Terminal evaluation - Market Development and Promotion of Solar Concentrator based Process Heat Applications in India

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2013-2017, India
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
07/2017
Completion Date:
12/2017
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
20,000

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Title Terminal evaluation - Market Development and Promotion of Solar Concentrator based Process Heat Applications in India
Atlas Project Number: 00061446
Evaluation Plan: 2013-2017, India
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2017
Planned End Date: 07/2017
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.5. Inclusive and sustainable solutions adopted to achieve increased energy efficiency and universal modern energy access (especially off-grid sources of renewable energy)
Evaluation Budget(US $): 20,000
Source of Funding: Project
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 20,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Mr. Roland Wong International Consultant rolandwong@shaw.ca
Dr Sanjay Mande National Consultant INDIA
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Market Development and Promotion of Solar Concentrator-based Process Heat Applications in India
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID: 4134
PIMS Number: 4284
Key Stakeholders: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
Countries: INDIA
Lessons
Findings
1.

Project Design and Formulation

 The overall design of the India CSH Project is strong. The design process of the CSH Project was benefited by the presence of key personnel from the National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE)9 in New Delhi, and an international consultant with a strong background in renewable energy development. NISE has been involved in research and development of solar energy in India for almost 30 years.
The CSH ProDoc provides detailed information on the rationale and the incremental value of GEF assistance to this industrial subsector. This well-written ProDoc includes an overview of the national programs to support renewable energy to demonstrate country drivenness, a history and baseline scenario of CSH technologies in India, an overview of prevailing CSH technologies used in India prior to 2012, a baseline analysis as well as a business-as-usual (BAU) projection without GEF support, a summary of international CSH applications that would be applicable to India, a summary of an alternate scenario that includes GEF support, detailed stakeholder analysis, and detailed project
activities complete with costing along with M&E and administrative support.


Tag: Clean Energy Energy National Programme/Project Design Technology

2.

Risks and Assumptions 

In the CSH ProDoc, critical assumptions were provided in the PRF which in general provided reasonable assumptions for PMU personnel to monitor during implementation of the Project. Examples of key critical assumptions included:

• Timely execution of planned activities with adequate resource mobilization to meet goal-level GHG emission reduction targets;
• Selected and users for demos and replications have sufficient equity and have good financial positions to meet objective-level targets for cumulative installed area of solar concentrator technologies;
• Cooperation is received from manufacturers of all 5 CSH technologies being demonstrated as well as users of CSH technology as an assumption to meet targets of the number of companies adopting and producing CSH equipment compliant with new standards;
• Manufacturers submit their products for testing to meet targets for improving testing and certification of CSH equipment;
• There is cooperation amongst manufacturers, vendors, users and other stakeholders in identifying training needs to meet training targets; and
• Chosen demonstration and replication projects comply with agreement that includes making data available and permission to publish the data to meet targets for documentation of project demonstrations and financial viability of CSH technologies.

The Project risk log in the CSH ProDoc includes 20 risks (on Annex C on Pg 79 of the ProDoc). These risks are quite strongly linked to the critical assumptions of the PRF; however, similar to the large number of indicators in the PRF, there are too many risks that would need monitoring by the PMU personnel. Current practices in preparing ProDocs recommend that no more than 6 risks be entered
into a risk log for closer monitoring during implementation.


Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Risk Management

3.

Lessons from Other Relevant Projects Incorporated into CSH Project Design

The ProDoc of the CSH Project does list government supported renewable energy support and demonstration programs into its design, including efforts under the JNNSM and implemented by the SEC (or NISE) with the support of MNRE. These were explained in detail under the baseline situation of the CSH Project. There was no listing for any related donor supported projects in CSH promotion or demonstration. With a lack of commercially available CSH applications in India and globally in 2011, India has managed to initiate a market for CSH application for process heat industries, possibly due to the fact that CSH has been embedded in Government of India’s policy for promoting solar and specifically with focus on solar thermal technologies in National Solar Mission of NAPCC. India also had an edge over other countries due to the close working relationships amongst a diverse range of stakeholders from government, CSH suppliers, beneficiary industries and institutions, academia involved with the development of different CSH technologies, and a few foreign experts visiting India on technologies and systems for a variety of medium temperature range thermal process heat applications.


Tag: Clean Energy Energy National Technology Value Chain

4.

Planned Stakeholder Participation

The CSH Project identified a wide range of stakeholders from government, industry, research and academic institutions (both national and international) and financial institutions that would be required to work together seamlessly to create the enabling environment for CSH demonstration investments. A full list of CSH stakeholders is provided in the ProDoc on Table 12 on Page 23. Interactions between stakeholders were planned through series of awareness creation workshops, pilot demonstration programmes, capacity building workshops, national and international conferences, state level meetings with state nodal agencies (SNAs), international knowledge sharing tours, participation in bi-monthly planned project executive committee (PEC) meeting and bi-annually planned project advisory committee (PAC) meeting.


