Terminal Evaluation Early Recovery and Rehabilitation for Central Mindanao

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2012-2018, Philippines
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
12/2012
Completion Date:
12/2012
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
35,000
Lessons Learned (a) Integrated project design of early recovery, rehabilitation and development initiative must address to the multifaceted development needs of the IDP. Parochial interventions are not sufficient interventions for early recovery, rehabilitation and development of the displaced families. (b) Conflict sensitivity is primordial in rebuilding and reconstruction of IDP communities. Identifying the most vulnerable groups, assessing their priorities, and strengthening the capacity of IDP communities to plan and manage local development projects are fundamental design prerequisites for early recovery and rehabilitation of socio-economic infrastructure and development activities. (c) Participatory approach of project design, subproject implementation, monitoring and evaluation for recovery and development yield quick tangible results. Empowering the IDPs can be more efficient, gaining organizational legitimacy, gathering local support, and preventing youth from engaging in destructive activities. (d) Devising flexible project management approaches at the community level should consider the wide variety of timelines, capacity levels, levels of access to resources, geographic distances, logistical requirements, and conflict dynamics. (e) In a climate of great flux and insecurity, it is important to have continuity of project personnel. This allows key actors to obtain deeper history and context, which supports the learning and application of better practices throughout the project life. The criteria and mechanics of selecting the Local Service Provider (LSPs) are vital in ensuring the quality of projects and services delivery. (f) Sustainability of demand-driven projects is greater when local government administrations are involved in planning, appraisal, execution, monitoring and evaluation. Integrated implementation through local government bodies could prevent the pitfalls of parallel institutions that have affected many social funds. At the same time, local governments are susceptible to local political influence and often face capacity constraints. (g) Implementation approaches that create community ownership are easily accepted which in turn help ensure community contributions and maintenance support in the long term. Communities are usually involved in interventions such as community-based drinking water, community building, school classrooms and toilets, BnB, community economic enterprises, and restoring cultural or religious sites. Empowering the IDP communities promotes ownership and sustainability of assets and gains of the recovery and rehabilitation of social and economic infrastructure interventions. Beneficiaries? participation in the design, process of subproject implementation and control of resources contributed significantly in making them accountable to their decisions. (h) Sustainability is inherent on community participation, local government bodies, national government agencies, NGOs, and other groups; responsiveness to community demands; adequate social capital (or capacity to promote peacebuilding through development at the community level); linkages and collaboration with other livelihood financing, and technical assistance projects; and, workable operations and management plans that are fully owned by the communities with support from local governments. (i) Early recovery, reconstruction and long-term development are essentially governance concerns. Where governance is weak or absent, conflict affected, conflict-vulnerable and post-conflict areas become more vulnerable to recurrence of conflicts or potential conflicts. Restoring governance is crucial in post-conflict and conflict affected areas. There are varying perspectives of what this entails. (j) Managing recovery and rehabilitation of IDP communities for long-term development is vital in sustaining the enthusiasm of duty bearers and peace advocates. Achievement of Project outcomes generated high degrees of expectations from the communities, leaders and government officials, which may be frustrated in the absence of immediate follow through. Realistic follow through plans based on the lessons learned may include redefining the strategic recovery and development activities, and limiting its scope to governance, while basic social services and economic development may continue to be spearheaded by national government with support from donors with community-based development models that can work best in conflict-affected and post-conflict areas.

