Assessment of Development Results: Cameroon

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Evaluation Plan:
2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type:
ICPE/ADR
Planned End Date:
12/2016
Completion Date:
12/2016
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
105,000

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Title Assessment of Development Results: Cameroon
Atlas Project Number:
Evaluation Plan: 2014-2017, Independent Evaluation Office
Evaluation Type: ICPE/ADR
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 12/2016
Planned End Date: 12/2016
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.1. National and sub-national systems and institutions enabled to achieve structural transformation of productive capacities that are sustainable and employment - and livelihoods- intensive
Evaluation Budget(US $): 105,000
Source of Funding:
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 104,535
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Heather Bryant Evaluation Advisor
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: CAMEROON, REPUBLIC OF
Lessons
Findings
1.

Chapter 2 UNDP’S CONTRIBUTION TO DEVELOPMENT RESULTS

2.1 GOVERNANCE: INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITIES

2.1.1 THE EXPECTED OUTCOME AND UNDP’S STRATEGY

Context. In Cameroon, the National Governance Programme for the 2006-2010 period preceded the preparation of Cameroon Vision 2035 and the GESP. The aim of this programme was to favour good governance, founded on the strengthening of the rule of law and improved institutional efficiency, good management of public resources and the participation of the population in public life. It was structured around the following six themes: (i) administrative reform; (ii) modernization of justice; (iii) improved economic and financial management; (iv) capacity-building of parliamentary institutions; (v) modernization of the framework for decentralization and decon-centration; and, (vi) fight against corruption.


2.

UNDP strategy. According to the 2008-2012 CPD, the UNDP intervention strategy was to support the strengthening of democratic governance within the context of the National Governance Programme, more specifically by (i) encouraging more transparent management, through the anti-corruption project “Change Habits, Oppose Corruption” or CHOC; ii) continuing efforts towards electoral reform; iii) capacity-building of the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms; and iv) capacity-building of local authorities to implement development plans and plans to fight HIV/AIDS at the municipal level.


Tag: Anti-corruption Local Governance Service delivery Capacity Building Institutional Strengthening

3.

2.1.2 RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THE SUPPORT OF UNDP AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE OUTCOME

During the first programme cycle (2008-2012), UNDP contributed to strengthened capacity of a number of governance institutions, including Elections Cameroon (ELECAM), the National Anti-Corruption Commission (CONAC) and the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms. UNDP helped to build the capacity of civil society and to draw up draft normative or strategic frameworks. Despite the absence of indicators and data, it can be said that UNDP played a modest role in consoli-dating the rule of law between 2008 and 2012.


Tag: Anti-corruption Civic Engagement Rule of law Capacity Building Institutional Strengthening National Institutions

4.

The implementation of the national anti-corruption strategy is still a challenge. Anti-corruption units have been created in certain ministries, with an awareness-raising and prevention role, but they do not have a budget and are not independent. A draft anti-corruption bill, which incorporates the recommendations of the United Nations Convention against Corruption has also been drawn up, but it has not yet been adopted by the Government, which contributed to the breakdown of dialogue between the Government and the partners involved, hastening the end of the project managed by UNDP. During the preparation of its 2013-2017 country programme, UNDP decided to limit its efforts to improving the services provided to users of public services (see below).


Tag: Challenges Anti-corruption Service delivery

5.

UNDP has contributed to capacity-building for Elections Cameroon. To contribute to the consolidation of the rule of law, UNDP supported the electoral process between 2008 and 2012, by supporting the creation and the capacity-building of ELECAM, the body in charge of the organization, management and supervision of the electoral and referendum process. It also facilitated the capacity-building of other players in the electoral process (such as journalists and civil society organizations). Thanks to this support, the electoral register was rationalized and double entries were deleted before the presidential elections of 2011. In terms of democratic gains, according to ELECAM, there is no longer any contestation of this register, which is now accepted by consensus. UNDP support, which also made it possible to harmonize laws and regulations within a single code, facilitated the transparency of texts that apply to an election, as well as greater effectiveness of the electoral dispute process. ELECAM offers a tripartite area for dialogue (civil society, political parties, technical and financial partners) and organizes an annual meeting to discuss progress.


Tag: Effectiveness Election Rule of law Harmonization Capacity Building

6.

With regard to the political participation of vulnerable groups, ELECAM has put in place a more inclusive electoral register from a political point of view, but also from the perspective of vulnerable groups and gender issues, through the use of mobile census units and the distribution of census kits, including people with disabilities in the census and ensuring polling stations are accessible to people with disabilities. It also created a platform allowing citizens to monitor the elections. UNDP facilitated better representation of women in politics through its advocacy, alongside UN Women, for the integration within the electoral code of incentive measures to increase the participation of women in the electoral process.


Tag: Gender Equality Election Country Support Platform Disabilities Vulnerable

7.

The indicator proposed by UNDP in the CPAP to measure the impact of this support (increase in the percentage of the population who consider the elections in 2007 and 2012 to have been fair and transparent) was not supported by data. As UNDP support came to an end in 2012 and ELECAM subsequently worked with a number of partners, it is difficult to precisely evaluate the contribution of UNDP to the current capacities of ELECAM and/or to the democratic frame-work in 2016. Nevertheless, in terms of achievements, the country has a specialized electoral body that has put in place an effective technical platform for elections,27 as well as an improved legal framework. All of these measures help to foster consensus building around the electoral process and make it fully inclusive and, in time, accepted by all. UNDP has played an important role in this construction process.


Tag: Election Country Support Platform

8.

In collaboration with UN Women, during the 2008-2012 programme UNDP also supported the creation of a Committee in charge of Gender Equality at the National Assembly, the carrying out of studies and the organization of training on gender-sensitive budgeting. However, these interventions have not resulted in real changes with regard to the integration of gender equality in the planning and budgeting process.


Tag: Gender Equality Parliament Capacity Building

9.

UNDP contributed to the institutionalization of human rights issues, particularly in the education sector, and to the capacity-building of those involved, notably the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms and certain civil society organizations. As a result, a National Plan for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (PNDH) was drawn up and adopted. Focal points were identified in the various ministries. The education sector made a major effort to take into account the question of human rights, by pre-paring handbooks and providing teacher training. A human rights training module was also to be included in teacher training programmes. A number of training courses have been organized for members and staff of the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms as well as for a large sample of civil society representatives.


Tag: Effectiveness Human rights Education Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs

10.

During the period covered by the evaluation, UNDP contributed to pilot projects to improve the quality of services. These pilots demonstrated that it was possible to obtain tangible results. However, in the absence of a plan to scale up, these achievements are likely to remain very marginal and short-lived.


Tag: Anti-corruption Public administration reform Service delivery Awareness raising Capacity Building National Institutions

11.

2.2 GOVERNANCE: INCLUSIVE PUBLIC POLICIES

2.2.1 THE INTENDED OUTCOME AND UNDP STRATEGY

Context. Cameroon is facing a number of major challenges, as described in the country’s main development policy documents. These challenges include the consolidation of national unity and cohesion, strengthening the democratic process and improving governance. In 2003, Cameroon initiated a process to encourage the participation of civil society and the private sector in the design and the monitoring of the general development framework, with the adoption of the first framework document, the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). This practice was renewed with the design in 2009 of Cameroon Vision 2035, and its first implementation document for the period from 2010-2020 (GESP). The GESP is considered not only a framework for the integration and coordination of all development actions but also a framework for consultation and dialogue between the Government, the private sector, civil society and development partners. As a result, the participation of socio-economic groups in the design and monitoring of public policies has become an increasingly common practice in the management of public policies.


Tag: Challenges Partnership Policies & Procedures Private Sector Vulnerable

12.

UNDP strategy. To ensure that cross-cutting issues and the needs of vulnerable groups are taken into account in public policies, a number of interventions were carried out to strengthen capacity in strategic planning as well as in terms of advocacy and drawing up appropriate hand-books. Capacity-building in strategic planning has been a constant feature since 2003 in the wake of the design of the PRSP. UNDP accompanied the consultation and needs-identification process in all sectors, including the drafting and approval of the document, and the monitoring and evaluation of results. This action was carried out in parallel with the monitoring of the MDGs at the national level and the production of the human development report, for which UNDP has a natural global mandate, and which are inextricably linked with the monitoring of employment strategies.


Tag: Monitoring and Evaluation Policies & Procedures Capacity Building Vulnerable

13.

During the period covered by the evaluation, the main actions that were carried out included: (i) national capacity-building in the areas of poverty alleviation and achieving the MDGs (2008-2010); (ii) support for coordination of the implementation of the UNDP country programme for 2008-2012; (iii) support for the integration of HIV into Cameroon’s major development projects (2012-2014)35; (iv) support for the evaluation of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2008-2012); and (v) the economic and social inclusion programme (PRINCES), which is the main intervention in the 2013-2017 programme cycle. The first actions sought to develop planning capabilities while the later actions sought to improve their quality, by strengthening the incorporation of cross-cutting themes and the needs of vulnerable groups. The 2013-2017 programme cycle identified six expected outcomes:


Tag: HIV / AIDS Policies & Procedures Risk Management Value Chain Capacity Building Technical Support Private Sector Vulnerable

14.

Over the period covered by the evaluation, if reference is only made to the CPD indicators, very little progress has been achieved in this area. A simple analysis of the table of indicators of the current programme with their baseline and target values would suggest that no progress has been made. In other words, the programme has had no impact on any sectoral strategy, any local development plan, or any business plan, in terms of better incorporating cross-cutting themes or the needs of vulnerable groups.


Tag: Local Governance MDGs Project and Programme management Capacity Building Institutional Strengthening

15.

2.2 GOVERNANCE: INCLUSIVE PUBLIC POLICIES

2.2.2 RESULTS OBTAINED WITH UNDP SUPPORT AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE OUTCOME

The evaluation noted an improved visibility of cross-cutting issues and the needs of vulnerable populations in the production of economic information, thanks to the new format of the RADEC for which a new handbook had been published, while a number of training sessions had been organized with the regional delegations of MINEPAT.