Tag: National Regional Civic Engagement Programme/Project Design Capacity Building

5.

Replication Approach

As a Project objective, the ProDoc has targeted 32,900 tCO2 emissions reductions by the EOP not only through GEF support of CSH demonstration projects but also through supporting replication projects cumulating to 45,000 m2 of collector area. The ProDoc has also kept a provision to support (in addition to the MNRE support) up to 60 replication projects (apart from 30 demonstration projects), additional support for projects operating in ESCO mode, and support systems requiring repair and rehabilitation (later added during project implementation).
The Project replication approach is based on showcasing the various CSH technologies and system application through pilot demonstration projects and facilitating replication of CSH projects by promoting those CSH technologies that have not been commonly applied yet in India. With only a few CSH applications in the world, however, the Project is unique with few lessons learned from abroad to be incorporated into the CSH Project. To enhance replication potential, the Project was designed to support a favourable investment environment for CSH installation proponents; this would include JNNSM subsidy support for CSH demonstrations, improved capacity to test and certify CSH installations, improve access for sharing information on CSH demonstrations, and formulation of standards to optimize the performance of CSH equipment manufactured in India. The impact of this favourable investment environment would boost the confidence of industrial establishments and other entities on the benefits of investing in CSH installations, which would facilitate further CSH
investments.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Emission Reduction Project and Programme management Technology

6.

UNDP Comparative Advantage 

As is usually the case with several other UNDP projects, the CSH Project had a distinct advantage compared to projects funded by other donor agencies in terms of its focus on policy-based and crosssectoral approaches as well as creating local capacities through effective collaboration with a wide range of local stakeholders, encompassing public and private sectors in addition to technical experts, civil society and grassroots level organizations. These approaches were strongly applicable to promoting CSH projects on the CSH Project. Given UNDP’s long track record on a wide variety of projects within the energy sector, UNDP was the appropriate agency championing this Project.


Tag: UNDP Management

7.

Linkages between CSH Project and Other Interventions within the Sector
 Though not acknowledged in the ProDoc, UNDP and MNRE were implementing a GEF-supported program (The Country Programme of India under the Global Solar Water Heating Market Transformation and Strengthening Initiative GEF ID: 2939) with a focus on flat plate collector for sub 80oC applications primarily for residential applications but also with some successful industrial applications; this project was implemented between March 2009 to April 2013. With high demand for solar water heating for process heating for various industries (up to 250-300oC), this UNDP-GEF supported project for promoting CSH applications was a logical step forward in assisting the GoI to meet its JNNSM objectives.
 Another GEF project linked with the CSH Project was the UNIDO-GEF project on “Promoting business models for increasing penetration and scaling up of solar energy” that was launched in around the midpoint of implementation of the CSH India Project. This UNIDO-GEF Project was planned for a duration of 5 years with an objective to facilitate the installation of 45,000 m2 of installed concentrated solar collector area through 15 to 25 demonstration projects and 60 replication projects. This project is focusing on solar-based technology for industry, focusing on processes in the temperature range of 150-400?C in various industries, such as pulp and paper, food processing, fertilizer, pharmaceutical industries, textiles, desalination and tobacco industry. Its 4 components are similar to the CSH India Project, (a) strengthening, policy and institutional framework; (b) technology investment and application (including 15-25 pilot, demonstrations), (c) scaling up (business models and financing; supply of quality components), and (d) awareness raising and capacity building. To avoid overlapping, it was decided that UNIDO project will cover “co-generation and tri-generation projects, new projects on space cooling, replacement of electrical driven VCR systems with VAR systems and on industrial refrigeration, stand-alone hybrid systems for process heat application with automatic operations and storage facility to take care of intermittent clouds”. To minimize overlaps with the UNIDO-GEF project, the focus of the UNDP-GEF CSH Project was shifted to community cooking in institutional establishments. Normal projects for process heat applications in industrial and commercial sectors or retrofitted space cooling projects would be covered under both the projects.


Tag: Emission Reduction Clean Energy National Country Government Technology

8.

