Mid-term Review of the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance Programme (CCCA Phase 2)

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Evaluation Plan:
2016-2018, Cambodia
Evaluation Type:
Mid Term Project
Planned End Date:
06/2017
Completion Date:
01/2017
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

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Title Mid-term Review of the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance Programme (CCCA Phase 2)
Atlas Project Number: 59036
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2018, Cambodia
Evaluation Type: Mid Term Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 01/2017
Planned End Date: 06/2017
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.4. Scaled up action on climate change adaptation and mitigation across sectors which is funded and implemented
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 16,800
Joint Programme: No
Mandatory Evaluation: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Vincent Lefebvre Evaluation Team Leader
Tech Chey National Evaluation Consultant
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: CAMBODIA
Lessons
1.

In terms of design and formulation, the adopted Trust Fund strategy resulted in the decoupling of several grants and their corresponding CCAPs with their implementation under technical departments while the monitoring of the CCAP is being carried out by Dpt of Planning. This is resulting in Dpt of Planning unaware of the contribution of grants to CCAPs. Because of very detailed design procedures, the grants formulation resulted in a significant number of back and forth changes that raise the quality standard of projects despite some systemic issues about unclear exit strategies. Co-financing is a significant element to ensure ownership including when it is up to the grantee to secure it. To ensure an adequate response to calls for proposals, the grant guidelines requirements have to match the actual grant budget as this might not have been the case for window 3; hence the need to strike a balance between the actually required efforts to prepare a grant and the available grant budget. For research and innovation grants, the timeframe has to be long enough for grantees to evidence new methods, test new concepts and at least technically endorse them. The subnational level has to be involved in any grants concept, whether it is implementing part of the CCAP or testing new concepts locally and divulge them at the national level at a later stage. NCDD has to be involved in the actual implementation setup.


2.

In terms of implementation, capacity building programs have to be followed-up one step further after the delivery of the actual training or setting up of new guidelines to make sure that such new guidelines, procedures or newly acquired knowledge are becoming institutionalized and used on a routine basis by line ministry staff. Partnerships with donors and other key development institutions (NGO, universities, private sector) are key to ensure good value for money. As in CCCA2, the lack of specific/specialised M&E staff in charge of the entire program is not necessarily an impediment to efficient monitoring as long as the intervention is embedded within national structures and national staff is actually empowered to implement the intervention, meaning the actual program is part of their portfolio of activities (and not an extra activity in addition to regular duties). Training should be systematically targeting both the national and subnational levels and the staff rotation issue possibly superseded by externalizing training programs that would be conducted in a more systematic manner (e.g. through a training institution with a long-term contract. The private sector can be instrumental in the provision of a national CC response but an enabling environment (legal, financial, fiscal…) remains a pre-requisite for its effective involvement as a key stakeholder. The implementation of grants – especially when it involves the farming sector - has to take into account the scarcity of labor in order to avoid unnecessary delays or the need to adapt the implementation strategy to take into account the reduced availability of beneficiaries.


Findings
1.

Relevance and program design

The program is a follow-up of CCCA phase 1 focussing on strengthening the capacity of NCCC (currently NCSD) to fulfill its mandate to address climate change and enable line ministries and CSOs to develop a climate change adaptation response.

The program is relying on key lessons learned from the previous phase like the need to pursue several activities related to enhancing innovative partnerships, supporting further line ministries to mainstream climate change, link policy and operational research and channel large scale investment funds.

The program results under CCCA2 are to (i) develop a governance and accountability framework for the climate change response, (ii) develop domestic and external finance oriented towards climate resilient and low carbon development, (iii) strengthen human and technological capacities to support the climate change response.

The logical framework analysis showed that most if not all results are relevant but some indicators are hardly measurable, especially when attempting to assess the level of operationalisation or support to new procedures and mechanisms within line ministries. Some others are hardly achievable within the timeframe of the program as they are linked to external factors like the level of financing of CCAPs.

CCCA2 is complementary to many donor funded interventions that focus on sectors, but it is actually filling a void not taken up by the donor community with institutional support of line ministries to mainstream climate change adaptation response and enhance Government’s capacity to coordinate through NCCC (now NCSD) its climate change response.

The program is implemented under the National Implementation Modality with an organizational structure closely aligned to the Governmental structures.

The program was formulated in early 2014, initiated in July 2014 for 5 years, due to be closed by June 2019.

The level of utilization of the available funds is low with around 58% of funds still unallocated (4.64M$ utilized from an overall budget of 11.13M$).

