Outcome Evaluation on UNDP's Engagement with Civil Society Actors and Mechanisms, including Small Grants Schemes between 2008 - 2012

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Evaluation Plan:
2011-2015, Maldives
Evaluation Type:
Outcome
Planned End Date:
10/2012
Completion Date:
10/2012
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

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Title Outcome Evaluation on UNDP's Engagement with Civil Society Actors and Mechanisms, including Small Grants Schemes between 2008 - 2012
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2011-2015, Maldives
Evaluation Type: Outcome
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 10/2012
Planned End Date: 10/2012
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Democratic Governance
  • 2. Environment & Sustainable Development
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Civil society, including civil society organizations and voluntary associations, and the private sector contribute to the MDGs in support of national planning strategies and policies
  • 2. National and local governments and communities have the capacities to adapt to climate change and make inclusive and sustainable environment & energy decisions benefitting in particular under-served populations
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding:
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Mallika R. Samaranayake Team Leader mallikasamare@gmail.com
Shaufa A. Saeed National Consultant shueyfa@gmail.com MALDIVES
Mallika R. Samaranayake Team Leader mallikasamare@gmail.com
Shaufa A. Saeed National Consultant shueyfa@gmail.com MALDIVES
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Civil Society, Government, Beneficiaries
Countries: MALDIVES
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 UNDP support for capacity building of NGOs/CSOs, should be placed in the context of the long term needs to stimulate and galvanize evolving democratic processes in Maldives, in the character of a continuing process as opposed to strengthening for project implementation per-se. It should contribute to consolidating the efforts for institutionalizing knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective partners in promoting the work of civil society to be mainstreamed through out the programs and cross sectorily. The initial effort taken by UNDP with the integrated governance program could be further strengthened through capacity building of civil society organizations placed in this context. UNDP should pursue the possibility of strengthening the existing NGO Federation with capacity development required to function as a Federation in promoting civil society engagement in the context of democratic governance with the ability to partner with the Government as well as the UNDP.
2 With regard to sustainability of the UNDP supported project interventions, emphasis should be placed in having an exit strategy in every project design for phasing out. Such strategies should be made known and well understood by the implementing partners and the beneficiaries from the start of the project itself. As expressed during interviews ?handover to the community and not to the government? which means that the NGOs / CSOs should be strengthened with this end in view building a sense of ownership with space for community participation through out the project cycle
3 UNDP should catalyze and coordinate a joint strategic approach among other UN agencies and bilateral agencies working towards common development goals defined in UNDAF. The mechanism already exists but a systematic and regular modus operandi needs to be promoted for which the UNDP should take the lead as accepted and expected by the other UN Agencies during the evaluation, in view of its comparative advantages.
4 In view of the wide geographic spread of the Maldives islands, attention should be given by UNDP to an area-based program development approach. Most of the stakeholders accepted this view, but a clear and transparent mechanism and a strategy need to be developed based on objective criteria. It will also contribute towards visibility of UNDP support not only to civil society engagement, but also lead to direct implementation strategy resulting in improved impact on the community concerned.
5 UNDP should explore the potential of promoting public private partnerships so that it becomes part of the strategy at the design stage of programs itself. This could contribute to value addition, market development and supply chain management in building community capacities for livelihood improvement. Private sector involvement with civil society organizations should be conceptualized in such a way that it leads to capacity building of primary producers to maintain quality standards and guaranteed pricing systems with market linkages etc, (Value Chain Development) are in built into the strategy within a regulatory framework. The UNDP could influence policy directions in partnership with the government towards this end.
6 Enhancing capacities of UNDP program staff and partner institutions for Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME). It is essential that the reporting system be aligned to such a monitoring mechanism. It was recognized by all stakeholders as a felt need. The results frame is in place, but reporting on that basis using indicators for assessment of outcomes remains to be institutionalized. Within UNDP country program, there is a need to build upon a coordinated strategy between programme component units which will contribute to joint monitoring systems and efficiency in program implementation. It will also provide space for cost effective implementation and monitoring strategies, particularly in the context of Island communities.
7 Improving the potential of small grant mechanism for civil society engagement: - Could be further improved by extending the length of the grant cycle or following up with two to three grant cycles building upon the experience and learning with a view to consolidate civil society organisational capacities. - In designing small grants mechanisms, attention should be paid to providing a comprehensive package with financial assistance, technical support and where necessary, hardware facilities - Post project sustainability issues in relation to small grants schemes need to be addressed e.g. Waste management project, household level composting project.
8 Furthering the work under Partnership for Development (P4D) Program: - UNDP should follow up on forums to foster partnerships and business linkages in the area of quality assurance, continuity of supply, promotion of authentic Maldivian products, transfer of expertise to SMEs, product pricing etc. - UNDP to support more NGOs for commitment to CSR promotion. NGOs should be promoted to build closer relationships with businesses in order to align CSR priorities of the private sector and businesses for the participation and the benefit of the community concerned.
9 UNDP to assist laying a firm foundation with its government counterparts at national and local levels by supporting institutionalization and strengthening capacities for creating the space needed in promoting an enabling environment for civil society strengthening which is a crucial push factor. This implies the need for periodical reviews and support for policy formulation in the context of the evolving democratic processes in Maldives.
1. Recommendation: UNDP support for capacity building of NGOs/CSOs, should be placed in the context of the long term needs to stimulate and galvanize evolving democratic processes in Maldives, in the character of a continuing process as opposed to strengthening for project implementation per-se. It should contribute to consolidating the efforts for institutionalizing knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective partners in promoting the work of civil society to be mainstreamed through out the programs and cross sectorily. The initial effort taken by UNDP with the integrated governance program could be further strengthened through capacity building of civil society organizations placed in this context. UNDP should pursue the possibility of strengthening the existing NGO Federation with capacity development required to function as a Federation in promoting civil society engagement in the context of democratic governance with the ability to partner with the Government as well as the UNDP.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