Management Arrangements

The implementing partner of the CSH Project was the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) in accordance with UNDPs National Implementation Modality (now referred to as National Execution or NEX modality). NEX modality tasks MNRE with responsibility for certifying work plans and approved budgets, reporting on procurement, coordinating and tracking co-financing, terms of reference for contractors and tender documentation, and chairing the Project Steering Committee (PSC). The Chair of the PSC was to be the National Project Director (NPD) from MNRE, a senior official responsible for overall guidance to project management, including adherence to the Annual Work Plan (AWP) and achievement of planned results as outlined in the ProDoc, ensuring the use of UNDP funds through effective management and well established project review and oversight mechanisms, ensuring coordination with various ministries and agencies, providing guidance to Project teams to coordinate with UNDP, and reviewing reports and administrative arrangements as required by GoI
and UNDP. 

A Project Management Unit (PMU) was to be established to implement the Project, headed by a fulltime National Project Manager (NPM) responsible for implementing day-to-day activities in coordination with the National Project Director (NPD). The NPM was to be supported by two Project Officers, and technical experts as required from different disciplines and project management consultants with expertise in project, finance, and legal matters.
The CSH Project was also to have a PAC comprised of representatives from MNRE, MoEF, Ministry of Small and Micro Enterprises, BIS, BEE, and UNDP. Other members (e.g. Director General of Boiler Control, IREDA, NABARD, research institutes, industry associations, etc.) were to be invited by the decision of the PAC on an as needed basis, however, taking care that the PAC remains small enough to be effective.


Tag: National Implementation Modality Country Government UNDP management

9.

Adaptive Management
Adaptive management is discussed in GEF terminal evaluations to gauge Project performance and the ability of a project to adapt to changing regulatory and environmental conditions, common occurrences that afflict the majority of GEF projects. Without adaptive management, GEF investments would not be effective in achieving their intended outcomes, outputs and targets.
During the critical commencement period, an inception workshop for the CSH Project was held 2 months after the signing of the ProDoc. The outcome of this Workshop did not result in any significant changes to the Project. The high quality of the ProDoc and design of the CSH Project resulted in minimal adaptive management of the CSH Project. Minimal adaptive management was also reflected in the MTR findings from late 2014 which rated progress as highly satisfactory with the most significant concern being the lack of progress in the financing of CSH installations.
In conclusion, UNDP’s efforts to adaptively manage this project were highly satisfactory in consideration that the Project did catalyze CSH project investments in India, and that minimal
adaptive management was required due to the overall high quality of the Project design document.


Tag: Harmonization Project and Programme management

10.

Partnership Arrangements

 Partnership arrangements were made by the CSH Project to deliver the numerous outputs to achieve the Project objective of “increasing use and promotion of CSH systems for low and medium temperature process heat applications”. In consideration of the wide range of skill sets required to achieve this objective, it was necessary for the Project to engage in effective partnerships with CSH manufacturers, energy professionals and consultants, professional associations, ESCOs, NGOs and CSOs. These partnerships were fostered and strengthened through regular contact at various forums such as workshops, PSC meetings, and conferences.
 One important aspect of this Project’s partnership arrangements was to disseminate CSH knowledge over a wide range of stakeholders. To this end, the Project fostered a number of effective partnerships with consulting organizations with skill sets that would help in advance the general knowledge of CSH systems in India11. This also included collaborations with academic institutions such as UoP (Center for Energy Studies) and research institutes such as NISE who established regional test centers, and have taken on post graduate and doctorate research students to undertake CSHrelated research and development activities such as test methods for performance evaluation.
Another interesting partnership has been with STFI which has been highly effective in developing public outreach platforms to advance the public’s general knowledge of solar thermal technologies including those of CSH and solar water heating for the residential sector. STFI was also responsible for developing and publishing the e-magazine “Insolthermtimes” as well as other magazines to create widespread awareness through the general public as well as targeted stakeholders. The dedicated toll-free helpline operated by STFI was also successful in creating awareness, as well as clarifying and responding to queries about emerging technology and helped create interest for its
adoption.


Tag: Knowledge management Partnership Bilateral partners Technology

11.

Feedback from M&E Activities Used for Adaptive Management

 Feedback for M&E activities was provided primarily through PIRs. The evaluation had the opportunity to review PIRs from 2013 to 2017 that contained progress reports of the CSH Project work against clearly defined and quantifiable output indicators. Despite this evaluation’s previous concern over the high number of indicators to be monitored (see Para 26), the PIR is provided descriptors of progress against more than 90% of the 63 indicators. With the satisfactory quality of the feedback, the PIRs served as a primary sounding board, mostly positive, in providing feedback to the PMC. The timely and high quality feedback in these PIRs enabled the PSC to undertake necessary adaptive management measures that would serve to catalyze CSH projects. This aspect of the CSH Project has in part been responsible for timely completion of high quality outputs. As such, feedback from M&E activities for adaptive management are rated as highly satisfactory.


Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Programme management

12.