Tag: Effectiveness Capacity Building

16.

Thanks to UNDP support, MINEPAT is capable of maintaining a database and producing reports on official development assistance (ODA). Before the intervention of UNDP in 2008, ODA data was scattered, hence the need to create a baseline database, which allowed the first report on ODA to be published in 2014. In principle, a report will be published every two years. Although a categorization of aid already exists, as does a handbook of procedures, two modules need to be developed, one on aid for local and regional authorities, and one on aid to civil society organizations. The technical department in question now has the capacities needed to update the database and produce the next reports, while maintaining the good practices acquired during the period of UNDP support. Continuing with this assistance is essential, less for financial reasons and more to give credibility to its capacity to produce an ODA report.


Tag: Technical Support Data and Statistics

17.

In terms of the progress made, of note is also the improved awareness of the issue of integrating cross-cutting themes and the needs of vulnerable groups in public policies and local development plans in certain regions of the Far North, as well as in the business plans of certain companies thanks to the analyses carried out since the start of the programme. A handbook was created on the integration of cross-cutting issues in plans and strategies. The existing documentation and the interviews that were carried out show that the people involved are beginning to have the tools and the skills needed to take cross-cutting issues into account in the planning process.


Tag: Policies & Procedures Awareness raising Vulnerable

18.

Actions have been carried out to strengthen the capacities of vulnerable people to make their needs and their priorities known and taken into account. An analysis was carried out on the incorporation of the needs of vulnerable populations in local development plans in three councils of the Far North region. In addition, a hand-book for advocacy with the traditional, religious and political authorities was prepared, intervention requirements were identified, as were local partners (NGO) and support structures, who were trained in this regard. Training and awareness-raising and support actions for the groups in question still need to be carried out to achieve the intermediate result, namely “Populations in situations of vulnerability in the target municipalities are better able to ensure their needs are integrated into programmes, policy documents and strategies, and to take part in decision-making bodies at the national and local level.


Tag: Policies & Procedures Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs Private Sector Vulnerable

19.

The expected outcome (integrating cross-cutting issues and needs of vulnerable people into account in policies, plans and strategies) has not yet been achieved. No sectoral strategy or local development plan has been adapted to better integrate these perspectives. One of the difficulties stems from the fact that the resources for the departments in charge of the strategic planning of public policies are not always available in time to allow the timetable of the cycle of activities to be respected. Another obstacle is related to poor motivation from managers for these activities, which require total commitment. Similarly, at the central level, the planning chain is supplied by sectoral ministries, which do not necessarily have as many tools as MINEPAT. Lastly, any subject that requires interministerial management faces the question of departmental compartmentalization. The limits of UNDP action come from the fact that capacities have been strengthened for one link in the programming chain (the MINEPAT departments). To obtain better results, the entire chain should receive support. At municipal level, it has proven difficult to revise the existing development plans.


Tag: Policies & Procedures National Institutions Regional Institutions Vulnerable

20.

The logic underpinning UNDP’s intervention in this area envisaged a contribution towards gender equality and the empowerment of women, but the reality is that the actions carried out have not produced any significant changes in this area.

The programme places the question of gender equality and the empowerment of women among its main objectives, in order to integrate these issues in the sectoral policies and local development plans. The programme has helped to raise awareness of the challenges, for example in the detailed analyses in the audit of the inclusion of cross-cutting issues in three local development plans. Its impact on policies and local development plans has not yet been felt and no effect has yet been observed beyond the raising of awareness, with the exception of the beginnings of a dialogue between vulnerable populations and local authorities at the municipal leve


Tag: Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Local Governance Policies & Procedures Awareness raising

21.

2.3 POVERTY REDUCTION AND ACHIEVEMENT OF THE MDGS

2.3.1THE INTENDED OUTCOME AND UNDP STRATEGY

Context. The country is facing a number of major challenges in terms of poverty alleviation. The social context is characterized by wide economic and social disparities between the regions of the country and within populations, inadequate access to good quality basic social services, unequal access to the factors of production and sources of funding, the incapacity of the populations to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by the environment and inadequate appreciation of the role that can be played by the private sector in poverty alleviation efforts, within the context of a boom in the informal economy. These problems explain the weakness of the national economy, and their negative impact on the social context is exacerbated by the lack of a solid social protection mechanism.


Tag: Challenges Rural Urban MDGs Poverty Alleviation

22.

In response to this situation, the Government has developed and implemented the PRSP and, from 2009, the GESP, which are focused on wealth creation and which rely on the creation of jobs to ensure a satisfactory distribution of the benefits of economic growth, while at the same time continuing to achieve the MDGs. The GESP seeks to (i) increase economic growth to an annual average of 5.5 percent between 2010 and 2020; (ii) reduce under-employment from 75.8 percent to less than 50 percent by 2020 through the creation of tens of thousands of formal jobs per year over the next ten years; and (iii) reduce the level of income poverty from 39.9 percent in 2007 to 28.7 percent in 2020, the new target date for achieving the MDGs in Cameroon.


Tag: Effectiveness Jobs and Livelihoods

23.

UNDP strategy. In the area of poverty alleviation, UNDP adopted a two-pronged approach during the first programme (2008-2012). It provided support at a strategic level (such as support for the preparation of the GESP and the production of human development reports and MDG reports) as well as support at the local and community level. At the local level, UNDP provided support for the creation of two ‘Millennium Villages’. It contributed to the development of community micro-projects (Sub-Programme for Poverty Reduction at the Grassroots, SPRPB I), management of micro-entrepreneurs and capacity-building in the microfinance sector.


Tag: Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Alleviation

24.

UNDP continued to provide support at the local and community level, with the aim of improving income and access to basic socio-economic services for populations in the Sahel region, and more particularly in certain target villages. The UNDP programme in this area for the 2013 2017 period “was based on the learnings of the Sub-Programme for Poverty Reduction at the Grassroots, to address both the advancement of employment and increased incomes for the population in the localities in question, by helping to strengthen sectors that can generate growth and a spill-over effect, the development of socio-economic infrastructures and facilitating access to long-term funding.”The overall objective of the Sub-Programme for Poverty Reduction at the Grassroots – Phase II (SPRPB II) was to “make a significant and sustainable contribution to poverty reduction in rural areas by structuring the local economy through an improvement in the productivity and competitiveness of priority sectors”. The capacities of those directly concerned were to be strengthened throughout the intervention chain, at the local, regional and central level. At the local level, a new one-stop shop, the CEOCA (advice, guidance and support centres) is at the heart of all the expected changes. A simplified theory of change of the programme approach to improving the income of populations in the Sahel region is illustrated in Figure 3. Regarding community infrastructure, a second phase of the Millennium Villages project was to have, depending on the availability of resources, built on the achievements of the first phase, strengthening the impact on populations and making it possible to achieve the MDGs in the pilot villages, but this area of intervention was not maintained.


Tag: Effectiveness Rural MDGs Theory of Change Infrastructure Jobs and Livelihoods Poverty Reduction

25.

The expected outcome of the 2008-2012 country programme, namely an increase in the achievement of the MDGs, has not been achieved. However, UNDP supported the production of a certain number of outputs. It has notably strengthened institutional and individual capacities at the central, local and community level, while creating funding opportunities at the local level, with a very localized impact on incomes and access to basic services. With regard to the expected outcome of the 2013-2017 country programme, UNDP supported the creation of municipal services (CEOCA), which, although they show certain potential, have yet to have a real impact on the structure and development of the local economy.


Tag: National Regional MDGs Capacity Building Institutional Strengthening

26.

2.3.2 RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THE SUPPORT OF UNDP AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE OUTCOME

The expected outcome of the 2008-2012 programme, namely an increase in the level of achievement of the MDGs (measurable, according to the CPAP, via the reduction in the incidence of poverty in rural areas and nationally) has not been achieved. However, it should be noted that the achievement or otherwise of one or many MDGs cannot be directly imputed to a programme with a budget of $50 million over five years. Therefore, it is more reasonable to assess the outputs of the interventions supported by UNDP as well as changes generated within the framework of the MDGs. UNDP contributions at the strategic level were covered in section 2.2 above.


Tag: Challenges Human and Financial resources MDGs

27.

With UNDP support, financing opportunities were created for micro, small and medium-sized businesses as well as rural producer organizations, allowing certain groups to increase their income. Their scope remains limited and the support mechanisms are short-lived. According to UNDP reports of and the final evaluation report on the project, the SPRPB I funded 385 micro-projects in 237 municipalities49 between 2007 and 2011, through subsidies to community initiative groups where at least 60 percent of direct beneficiaries were women and 15 per-cent were people living with HIV/AIDS. This aid benefited 12,087 people directly and 36,251 people indirectly.


Tag: Effectiveness Small Grants Programme HIV / AIDS Human and Financial resources Infrastructure Jobs and Livelihoods Youth

28.

According to the final report on the programme to boost small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), 39753 young people were trained in the creation and management of businesses, 15 per-cent of whom were women. The same applied to 234 creators of small businesses, 29 percent of which were women, and who received training in the business management best practices. To this can be added the 348 people who were trained in five regions of the country in networking, the day-to-day management of a micro-enterprise and business opportunities. The programme helped 69 small businesses in the service, agriculture industrial and retail sectors to obtain bank loans, 12 percent of these companies were managed by women. According to the final report54, as a result of this assistance, the micro-enterprises increased their investments and created 212 jobs between 2008 and 2011.


Tag: Effectiveness Women's Empowerment International Financial Institutions Financial Inclusion Jobs and Livelihoods Micro-credit Value Chain Vulnerable

29.