With the launch of IGP, UNDP has strengthened engagement of NGOs as strategic partners. Civil society organizations have been included in the Programme Board responsible for the oversight of the programme, as well as in the technical committees for all result areas that oversee the day to day management of the IGP. NGOs are also included in project implementation as responsible parties and lead agencies. The small grants mechanisms had been focusing on individual projects until now. However, the small grants facility under IGP is being redesigned this year to include longer term support that includes financial, technical and institutional support for selected civil society organizations. Donors had been consulted and is on board with this strategy. UNDP has been working with NGO Federation on specific project-based grants, under GEF SGP and the SGF under IGP. Following this recommendation, longer-term support to strengthen umbrella NGOs such as NGO Federation is also included in this year?s work plan for IGP. Over its twenty year history, SGP worldwide has an established track-record for building capacity of CSOs, and while Maldives programme is rather new, it has started in the same vein. In this context a first capacity building/training workshop for grantees was held in December 2012 and this is planned as a regular annual event throughout the programme. Also, in 2013, through a major grant of US $ 50,000 the Maldives NGO Federation in partnership with the Ministry of Environment and Energy and other NGO Federation members, will undertake an important project on capacity building for NGOs/CBOs nationwide. Areas to be covered include current and priority environmental challenges at global and national level, GEF focal areas and strategies, contribution to multi-lateral environmental agreements, project and institutional management of the NGOs. In addition, a focal point in each NGO will be nominated, which will eventually form a network of ?environmental defenders?. Experience from the community projects initiated under the poverty reduction programme has made evident that in addition to regular capacity building efforts in technical, managerial and institutional aspects, the issue of retaining trained personnel within the NGOs should also be given emphasis. As such, provision of incentives for the NGO members could be in-built at design stage to prevent frequent turnover of staff.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Grants project under IGP to be redesigned to provide longer term grants for more comprehensive support.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP 2013/04 Overdue-Initiated
On-going support to the NGO Federation's capacity building on providing training and mentoring support to NGO's.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP & GEF SGP 2013/12 Overdue-Initiated
Strengthen NGO training components to include topics on NGO management and sustainability.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP & GEF SGP 2013/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
Maintain roster of trained individuals to facilitate a referral mechanism to assure quality of training's conducted through grants projects.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
MSU 2013/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
2. Recommendation: With regard to sustainability of the UNDP supported project interventions, emphasis should be placed in having an exit strategy in every project design for phasing out. Such strategies should be made known and well understood by the implementing partners and the beneficiaries from the start of the project itself. As expressed during interviews ?handover to the community and not to the government? which means that the NGOs / CSOs should be strengthened with this end in view building a sense of ownership with space for community participation through out the project cycle
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