Project Finance

The CSH India Project had a GEF budget of US$ 4.40 million that was to be disbursed over a 5-year duration. Implementation of Project activities started after organization of the inception workshop in May 2012 and was completed in December 2017, with only 9 months added to the original Project duration of 60 months. Table 2 provides the known expenditures against the components, and depicts a slower start to the Project than anticipated in the Project design. The planned AWP expenditures provides a better reflection of the adaptive management of the budget. The 2012 AWP planned expenditure of US$42,580 was a reflection of the PMU’s need to focus on stakeholder engagement and capacity building prior to implementing the demonstration CSH installations planned under Component 3. This backs the statement on Para 27 that the generation of 1,050 tonnes CO2eq of emission reductions in Year 1 was not realistic, adding another risk to the Project of not reaching the cumulative target of 32,900 tonnes CO2eq by the EOP. Notwithstanding, the satisfactory results of the Project (as reviewed in Section 3.3) are an indication that the Project was cost-effective in its utilization of GEF grant funds (see Section 3.3.7 and Para 77).
As mentioned in Para 26, the budget for the CSH Project was presented in the ProDoc as 10 separate budgets (representing 9 outcomes plus Project Management). To reduce Project management efforts to a practical level, the CSH PMU only reported on component expenditures from 5 separate budgets (4 components plus Project Management). A lesson to be learned from this PMU action is that project designers should setup a PRF and its budgets in a manner that is practical for project management teams to setup and monitor.
 Co-financing details can be found on Table 3. Project co-financing was estimated to be US$ 18 million, US$1.35 million below the ProDoc estimate. Moreover, co-financing from financial institutions in the form of working capital for CSH manufacturers was only up to December 31, 2016, with the possibility that this figure is higher. Considering the overall outcome of raised awareness and catalysed interest in CSH by the industrial sector, and the number of companies involved as
beneficiaries and suppliers of CSH equipment, this co-financing shortfall can be considered minor.


Tag: Emission Reduction Private Sector Financing Procurement Project and Programme management Capacity Building Coordination

13.

Project Finance

The CSH India Project had a GEF budget of US$ 4.40 million that was to be disbursed over a 5-year duration. Implementation of Project activities started after organization of the inception workshop in May 2012 and was completed in December 2017, with only 9 months added to the original Project duration of 60 months. Table 2 provides the known expenditures against the components, and depicts a slower start to the Project than anticipated in the Project design. The planned AWP expenditures provides a better reflection of the adaptive management of the budget. The 2012 AWP planned expenditure of US$42,580 was a reflection of the PMU’s need to focus on stakeholder engagement and capacity building prior to implementing the demonstration CSH installations planned under Component 3. This backs the statement on Para 27 that the generation of 1,050 tonnes CO2eq of emission reductions in Year 1 was not realistic, adding another risk to the Project of not reaching the cumulative target of 32,900 tonnes CO2eq by the EOP. Notwithstanding, the satisfactory results of the Project (as reviewed in Section 3.3) are an indication that the Project was cost-effective in its utilization of GEF grant funds (see Section 3.3.7 and Para 77).
As mentioned in Para 26, the budget for the CSH Project was presented in the ProDoc as 10 separate budgets (representing 9 outcomes plus Project Management). To reduce Project management efforts to a practical level, the CSH PMU only reported on component expenditures from 5 separate budgets (4 components plus Project Management). A lesson to be learned from this PMU action is that project designers should setup a PRF and its budgets in a manner that is practical for project management teams to setup and monitor.
 Co-financing details can be found on Table 3. Project co-financing was estimated to be US$ 18 million, US$1.35 million below the ProDoc estimate. Moreover, co-financing from financial institutions in the form of working capital for CSH manufacturers was only up to December 31, 2016, with the possibility that this figure is higher. Considering the overall outcome of raised awareness and catalysed interest in CSH by the industrial sector, and the number of companies involved as
beneficiaries and suppliers of CSH equipment, this co-financing shortfall can be considered minor.

Overall, the cost effectiveness of the CSH Project has been satisfactory in consideration of the positive results of the Project and its impact of catalysing interest in CSH investments in the industrial sector.


Tag: Emission Reduction Effectiveness Private Sector Financing Procurement Project and Programme management Capacity Building Coordination

14.

M&E Design at Entry and Implementation 

The M&E design of the CSH Project is contained in Section 14 of the ProDoc. The M&E design of the CSH Project is comprehensive as well as standard to other similar GEF projects within UNDP. The design included the inception workshop and report, measurement of means of verification for project results and progress, PIRs, midterm evaluations, final evaluations, audits, and visits to field sites. The M&E design is rated as satisfactory.
 Implementation of M&E activities were conducted according to the aforementioned design. The quality of the PIRs provides an indication of M&E activities implemented during the CSH Project. Another indication are the details provided for the 110 CSH installations supported by GEF funds, most of which can be found in Appendix H. As such, M&E plan implementation is rated as satisfactory. Ratings according to the GEF Monitoring and Evaluation system29 are as follows:


Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Programme management

15.