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Title Terminal Evaluation Early Recovery and Rehabilitation for Central Mindanao
Atlas Project Number: 00078216
Evaluation Plan: 2012-2018, Philippines
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2012
Planned End Date: 12/2012
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Crisis Prevention & Recovery
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. National and local institutions have the capacities to fulfill key functions of government for recovery in early post-crisis situations
  • 2. National and local institutions have the capacity to respond to gender-based violence and to increase women's civic engagement, participation and leadership in crisis prevention, ongoing crisis and post-crisis contexts
  • 3. Livelihoods and economic recovery generated, including infrastructure restoration, employment and sustainable income earning opportunities for crisis affected communities
Evaluation Budget(US $): 35,000
Source of Funding: Project funds
Joint Programme: No
Mandatory Evaluation: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Rec Management Consultancy, Inc. Consultancy Firm
Rec Eguia Lead Consultant
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: MinDA, ARMM, LGUs, NGOs
Countries: PHILIPPINES
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 Conduct of Early Baseline Study for Proper Targeting. The intervention should focus on reform rather than merely restore pre-existing systems, following a rigorous analysis of the circumstance and location of the IDPs. This will typically require carrying out in-depth needs assessments at the early stage, if possible even before the formal end of hostilities. The need for conflict sensitivity in any intervention remains paramount. This implies understanding the social and ethnic dynamics that may have contributed to or resulted from the conflict to ensure they are not exacerbated by infrastructure programmes.
2 Social Cohesion Promotes Early Recovery and Rehabilitation. Rebuilding social cohesion in internally-displaced families and communities is a vital aspect of recovery, rehabilitation and development of the affected population. The rebuilding process of the IDP families and communities needs to be deliberately pursued and nurtured, and cannot be left to chance. The competence of providing services to strengthen social cohesion would be better delivered by NGOs, academe and peace networks, rather than by government personnel. While it is the responsibility of the government to deliver mandated social, economic, environmental and development administration services.
3 Basic Social Services. Basic social services remain as the core in the early recovery and rehabilitation of IDP communities in conflict-affected/vulnerable areas. Delivery of basic services need to be anchored on the principles of participation, rights-based approach, gender sensitivity, cultural and conflict sensitivity and inclusivity in order to optimally maximize the benefits of the intervention. Education and health sectors, by their nature, greatly shape and are influenced by social norms and interactions. As such, the overarching need for conflict sensitivity in all assistance programmes and projects is particularly acute for these sectors. Initiatives with demonstrated direct developmental effects, such as those which improve access to water and sanitation and those which foster complementarities between large-scale and small-scale projects, should be promoted.
4 Community Economic Development. Community economic development should be based on economic advantage. This would require understanding the economic context of the IDP communities which include among others the identification of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats leading toward the determination of the comparative advantage of the area; alignment of the economic intervention with the industry priorities of the provincial and regional governments. Subsector industry analysis is imperative in order to produce products that can be scaled-up into the larger market. Restoring and improving the economic infrastructure, though important, should not be at the expense of health and education
5 Local Governance Capacity. Local government institutions are the frontline in the early recovery, rehabilitation and development. Continuous capacity building of LGUs is imperative for the early recovery and sustainability of basic social services and economic development of the conflict-affected areas and IDPs in Mindanao.
6 Disaster Risk Reduction and Management. Continuous capacity building of LGUs on disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM), achievement of Millennium Development Goals and conflict-sensitive and peace-promotive (CSPP) processes are imperative, thus, they are mainly responsible for the IDP communities? resiliency.
7 Research Opportunities. The following are some of the possible researchable areas in the context of building disaster resiliency of the IDP communities: - Business-Sector Motivators. There is a need to investigate factors most likely to motivate businesses of all sizes to collaborate with the public sector to build disaster resilience in different types of communities. There are a number of impediments to business participation in private?public collaboration of all types, including disaster resilience. The barriers include private?public sector cultural differences, concerns about information sharing, and wariness of government mandates and regulations. What is not clear is how to overcome such challenges and increase incentives for business participation in disaster-loss?reduction activities. - Integrating NGOs. Providing support to research on how to motivate and integrate community-based, faith-based, and other NGOs?including those not crisis oriented?into resilience-focused collaboration. - Changing Emergency-Management Culture. Support to research on how the emergency-management sectors can be moved toward a ?culture of collaboration? that engages the full fabric of the community in enhancing resilience. - Learning through Support of Collaboration. There should be research that focuses on demonstration projects that quantify risk and outcome metrics, enhance disaster resilience at the community level, and document best practices. New efforts to support and nurture community-level resilience-focused private?public collaboration could include research and demonstration projects aimed at enhancing disaster resilience at the community level and documenting best practices.
8 Support to Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro. Future programming of IDPs in conflict-affected and vulnerable areas in Mindanao should be rationalized within the ambit of supporting the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro.
1. Recommendation: Conduct of Early Baseline Study for Proper Targeting. The intervention should focus on reform rather than merely restore pre-existing systems, following a rigorous analysis of the circumstance and location of the IDPs. This will typically require carrying out in-depth needs assessments at the early stage, if possible even before the formal end of hostilities. The need for conflict sensitivity in any intervention remains paramount. This implies understanding the social and ethnic dynamics that may have contributed to or resulted from the conflict to ensure they are not exacerbated by infrastructure programmes.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26]