There are some minimal measures to ensure sustainability employed by all grants schemes of UNDP, such as the inclusion of the proposed sustainability plan in the evaluation process of grants selection. For example, all SGP project proposals require demonstration of sustainability of the projects beyond GEF financing. However, sustainability and exit strategies appear to be a novel concept to most of the small NGOs, as they are used to just focusing on delivering projects in a specified time-frame, and few donors or agencies have followed-up properly with the grantees beyond the project cycle. A few of the completed projects are showing that at least some of the results or outcomes of the projects are being sustained. Stronger emphasis on sustainability of projects will be placed in upcoming grants selection. Exit strategies, especially for long-term projects will be specified and communicated well from the beginning of the project. SGP will also place a much stronger emphasis on ensuring sustainability of projects for the existing projects as well as any new grants made in 2013 and beyond. The following strategies will be employed: - Training in proposal writing and project cycle management to potential and existing grantees. - It is noted that projects that have an element of livelihoods creation, training and skills development or linked to essential community services such as waste management tend to fare better in terms of sustainability. In addition to environmental conservation, a secondary objective of SGP is enhancing livelihoods of communities and this criteria will be further emphasized in project selection. - Emphasis on creating partnerships with private sector, island councils and the community at large will assist in promoting sustainability of projects. With the community led projects funded by Poverty Reduction programme, although a clear exit strategy was not developed during the designing phase, it was understood as a necessity during the course of implementation. Hence, as an exit strategy, the NGOs were supported with basic business skills development trainings in 2011 and feasibility studies for commercial expansion of these projects were developed and shared with the cooperatives and other private sector parners. These projects were also linked with other government led projects for further expansion and capacity, for example the Fisheries and Agriculture Diversification project under Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture and also the Business Development Service Centres of the Ministry of Economic Development. UNDP had also linked these projects with the market through the Partnering 4 Development initiatives. However, as recommended, the need to have a clear exit strategy developed during the very initial designing phase is apparent. While ?handing over to the community and not the government? is the ideal end-point, this is possibly only with the strengthening of accountability and ownership of NGOs; a strong M&E mechanism has to be in place where the NGOs are accountable to regularly report back even after they fully take over the project activities.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Exit strategies are being developed for the interventions implemented in the communities under the Support to Integrated Farming project.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
PIG 2013/10 Overdue-Initiated to be linked with final evaluation of the project.
Assign higher priorities to the sustainability plans under the grants project proposals at the grant evaluation stage,by assigning a higher weightage to the component.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP & E&E 2013/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
Develop concept note for supporting CSO's to develop thematic-based sustainability mechanisms and documentation of good practices of sustainable projects.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
PIG 2013/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
3. Recommendation: UNDP should catalyze and coordinate a joint strategic approach among other UN agencies and bilateral agencies working towards common development goals defined in UNDAF. The mechanism already exists but a systematic and regular modus operandi needs to be promoted for which the UNDP should take the lead as accepted and expected by the other UN Agencies during the evaluation, in view of its comparative advantages.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