Performance of Implementing and Executing Entities

The performance of the implementing partner of the CSH Project, MNRE, can be characterized as follows:
• MNRE were able to recruit a well-qualified NPM who possessed postgraduate degrees specializing in concentrated solar technologies combined with excellent skills in management and interpersonal relations. This person served as the NPM for the entire 5.75 year duration of the CSH Project;
• MNRE had effectively integrated its own CSH promotional programs (under JNNSM) with the CSH Project to boost stakeholder confidence in the enabling environment being created to encourage and accelerate deployment of CSH technologies in India;
• MNRE reports on fiscal and physical progress of the CSH Project has provided a clear picture of the Project’s accomplishments;
• Overall performance of MNRE on the CSH Project is assessed as being highly satisfactory.

The performance of UNDP (the Implementing Agency) can be characterized as follows:

• UNDP was able to effectively communicate and collaborate with MNRE to execute the CSH Project according to the regulations of both Government of India as well as UNDP;
• UNDP provided support to MNRE on the preparation of AWPs as well as PIRs. This effective collaboration on project progress and work plans provided the Project with satisfactory documentation of progress and reasonable and accurate requests for Project funds;
• Overall performance of UNDP on the CSH Project can be assessed as being highly satisfactory.


Tag: National Country Government UNDP management

16.

Results

Component 1: Technical capacity development

Under this Component, there were 3 expected outcomes:
• Activities under Outcome 1.1 were intended to result in “the enhanced understanding of CSH technologies, applications and markets”. Project resources were to be used to generate an output of “developed technology application information packages and characterized technologies, applications, and markets”;
• Activities under Outcome 1.2 were intended to result in “adoption of standards and specifications for guidance of manufacturers and users for assurance of CSH quality, safety, and performance”. Project resources were to be used to generate an output of “developed CSH performance standards and technology specifications”;
• Activities under Outcome 1.3 were intended to result in “adequately capable and operational testing laboratories for verification of manufacturer claims and guidance of CSH users to enable informed decisions”. Project resources were to be used to generate an output of “developed CSH system components and equipment testing facilities”.
 For the reporting of Outcome 1.1 indicators, only two out of the 4 indicators were reported on in PIRs, namely “the number of technology package suppliers that are available to market CSH technologies in India by EOP”, and “the number of companies that used the information packages in purchasing and installing CSH process heat systems by EOP”.
 Over 161 companies have used information packages available on websites or the information provided in workshops or suppliers for the purposes of making informed CSH investment decisions. The number of companies using these information packages since inception of the Project is around 161 as reported by MNRE.
In conclusion, the results of Component 1 can be rated as satisfactory based on the numerous outputs delivered as summarized on Table 6. One of the crowning achievements in this Component as well as the Project has been the adoption of 5 technical specifications for 5 different CSTs, 3 of which have already been published by BIS in November 2017 with the remaining 2 technical specifications to be published early in 2018.


Tag: Effectiveness Technology Technical Support

17.

Component 2: Awareness enhancement and capacity building

Under this Component, there were 2 expected outcomes:
• Activities under Outcome 2.1 were intended to result in “strengthened technical capacity and awareness of stakeholders of CSH systems for industrial/ institutional process heat applications”. Project resources were to be used to generate several outputs including: o Output 2.1.1: Trained manufacturers/vendors, installers and CSH users; o Output 2.1.2: More trained technical consultants that provide technical services to both CSH system components & equipment manufacturers and users;
o Output 2.1.3: Established and supported industry academic partnership through research programmes to build future capacities;
o Output 2.1.4: Trained staff at SEC and staff at regional testing center; o Output 2.1.5: Completed awareness enhancement programmes for policy makers, academicians, industries, financial institutions, etc. to facilitate replications;
o Output 2.1.6: Completed Promotional campaign for CSH; o Output 2.1.7: Established Concentrating Solar Heat Technology Platform and is operational;
• Activities under Outcome 2.2 were intended to result in “CSH Project deliverables facilitated and/ or influenced the widespread replication of CSH technology applications in India”. Project resources were to be used to generate an output of “documentations on the Project outputs, case studies, best practices and lessons learnt disseminated to ensure larger replication”.
Based on the information presented in Table 7, the results of Outcome to can be rated as satisfactory. A rationale for this rating is the result of a high number of CSH replication projects, a high participation rate in workshops and conferences, high usage of the project website and its publications, and the agreement of 5 banks to provide concessional rate financing for CST installations. This Outcome, however, did not facilitate any significant involvement of international expertise which would have provided some guidance to the Indian CSH industry on adopting best international practices with the goal of improving the efficiencies of CSH equipment manufactured
in India.