With the support of UNDP, basic infrastructure and access to essential services have been improved in some areas, but without generating a transformative or multiplying effect and with a low likelihood of long-term sustainability. With the aim of contributing to the achievement of the MDGs in a local development perspective founded on participation and community empowerment, the Millennium Villages programme provided a range of support to the Government between 2010 and 2013 at two pilot sites, Meyomessi and Maroua 1. The programme invested around $1.75 million in each of the municipalities for the construction and rehabilitation of community infrastructure (roads, schools, electricity grid, wells and boreholes, health cen-tres). The aim was to have technical ministries and public agencies involved in the various actions in favour of the MDGs working on each site and to mobilize available funding or to integrate them into the public investment budget, but such an agreement was not concluded. Although infrastructure management committees were put in place, no truly structured support for the implementation of infrastructure programmes was seen during the visit to Maroua, nor was it possible to access the database on the existing community infrastructure and amenities. However, changes were seen: the programme has built boreholes, laid electricity cables, connected villages to the mobile telephone network, built and/or renovated classrooms and integrated health centres, reforested the areas around schools, provided teaching materials and equipment to schools (computers), trained teachers including in administrative tasks, distributed improved seeds to farmers, disinfected livestock, created two agro-pastoral cooperatives and awarded grants for stock fattening in the villages of the municipality of Maroua 1.56 Factors that have contributed to these results include the involvement of traditional chiefs and communities in the awareness-raising phase, training the leaders of local committees before the infrastructure was built (health, education, roads, electrification, etc.), good synergy with the deconcentrated departments of MINEPAT and effective mass communication (community radio provided by UNICEF).


Tag: Effectiveness Reconstruction Infrastructure Awareness raising

30.

Other infrastructures that should have been constructed by various technical ministries are still pending, due to delays in signing contracts, non-respect of standards or abandon of the works by the contractors. Lastly, the evaluation team was unable to obtain data on developments in the income of beneficiaries in the Millennium Villages during its interviews and despite various requests to the administrations involved, evidence of an ineffective monitoring and evaluation mechanism.


Tag: Challenges Infrastructure

31.

The implementation of the 2013-2017 programme did not comply with the programme document. To date, the programme has obtained only limited results in terms of restructuring the local economy. However, the CEOCA is a model with potential. Although the development of promising sectors at the municipal level envisaged by the SPRPB II offered an opportunity to take the progress made by SPRPB I further, this has not been realized due to the accumulated delays and lack of compliance with the strategy outlined in the programme document. The SPRPB II included plans to identify bottlenecks in promising sectors using feasibility studies, develop micro-projects to address them and create a value chain with a spillover effect on the local economy. Direct observation and an analysis of the available documentation did not allow this result to be confirmed. SPRB II funded micro projects in the identified sectors (see above) but not micro-projects for the sectors in the sense of an integrated value chain approach with participants at various levels.


Tag: Challenges Micro-credit

32.

The new element introduced by SPRPB II is the CEOCA, a one-stop shop of services situated at the town hall and covering the municipality. According to the model, the CEOCA mobilizes partners (public technical services including ministries or nongovernmental and private agencies) to provide development assistance for economic and socio-community activities in rural areas. During the CEOCA feasibility study, promising growth sectors that were likely to have a positive effect on local economic development and incomes were to be identified and an implementation plan was to be adopted. Subsequently, the CEOCA is intended to act as a platform for job-seekers, supporting women and young people in business creation and income-generating activities through partnerships designed to mobilize funding and the necessary public and/or private technical services.


Tag: Country Support Platform Jobs and Livelihoods

33.

According to the 2015 activity report on SPRPB II, 225 projects organized by common initiative groups or associations in the sectors of rice, corn, millet, soya, animal fattening, onions, cowpeas, peanuts and small ruminants had been financed, for a total of 230 million CFA ($400,000) in 19 municipalities in the regions of Adamaoua, the North and the Far North.58The ADR was unable to obtain information clearly indicating that these were structuring projects for the sector, even if the funded activities were all related to one of the identified sectors. The evaluation team was also unable to obtain information indicating that the programme had encouraged the grouping of producers into effective organizations (unions, federations, cooperatives), as was planned in the programme document. In other words, it is not manifestly clear that a sector approach was adopted, as the structuring activities that accompanied this funding were not identifiable in the field, notably measures allowing local beneficiary organizations to make a profit from the purchase price of inputs and the sale price of their production. Similarly, no mechanism designed to resolve the bottlenecks identified at the level of the promising growth sectors in the area of intervention was seen. No operational difference was visible between the implementation of the micro-projects of each common initiative group and the micro-projects gathered around a sector (as categorized in the SPRPB II reports). In sum, “the capacities to pool resources and efforts in order to effectively address the challenges of the sectors”59 does not seem to have improved as had been hoped.


Tag: Agriculture Challenges Micro-credit

34.

Observations in the field showed that CEOCA is a pertinent and promising system, as it has the potential to build partnerships with public and private structures and become an ideal frame-work for synergies, facilitating the access of poor and isolated populations to a range of services that are likely to increase their capacity and their productivity, and in doing so breaking the chain of poverty. The CEOCA also acts as an anchor point for other interventions supported by UNDP, such as the REPECC (see below). However, it is too early to assess the effectiveness of this new model. Certain CEOCA have only just been put in place, such as the CEOCA in Maga. There are not enough qualified staff or adequate logistical resources to cover all the areas of the target municipalities. Population displacements as a result of the unstable situation complicate the awareness-raising activities carried out in these regions. A more in-depth evaluation of the model should be carried out after some time, in order to learn the lessons and adapt or possibly replicate the model.


Tag: Challenges Country Support Platform

35.

From one cycle to another, UNDP has targeted the poorest regions of the country, without an additional mechanism for identifying the poorest populations in the area of intervention. The rate of participation of women in the interventions varies considerably. Other than the geographical targeting of regions where the incidence of poverty is particularly high, no additional mechanism had been planned for selecting the beneficiaries of interventions based on their relative poverty levels. Consequently, the programme contributed to the reduction of inequality between the populations of various regions but not within the target municipalities. While requiring a deposit or collateral as a condition of access to microfinance strengthens the commitment of the entrepreneur, it can also limit the access of the poorest to the programme, as well as access by displaced people in areas affected by conflict. The evaluation of SPRPB I highlights actions specifically targeting women and observes that women represented 60 percent of direct beneficiaries. The report also notes women’s enthusiasm for pastoral activities that had previously been controlled by men. However, the reports also show that the micro-enterprise programme did not benefit as many women. SPRPB II funded 321 micro-projects in the three northern regions, with 43 percent of beneficiaries being women. This rate is lower than the results obtained during the first phase.


Tag: Women's Empowerment Inequalities Jobs and Livelihoods

36.

A number of factors impact on the inclusion of women and vulnerable people. Cultural traditions constitute a barrier to gender equality, particularly in the northern regions, which could explain the differences between the figures of SPRPB I (covering the whole country) and SPRPB II (covering the three northern regions). In addition, when making budgetary decisions, local authorities favour actions with immediate benefits, to the detriment of initiatives that focus on vulnerable groups, conditioning the inclusion of the needs of the most disadvantaged to political considerations.


Tag: Women's Empowerment Local Governance Vulnerable

37.

2.4 ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE

2.4.1INTENDED OUTCOMES AND UNDP STRATEGY

Context. Cameroon offers remarkable geographical diversity with forest regions, high plateaux, high savannah and, in the north, its Sudano-Sahelian region. In terms of the diversity of its flora and fauna, it ranks fourth and fifth on the African continent. A number of economic activities essential for national growth are related to natural resources: agriculture, forestry, fisheries, livestock and tourism. Human activities inevitably exert pressure on ecosystems and impoverish biodiversity as well as deplete the soils. In Cameroon, climate change has particularly impacted the Sahel region, which is severely affected by desertification, and the coastal areas threatened by the rise in sea level. The country is facing an abnormal recurrence of extreme climate events, such as violent winds, high temperatures63and heavy rainfall, which put communities and ecosystems in danger, as well as the ecosystems and the services they provide64.


Tag: Biodiversity Ecosystem services Natural Resouce management Challenges Results-Based Management

38.

The 2013-2017 programme supports national interventions through two complementary approaches: (a) the preservation of ecosystems; and (b) improving the resilience of the populations to the effects of climate change. The resilience programme for populations facing the effects of climate change programme (REPECC) draws on the achievements of earlier interventions in the area of the environment as well as those from the 2008-2012 programme in the area of vulnerability to crises (see section 2.5 below). The first strategy consists of equipping national and local institutions and the populations with the capacity to sustainably manage ecosystems, notably through the development of tools, organizing training courses and distributing handbooks in order to encourage populations to adopt agro-sylvo-pastoral practices that are environmentally and economically beneficial.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Disaster risk management Environment Policy Capacity Building National Institutions Regional Institutions

39.

2.4.2 RESULTS OBTAINED WITH UNDP SUPPORT AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE OUTCOME

Over the 2008-2015 period, most of the planned outputs were delivered, although this did not necessarily result in significant changes in environment management practices or in notable changes in the lives of the target populations.

In the area of the environment and climate change, the evaluation noted that UNDP helped to improve knowledge about environmental phenomena as well as establishment of a regulatory framework for the environment and combating climate change, and that it supported the dissemination of agro-sylvo-pastoral best practices amongst rural communities in the Sahel zone.


Tag: Communication Technical Support Climate Change Adaptation Environment Policy

40.

UNDP strengthened the capacities of public actors in the production of environmental data while also putting planning tools at their disposal. The usefulness of these tools has not yet been demonstrated. UNDP equipped national institutions with agro-meteorological and hydro-meteorological stations, IT hardware and software for collecting and analysing local climate data. Further capacity-building is still needed for these tools to become fully operational. A climate change database was developed over the 2008-2012 programme cycle but the national report on the environment, which should draw on this database, has never been produced. More recently, UNDP provided support for the preparation of 455 maps of areas at risk of flooding and drought (an initiative at the national level), tools for which technical capacity is required if they are to be used correctly. A database on climate change and the risks for seven municipalities in the Far North was put in place and declared operational (it is accessible by MINEPDED, but not by the public).


Tag: Disaster risk management Technology Institutional Strengthening Data and Statistics

41.