Thematic groups had been formed for key focus areas, with representations from UN agencies. A Grants Evaluation and Coordination Committee exists within UNDP. It is planned to include civil society focal points from other UN agencies to ensure wider coordination.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Consolidated M&E plan to be developed and implemented.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
MSU 2013/04 Overdue-Initiated
Work with UN Thematic-Group on Civil Society to consolidate M&E efforts of all agencies.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
RCO 2013/05 Overdue-Not Initiated
4. Recommendation: In view of the wide geographic spread of the Maldives islands, attention should be given by UNDP to an area-based program development approach. Most of the stakeholders accepted this view, but a clear and transparent mechanism and a strategy need to be developed based on objective criteria. It will also contribute towards visibility of UNDP support not only to civil society engagement, but also lead to direct implementation strategy resulting in improved impact on the community concerned.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

Based on this recommendation, discussions had been initiated on selecting target geographical areas for implementation. The lack of a vulnerability assessment for evidence based decision making (selecting the right target groups) and the different types of needs being addressed through the UNDP programmes make this process extremely challenging. A vulnerability study is proposed for 2013 which will help to overcome this challenge, and also provide justification to the selection of a region for the area-based development approach. A mapping exercise to identify existing UNDP interventions is currently underway. When completed, it will provide baseline information which will be used to develop a strategy for area based programme development. Since the importance of having the private sector as a partner in development is evident and is also recommended in this evaluation, the willingness of and accessibility to the private sector enterprises in a region is one crucial factor to consider when selecting a region.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support programme units on objectively selecting geographical areas based on development needs and vulnerabilities.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
MSU 2013/04 Overdue-Initiated
5. Recommendation: UNDP should explore the potential of promoting public private partnerships so that it becomes part of the strategy at the design stage of programs itself. This could contribute to value addition, market development and supply chain management in building community capacities for livelihood improvement. Private sector involvement with civil society organizations should be conceptualized in such a way that it leads to capacity building of primary producers to maintain quality standards and guaranteed pricing systems with market linkages etc, (Value Chain Development) are in built into the strategy within a regulatory framework. The UNDP could influence policy directions in partnership with the government towards this end.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

SGP at programme and individual project levels require development of partnerships with major stakeholders for successful implementation, in particular for raising of co-finance, both in-kind and cash. At the minimum, engagement of government is sought through sharing of information and a letter of support. SGP has recently participated in the ?Partnering for Development? initiative led by UNDP?s Poverty Unit (now called Policy and Inclusive Growth) and Private Sector Sensitizing Workshop led by the Mangroves for the Future programme. Both these events allowed to showcase SGP activities and great interest was shown by private sector entities to engage themselves in particular through their corporate social responsibility obligations. More effort will be made to further this interest and engagement, with the ultimate objective of formalizing these partnerships. UNDP understands that private sector engagement is a necessity for the sustainability of projects, and in line with the global practice, UNDP Maldives is also adopting the inclusive growth models where private sector is the key stakeholder for the growth and development. With the Partnering 4 Development forums, UNDP has built a platform enabling better communication and networking while creating trust ? leading to sustained relationships and partnerships with the private sector for local development. The relationships between resorts and communities have, in previous instances, fallen apart due to mistrust, confusion and miscommunication ? the networking within the forum is geared towards strengthening links and building relationships with one another. These forums also helped the policy makers in understanding the challenges and constraints that the industry and the local communities are facing, and acted as a platform for discussing these issues and finding solutions. Although the forum helped BDSC in restructuring and working with the private sector for the development of MSMEs and in linking them to the right market, there is a lot more to be done for getting the private sector onboard for such initiatives. In the most recent forum, success models such as the AMCS/Shangri-la working arrangement were also shared so as to encourage the private sector to contribute to the gradual growth of community SMEs in order to help them sustain ? the end result being a win-win situation where both NGO/cooperatives and the resorts can get mutual benefits. Strong emphasis was given to formalizing these linkages through contractual agreements in order to ensure reliability and consistency of the arrangements. The forum promoted not only business linkages but also areas of mutual interest such as addressing to waste management issues, and grants from the Environment portfolio was also discussed to understand how a better collaboration could be made in the nearby future and inputs were shared on making these grants/projects more sustainable. UNDP is also working with the leading corporations and SMEs for establishing a global compact local network in Maldives. In addition, the newly formed Policy and Inclusive Growth Unit of UNDP is currently in the process of recruiting a Private Sector Coordinator to strengthen systematic private sector engagement.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Finding synergies and opportunities to link private sector from Global Compact platform with existing UNDP supported grants projects.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
PIG 2013/06 Overdue-Initiated
6. Recommendation: Enhancing capacities of UNDP program staff and partner institutions for Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation (RBME). It is essential that the reporting system be aligned to such a monitoring mechanism. It was recognized by all stakeholders as a felt need. The results frame is in place, but reporting on that basis using indicators for assessment of outcomes remains to be institutionalized. Within UNDP country program, there is a need to build upon a coordinated strategy between programme component units which will contribute to joint monitoring systems and efficiency in program implementation. It will also provide space for cost effective implementation and monitoring strategies, particularly in the context of Island communities.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