Tag: Energy Effectiveness Bilateral partners Country Government Awareness raising Capacity Building Technical Support

18.

Component 3: Pilot demonstration of CSH technologies for various applications

Under this Component, there were 2 expected outcomes:
• Activities under Outcome 3.1 were intended to result in “increased number of commercial and near commercial CSH technologies for diversity of applications”. Project resources were to be used to generate several outputs including: o Output 3.1.1: Completed feasibility studies for demonstration and replication projects of various CSH technology applications;
o Output 3.1.2: Completed Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) for demonstration Projects; o Output 3.1.3: Developed and commissioned demonstration projects in at least 5 sectors; o Output 3.1.4: Results of the performance monitoring, analysis, and evaluation of demonstration projects;

• Activities under Outcome 3.2 were intended to result in “Improved technical and economic performance of commercial and near commercial CSH technologies in an increased diversity of applications”. Project resources were to be used to generate several outputs including: o Output 3.2.1: Documentation of results of demonstration and replication projects; and o Output 3.2.2: Completed Performance monitoring, analysis and overall evaluation for demo and replication projects.

Based on the information presented in Table 8, the rating of the results of Outcome 3 is assessed as satisfactory. This is in consideration of the Project exceeding its targets for completed and operational CSH installations, most of which were documented for their energy and financial performance. The availability of information of successful CSH installations, in fact served the CSH industry very well with respect to sustaining the rates of investment into new CSH projects. In
conclusion, the results of Outcome 3 can be assessed as satisfactory.


Tag: Effectiveness Project and Programme management Technology

19.

Component 4: Sustainable financial approach in the adoption of CSH technologies and applications in India

 Under this Component, there were 2 expected outcomes:
• Activities under Outcome 4.1 were intended to result in “enhanced understanding of the financial viability of CSH technologies and measures to mitigate investment risks”. Project resources were to be used to generate an output of “documented financial viability of CSH technologies, applications, and mitigation approaches of investment risks”;
• Activities under Outcome 2.2 were intended to result in “Promulgation of favourable financial policies that promote increased use and promotion of CSH for low and medium temperature
process heat applications”. Project resources were to be used to generate an output of “formulated recommendations for financial and promotional policies and strategies for adoption by Government of India”.
 Based on the information presented in Table 9, the rating of the results of Outcome 4 is assessed as highly satisfactory. The rationale for this rating can be traced to the outcome of the willingness of 5 banks to provide concessional loan finance for prospective users of CSH systems, and the initiation of the use of ESCOs as an alternative for financing CSH systems installations. The willingness of financing, however, is conditional on the subsidy support from a government source.


Tag: Effectiveness Human and Financial resources Sustainability Technology

20.

Relevance

 The CSH Project is relevant to the development priorities of India, notably the Integrated Energy Policy (IEP) of 2006 and the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).
The CSH Project was funded under GEF 5 under OP 6 which was designed to promote the adoption of renewable energy through assistance in removing barriers and reducing implementation costs. The CSH Project is still relevant with the objective of OP 6.


Tag: Climate change governance Energy Relevance National Country Government

21.

Effectiveness and Efficiency

The effectiveness of the CSH Project has been highly satisfactory due to:
• Project assistance resulting in the adoption of 5 technical specifications and testing procedures by BIS for 5 CSTs demonstrated;
• The Project exceeding its targets for CSH installations for demonstration; • The generation of interest amongst a wide spectrum of stakeholders that resulted in co-financing levels reaching US$18.0 million, an indication of the strong level of interest generated by this Project;
• 5 financial institutions agreeing to participate in a concessional loan finance scheme for CSH
installations.


Tag: Effectiveness Efficiency Private Sector Financing Resource mobilization

22.

Country Ownership and Drivenness

One of the primary reasons for the success of the CSH Project has been the strong level of ownership and drivenness of MNRE and the Government of India. A review of the PSC meeting minutes of the CSH Project provides strong indications of the level of participation of MNRE and its government partners in managing the progress of the CSH Project. As such, the TE team can conclude that country ownership and drivenness of the CSH Project can be rated as highly satisfactory.


Tag: National Country Government

23.

