Final Evaluation for Ghana & Zambia renewable energy project

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2020, China
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
12/2019
Completion Date:
12/2019
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
40,000

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Title Final Evaluation for Ghana & Zambia renewable energy project
Atlas Project Number: 00082284,00082283
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020, China
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2019
Planned End Date: 12/2019
Management Response: Yes
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 2.5.1 Solutions developed, financed and applied at scale for energy efficiency and transformation to clean energy and zero-carbon development, for poverty eradication and structural transformation
Evaluation Budget(US $): 40,000
Source of Funding: Project budget
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 13,855
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Cecilia Requena Pallares Consultant ceciliarequena@outlook.com
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: China Ministry of Science and Technology
Countries: CHINA, PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC
Lessons
Findings
1.

6. Findings

6.1 Limitations of project design and implementation

The projects were designed as two separate projects and due to project management set up, treated as 4 projects (2 in China, 1 in Ghana and 1 in Zambia). China’s role in both projects is very similar and the expected results for Ghana and Zambia are, to a large extent, the same. The projects are two trilateral projects involving in each case as primary stakeholders two national governments and UNDP. This trilateral system, new to all parties involved, has allowed a relatively smooth implementation of projects - as it is explained in the assessment of Outcome 4’s progress - that require a complex set up and strong coordination. 

The design of the projects follows a logical sequence of activities, outputs and expected outcomes. Moreover, the RETT projects are rooted in Ghana, Zambia and China, responding to the three countries’ priorities and creating national ownership of the expected outcomes. Local stakeholders were highly involved in the design of both projects, which ensured a demand-driven design process and a tailored response to the needs and priorities of each of the countries. Out of the 27 respondents who answered the survey question regarding participation of local stakeholders during the design phase, more than half of them assessed engagement of national institutions as “fully engaged” and over 85% of respondents valued positively their engagement. A clear example of the importance of engaging local stakeholders has been the Renewable Energy Master Plan for Ghana. This master plan was identified by the Ghanaian government as a key priority for the country in order to develop the renewable energy sector and an area in which the RETT project could provide support. Therefore, government officials and decision-makers involved in the design of the RETT project advocated for the master plan to be a key outcome and have since led the policy process, supported by the project. National ownership and a country-driven design of projects have definitely been crucial for the success of the project. However, implementation has been faced with some challenges, which can be grouped as follows:

- Monitoring progress. The assessment of progress has been hampered by the way the results frameworks were designed. Reporting and monitoring of progress have mostly been done against activities and not the defined indicators - although this has not been consistent across time and countries. This allows a yes/no reporting but does not allow for an evaluation of the degree to which a result was achieved. Indicators are usually defined with this purpose, with baselines and targets defined in order to determine progress and relative achievement. In this case, there were no baselines defined – although there was a baseline column where a very general qualitative assessment was done at the beginning of the project, it didn’t always correspond to the defined indicator. In fact, baselines in the project design are assigned to outputs and not indicators. Furthermore, it is not clear in the results framework if the indicators are activity indicators or output indicators, some activities are missing indicators, not all indicators have been assigned targets and some targets do not correspond to the indicator they had been assigned to. These factors have hindered M&E of the RETT projects. An attempt to allocate the defined indicators to each activity has been made in Annex I - s

- Risks. Several risks were identified in the design phase of the project. Participating stakeholders (28 respondents answered this question in the online survey) have, on average, assessed the risks analysis carried out as part of project design as being slightly above average in adequacy (3.5 on average in a 5-point Likert scale). However, it is important to note that there is almost a 0.6 point difference between the assessment of those who were involved in the design of the project (3.85) and those who weren’t (3.29). During the evaluation, several stakeholders pointed out a key risk that was not identified in the design phase and that has proven to be a key obstacle during implementation: currency exchange losses. The project involves 5 currencies: Danish krone (DKK), United States Dollar (USD), Chinese Renminbi (RMB), Ghanaian Cedi (GH?) and Zambian Kwacha (ZMK), and although financial management of the project could have been complicated, the losses were generated in the first stage of fund transfers, from Denmark to UNDP Headquarters. As the projects were budgeted in USD, this risk was not foreseen in the design phase and therefore there was no risk mitigation strategy for it.  

- Procurement. There have been significant delays in the project because of procurement processes. The project stipulated that UN procedures were to be followed in all procurement processes, which ensures transparency, fair competition and quality, but it has also meant that projects have taken more time than expected causing delays in implementation. For example, when the projects started hiring project staff for the PMU in Zambia took between 6 to 9 months; the procurement process to award the construction of the mini-hydro in Chipota Falls in Zambia took 1 year – and was later canceled (further details on this are provided below).

- Project budget. The budget has been affected by currency exchange losses mentioned above. However, even without accounting for these losses, the allocated budget to some activities was not realistic and this has had a significant impact on the project. This has mostly been the case of activities that involved construction: the mini-hydro project that is being constructed at Chipota Falls in Serenje, Zambia, was assigned a 800,000 USD budget. However, the project was tendered and the lowest bid received was over 1 million USD, which meant that additional funding had to be secured in order to construct the site. In fact, the awarded contract was later canceled because the company could not deliver within the approved budget and the procurement process had to start over again. 

- Bottlenecks. The complexity and requirements of the projects required a heavy set up for project management. Despite the overall successful project management, a simplified management structure with have streamlined procedures allowing for an earlier identification of bottlenecks, could have helped minimize some challenges and/or delivered faster and more effective reactions and solutions to them. 


Tag: Challenges Relevance Monitoring and Evaluation Operational Efficiency Procurement Programme/Project Design Results-Based Management Risk Management

2.