Stronger emphasis is being placed on results based monitoring in the current workplans and grants agreements. Clear targets and indicators are included in the work plans and grants agreements. In addition, the IGP is currently in the process of recruiting a Monitoring and Evaluation staff to strengthen this component further. Inter-unit M&E field visit had been initiated in 2012. To ensure better coordination and to minimize implementation cost, a UNDP-wide monitoring and evaluation plan is being developed by the Management Support Unit, that includes all UNDP supported activities within the Maldives. Along with this, as mentioned in point 4, UNDP is working towards an area-based approach of implementation to maximize impacts and results, as well as to facilitate closer monitoring and better capture results of programme interventions. SGP grantees will be provided with training and tools for community based RBME. Currently the collection of specific data is lacking in reporting back on results. Specific and focused monitoring tools in the form of surveys, questionnaires, etc will be developed to capture the qualitative and quantitative information needed for specific indicators. While the integrated monitoring approach will improve the cost-effectiveness and enable resource pooling, as discussed in the internal meetings a decentralized mechanism of M&E could also be built into the plan with a longer term objective in mind.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct RBM clinic for civil society organisations.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP,E&E,PIG & MSU 2013/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
Share information on UNDP grants programmes through the National NGO portal being developed.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP & E&E 2013/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
Develop M&E templates for the local councils to strengthen local councils' role in M&E of grants projects.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP,E&E and MSU 2013/05 Overdue-Not Initiated Coordinate with the LGA
7. Recommendation: Improving the potential of small grant mechanism for civil society engagement: - Could be further improved by extending the length of the grant cycle or following up with two to three grant cycles building upon the experience and learning with a view to consolidate civil society organisational capacities. - In designing small grants mechanisms, attention should be paid to providing a comprehensive package with financial assistance, technical support and where necessary, hardware facilities - Post project sustainability issues in relation to small grants schemes need to be addressed e.g. Waste management project, household level composting project.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

Based on this recommendation, discussions with donors supporting grants facility had been initiated, and a concept paper is being developed to support longer term grants, that include technical and equipment support for NGOs to better support the establishment of upcoming NGOs with limited resources. Selection will be done through a competitive process, for specific target geographical areas. Past experiences with NGOs through previous small grants projects will be taken into account in the selection of these NGOs. Again, emphasis will be given on accountability and ownership, as longer-term grant support also come to an end and the culture of hand-holding need to be phased out within the length of the project. Replication and scaling up of successful initiatives is very much encouraged in SGP. A few projects have been noted and discussions are already underway for extension and scaling up in the next grant cycle. Capacity building of existing grantees to provide the necessary skills in project management has been carried out and will continue to be a regular feature of the grants programmes

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Grants project under IGP to be redesigned to provide longer term grants for more comprehensive support.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP 2013/04 Overdue-Initiated
8. Recommendation: Furthering the work under Partnership for Development (P4D) Program: - UNDP should follow up on forums to foster partnerships and business linkages in the area of quality assurance, continuity of supply, promotion of authentic Maldivian products, transfer of expertise to SMEs, product pricing etc. - UNDP to support more NGOs for commitment to CSR promotion. NGOs should be promoted to build closer relationships with businesses in order to align CSR priorities of the private sector and businesses for the participation and the benefit of the community concerned.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