Aside from a few pilot interventions, communities have not yet adopted improved agro-sylvo-pastoral practices. The REPECC pro-gramme provides for the adoption of new practices in these areas. A communication plan was drawn up in 2014 to raise awareness, inform and educate the populations with the aim of changing behaviour. The training of managers of 10 community and local radio stations resulted in the production of two disaster prevention and risk management micro-programs, 11 public service announcements in local languages and 1,000 brochures. In addition, certain good practices have been disseminated to some of the rural communities in the Sahel zone. These populations and the managers of two CEOCA were trained in four modules of sustainable ecosystem management, notably in agro-sylvo-pastoral best practices (production and use of compost, in particular). A best practices handbook was to be produced for widespread distribution, but it was not available at the time of the evaluation. Despite the interest shown by stakeholders at the municipal level for the activities of this project, their impact on the management of ecosystems is not clearly apparent.


Tag: Disaster risk management Communication Awareness raising

42.

UNDP has contributed to initial capacity-building of local authorities and populations in disaster management. The Ministry for Territorial Administration and Decentralization (MINATD), in charge of civil protection, accompanied the authorities and the local population in drawing up two emergency assistance plans (ORSEC) for the departments of Logone-et-Chari and Mayo-Danay, in the Far North region. Capacity-building workshops on risk management and the prevention of climate disasters were organized in seven localities in the area of intervention and multistakeholder crisis committees were created


Tag: Disaster risk management Local Governance Capacity Building

43.

The capacity to mobilize volunteers has been strengthened but this potential remains untapped. The volunteer section of the Ministry for Youth Affairs and Civic Education (MINJEC) has existed since 2005 but it is under-resourced. From 2012, the Government decided to get more involved in volunteerism and in 2015, UNDP and the United Nations Vol-unteers (UNV ) programme assisted MINJEC in drawing up a national volunteer strategy and a national programme to facilitate the mobilization of the human resources needed for risk management and disaster prevention in the areas exposed to the effects of climate change. Two thousand leaflets relating to this strategy were distributed throughout the country. A platform bringing together volunteer organizations was put in place by MINJEC and meets on a monthly basis. According to MINJEC, 124 leaders have been trained, but including only a small minority of women due to their low level of schooling and difficulties linked to Muslim customs.


Tag: Disaster risk management Communication Capacity Building Civil Societies and NGOs Youth

44.

Problems relating to gender equality are not explicitly taken into account in the design of most UNDP interventions relating to the sustainable management of the environment. Certain results obtained with the assistance of UNDP have not, as result of their very nature, had a direct impact on gender quality. This includes the National Environment Management Plan, the creation of agro-meteorological stations and the maps of areas vulnerable to natural disasters. Interventions at the local level strive to include women and other vulnerable groups, but the evaluation team does not have any information on any contributions to gender equality or the empowerment of women. The Small Grants Programme has made a specific mention of indigenous people in its strategy for the fifth operational phase, and its strategy for the sixth phase specifies that “projects funded during OP6 must promote gender equality and the empowerment of women”. However, the evaluation team did not have the opportunity to validate these results on the ground.


Tag: Disaster risk management Small Grants Programme Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Indigenous people Vulnerable

45.

2.5 CRISIS PREVENTION

2.5.1 THE INTENDED OUTCOME AND UNDP STRATEGY

Context. At the beginning of the period covered by the evaluation, Cameroon was a haven of peace and stability in Central Africa, such that crisis prevention and response was focused on natural disasters such as desertification and the alternating episodes of drought and flooding, or diseases such as avian influenza. The country took in refugees and asylum seekers from neighboring countries, mainly Chad, the Central African Republic and then Nigeria. February 2013 marked a turning point, with the advance of Boko Haram into Cameroon and the kidnapping of a French family. In 2014, Cameroon started to deploy troops to fight against these incursions. Since then, the arrival of refugees and attacks on villages and markets in the Far North region is having a severe impact on the already precarious living conditions of the population in that part of the country.


Tag: Natural Disaster Crisis prevention Refugees

46.

2.5.2 RESULTS OBTAINED WITH THE SUPPORT OF UNDP AND PROGRESS TOWARDS THE OUTCOME

As it did not adopt a coherent and continuous strategy in the area of crisis prevention and crisis response, UNDP has not contributed to any notable changes in this area. During the period in question, its approach evolved, initially focusing on response and then adopting the concept of resilience, with stops and starts. Recent interventions in the Far North have produced concrete results, but with a limited scope.


Tag: Transborder Human and Financial resources Crisis prevention Social cohesion Awareness raising Capacity Building

47.

In 2014, UNDP launched new initiatives seeking to create the conditions needed to strengthen social cohesion, prevent conflicts and put in place an early recovery framework in order to allow communities from the Far North region of Cameroon to improve their resilience to attacks from Boko Haram and other crises and disasters. In partnership with UNESCO and FAO, the programme facilitated the implementation of income-generating activities (FAO), community infrastructure (rehabilitated or newly-built live-stock markets, UNDP), and platforms for dialogue and community radio stations (UNESCO). The livestock markets were meeting points and strong symbols of economic activity, and the people interviewed (local authorities, local delegations from ministries, centre managers and beneficiaries) appreciated the UNDP contribution, which complemented the humanitarian activities of other partners. However, given the deep and growing poverty in the region, aggravated by the security situation, the contribution of UNDP is modest.


Tag: Livestock Gender Equality UN Agencies Reconstruction Resilience Social cohesion

48.

QUALITY OF UNDP’S CONTRIBUTION

3.1 RELEVANCE

This section examines the extent to which UNDP interventions are in line with national priorities and the UNDP mandate, as well as the country’s human development needs. It will also analyse the relevance of UNDP’s approach and strategies adopted to achieve the intended outcomes.

UNDP’s interventions in Cameroon correspond to national priorities and the global mandate of UNDP. However, the approaches adopted to achieve these objectives have not always been appropriate. For example, there has often been only a partial implementation of the theory of change, and the right levers to achieve results for the beneficiaries have not always been used.


Tag: Relevance Theory of Change

49.

In recent years, UNDP has positioned itself in line with the major challenges facing Cameroon. By working on support for development planning and monitoring, reduction of corruption, quality of services, sustainable and inclusive development by better taking into account cross-cutting issues and the needs of vulnerable populations in public policies, and, more recently, the rapid response to the crisis caused by Boko Haram, UNDP has positioned itself well. Indeed, the challenges of Cameroon, which is a middle-income country, include boosting growth to accelerate development as well as better distributing the fruits of this growth, notably to the benefit of the most vulnerable, whose needs must be better identified and taken into account, improving essential services and reducing the risks relating to climate uncertainties (such as the alternating episodes of drought and flooding in the Sahel regions) and HIV/AIDS. The examination of national strategies such as the PRSP and the GESP, the National Governance Programme, the National Environment Management Plan, on the one hand, and the UNDP country programmes, on the other, reveal that the latter are perfectly in line with national priorities.


Tag: Challenges Anti-corruption HIV / AIDS Policies & Procedures Results-Based Management

50.

The themes chosen correspond to UNDP’s mandate which is to work towards the reduction of poverty and inequality and in favour of sustainable development, democratic governance and resilience. In general, UNDP interventions focused on vulnerable populations (taking into account their needs (PRINCES), respect for their rights (projects in the areas of human rights and political participation), improvement of income (SPRPB), improvement of resilience to the effects of climate change (REPECC)) as well as populations affected by violence and the influx of refugees. In general, the programmes supported by UNDP sought to reduce inequalities. Nevertheless, as underlined in the SPRPB analysis, although UNDP targeted the poorest regions of the country, no complementary mechanism had been planned to identify the poorest populations within the area of intervention.


Tag: Relevance Human rights Resilience Refugees Vulnerable

51.

With regard to the relevance of UNDP’s approaches, its general approach is coherent, but the implementation of the theory of change is only partial. The theory of change adopted by UNDP for the programme as a whole consists of working on the conceptualization or modelling of positive institutional approaches likely to respond to national challenges, as well experimenting with pilot services at the central and local level with the aim of putting in place advocacy activities as well as a development strategy on a wider scale. This inevitably requires the Government and local development players to take ownership of the projects, and the mobilization of technical and financial partners. This approach is justified by the extensive experience of the global UNDP network which the country office can draw on, by its experience in South-South cooperation, and its limited resources. This fits within a con-text where advocacy must be supported by factual examples. This theory of change requires the country office to redefine itself as a laboratory and a promoter of ideas and projects and not as a project implementing agency. This would also imply that the management of projects that are proving successful is transferred to the administration with the assistance of other partners. However, experience shows that ensuring the sustainability of results takes time. The evolution of the UNDP programme between 2008 and 2015 is marked by changes in strategy with mixed results in terms of capitalizing on experience, with a tendency to focus on the implementation of activities rather than obtaining results. Thus, UNDP was mainly working on model-ling72 and experimentation or the production of rapid results73. It invested less in dissemination and advocacy for ownership by the Government and ensuring the technical and financial support of partners, or accompanying the development of projects on a larger scale.


Tag: Relevance Oversight Theory of Change Advocacy National Institutions Regional Institutions

52.

The theory of change model underpinning the CEOCA has gaps. Over the 2013-2017 period, the programme approach in terms of improving incomes and the access of populations in the Sahel zone to basic socio-economic services was focused on the creation and operation of CEOCAs at the municipal level. This approach is pertinent and viable in a national context that is characterized a move towards decentralization.


Tag: Relevance Country Support Platform Theory of Change National Institutions Regional Institutions

53.

UNDP has not always identified the right levers for achieving results with beneficiaries. For example, in the case of the economic and social inclusion programme, the current implicit theory of change involves carrying out an audit of the extent to which cross-cutting themes and the needs of vulnerable groups are taken into account in development plans, taking stock of the vulnerable groups in the municipalities in question, and through awareness-raising actions and strengthening the capacity of vulnerable populations to make them more able to defend their rights, leading to plans that take their issues into account. This approach was not applied in full in any of the municipalities. No local plan was revised.


Tag: Relevance Awareness raising Vulnerable

54.