6.2.2 China-Zambia South-South Cooperation on Renewable Energy Technology Transfer

Outcome 1: The enabling environment for the transfer and use of priority renewable technologies in Zambia strengthened

Building an enabling environment is a lengthy process. The RETT project has made significant progress in strengthening the enabling environment for RET in Zambia. First of all, it has raised awareness on the importance of increasing the use of RET within the government and has identified key existing barriers. The project developed a report assessing existing policy and framework as well as the barriers hindering adoption and use of RET in Zambia. The Ministry of Energy reviewed this report, conducted a validation workshop and facilitated a training workshop on the RETT project objectives and the way forward to implement policy reforms identified in the assessment to develop RET. The training was delivered by the project for government officials and members of Parliament in December 2017. This assessment has also been used as a reference by other related projects, such as the EU project to increase access to electricity and renewable energy production and the WB Energy access program. 

One of the key recommendations of the assessment was to develop a Renewable Energy Strategy – or pick up on the strategy that was started and never finished in 2010. This process has faced several difficulties and has not yet been finalized. The purpose of the strategy is to provide guidance to the RE sector. A consultant to develop the strategy was engaged by the project, but he terminated his contract and only got as far as the inception report of his mission. The project then faced important difficulties to deliver because of the lack of remaining time and budget to complete this activity. The project looked for an efficient way of ensuring that the Strategy was developed and partnered with the EU to finalize it. It was agreed by both projects that donors will co-finance the consultancy – EU will fund an international consultant and RETT will fund a national consultant - to finalize the drafting and necessary consultations to develop the RE Strategy. Although it is unlikely that the strategy will be accomplished before the project finalizes, this agreement ensures a longer period of support for it to be completed. The second component of this outcome was initiated in 2016 when Zambia’s PMU engaged with several microfinance institutions to explore financing options for RET. Preliminary meetings with microfinance institutions and the Development Bank of Zambia were held in 2016 and 2017 but these did not materialize in any result. 


Tag: Climate change governance Energy Knowledge management Results-Based Management Capacity Building Inclusive economic growth Technology

3.

Outcome 3 (China - Zambia): China has increased capacity to implement South-South Cooperation projects in relation to RET transfer 

Outcome 3 (China - Ghana): China’s has strengthened capacity for South-South Cooperation in relation to RET transfer

Knowledge transfer and experience exchange is one of the most valued outcomes of the project by stakeholders. Knowledge transfer has taken place in the form of traditional capacity building sessions, but mostly by providing on the ground technical support. A case in point was when ICSHP, based in Hangzhou, provided support to BUI Power Authority in Ghana to redesign the mini -hydro project and visited the site in November 2017 to provide further technical support. A similar case is the knowledge transfer from ICSHP to Kafue Gorges, ZESCO, REA and the Department of Energy in mini-hydro, delivering on the ground trainings for site selection, efficient plant management practices and providing technical inputs to several studies and reports. ACCA21, Energy Commission in Ghana and the Ministry of Energy in Zambia have proven to be key in knowledge exchange activities and they have facilitated the process for all parties involved. Stakeholders in Ghana and Zambia have valued very positively UNDP’s role in facilitating knowledge exchange between China and Ghana and China and Zambia, particularly in communicating the country’s needs to China to maximize SSC. ACCA21 organized several matchmaking events between Ghanaian, Zambian and Chinese private sector, which allowed firms in both African countries to be exposed to Chinese expertise, visit manufacturers and, in general, establish contact for the first time with Chinese RE companies.

The overall level of satisfaction of African stakeholders was high, they assessed these visits to China as a positive learning experience. In these visits, government delegations from Ghana and Zambia also joined and meetings at the government level took place (training sessions, management meetings), maximizing the available travel budget given the financial challenges faced during the project. For instance, the Energy Commission attended a training organized in the University of Science and Technology by MOST/ ACCA21. Officials from the Energy Commission expressed their satisfaction with this training. In particular, they highly valued the relevance of the topics covered, the representatives that delivered the training, and the consideration of the Ghanaian context in the training. Contacts established in the match-making events have mostly been maintained since then. Some companies have visited China again on their own account and although no commercial relations have yet been formalized, the project has opened the opportunity. During this evaluation, several participants expressed that Chinese partners identified for the matchmaking events were not always suitable and, in some cases, their manufacturing was tailored to China (ex: cookstoves manufacturer in China was not suitable for Ghanaian market because of the shape). However, these were specific cases, and in general Chinese manufacturers were willing to adjust their products for the Ghanaian or Zambian market.

ACCA21 put together in 2017 and published in 2018, a catalogue of Chinese potential partners which could respond to Ghanaian and Zambian demands for RETT. Ghanaian and Zambian stakeholders value very positively this document although no commercial relations have been officially established under the project. The project has created strong relations between the Chinese and Ghanaian and the Chinese and Zambian governments, and it has built a bridge to develop a strong relation between the private sector in these countries. The ongoing Ghana - China solar PV manufacturing project evidences that, although partnerships have only reached the stage of MoUs, there is great potential to develop and formalize these partnerships and explore an innovative way of SSC for the private sector. In particular, an MoU was signed with Poly Solar Technologies in China who is interested in further developing partnerships with Ghana (and Zambia) and the company sent two of its engineers to Ghana in 2017 to carry out research and better understand the Ghanaian market. Following the trip to Ghana, Poly Solar submitted two collaboration proposals – one for water pumps and the other one for solar systems – to UNDP Ghana and ACCA21 but did not receive any feedback. Another example of an advanced partnership is the joint venture agreement between two Ghanaian companies and a Chinese manufacturer of solar PV – this example is further explained in the Overall assessment section, Ghana’s Outcome 2. The JV has been signed, the site selected and construction is expected to be finalized before the end of 2019.


Tag: Knowledge management Capacity Building South-South Cooperation Technical Support

4.

6.3 OECD/DAC criteria for Evaluating Development Assistance

6.3.1 Relevance

The relevance criterion considers the extent to which the project is suited to the priorities and policies of the countries, implementing partners and donor, including whether there is a demand for the kind of intervention offered by this project in the participating countries and the initiative is aligned with national priorities and if the expected outcomes and outputs address the general objective of the projects.