Several assumptions and risks were rightfully identified. A significant shortcoming to achieving the program results have been the potential risks linked to the lack of reactivity and initiative within line ministries that can be an impediment to successfully mainstreaming new coordination and procedural mechanisms to mainstream climate change adaptation response.


2.

Effectiveness

There are three results under CCCA2:

"Result 1: a clear governance and accountability framework is functional for the climate change response at national and sub-national levels":

Support has been provided to line ministries in mainstreaming climate change into legal and regulatory frameworks, e.g. MAFF, but support has been halted because of institutional changes. Support was also provided to PDoE and Commune Councils through the development of commune development plans but there is little evidence how these actions could actually enhance the capacity of MoE and provincial departments to upscale these supports at national level.

National and three sectoral M&E frameworks (MPWT, MAFF, and MoH) were developed and further support was provided to review the NSDP and the sustainable development goals under the Department of Climate Change.

Eight project proposals financed through grants are currently under implementation with another six ministries due to be supported through another round of grants.

"Result 2: domestic and external finance effectively oriented in support of climate resilient and low carbon development":

NCSD, established in mid-2015, hold its first meeting in late August 2016; efforts are being made currently to further operationalise all structures of the Council, including the climate change technical working group (CC TWG).

The NCSD is equally receiving support through the establishment of terms of reference, development of audit procedures, M&E, accounting system. This is to finalize the institutionalization of the NCSD and enable it to apply for accreditation as a National Implementing Agency for the Green Climate Fund and Adaptation Fund.

Three line ministries (MAFF, MoPWT and MoWRAM) have integrated climate change into sector planning and budgeting requests to MEF with successful climate change related budget requests.

The enhancing of the MEF ODA database is being supported through workshops and advice on the definition and subsequent improvement of climatic markers in the database. CPERs were conducted evidencing a steady increase of Government’s funding in CC-related activities.

"Result 3: strengthened human and technological capacities to support climate change response":

A knowledge management information system is due to be designed and operationalized. It is still in its design stage with initially unsuccessful consultant’s contracting resulting in significant delays and possibly the need to revise the approach and timing of the portal’s launching.

A climate change glossary in Khmer is currently being reviewed by the National Council of Khmer Language although the process is significantly slower than anticipated. CCCA2 is continuously supporting the DCC newsletter and camclimate website with new contents.

Several universities are involved in some grants but there are few if any formal partnerships with education institutions despite a substantial number of workshops and awareness raising activities conducted in educational institutions.

Eight full proposals of research and innovation grants are operational. The second round of grants has been canceled due to the budget reduction linked to the unfavorable euro/dollar exchange rate.


3.

Efficiency and partnerships

The program is being implemented by the General Secretariat of the National Council for Sustainable Development (GSSD) with a specific program management unit that is fully integrated within the ministry.

There is a good balance between local and contracted staff with clear ToRs. As the organizational structure follows the CCCA phase 1 set-up, the operationalisation of CCCA2 has been swift with little or no delay at inception stage.

A 10% budget cut had to be operated due to the euro/dollar exchange rate with a direct result of cutting the second round of research and innovation grants under result 3 and delayed/canceled staff contracting.

The program delivery is very well in line with actual planning with no significant difference between actual spending and requested funds.

The reporting and planning processes include comprehensive reports, audits, and annual Program Support Board meetings.

The absence of a specific M&E program officer has not been an impediment to efficient program implementation with regular meetings between the GSSD and CCCA2 team. The actual functions have been taken up by the Technical Specialist and Trust Fund Administrator.

CCCA2 has been very successful in creating partnerships, which increased effectiveness and value for money with the development of activities at a lower cost. These included UNEP, GIZ, other UNDP interventions and ADB.Through the grants, CCCA2 has been able to forge partnerships with both NGOs and indirectly other stakeholders like universities and the private sector.


4.

Potential impact

The impact of CCCA2 is mostly institutional as the program is mainly trying to achieve change within line ministries and further enhance the capability of Cambodia through NCSD to coordinate the country’s climate change response.

The social impact of CCCA2 under the grants is significant for most of the involved line ministries under result

1. Some grants are supporting communities resulting in higher social cohesion. The approach on how to integrate beneficiaries in grant proposal implementation is also having a social impact with little support resulting in less beneficiary interest or strong support with resulting potential community empowerment. Interviews showed that there is still resistance – often from key staff – on how to mainstream climate change into line ministries, in particular, when competing for financial resources.