Mainstreaming

The intended objective and outcomes of the CSH Project were successfully mainstreamed with:
• the UNDAF for India 2008 to 201238, specifically UNDAF CP Outcome 4.2: Communities are aware of their vulnerabilities and adequately prepared to manage and reduce disaster and environmental related risks, Output 4.3.2: Capacities built and pro poor initiatives supported at national and local levels to directly address environmental issues. One of the targets for this output is to “increase access to clean energy with focus on renewable energy technologies for remote areas”;
• UNDAF for India for 2013 to 201739, specifically UNDAF/CPD Outcome 6: Government, industry and other relevant stakeholders actively promote environmental sustainability and enhanced resilience of communities in the face of challenges of climate change, disaster risk and natural resource depletion”, with CP Joint Output 6.1 of “SMEs and underserved communities have enhanced access and capacities to deploy clean technologies and practices for reducing GHG emission intensity”.


Tag: Emission Reduction National Regional Communication

24.

Sustainability of Project Outcomes

In assessing sustainability of the CSH Project, the evaluators asked “how likely will the Project outcomes be sustained beyond Project termination?” Sustainability of these objectives was evaluated in the dimensions of financial resources, socio-political risks, institutional framework and governance, and environmental factors, using a simple ranking scheme:
• 4 = Likely (L): negligible risks to sustainability; • 3 = Moderately Likely (ML): moderate risks to sustainability; • 2 = Moderately Unlikely (MU): significant risks to sustainability; and • 1 = Unlikely (U): severe risks to sustainability; and • U/A = unable to assess.
Overall rating is equivalent to the lowest sustainability ranking score of the 4 dimensions. Details of sustainability ratings for the CSH Project are provided on Table 10.
The overall CSH Project sustainability rating is moderately unlikely (MU). This is primarily due to:
• The CSH Project being very successful in raising awareness and demonstrating the financial viability of CSH installations in educational institutes and industries with subsidies;
• The possibility that the number of willing CSH investors is reduced with the absence of the 30% subsidy (which would result in payback periods that may not be acceptable to the investor);
• No official position yet from MNRE on increasing foreign partnerships to improve the technical performance of CSH equipment manufactured in India with best practices, and possibly eliminate the need for subsidies.


Tag: Environment Policy Sustainability Rule of law Awareness raising

25.

Impacts

The primary impact of the CSH Project has been raising awareness of the technical viability of CSH installations on reducing the use of fossil fuels for social cooking and various industrial applications. To some extent, it has also demonstrated the financial viability, especially to those users who can accept a longer payback period of a CSH investment. The Project has generated considerable interest amongst a wide range of stakeholders from government to CSH manufacturers and suppliers in India to end users such as educational institutes and several industrial and commercial entities.


Tag: Energy Impact National Awareness raising

Recommendations
1

Expedite the issuance of related BIS standards for various CSH technologies developed under the project

2

Continue supporting the STFI helpline and website on CSH technologies for continued awareness creation and knowledge sharing among stakeholders. Need to continue website updation, e-newsletter, magazine for continued updation and dissemination amongst stakeholders.

Financial resources are required for the continuation of the STFI helpline, operation and maintenance of the website on CSH technologies with its e-newsletters and magazine. Disruptions in the operations of the STFI helpline and website would only blunt momentum of the Project in building confidence in
prospective investors into solar concentrating technologies.

3

Further strengthen the support for additional testing equipments at the CSH test centers established at NISE, Gurugram and Pune University

The current inventory of equipment at these testing laboratories will need to be upgraded to ensure these laboratories
can support the testing of CSH equipment according to best international practices.

4

MNRE & UNIDO CSH project should leverage the potential development of over 800 potential CSH projects that were identified by this Project to widen horizon of CSH application in India

Follow-up should include energy audits of these potential projects, and identification of potential and appropriate CSH technologies that may be available in India over the next 5 years (see Action 6 regarding the need for foreign technical assistance to improve the efficiencies of CSH equipment currently available in India). This would include CSH technologies that have significantly higher efficiencies resulting from expected foreign partnerships between domestic and foreign CSH equipment manufacturers.

5

Issue performance-based benchmarks for different CSH technologies using analysis of performance monitoring data of existing systems with NISE  

The present subsidy norms are only based on the square meter area of solar concentrating collectors installed. The outcome of this criteria has been the promotion of systems with shorter payback periods where higher subsidies are received for larger installations, irrespective of its performance efficiency. This results in financial assistance to inefficient systems. With the Project having supported online and off-line monitoring systems for different CSH technologies for a wide range of applications, operational field performance data is now available to evolve performance-based benchmarks for different CSH technologies that can be used to remove this subsidy distortion. The evaluation has been informed that MNRE has developed a discussion paper around this issue. The evaluation wants to mention the importance of addressing this issue of performance-based financial assistance which can be easily resolved from the analysis of performance monitoring data available with NISE. In addition, performance-based financial assistance for CSH systems will incentivize local CSH manufacturers to improve the performance of their manufactured equipment creating demand for international inputs into the Indian CSH industry