SGP has recently participated in the ?Partnering for Development? initiative led by UNDP?s Poverty Unit (now called Policy and Inclusive Growth) and Private Sector Sensitizing Workshop led by the Mangroves for the Future programme. Both these events allowed to showcase SGP activities and great interest was shown by private sector entities to engage themselves in particularthrough their corporate social responsibility obligations. More effort will be made to further this interest and engagement, with the ultimate objective of formalizing at least some of these partnerships in 2013. UNDP had documented and build onto the lessons learned from the past three resort forums and the 2012 P4D forum seeked to integrate areas such as environment and other forms of partnerships. In the previous forums corporate social responsibility (CSR) was not discussed much. However, the discussions held during the last forum was geared towards ?sustainable responsibility? of the resorts and more over creating win-win situations for all partners. UNDP works closely with the Business Development Service Centers established under Ministry of Economic Development for following up with the linkages created under the P4D initiatives, and also provide technical support in further enhancing their communication with the private sector for better integrations. Based on the situational analysis conducted on the previous forum and the partnership strategy prepared for the most recent and upcoming forums, UNDP is closely working with the key stakeholders in addressing the issues of pricing, quality, quantity and consistency. UNDP has also been working in promoting the authentic Maldivian products through all these initiatives and is also supporting to revive the traditional culture by promoting eco-tourism, dying art forms and authentic handicrafts during these forums. UNDP is working closely with the private sector and also the NGOs in understanding the CSR practices, and supporting in the movement from philanthropy to responsible business and local development. As such UNDP is supporting in establishing a Global Compact Local Network in Maldives, which would be adhering the big corporations, SMEs and other associations to move from philanthropy to responsible development and true CSR.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Finding synergies and opportunities to link private sector from Global Compact platform with existing UNDP supported projects including grants programmes.
[Added: 2013/03/16] [Last Updated: 2013/03/26]
PIG 2013/08 Overdue-Initiated
Initiate ground level efforts with relevant stakeholders to strengthen the MSMEs to ensure sustainable market linkages.
[Added: 2013/03/16] [Last Updated: 2013/03/26]
PIG 2013/06 Overdue-Not Initiated
9. Recommendation: UNDP to assist laying a firm foundation with its government counterparts at national and local levels by supporting institutionalization and strengthening capacities for creating the space needed in promoting an enabling environment for civil society strengthening which is a crucial push factor. This implies the need for periodical reviews and support for policy formulation in the context of the evolving democratic processes in Maldives.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/01/30]

UNDP works closely with Government counterparts such as Ministry of Home Affairs, Local Government Authority and local councils for strengthening policies that would create an enabling environment for civil society growth. This includes ongoing activities to strengthen legislation on civil society development, support to create web portals for interactions, initiating networking forums, supporting participatory approaches to participatory development planning at the island level and institutional support for capacity building. The Government is represented on the National Steering Committee of the SGP, at the highest level by the GEF Operational Focal point, who is also the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Energy and Environment. The Country Programme Strategy is also developed in line with national priorities and policies, and endorsed by the government. However, more effort is needed to disseminate the Strategy better as well as increase the visibility of the SGP, specially at the island and atoll council levels. It may be also useful to bring on board other government agencies such as Ministry of Economic Development and LGA to be part of the National Steering Committee. An important factor contributing to sustainability after the end of projects is to ensure transfer of knowledge to the government staff if the government is to eventually take over the regulatory/oversight role. As such regular and close involvement not only at committee level but also at implementation level throughout the span of the project would enable effective coordination. Moreover participation at a more decentralized level could be considered at consultation stages even if not at committee level (as this may be difficult due to geographical constraints).

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Conduct orientation sessions on civil society development and engagement for government partners.
[Added: 2013/03/16]
IGP, E&E, PIG and MSU 2013/08 Overdue-Not Initiated

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