We recognize the need for an early conduct of baseline study. The ERRCM commissioned a baseline study at the start of its programme implementation. However, the procurement process (based on RA 9184) took some time and the failure of bidding resulted to delay. Thus, for future projects to be implemented by MinDA, we are recommending that a baseline study be incorporated already in the project document prepared by the funding institution or through a separate project prior to programme implementation. The study will be conducted within the programme life cycle will only focus on the status of the identified areas/beneficiary/intervention as stated in the logframe indicators

Key Actions:

2. Recommendation: Social Cohesion Promotes Early Recovery and Rehabilitation. Rebuilding social cohesion in internally-displaced families and communities is a vital aspect of recovery, rehabilitation and development of the affected population. The rebuilding process of the IDP families and communities needs to be deliberately pursued and nurtured, and cannot be left to chance. The competence of providing services to strengthen social cohesion would be better delivered by NGOs, academe and peace networks, rather than by government personnel. While it is the responsibility of the government to deliver mandated social, economic, environmental and development administration services.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26]

The social cohesion component in implementing community-based projects is present in completed MinDA implemented projects. We agree with the recommendation, thus future programs of MinDA which might have community-based assistance shall continue to incorporate social cohesion strategies as part of the social preparation stage. This is in line with Mindanao 2020 wherein one of the strategies being put forth by MinDA is the promotion of social cohesion as one of the important dimensions in sustainable development

Key Actions:

3. Recommendation: Basic Social Services. Basic social services remain as the core in the early recovery and rehabilitation of IDP communities in conflict-affected/vulnerable areas. Delivery of basic services need to be anchored on the principles of participation, rights-based approach, gender sensitivity, cultural and conflict sensitivity and inclusivity in order to optimally maximize the benefits of the intervention. Education and health sectors, by their nature, greatly shape and are influenced by social norms and interactions. As such, the overarching need for conflict sensitivity in all assistance programmes and projects is particularly acute for these sectors. Initiatives with demonstrated direct developmental effects, such as those which improve access to water and sanitation and those which foster complementarities between large-scale and small-scale projects, should be promoted.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26]

Provision of basic social services is a core consideration in the crafting of proposals by MinDA, specifically in community-based area development projects. The Human Development Cluster of the Mindanao Development Forum focuses specifically on basic social services. This is vital as an avenue in improving the governance capacity of the players especially local government units. The ERCM project allcated more than 70% of its budget to direct services that benefited the communities.

Key Actions:

4. Recommendation: Community Economic Development. Community economic development should be based on economic advantage. This would require understanding the economic context of the IDP communities which include among others the identification of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats leading toward the determination of the comparative advantage of the area; alignment of the economic intervention with the industry priorities of the provincial and regional governments. Subsector industry analysis is imperative in order to produce products that can be scaled-up into the larger market. Restoring and improving the economic infrastructure, though important, should not be at the expense of health and education
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26] [Last Updated: 2013/12/26]

In the implementation of the ERRCM project, participatory approach is employed, thus for the livelihood projects, people's organizations were the ones who identified their needed livelihood assistance. There were cases wherein the identified livelihood may not be sustainable in the long run (e.g. every PO is in the same type of livelihood, thus lowering the income potential), thus the programme suggested more appropriate interventions that consider value adding. While the programme recognized the capacities and the use of resources within the community, the programme crafted strategies that would be more appropriate. These strategies included business planning, and other capacity building activities catered to the needs of the communities.