The RETT projects, which promote the use and adoption of RET, are aligned with the SDGs and support the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting the rise in global average temperatures to under 1.5 degree Celsius. They are consistent with Denmark’s objective to promote cooperation between China and Africa and mitigate climate change impact through the promotion of renewable energies. Ghana and Zambia participate in the UN’s SE4ALL that aims to ensure universal access to energy, promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. In this framework, the RETT projects are particularly relevant to both countries. 


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Climate change governance Energy Relevance Project and Programme management South-South Cooperation

5.

6.3.2 Effectiveness

The effectiveness criteria for evaluation questions to what degree the project has attained its objectives, including whether there is a clear implementation logic. 

The projects’ design and the logic and underpinning assumptions of both projects have contributed to the success in achieving the expected results. It isimportant to note that neither project has an explicit Theory of Change (ToC) and a specific assessment of the project’s ToC cannot be done. Activities under each output and outcome are appropriately focused towards achieving the expected results, but indicators included in the design of the project have not been effective to report on progress. In fact, reporting (in the APRs) has mostly been done against activities. This is explained in more detail in section 2.3 Limitations to project design and implementation. In this section, key challenges in implementing the project and achieving the outcomes are also explained - financial constraints and procurement have been the main ones. The enabling environment has been significantly improved in Ghana and Zambia, through increased capacity in the country to adopt and use RET and improved policy framework – although not fully accomplished in the case of Zambia and awaiting Parliament approval in the case of Ghana. China’s has contributed with technical inputs for policy documents and providing feedback to drafts prepared by Ghanaian and Zambian stakeholders and most importantly, it has set an example and made Ghana and Zambia further realize the importance of creating an enabling environment to develop the RE industry. 

In Zambia, the RETT project has engaged with other projects and partners, increasing the impact of the project and expanding the room for knowledge transfer on RET. The project has collaborated with five rural clinics in Chongwe, two in Kafue and one in Shibulunji . Solar panels were installed by a Norwegian funded project in some of the clinics and main hospital of the Chongwe region, allowing them to have electricity and improve operations (e.g. maintain medicines refrigerated) when there is no daylight or there is a power cut. These clinics and hospital are off the national grid and before solar was installed, they had no alternative power source. Most of the 39 clinics in Chongwe still don’t have an alternative source of power, but those of them that have had a solar panel installed have experienced a radical improvement and can now provide continuous service. The RETT project’s engagement with the health facilities has consisted of providing on the ground training on panel installation and maintenance at the time when they were installed. It was a training of trainers, so it is expected that those trained can continue building capacity among other technicians. Trained staff can now do basic maintenance of panels, simple repairs and can report more accurately when there is a part that needs repairing. There is great potential for further collaboration with the clinics, out of 39 of them only 5 of them including the main hospital have newly installed solar systems, and the hospital is not yet equipped to fully run on solar energy. 

This project has highly contributed to increasing China’s interest in engaging in demand-driven SSC projects. ACCA21 has led Outcome 3 (Strengthening SSC in China) in both projects and has gone beyond its own institution involving a broad range of stakeholders not directly involved in RET but who are also key players in China’s cooperation agenda. After each of its missions to Ghana and Zambia, ACCA21 organized workshops and shared knowledge materials with other ministries, private sector and think tanks to share their experience engaging in South-South Cooperation with the two African countries. These sessions were very interactive and had high participation from other ministries. MOFCOM is already supporting two other trilateral projects on SSC on RET, one in Ethiopia and the other one in Sri Lanka, and has 7 other projects in the pipeline. In the Ethiopia and Sri Lanka projects, ACCA21 is the implementing partner, it is being managed by UNDP China, UNDP Ethiopia and UNDP Sri Lanka and this time the project is directly financed by the Chinese government.


Tag: Challenges Effectiveness Knowledge management Results-Based Management Theory of Change Private Sector Capacity Building South-South Cooperation Technical Support

6.

6.3.3 Efficiency

The efficiency criterion for evaluation measures the outputs in relation to the inputs. It is an economic term which signifies that the project uses the least costly resources possible in order to achieve the desired results. In this section, we will look at whether budget allocation and budget executed so far – and where possible to assess - were efficient and management structure and procedures were well set up and used resources efficiently. 

Looking at budget allocated vs impact of each outcome, the initial assessment is relatively efficient resource allocation. Outcomes 1 - enabling environment for RETT – has a significant impact on the development of RETTs. This outcome has allowed to carry out an in-depth assessment of the current situation, barriers and potential for RET in Ghana and Zambia, and put in place effective policy documents that are expected to address challenges and barriers and maximize the potential for RETs. The second output of Outcome 1 in the China-Zambia project: Financial mechanisms for RETT established has not been achieved. As explained in the overall assessment section of the report, initial meetings with micro-finance institutions and the Zambian Development Bank were held but progress did not go beyond that. However, looking at the budget almost 40,000 USD were spent in this outcome. Considering that only meetings took place and no results were achieved, the allocation for this output did not contribute to efficient use of resources. 


Tag: Efficiency Knowledge management Operational Efficiency Policies & Procedures Procurement Capacity Building Technology

7.

6.3.4 Sustainability

Assessing the sustainability of a project means measuring whether the benefits and results achieved are likely to continue after donor funding has been withdrawn and the project has ended. In this section, we will look into the likelihood of continuation after the project has ended and the factors that affect the continuation or lack thereof, for example, ownership, capacity, partnerships, among others. Overall, sustainability of the project is very likely to be ensured. Although some activities are lagging behind and achievement of certain outputs is not complete, the achievement of strategic results will have a determinant impact on the capacity of Ghana and Zambia to continue adopting and using RETs and on the ability of China to continue engaging in demand-driven SSC. A key success factor of the project has been the level of ownership of Ghana, Zambia and China and the relevant institutions engaged. Below we highlight some key areas in which continuation will be key - and how we assess the likelihood of this happening – to ensure the sustainability of the achieved results of the projects. 