The contribution of CCCA2 into implementing CCAP is likely to have an economic impact in the long-run, first through increased income directly benefiting the communities for some grants and second indirectly with the testing of new technologies and approaches (e.g. climate smart agriculture, support to the ministry of health) that will have an effect on increased community productivity.

CCCA2 has been instrumental in raising the profile of climate change through supporting the establishment of NCSD. There is extensive evidence of institutional change within line ministries with the establishment of technical working groups, designated staff under the DCC and the production of various guidelines and frameworks.

The involvement of the subnational level has so far been limited to small scale support (either through PDoE, several training and workshops, and little financial resources for small scale CC related interventions prioritized in CIP).

The technical impact has yet to produce effects as for window 3, the grants have just been initiated. However, the potential impact is significant for research and innovation grants including those involving the private sector.

Under CCCA2, the line ministries have often relied on external stakeholders for technical support (e.g. NGOs), evidencing their lack of technical capability to implement locally and the lack of collaboration with the subnational level.

The CCCA2 environmental impact is mostly significant for grants linked to the private sector through reduced GHG emissions and agricultural production with resulting lower use of pesticides, fertilizer…

The impact on gender within line ministries has been very limited with little or no evidence of gender–based approaches in line ministries procedures. The situation is different for grants under which the gender approach has been developed in greater detail.


5.

Elements of sustainability

The sustainability has to be assessed against the level of empowerment within line ministries and/or the ownership of results for involved communities.

Within line ministries, CCCA2 is not fully sustainable: there is still occasional resistance from key decision makers within line ministries for climate change mainstreaming, evidencing the need for further awareness raising activities.

The technical sustainability of some grants is not necessarily ensured locally especially when it deals with new concepts that should be taken up by line ministries for subsequent upscaling/replication.

The institutional strengthening is well under way under CCCA2 with the enhancement of the capacity of NCSD.

CCCA2 has relied heavily on the provision of consultants for the delivery of some key products. This approach has produced mixed results with a lower than expected line ministry capability to be empowered.

The support of NCSD and NCDD in being accreditated to climate resilient and carbon finance schemes will likely be instrumental in sustaining the key achievements of CCCA2 with an enhanced financial capacity to finance CCAPs.

The economic and financial sustainability of the program is diverse with some grants potentially unsustainable in financial terms (risk of financial collapse).

The coherence of CCCA2 is ensured with solid support from UNDP, SIDA, and EU. As of today, SIDA and the EU are also backing NCDD. The Government has clearly delineated the mandates of both NCDD and NCSD with respectively the support to the subnational level and a coordination role. However, the intervention strategies should be more well defined when both institutions are operating at the subnational level.

In terms of communication and visibility, CCCA2 has carried out extensive activities targeting specific stakeholders (line ministries staff, journalists, students). At the local level, interviews showed that awareness of climate change remains very low even where grants are being implemented, evidencing the need for large-scale awareness-raising campaigns of the general public.


Recommendations
1

Need to limit the number and deepen engagement with key ministries (e.g. MAFF, MPWT, MoWRAM, MRD), to ensure CCCA tools and processes are fully institutionalized.

2

Conduct a capacity assessment of NCSD and put in place the corresponding CD programme. Operationalize the CC TWG.

3

Hold sectoral discussions with the private sector and concerned Government officials, to raise awareness of green / climate-smart business needs and opportunities.

4

Conduct more awareness-raising with donor community to raise quality of climate change data in the ODA database

5

Ensure the KMIS can be easily updated with national resources / open  source

6

In order to sustain CCCA impact, need to i) work on CCAP implementation with the private sector; and ii) increase decision-makers’s awareness of the role of private sector in CC response and facilitate blending of public and private finance.

7

Support public awareness of Climate Change through facilitating partnerships in education sector and mass media campaigns.

8

Increase engagement of senior leaders on Climate Change through study tours / field trips and management level workshops (on organizational aspects)

9

On the legal work, provide inputs at an early stage to concerned line ministries, or do it during official consultations, to avoid being seen as “correcting” their drafts

10

Adjust the MOEYS/MOWA grants to reduce the number of pilot eco-schools, and the MRD grant to adjust the type of adaptation demonstrations based on identified needs.

11

Reassess and amend the grants’ exit/sustainability strategies where needed.

12

Adjust the ToRs of the grant management officer to reflect additional responsibilities

13

Increase engagement of sub-national staff in the grants and training activities, in cooperation with NCDD.

14

Address communication shortcomings within ministries and ensure grant projects benefit from each other, particularly in MAFF

15

Assess replicability of the work done with pilot PDOEs on CC mainstreaming at local level, and possibility to link with NCDD work.

