Terminal Evaluation of the Small Grants to NGOs/CBOs for Enhancement of Community Capacities in the Environmental Protection and Natural Resources Management in Areas around the Kafue and West Lunga National Parks

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Evaluation Plan:
2011-2015, Zambia
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
08/2015
Completion Date:
10/2015
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
20,000

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Title Terminal Evaluation of the Small Grants to NGOs/CBOs for Enhancement of Community Capacities in the Environmental Protection and Natural Resources Management in Areas around the Kafue and West Lunga National Parks
Atlas Project Number: 00084433
Evaluation Plan: 2011-2015, Zambia
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 10/2015
Planned End Date: 08/2015
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 2.5. Legal and regulatory frameworks, policies and institutions enabled to ensure the conservation, sustainable use, and access and benefit sharing of natural resources, biodiversity and ecosystems, in line with international conventions and national
Evaluation Budget(US $): 20,000
Source of Funding: UNDP Trac
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Willem Colenbrander Mr
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: MLNREP, Communities in Targets Areas, Implementing NGOs
Countries: ZAMBIA
Comments: This evaluation was not included in the 2011-2015 Evaluation Plan but was conducted at the end of the Small Grants to NGOs programme.
Lessons
Findings
Recommendations
1 Recommendation or Issue 1: Projects focusing on natural resource management especially those working with communities cannot be completed in one year. This is because elaborate participatory appraisals and mobilisation activities have to be undertaken with communities to identify target groups, viable livelihoods for promotion and establishment of community management structures.
2 Recommendation or Issue 2: The identification of alternative livelihoods for promotion in project sites could not have been done though surveys alone but also through participatory appraisal processes in the communities.
3 Recommendation or Issue 3: In any project dealing with natural resource management, climate change has to be integrated right from the start. This also needs to include awareness creation and training of project and government staff in climate change issues where necessary. Gender sensitive climate risk assessments also needed to be done in the early stages.
4 Recommendation or Issue 4: Any future project of this nature which is going to use NGOs to implement the project activities, should emphasise that well qualified staff need to be based as close to the project area as possible and feasible. This to avoid high overhead costs and long travelling times that should have been directly spent on project activities.
5 Recommendation or Issue 5: There was need for community contributions towards project activities such as digging fish ponds and making or setting up beehives. This should have been made clear from the beginning of the project to avoid creating an environment of dependence on projects resources and guarantee sustainability.
6 Recommendation or Issue 6: The local knowledge of people is very important, but when it comes to climate change it is not sufficient. There was need to complement the this local knowledge in the determination of suitable sites for fish ponds with comprehensive hydrological surveys, taking surface as well as ground water into consideration. Similar analysis was needed for forests to determine suitable placement points for beehives. In addition to these technical factors and their effect on sustainability, there was also need to implement alternative livelihoods at household level, creation of local seed banks for crops and agro-forestry, and making beehives in sites to create capacity and employment opportunities.
7 Recommendation or Issue 7: The Environmental Education Guide developed by Game Ranger International (GRI) should be integrated in the relevant existing syllabi for schools in the GMAs in such a way that there is no extra work load for the teachers.
8 Recommendation or Issue 8: Biodiversity monitoring should be considered as standard practice during patrols of ZAWA and Village Scouts. It should be easy to integrate it in the normal record keeping procedures for patrols without any extra costs or work load. Biodiversity monitoring will give crucial information on the state of the environment in and around the park especially when it is done over longer periods of time.
9 Recommendation or Issue 9: There is need to make follow-ups with Mwinilunga and Mufumbwe District Councils, and the Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) on the approval process of by-laws developed by Village Action Groups (VAGs). It is necessary for any similar projects (e.g. GEF V) to follow this example of creating by-laws through proper community consultation in districts that have GMAs within their boundaries. These by-laws will at community level reinforce the law enforcement activities done by ZAWA and Village Scouts.
1. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 1: Projects focusing on natural resource management especially those working with communities cannot be completed in one year. This is because elaborate participatory appraisals and mobilisation activities have to be undertaken with communities to identify target groups, viable livelihoods for promotion and establishment of community management structures.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

The projected piloted initiatives that will be scaled up under the GEF V- Strengthening Management Effectiveness and Generating Multiple Environmental Benefits Within and Around the Kafue and West Lunga National Parks. This is a 6 year project with sufficient duration to allow for outcomes to be realized.