Policy framework: The policy framework developed under the project in Ghana is crucial for the sustainability of the project. Including the Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP), a key milestone, of the project was a request from the Government of Ghana during the design phase of the project and it reflects the government’s commitment to developing, promoting and supporting renewable energy technologies in the country. The process of developing the document has been led by the Energy Commission, the Ministry of Energy and the Planning Commission, and supported by the project. Ghana welcomed inputs and feedback from Chinese stakeholders, like NDRC and Tsinghua University. The REMP is highly likely to be passed by Parliament and effectively implemented judging by the government’s commitment and willingness to have a strong RE policy in place.In Zambia, policy progress is considerably behind that progress made in Ghana and the key deliverable, the Renewable Energy Strategy, is yet to be finalized. However, steps have been taken to ensure progress will continue after the end of the project and the result will be achieved. The key action taken in this regard has been establishing a key partnership with an EU project that is targeted in the same direction, will continue once RETT is over and has available funds to take on the leadership of this activity. Having the EU project lead this activity and the strategy being an objective for this project too, ensures that work to finalize the strategy will be continued by the EU. Further, as mentioned above, assessment reports developed by the project have been key documents for other RE projects in Zambia. Therefore, in the event that it is necessary for the EU to engage with other partners once the RETT project has ended, it is likely that other projects will be willing to join the policy work being done as the strategy is a key recommendation of the assessment that was carried out in the first year of the project. 


Tag: Energy Sustainability Knowledge management Partnership Policies & Procedures Civil Societies and NGOs Country Government Capacity Building Technology South-South Cooperation

Recommendations
1

UNDP to continue engaging in trilateral cooperation projects with national implementation.

The donor and implementing partners in China, Ghana and Zambia highly value UNDP’s participation in the project, as they have been able to benefit from the UN network, expertise in complex SSC projects and technical knowledge on renewable energy. The evaluation has evidenced the value added of setting up the project as a trilateral rather than a traditional bilateral cooperation project. It is a consensus opinion of stakeholders in the projectsthat UNDP’s role as a facilitator has enriched the project and ensured that the project was responsive to the diverse needs of the three countries involved. UNDP has also been key to facilitate communication and relations between the three countries. Furthermore, communication between implementing partners and UNDP has been very close owing to UNDP having offices in the three countries. UNDP has also been crucial in promoting the use of international standards and procedures by the three countries and in all activities of the project, contributing to following best practices and ensuring transparency. Adherence to a common set of rules through the use of UNDP norms and standards has fostered trust amongst parties. It is recommended that UNDP continues to engage in trilateral cooperation, offering its network and experience in SSC projects, with a national implementation modality that ensures ownership of implementing partners. All implementing partners should commit to inform all primary stakeholders, in a timely fashion, of the achievement of milestones, or lack thereof, to avoid misunderstandings show commitment with the project from all parties. 

2

Further promote South-South Cooperation for the private sector

The projects have set the basis for an innovative way of engaging in South-South Cooperation. The project has facilitated the creation of private sector partnerships, which have the potential of creating a new channel for knowledge and experience exchange. Although no commercial activities have officially started there are several examples of established partnerships, such as the Joint Venture between Tobinco – Reroy and Evergreen for the soalr project, which has been signed and the facilities are expected to be finalized in Accra before the end of 2019. Another example is the case of Poly Solar, a Chinese company which has visited Ghana to learn about the context and how to better respond to the needs of private sector engaged in solar in the country. It is recommended to continue to engage in private sector SSC and more visibility is given to this innovative mechanism of cooperation for future projects. UNDP staff from China, Ghana and Zambia should take every opportunity to share challenges and achievements with other country offices in order to promote UNDP’s engagement in SSC for the private sector.

3

Encourage robust project design with adequate result frameworks that allow proper M&E

A results framework is an important tool to closely monitor and evaluate projects. However, if it is not well designed it does not fully capture all the work done and may not be an accurate way to quantitatively and objectively monitor actual changes as a result of the project. The results framework for these projects did not include adequately defined indicators, neither did it have baselines and targets assigned to the indicators. As a result, reporting was done against activities and, consequently, there has been information lost. It is recommended that the project design includes adequately defined indicators with corresponding baselines and targets so that progress is assessed against these, and a complete assessment of progress can be done. This will also allow evaluating cross-cutting issues such as adequate gender mainstreaming in the project. 

4

Early identification of difficulties and integrate risk assessment in the results framework

Risks identified in the project design phase were not assigned to specific activities or outcomes. They were classified in the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) categories: contextual, programmatic and institutional risks, and according to UNDP/GEF Risk Standard categories: environmental, financial, operational, organizational, political, regulatory, strategic, and other. Although during the evaluation the risk identification was evaluated as relatively adequate by stakeholders, there is room for improvement.

During the design phase, potential difficulties inherent to complex projects should be identified during the design phase as well as possible actions to avoid bottlenecks and delays. For example, UNDP procurement procedures stipulates that payment is done upon delivery and, generally, Chinese private sector requires upfront payments. This has caused delays in procurement process, such as for the generator for the Tsatsadu 40kW mini hydropower facility in Ghana. If this type of clashes are identified during the design phase – through increased consultations – and decisions made then, delays will be mitigated or avoided. It is thus recommended to review procedures and ways of working of all parties involved in a project and identify if any clashes exist to avoid delays during project implementation.

It is also recommended that as well as DANIDA and UNDP/GEF classifications, risks are associated to specific outcomes or even activities when possible. A detailed breakdown of risk analysis will allow to identify additional risks and closer assess their likelihood and impact on the project. This will also allow to isolate a challenge faced and a faster reaction to it. Additionally, it will facilitate project assessment, as impact assessment will contribute to learning each activity’s contribution to its associated outcome. Revision of risks identified and management strategies will be easily carried out as it will be done as part of the overall revision of the project. These should be done periodically and when an unforeseen challenge is faced, national PSCs or GSC should convene to discuss and agree on a mitigation strategy. 

5

Guard the project against the impact of currency fluctuations

The project has experienced an almost 20% loss of funds due to currency fluctuations, which has inevitably impacted on activity and result delivery. This risk was not foreseen in the project design phase, but it was in a revision of risks at a later stage. It is recommended that the project does not bear the risk of currency fluctuations as it can impact on project delivery. This could be done in various ways:

• If possible, transfer the funds in one installment and when the agreement is signed. This eliminates the risk of currency fluctuation as the less time between signing and disbursement, the more likely that the amount in DKK and USD remain as stated in the project document.