Another limitation comes from the very concept of integrating the needs of vulnerable groups, as well as cross-cutting issues. Would integration result in a percentage of resources being attributed to projects specifically covering these themes or specifically targeting vulnerable groups? Would this mean using a classification scale for each project (such as the UNDP gender equality marker, for example) If the second option appears to be more relevant, it would not be necessary to adapt the local development plans, instead a handbook could be prepared explaining how to draw up local development projects (and once again, the PNDP would be the most appropriate target here). The other target would be the public contracting authorities (the infrastructure department, among others) who sign off the works that should be integrating these cross-cutting issues. In the absence of a law, this would require, as for the environment, devel-oping a government recommendation or directive regarding the integration of these themes and requirements in local projects.


Tag: Relevance Gender Equality Infrastructure Vulnerable

55.

UNDP has emphasized in-depth analyses (which, in theory, are an asset) but often to the detriment of results. Examples of this are found in the institutional analyses of councils as well as the actions seeking to improve the quality of services. To accompany councils in their efforts to improve the quality of services to citizens, the standard procedure recommends a quality audit. Through PAAQSU, UNDP financed full institutional audits of the councils, followed by restructuration plans, with budgets ranging from 109 million to 162 million CFA (around $185,000 to $320,000). This choice is questionable for a number of reasons. The first is that a quality audit is not an institutional analysis. A quality audit verifies the key points of the quality approach, namely: the priority given to the question of the quality of its services by the council, the commitment of elected representative and the council administration towards this objective, the organization of the work process to achieve service quality, a constructive dialogue with stakeholders and a continuous improvement mechanism. For each point, it should have been possible to identify gaps and propose simple and inexpensive corrective actions.76 A second reason is that the actions plans created as a result of the audit are unrealistic in terms of their budget and their scope. Neither the councils nor UNDP have that level of resources.


Tag: Relevance Anti-corruption Human and Financial resources

56.

Within the framework of the inclusion programme, to ensure that programming at the council level took into account cross-cutting issues and the needs of vulnerable groups, UNDP performed an audit, which took a lot of time, then drew up a handbook, before identifying people who could act as relays to raise awareness among vulnerable groups. These preparatory actions took up nearly three quarters of the programme duration, without achieving any real progress towards the outcome. The next phase is the support for some councils to integrate these cross-cutting issues and the needs of vulnerable groups. As it would be difficult at this stage to revise the local development plans, it has been envisaged to revise the action plans, which are simpler to revise but shorter-lived, as the progress made can be wiped out from one year to another. Maybe it would have been preferable in this case to directly organize actions in line with the actions plans in order to take these issues into account? Once again, the chosen target does not seem to be the right one, as the PNDP would have been a more judicious choice here as well.


Tag: Relevance Awareness raising Vulnerable

57.

In other areas, UNDP could have invested in more in-depth analysis. In the case of SPRPB I and II, UNDP supported the implementation of various procedures for financial intermediation with rural communities in order to develop income-generating activities that were likely to reduce poverty. A range of procedures has already been tested in Cameroon and UNDP has put in place other microcredit experiments around the world. Previous experiences with rural credit in Cameroon, Niger and Benin have been described in a very detailed study of the feasibility of revolving funds. However, the study’s recommendations are not fully supported by the analysis of previous experiences and do not correspond to the financing procedures adopted by the SPRPB II.


Tag: Relevance Financial Inclusion Micro-credit

58.

3.2 EFFICIENCY

This section analyses the efficiency of UNDP interventions in terms of the use of human and financial resources. Firstly, it will look at programme efficiency, in order to respond to the following questions: Did UNDP focus its resources on interventions that were likely to produce significant results? Were UNDP resources invested to obtain maximum impact? Did UNDP encourage synergies in order to reduce costs and amplify results? Did it form effective partnerships? Secondly, the evaluation will look at the internal organization of UNDP and certain aspects of the programme management in relation to the expected results (managerial and operational efficiency).


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Implementation Modality Monitoring and Evaluation

59.

3.2.1PROGRAMME EFFICIENCY

UNDP refocused its programme as it moved from the first to the second programme, reducing the number of intended outcomes and outputs and introducing a geographic focus in the northern regions. The 2008-2012 programme appears as a collection of projects, rather than a programme with clearly defined intended outcomes. The CPAP included seven expected outcomes and 23 expected outputs. In the area of governance, at the beginning of the programme there were two outcomes, “improved efficiency and transparency in State management” and “improved rule of law and strengthening of respect for human rights”, which were then combined into one outcome, “improved efficiency, transparency, democracy and respect for human rights in State management”, without there being any changes in the interventions supposed to bring about these outcomes. There were few synergies between the interventions (support for elections, for the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms, notably with the introduction of human rights into the school syllabus, and the fight against corruption). However, the programme for 2013-2017 limits the scope of interventions. The CPAP includes only four out-comes and 14 outputs. In addition, the territorial coverage of the programme, initially spread over the entire country during the 2008-2012 cycle, was limited to municipalities in the north of the country (Far North, North and Adamaoua) during the 2013-2017 cycle. This choice should increase the effectiveness and efficiency of these operations. However, with regard to the poverty reduction programme, it should be noted that although the funds mobilized by UNDP were used for spending in the agreed target zone, the operational structure and the staffing in particular, continued to cover the entire country.


Tag: Efficiency Small Grants Programme Anti-corruption Human rights Programme Synergy

60.

Certain actions are carried out without a direct link to the desired results and with poor capitalization on past results. In a context where the mobilization of resources is difficult, it is crucial that available resources are used wisely. A number of examples show that this has not always been the case. For example, in the case of PAAQSU, a number of actions were carried out to strengthen the capacities of the Permanent Secretariat for Administrative Reform, including study visits for the main technical adviser to the programme. These missions would have been more effective if they had allowed pilot departments to discover the experiences of a similar department in a different country. Similarly, the study of the connection of fibre optic cables in regional public sector headquarters was a very useful action but without any direct link with the results. In contrast, where tangible results could have been obtained, there was reluctance to provide the necessary resources. The most flagrant case is that of the simplification of business creation formalities. Five procedures were identified to this end. The only procedure that was actually simplified substantially reduced the time required to start a business as well reducing the costs and favouritism. The programme only impacted on one of the five procedures and in three out of 11 centres. The generalization of this action would have had a notable effect on the entire business creation process across the whole country. This was a missed opportunity.


Tag: Efficiency Public administration reform Policies & Procedures Value Chain Technical Support

61.

The preparation phases are very long, greatly reducing the time available for implementation and an exit strategy. As one of UNDP’s partners remarked during an interview, “Many more problems have been diagnosed than solutions have been proposed”. In the case of PAAQSU, the period from 2013 to 2016 was dedicated to preparing audits and drafting, validating and transmitting to Government the service quality standard, while 2016 and 2017 were focused on the creation of pilot projects. This timetable does not make it possible to improve services via implementation on a wider scale. Similarly, in the case of the PRINCES project from 2013 to 2016, the focus was on auditing and producing handbooks. As a result, the distribution of these handbooks to accompany the sectors and the councils in integrating cross-cutting issues when formulating sectoral policies, which was postponed to 2016-2017, leaves barely any time for sectoral policies and local development plans to evolve. In the case of the programme to reduce poverty at the grassroots, the CEOCA, which were only created in 2015 and 2016, have yet to achieve their full potential. The REPECC has prepared a number of studies, but the implementation of the solutions that have been identified is only just starting.


Tag: Efficiency Policies & Procedures

62.

A large proportion of resources was spent on analysis and audits. A study of the categories of spending of the main programmes between January 2013 and June 2016 confirms the emphasis placed on analysis and audit. Around 30 percent of the budget of PRINCES78 was spent on a variety of audits and inventories, and more than 50 percent of the budget was used for technical assistance to institutions in charge of preparing national reports. Training, advocacy and support for direct target-stakeholders represents just 8 percent of the budget. In the case of the resilience programme, around 90 percent of the programme spending was used to pay for audits, inventories, handbooks and action plans. In the case of PAAQSU, around 20 percent of resources were used for audits and 73 percent for pilot proj-ects, the majority of which (54 percent) on busi-ness-creation centres. The SPRPB II is different from the others, with only 8 percent of resources spent on audits, handbooks and action plans. Most of the resources (77 percent) were spent on the construction of the CEOCA (see Annex 6, available online, for more details).

 


Tag: Efficiency Human and Financial resources Capacity Building

63.

The development of partnerships and the mobilization of resources remains a challenge. UNDP depends on a limited number of partners. Between 2008 and 2015, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency was the most important financial partner for UNDP, with a contribution of $5.73 million between 2010 and 2015 for the Millennium Villages programme. More recently, Japan contributed to the funding of rapid-response programmes in the north of the country.79 The second largest partner was the Government of Cameroon, with a contribution of $2.7 million between 2008 and 2012, particularly in the areas of poverty alleviation and the fight against corruption, and the evaluation of aid partnerships.80 From 2012, the Government directly contributed little to UNDP (‘contributions’), although from 2014, the annual work plans showed ‘counterpart’ funding from the Government, mobilization of which was difficult (with the exception of the SPRPB II where, according to the country office, the Government invested $6.7 million in a counterpart fund for the 2013-2016 period). The ratio between the regular resource base of UNDP and partner contributions is shown in Figure 5, highlighting the reduction in contributions from 2013 (an analysis of preliminary data for 2016, carried out during the finalization of this report, indicated a change in tendency, with two thirds of the 2016 budget coming from partners and around 40 percent of the budget provided by Japan). The Global Environment Fund (GEF) is not a major partner for UNDP. Of 30 national GEF projects in Cameroon, only three are implemented by UNDP (compared to 10 project implemented by UNDP out of the 22 national GEF projects in Chad, and 12 out of 33 in Nigeria).


Tag: Efficiency Resource mobilization Partnership Bilateral partners Country Government

64.

In this context, it would have been preferable to define actions plans with two perimeters: one for definite resources, such as UNDP’s own resources and a second perimeter based on prob-able resources, such as the contribution of the Government and other partners. The programme should be designed in such a way that it can complete the interventions using a minimal budget, but with scope for the interventions to be developed, completed or for others to be carried out using the additional resources that become available (see Figure 7).