Key Actions:

2. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 2: The identification of alternative livelihoods for promotion in project sites could not have been done though surveys alone but also through participatory appraisal processes in the communities.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14] [Last Updated: 2016/01/14]

The initial project duration was only 12 months and the use of the survey was expected to shorten the process, especially as noted in recommendation 4 below that Government and Keepers Zambia Foundation were not stationed in the project sites. However, communities were also engaged through Focused Group Discussions and during community mobilization to validate the findings of the surveys and confirm the selected livelihoods.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1. Conduct socio-economic survey in selected 14 project sites which will include identification of viable and sustainable environmentally friendly alternative livelihoods to be promoted by the project the participatory community appraisals.
[Added: 2016/01/14] [Last Updated: 2017/11/01]
Project Implementation Unit (PIU)- MLNREP 2016/06 Completed The forestry baseline has been completed in project sites. The socio-economic survey and identification of alternatives livelihoods was done as part of the GEF 5 projects which scales up the best practices of this project.. History
3. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 3: In any project dealing with natural resource management, climate change has to be integrated right from the start. This also needs to include awareness creation and training of project and government staff in climate change issues where necessary. Gender sensitive climate risk assessments also needed to be done in the early stages.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

This was noted during implementation of the project and the main gap was that the gender focus was mainly limited to women participation. The GEF V project which will scale up these interventions carried out a gender sensitive climate risk assessment as part of the development process.

Key Actions:

4. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 4: Any future project of this nature which is going to use NGOs to implement the project activities, should emphasise that well qualified staff need to be based as close to the project area as possible and feasible. This to avoid high overhead costs and long travelling times that should have been directly spent on project activities.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

The project was implemented by the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Environmental Protection in Collaboration with Keepers Zambia Foundation (KZF). The implementation at community level was done by four (4) NGOs. These NGOs were selected based on having a local presence in the targeted communities. To address this problem in the scale-up effort under the GEF V, a Project Implementation Unit has been set up in Mumbwa near the project sites and Community Based Natural Resources Management (CBNRM) Coordination centres will be established in the two catchment areas, Kafue National Park and West Lunga Park.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.1 Establish CBNRM coordination centres in two catchment areas (Kafue National and West Lunga Parks) with qualified staff and resources to support community groups with project implementation.
[Added: 2016/01/14] [Last Updated: 2017/11/01]
Project Implementation Unit (PIU)- MLNREP 2015/12 Completed The CBNRM Coordination centre in the Kafue national park and west lunga have been established and CBNRM Coordinator and Project Staff have been recruited History
5. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 5: There was need for community contributions towards project activities such as digging fish ponds and making or setting up beehives. This should have been made clear from the beginning of the project to avoid creating an environment of dependence on projects resources and guarantee sustainability.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

The project put in place measures to increase the ownership of project activities and communities were required to provide the labour and available local resources as contribution to project costs. It is noted that in some instances, working at household level would have increased levels of ownership and reduce dependence. This recommendation will be used to refine approaches in the GEF V project.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 Focus on the household level as opposed to community level when promoting alternative environmentally friendly income generating activities for GEF V with appropriate beneficiary contribution levels to increase ownership and ensure sustainability.
[Added: 2016/01/14] [Last Updated: 2017/11/01]
Project Implementation Unit (PIU)- MLNREP 2016/06 Completed The community awareness and mobilization activities have been conducted in the 14 sites and Community Resource Boards formed. The principles of community ownership and contributions have been shared during the awareness and mobilization activities. These targeting strategies have been incorporated in to the GEF V programmes which scales up the best practices from this project History
6. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 6: The local knowledge of people is very important, but when it comes to climate change it is not sufficient. There was need to complement the this local knowledge in the determination of suitable sites for fish ponds with comprehensive hydrological surveys, taking surface as well as ground water into consideration. Similar analysis was needed for forests to determine suitable placement points for beehives. In addition to these technical factors and their effect on sustainability, there was also need to implement alternative livelihoods at household level, creation of local seed banks for crops and agro-forestry, and making beehives in sites to create capacity and employment opportunities.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