• The project includes a contingency fund to compensate losses of currency fluctuations and mitigates the impact on the project budget.

6

Simplify the project management structure of the projects and strengthen M&E

The projects have the same objectives and very similar expected results for Ghana and Zambia. However, they were designed as two separate projects and effectively treated as four projects (two in China, one in Ghana and one in Zambia) where UNDP China has had an overall coordinating and management role. The evaluator recommends that project management is streamlined through an integrated project design of both projects. Aligning activities and outcomes would simplify reporting and monitoring of progress and the overall integration of APR, following the same guidelines. Setting up both projects as one would facilitate UNDP China’s role as the overall coordinator of the project, facilitate communication among all parties and encourage continuous learning and experience exchange among all stakeholders. Furthermore, setting it up as one project, rather than two parallel projects would encourage and facilitate cooperation and interaction between Ghana and Zambia as well as between China and Ghana, on one hand, and China and Zambia, on the other hand. It is also recommended that M&E mechanisms are strengthened through mid-term reviews, audits and periodic reporting to the donor, not only through the APR but also informing about key messages arising from bi-weekly calls among the implementing partners and as soon as bottleneck are identified.

7

Seek more strategic collaborations and partnerships

During the evaluation, it was proven that partnerships have been key in achieving results, ensuring their sustainability and maximizing the impact of the project. For example, providing technical support to rural health facilities in Zambia significantly contributed to increasing access to RET in rural areas and improving people’s livelihoods in those areas. There is great potential to expand these collaborations with not only health facilities but also supporting schools, housing, agriculture, etc. It is therefore recommended that the project explores partnerships with ongoing RE projects and other projects and public services that already use or stand to benefit from RE, and seeks ways to collaborate with these projects, for example through capacity building or providing technical support. These collaborations will also allow stakeholders to exchange experiences with a wider network and ensure that RETT will continue beyond the projects.

8

Promote South-South Cooperation among all participating countries

SSC in these projects has been significantly limited to China – Ghana, and China – Zambia cooperation. Further South-South cooperation and experience exchange should be promoted for these projects, specifically between Ghana and Zambia, to ensure continuous cooperation among countries and increase exposure to other experiences and lessons learned. An online platform to share success cases between countries would insert an additional component of SSC into the project. This would be a cost- effective and innovative way to promote South-South cooperation. Encouraging SSC among all participating countries and exchanging experiences would facilitate the implementation of other outcomes, as experience exchange can contribute to a faster and easier addressing of challenges. It is recommended that countries’ relative strengths and weaknesses in the different areas of the project be assessed and mechanisms be set up for the relatively advantaged country to share its knowledge and experience with the relatively disadvantaged country to strengthen a specific area. 

9

Expand the scope of case studies presented to build capacity

The Chinese case is relevant and has been of great value to build capacity in RETT in Ghana and Zambia. However, the private sector is still reluctant to engage in RE projects mainly because of the high cost of financing that renders the projects unbearably risky. It is recommended that success cases from non-participating countries, but relevant for them, are also included in capacity building components. Exposing the private sector to case studies from other African countries with similar contexts would be helpful. As much as China’s case has been helpful to build capacity, it is still seen as too different to Africa and it would be easier for them to relate with cases from similar countries. 

10

Identify additional sources of financing for the project during the design phase

Identifiying and setting up financing mechanisms, has been one of the underachieved outcomes of the project. It is recommended that the design and inception phases devote more resources to these activities, especially if the project is being implemented in countries with very high cost of financing, like Ghana and Zambia, to avoid not having resources to achieve the expected results. A recommendation is to search for additional and diversified funds for pilot projects and other activities during the design phase, and to conduct broad consultations which include financial institutions as well as other international organizations.

11

Encourage Public Private Partnerships to incentivize RETT

It was confirmed during the interviews for this evaluation that a key barrier for more private sector engagement has been the high cost of financing and the inability of the private sector in Ghana and Zambia to bear the risk of projects. In light of this, the government should support the private sector to overcome these barriers. For similar projects, it is recommended to encourage government’s participation, at least in the early stages of projects, to take on part of the risks, co-finance projects and therefore facilitate private sector participation. Creating Public Private Partnerships (PPP) would allow the private sector to access funds without bearing the high risks of private lending. Fewer risks and less need for financing would encourage the private sector to participate in RETT projects in countries with similar context to Ghana and Zambia. 

12

Provide advisory services and capacity building to establish commercial partnerships

The project has been successful establishing partnerships with key strategic institutions that facilitate RETT between China and Ghana and Zambia, such as ICSHP, Bui Authority, KGRTC and the University of Zambia. Despite the results achieved, several challenges have been faced which have prevented more participation of the private sector – i.e. high cost of financing and poor technical business skills (develop business plans, cost benefit analysis, etc.) of the private sector in Ghana and Zambia. It is recommended also that capacity building as part of the project is expanded to include not only technical RET know-how but also commercial, economic feasibility assesment, and marketing expertise and technicques. This can be done through partnerships with relevant institutions or trainings could be directly delivered by UNDP. This capacity building can assist firms in engaging in commercial partnerships, carrying out cost benefit analysis, negotiating contracts and securing funds from diversified sources, which would contribute to strengthening sustainability of RETT and developing stronger relations between Ghanaian and Chinese, and Zambian and Chinese firms to ensure RETT from China to Ghana and Zambia. 

13

Consult with governments and key partners at the end of the project to design an exit strategy

Sustainability of the project heavily relies on the exit strategy of a project and whether there is a plan to ensure continuity of the results achieved by the project. In the RETT projects no official consultations to design an exit strategy have been carried out, but actions to ensure sustainability have been. To further ensure that these actions are efficient, it is recommended that an exit strategy is agreed among all key stakeholders. This will also assist UNDP in identifying future areas in which it can continue supporting the partners involved to ensure that the results continue beyond the duration of the project.