1. Recommendation:

Expedite the issuance of related BIS standards for various CSH technologies developed under the project

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/14]

The project made breakthrough in achieving the publication of three BIS standards (IS 16648: 2017; Concentrated Solar Thermal — Specification; Part-1 Paraboloid Dish Concentrator, Part-2 Scheffler Concentrator, Part-3 Paraboloid Dish Concentrator) post evaluation mission (were ready and awaiting formal issuance during mission) and same has already been passed on to TE team who appreciated this project fete

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Expedite the publication and issuance of the remaining BIS standards through follow-up with BIS for finalization and immediate publication of fourth remaining standard on CSH specifications
[Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2018/09/03]
PMU, BIS 2019/08 Completed The key action has been completed History
2. Recommendation:

Continue supporting the STFI helpline and website on CSH technologies for continued awareness creation and knowledge sharing among stakeholders. Need to continue website updation, e-newsletter, magazine for continued updation and dissemination amongst stakeholders.

Financial resources are required for the continuation of the STFI helpline, operation and maintenance of the website on CSH technologies with its e-newsletters and magazine. Disruptions in the operations of the STFI helpline and website would only blunt momentum of the Project in building confidence in
prospective investors into solar concentrating technologies.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/14]

The CSH India PMU at MNRE & UNDP had discussions on this in joint meeting with PMU-UNIDO who is implementing another CSH related GEF program. It was decided that the activity will be continued through publication of newsletter and project website

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Continue information updation and dissemination amongst CSH stakeholders through follow-up with CSH PMU in UNIDO by UNDP and CSH India PMU
[Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2019/08/26]
UNDP, PMU 2019/08 Completed This key action has been completed. History
3. Recommendation:

Further strengthen the support for additional testing equipments at the CSH test centers established at NISE, Gurugram and Pune University

The current inventory of equipment at these testing laboratories will need to be upgraded to ensure these laboratories
can support the testing of CSH equipment according to best international practices.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/14]

The issue was discussed in PEC meeting in November and being considered.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Further support from either MNRE or donors is required for additional testing equipment at the 2 CSH testing laboratories in Pune and Gurgaon. MNRE and PMU to follow up with test centers for additional requirements and take decisions at the earliest.
[Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2018/09/03]
UNDP, PMU 2018/08 Completed The action has been followed up with and completed History
4. Recommendation:

MNRE & UNIDO CSH project should leverage the potential development of over 800 potential CSH projects that were identified by this Project to widen horizon of CSH application in India

Follow-up should include energy audits of these potential projects, and identification of potential and appropriate CSH technologies that may be available in India over the next 5 years (see Action 6 regarding the need for foreign technical assistance to improve the efficiencies of CSH equipment currently available in India). This would include CSH technologies that have significantly higher efficiencies resulting from expected foreign partnerships between domestic and foreign CSH equipment manufacturers.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/14]

UNDP & PMU has shared the details of over 800 potential CSH projects that were identified by this Project to Unido CSH PMU

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Follow-up with UNIDO PMU on taking up action for consideration for identified CSH SME potentials
[Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2018/09/03]
UNDP, PMU 2018/08 Completed History
5. Recommendation:

Issue performance-based benchmarks for different CSH technologies using analysis of performance monitoring data of existing systems with NISE  

The present subsidy norms are only based on the square meter area of solar concentrating collectors installed. The outcome of this criteria has been the promotion of systems with shorter payback periods where higher subsidies are received for larger installations, irrespective of its performance efficiency. This results in financial assistance to inefficient systems. With the Project having supported online and off-line monitoring systems for different CSH technologies for a wide range of applications, operational field performance data is now available to evolve performance-based benchmarks for different CSH technologies that can be used to remove this subsidy distortion. The evaluation has been informed that MNRE has developed a discussion paper around this issue. The evaluation wants to mention the importance of addressing this issue of performance-based financial assistance which can be easily resolved from the analysis of performance monitoring data available with NISE. In addition, performance-based financial assistance for CSH systems will incentivize local CSH manufacturers to improve the performance of their manufactured equipment creating demand for international inputs into the Indian CSH industry

Management Response: [Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2021/01/14]

MNRE has set up a committee to explore the development of possibility performance based benchmark and study it from all aspects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Follow-up with MNRE to conclude and issue the performance based bench mark for various CSH systems in India for variety of applications
[Added: 2017/12/20] [Last Updated: 2018/09/03]
UNDP,PMU 2018/08 Completed History

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