These factors will be taken into account during the implementation of the GEF V project. The identification of alternative livelihoods will take into account capacity gaps for management at community and household levels, as well taking into account the technical, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics that may affect the implementation and sustainability of promoted project activities. This assessment has started with the establishment of the forest baseline status which will determine the enterprises or livelihood activities that can be supported sustainably.

Key Actions:

7. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 7: The Environmental Education Guide developed by Game Ranger International (GRI) should be integrated in the relevant existing syllabi for schools in the GMAs in such a way that there is no extra work load for the teachers.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

The Environmental Education Guide developed by GRI will be reviewed and updated to comprehensively cover the needs of the project sites. Consultations will be held with stakeholders on the integration of the guide into existing syllabi or working with clubs.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
7.1 Revise and update the Environmental Education Guide developed by GRI under the small grants programme and integrate into existing syllabi in schools and through clubs.
[Added: 2016/01/14] [Last Updated: 2017/11/01]
Project Implementation Unit (PIU)- MLNREP 2016/12 Completed The GEF V project sites cover a wider area with marked differences in the environment. The guides have been reviewed to take into account the diversity in project sites. Each site has also developed its own Community Based Natural Resource Management Plans. History
8. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 8: Biodiversity monitoring should be considered as standard practice during patrols of ZAWA and Village Scouts. It should be easy to integrate it in the normal record keeping procedures for patrols without any extra costs or work load. Biodiversity monitoring will give crucial information on the state of the environment in and around the park especially when it is done over longer periods of time.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

Noted, the focus of wildlife patrols has been disproportionately on wildlife monitoring and trees on forest areas. The MLNREP working with Community Resource Boards and ZAWA and Village scouts will review the monitoring and reporting tools and systems for patrols into integrate biodiversity monitoring.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
8.1 Review the monitoring and reporting tools and systems for ZAWA and Village scouts to integrate biodiversity monitoring and reporting.
[Added: 2016/01/14] [Last Updated: 2017/11/01]
Project Implementation Unit (PIU)- MLNREP 2016/12 Completed Biodiversity monitoring in the sites has been integrated into the site specific CBNRM Plans. History
9. Recommendation: Recommendation or Issue 9: There is need to make follow-ups with Mwinilunga and Mufumbwe District Councils, and the Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) on the approval process of by-laws developed by Village Action Groups (VAGs). It is necessary for any similar projects (e.g. GEF V) to follow this example of creating by-laws through proper community consultation in districts that have GMAs within their boundaries. These by-laws will at community level reinforce the law enforcement activities done by ZAWA and Village Scouts.
Management Response: [Added: 2016/01/14]

The Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Environmental Protection (MLNREP) will follow up with the Mwinilunga and Mufumbwe District Councils and the Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) on the approval of the by-laws that have been developed by VAGs with the Danish Small Grants Programme. Lessons from this process will inform the processes to be undertaken under the GEF V project and this has been done by recruitment of some staff that worked on the Danish Small Grants project to work in the CBNRM coordination centres under the GEF V project.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
9.1 Follow up with Mufumbwe and Mwinilunga District Councils and the MLGH to approve the remaining by-laws for VAGs supported under the Small Grants Programme.
[Added: 2016/01/14] [Last Updated: 2017/11/01]
Project Implementation Unit (PIU)- MLNREP 2016/12 Completed This was integrated into the exit strategy and the MLNREP and follow up with interventions under the GEF V programme. The project has supported the development and approval of Village Action Groups (VAG) By-laws as well as Community Resource Boards Plans and By-Laws. History

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