1. Recommendation:

UNDP to continue engaging in trilateral cooperation projects with national implementation.

The donor and implementing partners in China, Ghana and Zambia highly value UNDP’s participation in the project, as they have been able to benefit from the UN network, expertise in complex SSC projects and technical knowledge on renewable energy. The evaluation has evidenced the value added of setting up the project as a trilateral rather than a traditional bilateral cooperation project. It is a consensus opinion of stakeholders in the projectsthat UNDP’s role as a facilitator has enriched the project and ensured that the project was responsive to the diverse needs of the three countries involved. UNDP has also been key to facilitate communication and relations between the three countries. Furthermore, communication between implementing partners and UNDP has been very close owing to UNDP having offices in the three countries. UNDP has also been crucial in promoting the use of international standards and procedures by the three countries and in all activities of the project, contributing to following best practices and ensuring transparency. Adherence to a common set of rules through the use of UNDP norms and standards has fostered trust amongst parties. It is recommended that UNDP continues to engage in trilateral cooperation, offering its network and experience in SSC projects, with a national implementation modality that ensures ownership of implementing partners. All implementing partners should commit to inform all primary stakeholders, in a timely fashion, of the achievement of milestones, or lack thereof, to avoid misunderstandings show commitment with the project from all parties. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/15] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Agreed. UNDP China will continue engaging in trilateral cooperation projects, including projects with national implementation; to facilitate communication and relations between three or more partners/countries for better development results and mutual South South learning.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Launch TrC RETT projects in Sri Lanka and Ethiopia (the latter being NIM)
[Added: 2019/12/16]
UNDP China, China South South Facility (CSSF) 2019/08 Completed 2 projects to be launched
Launch TrC projects under Chinese South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund drawing lessons from this evaluation
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/23]
UNDP China, China South South Facility (CSSF) 2020/12 Completed A new project under the SSCAF will be soon launched. During the project design we have refered to the lessons from the project. History
2. Recommendation:

Further promote South-South Cooperation for the private sector

The projects have set the basis for an innovative way of engaging in South-South Cooperation. The project has facilitated the creation of private sector partnerships, which have the potential of creating a new channel for knowledge and experience exchange. Although no commercial activities have officially started there are several examples of established partnerships, such as the Joint Venture between Tobinco – Reroy and Evergreen for the soalr project, which has been signed and the facilities are expected to be finalized in Accra before the end of 2019. Another example is the case of Poly Solar, a Chinese company which has visited Ghana to learn about the context and how to better respond to the needs of private sector engaged in solar in the country. It is recommended to continue to engage in private sector SSC and more visibility is given to this innovative mechanism of cooperation for future projects. UNDP staff from China, Ghana and Zambia should take every opportunity to share challenges and achievements with other country offices in order to promote UNDP’s engagement in SSC for the private sector.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Management response: UNDP fully recognizes the importance of involving the private sector, why private sector engagement has a key role in existing trilateral cooperation projects that both will continue to grow throughout the implementation of these projects and in future trilateral cooperation that engages the Chinese government.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop a concept for engaging Private Sector under the South South Cooperation Assistance Fund
[Added: 2019/12/16]
UNDP China, China South South Facility (CSSF) 2019/12 Completed
Initiate the second phase of the China-Ghana RETT project with a on the Joint Venture between Chinese and Ghanaian companies for solar manufacturing in Ghana
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/23]
UNDP China, SD team and China South South Facility (CSSF) 2020/12 No Longer Applicable [Justification: The phase I hasn’t been financially closed yet. No plan for phase II yet.]
History
3. Recommendation:

Encourage robust project design with adequate result frameworks that allow proper M&E

A results framework is an important tool to closely monitor and evaluate projects. However, if it is not well designed it does not fully capture all the work done and may not be an accurate way to quantitatively and objectively monitor actual changes as a result of the project. The results framework for these projects did not include adequately defined indicators, neither did it have baselines and targets assigned to the indicators. As a result, reporting was done against activities and, consequently, there has been information lost. It is recommended that the project design includes adequately defined indicators with corresponding baselines and targets so that progress is assessed against these, and a complete assessment of progress can be done. This will also allow evaluating cross-cutting issues such as adequate gender mainstreaming in the project. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China Take note of the recommendation and recognize that the results framework of the project, which stems from 2013, would have benefitted from a results-based design to better monitor actual changes as a result of the project. As the project is coming to an end in six months from now no specific action point for the project, but for UNDP China to ensure a stronger Quality Assurance process and in particular RBM is ensured for existing and future SSC/TrC projects.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Programme and Project Management training for all personnel at the Global Partnership Cluster (GPC) at UNDP China
[Added: 2019/12/16]
UNDP China 2019/08 Completed 3-day training 20-22 August 2019
Conduct Project Design Hacker’s Kit workshop at the UNDP China, South South Facility
[Added: 2019/12/16]
UNDP China, CIP and China South South Facility (CSSF) 2019/09 Completed 2-hour portfolio sensemaking training
4. Recommendation:

Early identification of difficulties and integrate risk assessment in the results framework

Risks identified in the project design phase were not assigned to specific activities or outcomes. They were classified in the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) categories: contextual, programmatic and institutional risks, and according to UNDP/GEF Risk Standard categories: environmental, financial, operational, organizational, political, regulatory, strategic, and other. Although during the evaluation the risk identification was evaluated as relatively adequate by stakeholders, there is room for improvement.

During the design phase, potential difficulties inherent to complex projects should be identified during the design phase as well as possible actions to avoid bottlenecks and delays. For example, UNDP procurement procedures stipulates that payment is done upon delivery and, generally, Chinese private sector requires upfront payments. This has caused delays in procurement process, such as for the generator for the Tsatsadu 40kW mini hydropower facility in Ghana. If this type of clashes are identified during the design phase – through increased consultations – and decisions made then, delays will be mitigated or avoided. It is thus recommended to review procedures and ways of working of all parties involved in a project and identify if any clashes exist to avoid delays during project implementation.