16

Support gender mainstreaming in climate change programming at the ministry / institutional level (not for grants, where this is already the case)

1. Recommendation:

Need to limit the number and deepen engagement with key ministries (e.g. MAFF, MPWT, MoWRAM, MRD), to ensure CCCA tools and processes are fully institutionalized.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Budget and M&E work will be limited to a few key ministries, such as MAFF, MOWRAM, MPWT, MOH, MOE, MRD, MEF and MME. A minimum package of support will be maintained for other CCAP ministries.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/10/23]
Climate Change Department (CCD) of General Secretariat of National Council for Sustainable Development (GSSD) 2017/07 Completed CCCA has already focused its budget and M&E support on priority ministries, while a minimum support is maintained for 14 ministries, for example on CCAP reporting.
2. Recommendation:

Conduct a capacity assessment of NCSD and put in place the corresponding CD programme. Operationalize the CC TWG.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
This is already planned. The first meeting of the TWG will be held in early 2017, and CCCA will support – for the Climate Change part – the capacity assessment of NCSD to be conducted under the UNDP environmental governance reform project.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2019/01/01]
CCD/GSSD 2019/03 Initiated CC TWG is operational (2 meetings in 2017). Elements of the capacity assessment are available already (human resources assessment from EGR) and being complemented with an assessment of knowledge management capacities. A full report and plan will be available within 2018.
3. Recommendation:

Hold sectoral discussions with the private sector and concerned Government officials, to raise awareness of green / climate-smart business needs and opportunities.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Initial consultations were held in 2016 and will lead to more focused consultations / policy initiatives with the private sector in 2017 (and 2018), based on the recommendations from the 2016 scoping study.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2018/05/18]
CCD/GSSD 2018/12 Completed CCCA supported specific consultation with private sector on Payment for Environmental Services in Kbal Chhay, and the focus for 2018 will be on vehicle policies (already integrated in the work plan, TORs in discussion with MEF)
4. Recommendation:

Conduct more awareness-raising with donor community to raise quality of climate change data in the ODA database

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/04/23]

Partially agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
This is already happening. All donor focal points have been trained in 2016 and CCCA will help CDC/CRDB to do quality assurance for CC data in 2017.
[Added: 2017/04/23]
CCD/GSSD 2016/12 Completed
5. Recommendation:

Ensure the KMIS can be easily updated with national resources / open  source

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Partially Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
This is already part of the approach and included in the TORs for the firm conducting KMIS. The TORs also include a training programme for concerned NCSD staff.
[Added: 2017/04/23]
CCD/GSSD 2016/12 Completed
6. Recommendation:

In order to sustain CCCA impact, need to i) work on CCAP implementation with the private sector; and ii) increase decision-makers’s awareness of the role of private sector in CC response and facilitate blending of public and private finance.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The current phase of CCCA has initiated work in this direction and advocacy efforts with senior decision-makers will be increased. CCCA is better positioned to work at the policy level (to create an enabling environment for climate-smart investments), but does not necessarily have the tools (loans, guarantees, insurance) to work directly on private sector projects’ financing.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2018/05/18]
CCD/GSSD 2018/12 Completed See above (PES and fuel-efficient vehicles have been selected as target areas for the current phase of CCCA (2017 and 2018).
7. Recommendation:

Support public awareness of Climate Change through facilitating partnerships in education sector and mass media campaigns.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Partially Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
This is already happening. CCCA is supporting Climate Change integration in secondary school curriculum (with MOEYS and MOWA), and partnerships with universities are under discussion. The grants to MOE and MoInfo include mass media and social media campaigns.
[Added: 2017/04/23]
CCD/GSSD 2016/12 Completed
8. Recommendation:

Increase engagement of senior leaders on Climate Change through study tours / field trips and management level workshops (on organizational aspects)

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The need to better engage senior leaders is well identified. Exposure to pilot projects is a relevant suggestion and will be explored in cooperation with grant project teams. Management level workshops may be more difficult at such a senior level (SoS, Minister). Exposure to best practices in the region (high level visits) may be another option.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2018/10/28]
CCD/GSSD 2018/12 Completed This is being done (e.g. MAFF minister and SoS visits, MOWRAM SoS, MOEYS USoS, NCDM Secretary General).
9. Recommendation:

On the legal work, provide inputs at an early stage to concerned line ministries, or do it during official consultations, to avoid being seen as “correcting” their drafts

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/04/23]