Key Actions:

5. Recommendation: Local Governance Capacity. Local government institutions are the frontline in the early recovery, rehabilitation and development. Continuous capacity building of LGUs is imperative for the early recovery and sustainability of basic social services and economic development of the conflict-affected areas and IDPs in Mindanao.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26] [Last Updated: 2013/12/26]

The role of the LGUs in the implementation of the project is crucial to sustainability. In the implementation of the ERRCM project, there are cases wherein the local governments were partnered to directly implement infrastructure projects. In future programming of projects in Mindanao, MinDA shall ensure that LGU-implementation mechanisms shall also be incorporated (e.g. monitoring and Advisory Groups) in the design as one of the strategies that would enable the participation of LGUs.

Key Actions:

6. Recommendation: Disaster Risk Reduction and Management. Continuous capacity building of LGUs on disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM), achievement of Millennium Development Goals and conflict-sensitive and peace-promotive (CSPP) processes are imperative, thus, they are mainly responsible for the IDP communities? resiliency.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26] [Last Updated: 2013/12/26]

The ERRCM project's design includes provision of capacity building activities for LGUs on DRRM. All the basic social services provided by the project are contributing to the achievement of the MDGs. Culture of Peace activities were conducted at the community level. meanwhile, MinDA is continually supporting Conflict Sensitive and Peace Promoting Processes. MinDA is also providing capacity-building to LGUs through its other projects. MiNDA has partnered with NEDA XI for its CSPP Planning last Sept 2012. Through the MindaNOW: Nurturing our Waters program, LGUs, LGU Alliances and River basin organizations will be capapcitated on DRRM. Lastly, MinDA is assisting LGUs that were affected by Typhoon Bopha (Pablo) in their provision of services to affected communities.

Key Actions:

7. Recommendation: Research Opportunities. The following are some of the possible researchable areas in the context of building disaster resiliency of the IDP communities: - Business-Sector Motivators. There is a need to investigate factors most likely to motivate businesses of all sizes to collaborate with the public sector to build disaster resilience in different types of communities. There are a number of impediments to business participation in private?public collaboration of all types, including disaster resilience. The barriers include private?public sector cultural differences, concerns about information sharing, and wariness of government mandates and regulations. What is not clear is how to overcome such challenges and increase incentives for business participation in disaster-loss?reduction activities. - Integrating NGOs. Providing support to research on how to motivate and integrate community-based, faith-based, and other NGOs?including those not crisis oriented?into resilience-focused collaboration. - Changing Emergency-Management Culture. Support to research on how the emergency-management sectors can be moved toward a ?culture of collaboration? that engages the full fabric of the community in enhancing resilience. - Learning through Support of Collaboration. There should be research that focuses on demonstration projects that quantify risk and outcome metrics, enhance disaster resilience at the community level, and document best practices. New efforts to support and nurture community-level resilience-focused private?public collaboration could include research and demonstration projects aimed at enhancing disaster resilience at the community level and documenting best practices.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26] [Last Updated: 2013/12/26]

The recommendations is noted and MinDA shall push for the inclusion of the various suggestions in the Mindanao Research and Development Agenda.

Key Actions:

8. Recommendation: Support to Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro. Future programming of IDPs in conflict-affected and vulnerable areas in Mindanao should be rationalized within the ambit of supporting the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro.
Management Response: [Added: 2013/12/26] [Last Updated: 2013/12/26]

The recommendation is noted. In support to the implementation of the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro, MinDA is taking into consideration the implementation of programs and projects, specifically for IDPs, in the Bangsamoro areas.

Key Actions:

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