It is also recommended that as well as DANIDA and UNDP/GEF classifications, risks are associated to specific outcomes or even activities when possible. A detailed breakdown of risk analysis will allow to identify additional risks and closer assess their likelihood and impact on the project. This will also allow to isolate a challenge faced and a faster reaction to it. Additionally, it will facilitate project assessment, as impact assessment will contribute to learning each activity’s contribution to its associated outcome. Revision of risks identified and management strategies will be easily carried out as it will be done as part of the overall revision of the project. These should be done periodically and when an unforeseen challenge is faced, national PSCs or GSC should convene to discuss and agree on a mitigation strategy. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China agrees and recalls the importance of reviewing procedures (incl. procurement) of various actors to identify any bottlenecks and risks, and to keep adequately monitor those risks throughout the project.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Do Risk Matrix review by the PMs on a quarterly basis for all SSC/TrC projects at UNDP China; and updated on a regular basis, and brought to the attention of the (Global) project boards or related as needed.
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2019/12/29]
UNDP China, CSSF 2019/12 Completed Confirmed by PM. History
Programme and Project Management training for all personnel at the Global Partnership Cluster (GPC) at UNDP China
[Added: 2019/12/16]
UNDP China 2019/08 Completed 3-day training 20-22 August 2019
5. Recommendation:

Guard the project against the impact of currency fluctuations

The project has experienced an almost 20% loss of funds due to currency fluctuations, which has inevitably impacted on activity and result delivery. This risk was not foreseen in the project design phase, but it was in a revision of risks at a later stage. It is recommended that the project does not bear the risk of currency fluctuations as it can impact on project delivery. This could be done in various ways:

• If possible, transfer the funds in one installment and when the agreement is signed. This eliminates the risk of currency fluctuation as the less time between signing and disbursement, the more likely that the amount in DKK and USD remain as stated in the project document.

• The project includes a contingency fund to compensate losses of currency fluctuations and mitigates the impact on the project budget.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China agrees with the recommendation and will put in place closer monitoring of project financing for SSC/TrC projects, particularly currency exchange rates.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Programme and Project Management training for all personnel at the Global Partnership Cluster (GPC) at UNDP China
[Added: 2019/12/16]
UNDP China 2019/08 Completed 3-day training 20-22 August 2019
6. Recommendation:

Simplify the project management structure of the projects and strengthen M&E

The projects have the same objectives and very similar expected results for Ghana and Zambia. However, they were designed as two separate projects and effectively treated as four projects (two in China, one in Ghana and one in Zambia) where UNDP China has had an overall coordinating and management role. The evaluator recommends that project management is streamlined through an integrated project design of both projects. Aligning activities and outcomes would simplify reporting and monitoring of progress and the overall integration of APR, following the same guidelines. Setting up both projects as one would facilitate UNDP China’s role as the overall coordinator of the project, facilitate communication among all parties and encourage continuous learning and experience exchange among all stakeholders. Furthermore, setting it up as one project, rather than two parallel projects would encourage and facilitate cooperation and interaction between Ghana and Zambia as well as between China and Ghana, on one hand, and China and Zambia, on the other hand. It is also recommended that M&E mechanisms are strengthened through mid-term reviews, audits and periodic reporting to the donor, not only through the APR but also informing about key messages arising from bi-weekly calls among the implementing partners and as soon as bottleneck are identified.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China agrees that project management would have benefitted from being streamlined through an integrated project design of both projects, to simplify reporting and monitoring of progress and the overall integration; to facilitate UNDP China’s role as the overall coordinator of the project, and to facilitate communication among all parties and encourage continuous learning and experience exchange among all stakeholders.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Set-up one Multi-Country/SSC Project Document for projects funded under SSCAF
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2019/12/29]
UNDP China, CSSF 2019/09 Completed Confirmed by PM. History
7. Recommendation:

Seek more strategic collaborations and partnerships

During the evaluation, it was proven that partnerships have been key in achieving results, ensuring their sustainability and maximizing the impact of the project. For example, providing technical support to rural health facilities in Zambia significantly contributed to increasing access to RET in rural areas and improving people’s livelihoods in those areas. There is great potential to expand these collaborations with not only health facilities but also supporting schools, housing, agriculture, etc. It is therefore recommended that the project explores partnerships with ongoing RE projects and other projects and public services that already use or stand to benefit from RE, and seeks ways to collaborate with these projects, for example through capacity building or providing technical support. These collaborations will also allow stakeholders to exchange experiences with a wider network and ensure that RETT will continue beyond the projects.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China recognize the need for being strategic in its collaboration and partnerships to build on work of existing project and partners to better scale up its activities as well as fostering relationships between south-south providers.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
SSC Engagement Strategy to be developed for the CSSF will include elements of increased partnership and learning under participating countries and actors under the CSSF SSC/TrC projects
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/23]
UNDP China, CSSF 2020/12 Completed The SSC SOP and accountabily framework were developed as per the recommednations from this evaluation, esp. elements of increased partnership and learning under participating countries and actors under the CSSF SSC/TrC projects. History
8. Recommendation:

Promote South-South Cooperation among all participating countries

SSC in these projects has been significantly limited to China – Ghana, and China – Zambia cooperation. Further South-South cooperation and experience exchange should be promoted for these projects, specifically between Ghana and Zambia, to ensure continuous cooperation among countries and increase exposure to other experiences and lessons learned. An online platform to share success cases between countries would insert an additional component of SSC into the project. This would be a cost- effective and innovative way to promote South-South cooperation. Encouraging SSC among all participating countries and exchanging experiences would facilitate the implementation of other outcomes, as experience exchange can contribute to a faster and easier addressing of challenges. It is recommended that countries’ relative strengths and weaknesses in the different areas of the project be assessed and mechanisms be set up for the relatively advantaged country to share its knowledge and experience with the relatively disadvantaged country to strengthen a specific area. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China fully agree to the need for promoting South-South Cooperation among all participating countries. This will be done going forward through activities in projects and across portfolios.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
For trilateral cooperation projects, develop standard operating practice to facilitate regular coordination between project partners for South South learning.
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2019/12/29]
UNDP China, CSSF 2019/12 Completed Confirmed by PM. History
9. Recommendation:

