the service.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
UNDP 2014/12 Completed History
6. Recommendation: Since services in the front end (websites and web services) have been completed, it is recommended that agencies that are yet to complete automation at the back end including data and database migration need to expedite to improve delivery of G2C services. Agencies have to recognize that G2C initiative is a combined effort of all stakeholders and delay of a few agencies affects the overall progress of the G2C initiative. The G2C office should take the lead role here.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

G2C Office has been consistently working with the agencies whose back-end database migration hasn?t been completed. Except for few, these are mostly completed and the services are gone online.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
G2C and DITT will ensure the completion of the data migration of the remaining agencies
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
G2C and DITT 2014/07 Completed History
7. Recommendation: There are still a few G2C services which require approvals and signatures. Thus the time to access services have not reduced. This has discouraged citizens from availing services from CCs. At this juncture, it would be beneficial to review the time taken to access G2C services that are automated and also services that are soon to be automated. Parent agencies along with G2C Project Office need to review the process for availing services and, wherever possible, reduce unnecessary procedures.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

G2C in consultation with the respective agencies tried minimizing the signatory requirements as much as possible. However, it may be noted that most of the eG2C services have reduced the processing time relatively speaking.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
G2C will consider this recommendation during the leaning and automation of future services
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
G2C 2014/12 Completed History
8. Recommendation: The issue of CC sustainability needs to be looked at closely from the perspective that they were originally started to bring service delivery closer to the rural people and not as a model of efficiency in terms of market parameters. It is timely to discuss and decide if the subsidy amounts are acceptable and fundable by the government. If not, the whole CC model is worth revising.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

This question is outside the scope of support from UNDP. However, Bhutan Post is in the process of developing a sustainability and business plan.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Bhutan Post will develop a sustainability and business plan.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
Bhutan Post 2014/12 Completed History
9. Recommendation: For the new CCs which are to yet to be established, it is worthwhile to consider other ways of service delivery such as continuation from the gups? offices, RNR centers, ?mini-CCs? run from local shops, through a farmers? cooperatives, or a CSO with a local presence.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

The service dispensing points of the G2C services are not limited to CCs alone. Since the online services, especially the ?open? services, can be availed from anywhere where there is Internet, this consideration is accepted by the G2C Office, and in fact has already been responded to.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Especially the open G2C services can be availed from any dispensing point, and other online services can also be availed, provided the documentation is complete (those requiring submission of supporting documents).
[Added: 2013/10/30]
G2C and DLG 2013/07 Completed
10. Recommendation: A Needs Assessment is recommended to determine what specific services are needed by particular groups i.e. women, elderly population, vulnerable groups. The Needs Assessment would also address the service needs of populations with different incomes, languages and settings (urban/rural). A Capacity Needs Assessment (CNA) for service users and CC operators might also be worthwhile. During the assessment, support for capacity development was a recurring theme from Bhutan Post as well as CC operators.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2013/10/30]

A thorough needs assessment will indeed be necessary in order to ensure that the services provided meet the needs of the target groups. In preparing for the activities supported under the One Programme 2014-2018, UNDP is planning a series of capacity and needs assessments, which should be used so as to inform project development in the future, including in the field of G2C

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Capacity needs assessments to be undertaken as part of the preparation for One Programme from 2014 onwards.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
UNDP 2014/12 Completed History
11. Recommendation: Linkages between Local Government and (LG) and Community Centers (CC). There is a need to look at improving linkages and communications between LGs and CCs. In this respect, a good place to start with is: o making use of the technical capacities of the dzongkhag ICT officers o garnering the support of the dzongkhag census and immigration office (as census related services is the topmost priority among G2C services) o garnering the support of GAOs and Gaydrungs o providing a platform for dzongkhag-wide networking of CCs with certain involvement of the chairperson of the DT and/or Dzongda ranging from ceremonial roles to providing specific inputs and support needed by CCs
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

The success of the G2C Project is highly dependent on the collaboration among all the stakeholders and G2C has also taken initiative in creating awareness among all possible LG members (by providing awareness and advocacy meetings to GAOs, gups and other LG members during LG gatherings). The roles in local governance will enhance the functioning of the CCs at the community level. An agreement between Bhutan Post, DLG and DITT on Public Service Delivery Policy is being drafted and should address many of the issues outlined.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Tripartite agreement between Bhutan Post, DLG and DITT is to be completed.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
DITT 2014/06 Completed History
12. Recommendation: Enhancing the skills and continuous learning needs of CC operators, the first point of contact for service delivery, is an aspect that needs support in the future. CC operators listed capacity building in three areas as a priority for them to manage the CCs sustainably: i) ICT skills ii) Business skills and iii) writing legal documents. CC operators felt that business skills are necessary to enhance their capacity to make CCs self-sufficient in the long run. Participants of Focus Group Discussions expressed that it would be a value added service if CC operators were able to write legal documents for them.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

Needs and capacity assessments will be undertaken prior to any future support from UNDP in order to establish the most effective areas for future collaboration. The requests from the CC operators expressed within this evaluation will be taken into account and shared with relevant actors.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Needs and capacity assessments prior to future support (see also issue #11)
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
UNDP 2014/12 Completed History
13. Recommendation: The Swiss Development Cooperation and the Government of India have committed to support the Royal Government?s initiatives for efficient service delivery in the next plan. It will be a fruitful exercise for UNDP to discuss their interests in the initiative to avoid duplication and to complement each other.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/10/30]

Thorough discussions in order to ensure that there is no duplication of efforts between development partners and, further, that a coherent and strategic approach is adopted, will be undertaken as far as is possible. There are also opportunities to learn from each other?s experience in this regard

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP will undertake discussions with other development partners prior to providing any further programmatic support to the G2C initiative.
[Added: 2013/10/30] [Last Updated: 2018/11/12]
UNDP 2014/07 Completed History

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