 


Tag: Efficiency Policies & Procedures Crisis prevention Vulnerable

65.

Over the period covered by the evaluation, although the UNDP country office significantly improved its strategic planning as well as the effectiveness of its monitoring and evaluation, emphasis was placed more on outputs than on results. The country programme results frame-work for 2008-2012 is characterized by general outcome statements such as “improved efficiency and transparency in State management” and indicators such as the Transparency International Perception Index (without baselines or targets). The 2013-2017 country programme includes more precise outcomes such as “improving the services provided to users of public services” with coherent indicators such as “the percentage of users satisfied by the quality of the services provided” (with baselines and targets). However, the formulation of these outcomes is confusing: there are five UNDAF outcomes, five outcomes mentioned in the CPD narrative, three components in the results framework, and four CPAP out-comes, which complicates their monitoring and evaluation. A number of CPD indicators are not included in the UNDP management system.


Tag: Efficiency Operational Efficiency

66.

3.2.2 EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

The national implementation modality (NIM) as applied in Cameroon and the implementation schedule for the Harmonized Approach to Cash Transfers (HACT) compromises the efficiency and thus the effectiveness of the country programme. The 2008-2012 CPAP planned for the implementation of the HACT policy.84 The mid-term review of the programme in September 2010 recommended its application, which would “make it possible to substantially reduce payment processing times, whilst also giving more responsibility to the implementing partner and focusing more on achieving results than on administrative procedures”. An audit carried out in 2012 observed that a macro-study had been proposed in 2009, but had not been followed up. At the time of the ADR, this macro-study had been carried out, but not the micro-study of the implementation partners, which is still pending. Thus, UNDP does not make advance payments to Government and UNDP programme managers have to spend time on administrative tasks rather working on substantive issues and advocacy.


Tag: Efficiency Project and Programme management Cash Transfers

67.

Annual work plans are systematically signed with delays. Stakeholders recognize that the annual work plans are often signed off well after the beginning of the year, which delays the start of activities and thus the progress made towards obtaining results. One of the main reasons given for this is the delay from the Government in deciding the size of its contribution to annual work plans. To this can be added the fact that the UNDP timetable and the preparation of work plans are not adequately synchronized with the national budgetary agenda, preparation of which starts at the end of the last half of the previous year. In all cases, this is an untenable situation in terms of an efficient use of resources and effective action, partly because the fixed costs are consumed without any relation to the activities that would justify them, and partly because this impinges on the time actually spent on activities, given that towards the end of the year, the programme has to report on and plan for the next year. This suggests that programme staff spend a disproportionate amount of time on planning and writing reports, to the detriment of programme activities.


Tag: Challenges Efficiency Human and Financial resources

68.

UNDP programme management costs are disproportionate. According to UNDP management recommendations, a ratio of 12 percent between management costs and the global programme cost requires close monitoring and 15 percent requires urgent attention. According to UNDP data, Cameroon is situated well above both of these levels, as well as above the average for the Regional Bureau for Africa (see Figure 8). An analysis of financial data for the four main programmes during 2013-2016 shows that activities represents around 52 percent of total spending while operating expenses represent on average 48 percent of total spending (see Figure 9 and Annex 6, available online).


Tag: Efficiency Project and Programme management

69.

UNDP in Cameroon has not created an enabling environment for the integration of gender issues in programming. The UNDP country programme emphasizes inclusion and seeks to strengthen the Government’s capacity to integrate cross-cutting issues such as gender and the environment in its planning and strategy documents. However, UNDP itself has not yet put in place all the necessary elements for producing results in terms of gender equality and the empowerment of women. The country office carried out a self-assessment as part of the UNDP Gender Equality Seal and scored just 8 out of 42 points (19.05 percent). The country office does not have a strategy for this issue other than the UNDP global strategy. At the time of the preparatory mission, the UNV programme manager was acting as the gender focal point, but at the time of the main ADR mission, she had left and was yet to be replaced. The composition of UNDP staff is still far from achieving gender balance (see Annex 3, available online). Nothing suggests that the programme design integrates a gender-based analysis. Most of the programme indicators do not have different targets for men and women, although data disaggregated by gender appears in annual reports (see Annex 5, available online).


Tag: Efficiency Gender Equality Women's Empowerment Project and Programme management

70.

Instability in the country office management team until 2013 was a factor with the potential to undermine programme effectiveness. From early 2008 until the arrival in 2013 of the current Resident Representative, the country had seen five Resident Representatives or ad interim Resident Representatives, including a six-month period in 2012 during which the Deputy Resident Representative occupied the role. Between 2008 and the time of the ADR, the programme had seen three Deputy Resident Representatives, one of whom occupied the role for just 13 months. Since 2013, the country office has experienced a period of stability.


Tag: Efficiency Project and Programme management UNDP Regional Bureaux

71.

3.3 SUSTAINABILITY

Certain institutions that received UNDP support during the first programme cycle have achieved results. However, the changes in strategy that occurred between the two programme cycles and the lack of capitalization on achieved results leave an impression of unfinished work. With regard to the current interventions, progress is very slow and the potential viability of results, if UNDP were to reduce or stop its support, is low.


Tag: Disaster risk management Challenges Sustainability Anti-corruption Institutional Strengthening National Institutions

72.

With regard to the ongoing programmes, progress is slow and achievements are fragile. Without continued support, real change seems very unlikely. As mentioned above in the case of PRINCES, no strategy, policy or local development plan has been revised. In the case of PAAQSU, the quality standard for public services is a concrete result, but on its own, it is far from representing a guarantee of quality. The CEO-CAs, which appear to have a certain potential, are still very recent and councils will probably need continuing support to realize this potential, build staff capacity, guarantee that all populations have real access to their services and clearly position this institution among the others. It should be noted that although certain municipalities with a CEOCA have already allocated operating costs from their budget, and others are planning to do so, a sign of support for the model, their long-term financing still must be ensured. Within the framework of REPECC, UNDP support for MINATD, MINEPDED and MINJEC allowed the central and deconcentrated public services, traditional authorities and community organizations to acquire knowledge, expertise and tools (maps, databases, materials and procedures) necessary to improve the resilience of deconcentrated local and regional authorities against climate change, but their capacity to pursue these actions once they are no longer receiving the leadership and financial support of UNDP remains to be proven. In all cases, although results are observable at the level of some municipalities, the time needed for their implementation limits the possibility of analysis, evaluation and capitalization on achievements before the end of the programmes.


Tag: Climate Change Adaptation Sustainability Human and Financial resources Resilience Institutional Strengthening National Institutions

73.

The sustainability of the achievements raises a number of challenges. UNDP works on complex, multidimensional issues. For example, the question of quality of services is not only one for administrative mechanisms but also requires an evolution in organizational culture and a commitment from the upper echelons of the administration. In the current context, there is a risk that the experiments in quality will remain limited number to a few structures with dynamic leadership. The frequent rotation of administrative managers does not encourage sustainability. The mobilization of resources for disaster risk reduction remains difficult, due to the absence of adequate political visibility. The budgetary situation at the national level is not conducive, with a growing proportion of resources allocated to the security response in the north of the country, which correspondingly reduces the counterpart funding available to the UNDP programmes.


Tag: Disaster Risk Reduction Challenges Sustainability Resource mobilization Human and Financial resources

74.

Chapter 4

STRATEGIC POSITIONING AND CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES

UNDP is seen as an organization upholding United Nations values. While UNDP is recognized for its commitment to vulnerable people and appreciated for the priority it places on capacity-building, its role and its comparative advantages are not clearly perceived by all its partners.

UNDP is recognized for the support it provides to the authorities for the fulfilment of national commitments with the global development agenda (notably in the area of the MDGs), the organi-zation (in conjunction with the United Nations system) of consultations on the SDGs and preparing human development reports. It has supported Cameroon in the adoption of international instruments in the areas of anti-corruption and respect for human rights. In this regard, a draft law in line with the United Nations Convention against Corruption was drawn up, although the Government has not adopted it. The preparation of the National Plan for the Promotion of Human Rights also responds to international recommendation. UNDP has integrated cross-cutting issues in all of its support programmes (see below)


Tag: Anti-corruption Human rights Partnership Strategic Positioning Capacity Building

75.

However, no tangible result on these cross-cutting questions can be sustainable without operational institutional and management mechanisms, and without the breaking down of silos and the development of effective dialogue between ministries. Today, the multidisciplinary management of these themes is organized around three levers: assistance to the department playing the driving role in a particular area to launch a policy; the existence of focal points or units in the other departments (focal points for the environment, anti-corruption unit, HIV unit, focal points for quality, human rights unit, etc.); and, the preparation of handbooks on how to incorporate these questions into sectoral policies. UNDP has contributed to strengthening these three levers, all of which are relevant. However, their effectiveness would be optimized were there to be real multi-disciplinary management based on strengthened interministerial coordination.


Tag: Operational Efficiency Policies & Procedures Project and Programme management Strategic Positioning

76.

Some partners underline the relevance of the concept of resilience, a central tenet of the UNDP global strategic plan and the Cameroon country programme. UNDP is in a good position to promote reflection on this complex issue, as it already works on the closely interrelated questions of economic poverty, inclusion, climate change and conflicts.


Tag: Strategic Positioning Resilience

77.

Many of those interviewed recognize and appreciate the emphasis UNDP places on capacity-building. In addition, UNDP has been able to use its international network to facilitate South-South cooperation, although it does not have a clearly defined South-South strategy. For example, several study visits were organized, notably to Senegal and Benin on anti-corruption questions, as well as to Rwanda and Morocco on the question of quality of services.


Tag: Anti-corruption Strategic Positioning Capacity Building South-South Cooperation

78.

Despite this positioning, UNDP’s partners do not have a clear image of UNDP’s role. UNDP is seen by many of them as just another donor. As a result, UNDP suffers from what one partner called the ‘amount effect’, where national partners tend to value the size of the financial contribution from the technical and financial partners. In terms of volume of aid, UNDP will never rival certain actors, especially given the reduction UNDP core resources and difficulties in mobilizing resources for this middle-income country which further limit its latitude in this area. In discussions held with other government departments, there were hints that some feel that UNDP should adopt a role of implementing agency for the Government.