Partially Agreed - This is a relevant approach but depends on the willingness of line ministries to i) inform NCSD and allow comments at an early stage of drafting; ii) hold official consultations on their draft legislation.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
This is a relevant approach but depends on the willingness of line ministries to i) inform NCSD and allow comments at an early stage of drafting; ii) hold official consultations on their draft legislation. CCCA will seize these opportunities whenever possible.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2018/05/18]
CCD/GSSD 2018/04 Completed Done in 2017 and 2018 for the environmental code
10. Recommendation:

Adjust the MOEYS/MOWA grants to reduce the number of pilot eco-schools, and the MRD grant to adjust the type of adaptation demonstrations based on identified needs.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Partially agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
It has already been done for MRD. For MOEYS/MOWA, after checking with the project teams the recommendation is not accepted. At this stage all pilot eco-schools seem ready to implement their demonstrations, and adequate resources are in place.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/10/23]
CCD/GSSD 2017/12 Completed Action completed for agreed recommendation (MRD).
11. Recommendation:

Reassess and amend the grants’ exit/sustainability strategies where needed.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
CCCA will do this as part of grant monitoring in 2017 and 2018.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/10/23]
CCD/GSSD 2018/12 Completed This was the focus of the June 2017 grant event. Each grant was asked to update its exit and sustainability strategy and indicate any needs for CCCA support. This has been recorded and the CCCA team will monitor implementation.
12. Recommendation:

Adjust the ToRs of the grant management officer to reflect additional responsibilities

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Not Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The Grant Management Officer (GMO) provided temporary support for the M&E function while a new staff member was being recruited. The recruitment is now finalized so there is no need to amend the GMO TORs. His additional contribution is reflected in his 2016 work plan and performance evaluation.
[Added: 2017/04/23]
CCD/GSSD 2017/03 No Longer Applicable [Justification: The Grant Management Officer (GMO) provided temporary support for the M&E function while a new staff member was being recruited. The recruitment is now finalized so there is no need to amend the GMO TORs. His additional contribution is reflected in his 2016 work plan and performance evaluation.]
13. Recommendation:

Increase engagement of sub-national staff in the grants and training activities, in cooperation with NCDD.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/04/23]

Partially Agreed - This recommendation is unclear. Almost all CCCA grants in the field involve sub-national staff (communes/districts and provincial departments staff), including in capacity development activities. Dedicated support is also provided to PDoEs.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The point on clarification of NCDD vs NCSD mandates may be addressed through the NCSD capacity assessment process and discussed at the CC TWG, but this will take time and for the most part is beyond CCCA’s control.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2018/05/18]
CCD/GSSD, PDOEs, NCDD-S 2018/12 Completed NCDD local staff (Provincial Division of Investment Planning) have been included in CCCA trainings to local officials
14. Recommendation:

Address communication shortcomings within ministries and ensure grant projects benefit from each other, particularly in MAFF

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
CCCA will ensure linkages between MAFF projects through cross-participation in their respective steering committees.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/10/23]
CCD/GSSD, MAFF 2018/12 Completed Projects have shared info through joint field visits and will do the same for steering committee meetings.
15. Recommendation:

Assess replicability of the work done with pilot PDOEs on CC mainstreaming at local level, and possibility to link with NCDD work.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Agreed

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
(This links with #13) CCCA already works closely with NCDD on this support to PDOEs. Sharing of lessons learnt from ongoing work and reflection on potential for scaling up is part of CCCA annual knowledge sharing events.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2018/05/18]
CCD/GSSD, PDOEs, NCDD-S 2018/12 Completed Discussed in knowledge sharing events and inclusion of NCDD local staff in CCCA training initiatives has been strengthened (see #13)
16. Recommendation:

Support gender mainstreaming in climate change programming at the ministry / institutional level (not for grants, where this is already the case)

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/23]

Partially Agreed - CCCA is piloting this through the cooperation between MoWA and MOEYS (education sector). However there is a large ADB TA program on this issue in MOWA (under SPCR program), which is going to focus on gender and CC in MAFF, MOWRAM, MRD and MPWT, so CCCA will focus on sharing our lessons learnt and approach with ADB for replication.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
CCCA will focus on sharing our lessons learnt and approach with ADB for replication. Dedicated gender support will also be sought form the UNDP-SIDA regional programme on the governance of climate finance.
[Added: 2017/04/23] [Last Updated: 2017/10/23]
CCD/GSSD, WoWA 2018/12 Completed CCCA shared experience with the ADB team in charge of CC and gender, and gender is a key component of the new UNDP-SIDA regional programme.

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