Expand the scope of case studies presented to build capacity

The Chinese case is relevant and has been of great value to build capacity in RETT in Ghana and Zambia. However, the private sector is still reluctant to engage in RE projects mainly because of the high cost of financing that renders the projects unbearably risky. It is recommended that success cases from non-participating countries, but relevant for them, are also included in capacity building components. Exposing the private sector to case studies from other African countries with similar contexts would be helpful. As much as China’s case has been helpful to build capacity, it is still seen as too different to Africa and it would be easier for them to relate with cases from similar countries. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China recognize the need for expanding the scope of case studies to build capacity, particularly for Chinese private sector investments in renewable energy technologies across countries in Africa and other non-participating countries. UNDP China also agree that exposing private sector and linking them to experienced investors in the Zambian and Ghanaian context would have benefitted.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP China to contribute to the global publications on SSC with partners such as UNOSSC
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2019/12/29]
UNDP China, CSSF 2019/12 Completed Confirmed by PM. History
UNDP China will organize South South Exchange events under its SSCAF portfolio to facilitate knowledge exchange and provide opportunities for issues of concern
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/23]
UNDP China, CSSF 2020/12 Completed The CO has indeed organized South South Exchange events under its SSC portfolio. History
10. Recommendation:

Identify additional sources of financing for the project during the design phase

Identifiying and setting up financing mechanisms, has been one of the underachieved outcomes of the project. It is recommended that the design and inception phases devote more resources to these activities, especially if the project is being implemented in countries with very high cost of financing, like Ghana and Zambia, to avoid not having resources to achieve the expected results. A recommendation is to search for additional and diversified funds for pilot projects and other activities during the design phase, and to conduct broad consultations which include financial institutions as well as other international organizations.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China agree that there was inadequate funding allocated in the design phase and identification of additional sources of financing should have had a clear strategy from the outset. The project did succeed in securing co-financing, but could improve its preparedness and engagement with networks and knowledge resources at UNDPs disposal.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop a concept on engaging private sector for the China South South Facility together with BKK regional hub
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/01/13]
UNDP China, CSSF 2020/01 Completed This key action has been completed according to PM. Recorded on Jan 13, 2020. History
11. Recommendation:

Encourage Public Private Partnerships to incentivize RETT

It was confirmed during the interviews for this evaluation that a key barrier for more private sector engagement has been the high cost of financing and the inability of the private sector in Ghana and Zambia to bear the risk of projects. In light of this, the government should support the private sector to overcome these barriers. For similar projects, it is recommended to encourage government’s participation, at least in the early stages of projects, to take on part of the risks, co-finance projects and therefore facilitate private sector participation. Creating Public Private Partnerships (PPP) would allow the private sector to access funds without bearing the high risks of private lending. Fewer risks and less need for financing would encourage the private sector to participate in RETT projects in countries with similar context to Ghana and Zambia. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China acknowledge the need for not only involving government in implementation but also pertaining to Public Private Partnerships for renewable energy technology (RET) to lowering risks for investing in RET.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Develop a concept on engaging private sector for the China South South Facility together with BKK regional hub
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/01/13]
UNDP China, CSSF 2020/01 Completed This key action has been completed according to PM. Recorded on Jan 13, 2020. History
12. Recommendation:

Provide advisory services and capacity building to establish commercial partnerships

The project has been successful establishing partnerships with key strategic institutions that facilitate RETT between China and Ghana and Zambia, such as ICSHP, Bui Authority, KGRTC and the University of Zambia. Despite the results achieved, several challenges have been faced which have prevented more participation of the private sector – i.e. high cost of financing and poor technical business skills (develop business plans, cost benefit analysis, etc.) of the private sector in Ghana and Zambia. It is recommended also that capacity building as part of the project is expanded to include not only technical RET know-how but also commercial, economic feasibility assesment, and marketing expertise and technicques. This can be done through partnerships with relevant institutions or trainings could be directly delivered by UNDP. This capacity building can assist firms in engaging in commercial partnerships, carrying out cost benefit analysis, negotiating contracts and securing funds from diversified sources, which would contribute to strengthening sustainability of RETT and developing stronger relations between Ghanaian and Chinese, and Zambian and Chinese firms to ensure RETT from China to Ghana and Zambia. 

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

UNDP China recognize the need for advisory services and capacity building activities in engaging commercial partnerships, economic feasibility assessments, marketing, contract negotiation and securing funds from diversified sources for improved sustainability of RETT and strengthen partnerships between South-South partners.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Under the China, Sri Lanka-Ethiopia RETT project we will carry out match-making activities between businesses and academia. A key focus will be to establish commercial partnerships
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/23]
UNDP China, CSSF 2020/12 Completed China, Sri lanka-Ethiopia RETT project has launched. The match-making activities between businesses and academia have been designed under project work plan which will be implemented between now and 2022. A key focus will be to establish commercial partnerships. History
13. Recommendation:

Consult with governments and key partners at the end of the project to design an exit strategy

Sustainability of the project heavily relies on the exit strategy of a project and whether there is a plan to ensure continuity of the results achieved by the project. In the RETT projects no official consultations to design an exit strategy have been carried out, but actions to ensure sustainability have been. To further ensure that these actions are efficient, it is recommended that an exit strategy is agreed among all key stakeholders. This will also assist UNDP in identifying future areas in which it can continue supporting the partners involved to ensure that the results continue beyond the duration of the project.

Management Response: [Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/22]

Agreed to design an exit strategy, in particular to identify future areas in which UNDP can continue supporting the partners involved to ensure that the results continue beyond the duration of the project.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Prepare an end of project report and asset transfer list signed by relevant parties.
[Added: 2019/12/16] [Last Updated: 2020/11/23]
UNDP China, Ghana, Zambia 2020/12 Completed The report was developed already. The asset list will be done by the end of 2020. History

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