Their point of view is reinforced by the requests for Government contribution to the operation and funding of country office activities.


Tag: Challenges Human and Financial resources Partnership

79.

In addition to the programme specifically focused on improving integration of the concerns of women and other vulnerable groups in plans, policies and sectoral strategies, UNDP integrates cross-cutting issues into its programmes and advocacy work. Results are noted particularly in terms of inclusion of women and vulnerable people in programme activities (‘gender-targeted’ on the Gender-Results Effectiveness Scale).

The 2008-2012 CPAP notes that “UNDP will ensure that the projects and programmes that it supports systematically integrate questions of gender and equity”  while the 2013-2017 CPAP indicates that “in addition Programme 1 which addresses different forms of exclusion, the gender, disability and participation dimensions will be systematically taken into account in all programme when formulating activities”. An analysis of the gender markers assigned by the country office to its projects shows a positive change between the two programme cycles, with greater attention paid to this question in the 2013-2017 programme. For example, during the first programme, the country office rated eight projects as being ‘GEN0’, but none of those implemented since 2012 have fallen into this category (see Figure 10 and Annex 4, available online). Nevertheless, the programme has not achieved the benchmark ranking of the UNDP Gender Equality Seal, for the percentage of projects with gender equality objectives.


Tag: Gender Equality Gender transformation Women's Empowerment Vulnerable

80.

With regard to the reduction of other forms of inequality and exclusion, people with disabilities are clearly mentioned in UNDP documents as a specific vulnerable group. A number of analyses (such the council level organizational analyses and the feasibility studies for the CEOCA) took into account the specific challenges of this category of people (although they are often grouped together with women and young people). The quality standard for public services takes the needs of people with disabilities into account. The evaluation team noted that many interviewees spontaneously mentioned people with disabilities as a vulnerable group, although this could not be directly linked to the advocacy work of UNDP. During field visits, the lack of specific facilities for people with disabilities in the layout of the CEOCA was noted (access ramps, size of doors and layout of toilets and offices).91 The UNDP country office itself is not accessible to people in wheelchairs.


Tag: Challenges Disabilities

81.

The unemployment rate of young people is a social concern, including in the north of the country where the security crisis and the border closures have had a considerable impact on the local economy, particularly on the informal activities often carried out by young people, who then become easy prey for extremists. Since the 2008-2012 cycle, the UNDP country programme has included activities targeting young people, particularly in the area of human rights where, with the support of UNDP, the National Commission on Human Rights and Freedoms intervened in the education sector. UNDP and the UNV programme supported the preparation of the national volunteer strategy in 2014, which, among other things, seeks to create a framework and the conditions for leveraging the experience of young people as well as that of senior citizens. In general, UNDP’s approach to youth can be likened to the ‘gender-targeted’ approach, where the number of youth involved is emphasized, rather than transformational change. For example, the programmes supporting SMEs and income-generating activities mention young people as a target group, but the data collected does not indicate whether this group received specific attention (indeed, according to the 2015 annual report, out of 496 people who had been made aware of the support available from the CEOCA, only 15 percent were young people). It should be noted that the new programme for the prevention of radicalization and the strengthening of rapid recovery places a particular emphasis on the development of the livelihoods of young people and the reintegration of radicalized young people in their communities. In addition, the SPRPB II included in its work plan for 2016 increased efforts to create jobs for young people.


Tag: Challenges Youth

82.

Despite the insecurity caused by the armed attacks of Boko Haram in the Far North region, UNDP interventions have been able to continue, with modifications. UNDP responded to the crisis by strengthening its own capacities, developing new programmes and adapting its existing programmes.

Given the change in context since the 2013-2017 country programme was prepared, particularly with the armed attacks by Boko Haram, the evaluation team looked to evaluate the impact of the crises on the expected results of the programme. It proved to be very difficult to estimate the true impact of the conflict and this section of the report simply includes observations. In general, the programmes supported by UNDP continued their work in the Far North, adapting to the conditions. Some interventions in some municipalities were delayed or had to be postponed. A number of activities had to be organized in Maroua, the capital of the Far North region, rather than carrying them out in the target municipalities, which reduced their effectiveness and their efficiency. The security situation limited the movement of staff and certain sites are not easily accessible by UNDP staff. This limits capacity to monitor activities, which was already inadequate (see section 3.2.1).


Tag: Crisis prevention Security Awareness raising Refugees Vulnerable Youth

83.

The UNDP country office has strengthened its capacities in order to meet the new challenges. With the support of the Regional Bureau for Africa it recruited a peace and development adviser as well as a rapid recovery specialist. With the emergency funds made available by head-quarters, the country office was able to undertake an assessment of the situation and the needs for early recovery in the Far North. UNDP was then able to mobilize additional funding from the Government of Japan to launch new interventions in the north and east of the country. However, the staff of the UNDP country office have not received any specific training on conflict-sensitive development approaches or the principles of “do no harm”.

With regard to the Government, the security situation in the country requires more and more funding to address the terrorist threat, removing available resources from programmed activities. For example, UNDP facilitated the completion of a study on indigenous populations in the South region, but the budget for the next stage of the activities programmed by MINREX has been cancelled.


Tag: Resource mobilization Operational Efficiency Security

84.

The UNDP partnership with the UNV is limited. The manager of the UNV programme contributed to the development of a national volunteer strategy and the integration of volunteers into the work on preparing responses to natural disasters. UNDP has not engaged UNVs in its development projects but received UNV support in the country office (procurement, monitoring and evaluation). In addition, the UNV programme officer contributed to the development of a national volunteer strategy as part of the REPECC programme, as well as the promotion of the recruitment of volunteers in the work on preparing for and responding to crises in the Far North. With the support of the UNV programme, the Ministry for Youth and Civic Education also mapped stakeholders. In addition, the UNV programme officer acted as gender focal point for UNDP and carried out advocacy work for the systematic integration of women and young people in the programmes. She also took on the role of facilitator for the thematic working group on youth of the United Nations system.


Tag: Gender Equality Partnership UN Agencies

Recommendations
1

Le PNUD doit se concentrer davantage sur les résultats, renforcer son positionnement stratégique et cultiver son image. Pour ce faire, il doit identifier un nombre restreint de domaines où, par son mandat et son expérience, il possède des avantages comparatifs. Il devra ensuite définir des résultats à la fois ambitieux et réalistes ainsi que conceptualiser et mettre en œuvre des interventions, tout en parvenant à un bon équilibre entre des actions ciblées, susceptibles d’aboutir rapidement à des résultats concrets, et des interventions qui traitent des problèmes de fond. Il doit communiquer sur son positionnement et sa mission.

2

Le PNUD doit réfléchir à la possibilité de s’investir de nouveau sur les sujets identifiés comme étant les grands défis du pays et sur lesquels il dispose, de par sa neutralité ainsi que son expérience au niveau international et au Cameroun, d’un avantage comparatif : le renforcement des processus démocratiques et l’État de droit.

3

Le PNUD doit continuer de concentrer ses interventions dans les communes les plus pauvres et les plus vulnérables du pays, tout en trouvant un équilibre approprié  entre des interventions en amont (d’ordre stratégique ou politique) et en aval (au niveau des populations cibles). Il doit éviter de se laisser cantonner à un rôle d’agence d’exécution de projets de relèvement rapide.

4

Le PNUD doit continuer à œuvrer à la réduction des inégalités entre les sexes et l’autonomisation des femmes ainsi qu’à la réduction d’autres formes d’inégalités et d’exclusion. La participation des groupes vulnérables et la prise en compte de leurs priorités doivent être intégrées dans tous les programmes. Un programme autonome traitant des questions transversales n’est, de fait, pas conseillé. Le bureau de pays doit renforcer son expertise en matière de genre et s’employer à satisfaire aux critères de référence du Label égalité des sexes.

5

Le PNUD doit mettre à jour sa stratégie de partenariat et de mobilisation de ressources. Il doit aussi renforcer son plaidoyer auprès du Gouvernement en vue d’augmenter la contribution nationale au programme de pays, en lui rappelant que le PAPP 2013-2017 prévoyait une contribution du Gouvernement à la hauteur de celle du PNUD, ou, le cas échéant, exposer clairement ce que le PNUD peut ou non financer. En même temps, le PNUD doit prendre des mesures afin d’améliorer son efficience et d’orienter ses ressources vers des activités programmatiques prioritaires. 

6

Le PNUD doit renforcer ses activités de suivi et d’évaluation, en mettant l’accent sur les changements induits par ces activités, ainsi que sur les progrès dans la réalisation des effets escomptés. Le PNUD doit aussi structurer son bureau en fonction de la concentration géographique de sa programmation, en affectant plus de personnel à l’Extrême-Nord pour renforcer la coordination et le suivi.

7

Recommendation 1. UNDP should concentrate more on results, strengthen its strategic positioning and cultivate its image. To achieve this, it should identify a limited number of areas where, given its mandate or its experience, it has comparative advantages. It should then define ambitious yet realistic outcomes and design and implement interventions, while at the same time achieving a good balance between targeted actions that are likely to rapidly-produce concrete results, and interventions that address deeper problems. It must communicate on its positioning and its role.

8

Recommendation 2. UNDP must consider reinvesting in the subjects that have been identified as the greatest challenges facing the country and where, as a result of its neutrality as well as its experience internationally and in Cameroon, it has a comparative advantage: strengthening democratic processes and the rule of law

9

Recommendation 3. UNDP should continue to concentrate its efforts on the poorest and most vulnerable municipalities in the country, while striking a balance between upstream interventions (of a political or strategic nature) and downstream work (with target populations). It should avoid becoming confined to the role of an implementing agency for rapid recovery projects.

10

Recommendation 4. UNDP should continue to work to reduce gender inequalities and promote the empowerment of women, as well as the reduction of other forms of inequality and exclusion. The participation of vulnerable groups and consideration of their needs must be integrated into all programmes. A separate programme addressing cross-cutting issues is not recommended. The country office must strengthen its gender expertise and strive to satisfy the Gender Equality Seal benchmarks

11

Recommendation 5. UNDP should update its partnership and resource mobilization strategy. It should also strengthen its advocacy with the Government in order to increase the national contribution to the country programme, reminding the Government that the 2013–2017 CPAP envisaged a contribution matching that of UNDP; if this is not possible, UNDP should clearly outline what it can and cannot finance. At the same time, UNDP should take measures to improve its efficiency and direct its resources towards priority programme activities.

12

Recommendation 6. UNDP should strengthen its monitoring and evaluation activities, placing the accent on the changes brought about by these activities, as well as on the progress made in achieving the intended outcomes. UNDP should also structure its office according to the geographic concentration of its programming, allocating more staff to the Far North to strengthen coordination and monitoring.

1. Recommendation:

Le PNUD doit se concentrer davantage sur les résultats, renforcer son positionnement stratégique et cultiver son image. Pour ce faire, il doit identifier un nombre restreint de domaines où, par son mandat et son expérience, il possède des avantages comparatifs. Il devra ensuite définir des résultats à la fois ambitieux et réalistes ainsi que conceptualiser et mettre en œuvre des interventions, tout en parvenant à un bon équilibre entre des actions ciblées, susceptibles d’aboutir rapidement à des résultats concrets, et des interventions qui traitent des problèmes de fond. Il doit communiquer sur son positionnement et sa mission.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/19] [Last Updated: 2017/05/02]

le PNUD reconnait la pertinence de cette recommandation et avait déjà pris action notamment à travers la révision du cadre de résultats du cycle de coopération actuel (2013-2017) et la formulation du CPD 2018 – 2020. Ceci a permis d’améliorer la structuration du programme, son recentrage géographique et la planification des objectifs et des résultats concrets et réalistes en tenant compte de la tendance baissière des ressources régulières.

Par ailleurs le PNUD entend mener des actions spécifiques de communication visant à améliorer la visibilité des résultats de ses interventions.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
1.1 Renforcer le ciblage thématique, géographique et des bénéficiaires en se basant sur les leçons apprises et les priorités du gouvernement lors de la formulation du CPD 2018-2020.
[Added: 2017/05/02]
DRR ARR-G/ARR-DD M&E 2017/02 Completed Le CPD 2018-2020 a été formulé en tenant compte du ciblage thématique, géographique et des bénéficiaires en se basant sur les leçons apprises et selon les priorités du gouvernement. le document a été approuvé par le HQ-PAC et a été soumis à l'approbation du Executive Board qui siégera en juin 2017.
1.2 Cibler des interventions concrètes à fort potentiel d’impacts lors de la préparation de la stratégie de mise en œuvre du CPD 2018-2020 et la formulation des programmes conjoints de l’UNDAF 2018-2020.
[Added: 2017/05/02] [Last Updated: 2018/08/08]
DRR ARR-G/ARR-DD M&E 2018/12 Completed Cette recommandation a été prise en compte à suffisance lors de la formulation 1) des Plans conjoints de l'UNDAF 2018-2020; 2) du programme conjoint sur la résilience impliquant le PNUD et 3) les documents de projets pour la mise en oeuvre du CPD 2018-2020 en étroite collaboration avec toutes les parties prenantes (Gouvernement, Société civile, agences du SNU et organismes internationaux) History
1.3 Développer une stratégie de communication et renforcer les capacités techniques du bureau pour améliorer la visibilité et le positionnement du PNUD.
[Added: 2017/05/02] [Last Updated: 2020/02/13]
DRR M&E Expert Communication 2019/12 Completed Une stratégie de communication et de visibilité a été élaborée. Elle est actuellement mise en œuvre avec l'appui d'un Spécialiste en communication recruté sur SC. Il est en charge de la communication institutionnelle du bureau et assure la visibilité des projets mis en œuvre par le PNUD. Il a par ailleurs été formé en communication digitale en Juin 2019 en Afrique du Sud. History
2. Recommendation:

Le PNUD doit réfléchir à la possibilité de s’investir de nouveau sur les sujets identifiés comme étant les grands défis du pays et sur lesquels il dispose, de par sa neutralité ainsi que son expérience au niveau international et au Cameroun, d’un avantage comparatif : le renforcement des processus démocratiques et l’État de droit.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/19] [Last Updated: 2017/05/23]

Le PNUD accepte cette recommandation et engagera des réflexions en interne, avec le Gouvernement et les partenaires clés  en matière de gouvernance et d’état de droit. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
2.1: Evaluer l’appui potentiel au processus électoral et à la lutte contre la corruption suite à la demande du gouvernement.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2017/10/03]
DRR ARR-Gouvernance 2017/09 Completed La National Assessment Mission (NAM) en appui au bureau pays en matière électorale réalisée entre Juillet et Aout 2017. History
2.2 : Solliciter l’appui du BPPS pour l’identification des niches en matière de gouvernance et état de droit.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2020/02/14]
DRR ARR-Gouvernance 2020/12 Completed Une Mission du BPPS a été effectuée en 2019 pour l’identification des niches en matière de gouvernance et état de droit. Une autre mission est attendue pour formuler un Prodoc en réponse à la situation dans les Régions du Nord-Ouest et du Sud-Ouest dans le domaine du renforcement de l’Etat de droit. History
2.3 : Procéder à des consultations avec le Gouvernement sur la base des recommandations de la mission d’appui.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2020/02/13]
DRR ARR-Gouvernance 2018/12 Completed Le PNUD a mis un accent sur l’appui au processus électoral. Dans ce cadre le Bureau pays a recruté un consultant international, qui travaille sur toutes les questions relatives aux elections. Le consultant a pris service et travaille en étroite collaboration avec l’ARR de l’unité gouvernance. History
2.4 : Evaluer l’intérêt des bailleurs de fonds sur la thématique relative à la gouvernance et état de droit.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2020/02/14]
DRR ARR-Gouvernance 2018/12 Completed En matière d'Etat de droit et de Gouvernance , l'intérêt des bailleurs de fonds se matérialise par le financement des projets ou la mise en œuvre conjointe: Renforcement de l'Etat de droit : Un financement du gouvernement du Japon est attendu pour la mise en œuvre des activités de renforcement de l'Etat de Droit dans les Régions du Nord Ouest et du Sud Ouest Cameroon. Gouvernance : Un projet conjoint d'appui au processus de décentralisation est en cours d'élaboration avec la Coopération Allemande (GIZ) History
3. Recommendation:

Le PNUD doit continuer de concentrer ses interventions dans les communes les plus pauvres et les plus vulnérables du pays, tout en trouvant un équilibre approprié  entre des interventions en amont (d’ordre stratégique ou politique) et en aval (au niveau des populations cibles). Il doit éviter de se laisser cantonner à un rôle d’agence d’exécution de projets de relèvement rapide.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/19] [Last Updated: 2017/05/23]

le PNUD accepte cette recommandation et veillera à l’équilibre entre les interventions adressant les préoccupations des plus vulnérables en aval tout en préservant son rôle d’appui conseil du Gouvernement sur le plan stratégique au niveau central. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
3.1 : Maintenir le dialogue de haut niveau avec le Gouvernement notamment à travers des réunions régulières avec les Ministères chefs de files des domaines d’intervention du PNUD afin de veiller à ses contributions stratégiques au développement
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
RR DRR EA ARR-G/ARR-DD 2020/12 Completed Le senior management a tenu des réunions d'échanges avec les Ministères chefs de files qui ont porté sur des thématiques telles: le RNDH (identification de la thématique principale du rapport); ODD (contextualisation et priorisation des objectifs et des cibles); NAM (Evaluation des capacités nationales en matière des élections), DFA( mission d’identification effectué pour évaluer l’étendue de l’Etude) etc.. le tableau ressortant les interlocuteurs stratégiques au niveau du Gouvernement en cours d'actualisation. History
3.2 : Fournir des conseils stratégiques de qualité au gouvernement dans la mise en œuvre des ODD : contextualisation, intégration dans les stratégies et politiques de développement et suivi de la mise en œuvre
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR EA ARR-G/ARR-DD 2020/12 Completed Rapport de contextualisation et de priorisation validé techniquement le 23 août 2017 et politiquement le 18 septembre 2017. par ailleurs, la formulation d'un projet d'appui à la production des instruments stratégiques nationaux est en cours dans le cadre de l'opérationalisation du CPD 2018-2020. Dans le cadre du processus de décentralisation , des interventions ont contribué à développer des outils pour la prise en compte des ODD dans les PCD. Dans le cadre de l'initiative INFF, des plateformes doivent être mis sur pour une meilleure prise en compte des ODD dans les politiques et cadres de concertation. History
3.3 : Produire de façon périodique le Rapport national sur le Développement Humain et le vulgariser
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR EA 2020/12 Completed Rapport National sur le Développement Humain 2019 a été produit History
3.4 : Accompagner le Gouvernement dans l’élaboration de ses politiques et stratégies (DSCE, Politiques sectorielles)
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR EA ARR-G/ARR-DD M&E 2020/12 Completed - Le PNUD a accompagné le Gouvernement dans l'Elaboration de la Stratégie Nationale de Développement 2030. De manière spécifique , le PNUD de par son rôle d'intégrateur a contribué à la mobilisations des Partenaires Techniques et Financiers pour leur contribution à l'élaboration de la SND30. - Le PNUD a appuyé la multiplication et la diffusion de la SND30 History
4. Recommendation:

Le PNUD doit continuer à œuvrer à la réduction des inégalités entre les sexes et l’autonomisation des femmes ainsi qu’à la réduction d’autres formes d’inégalités et d’exclusion. La participation des groupes vulnérables et la prise en compte de leurs priorités doivent être intégrées dans tous les programmes. Un programme autonome traitant des questions transversales n’est, de fait, pas conseillé. Le bureau de pays doit renforcer son expertise en matière de genre et s’employer à satisfaire aux critères de référence du Label égalité des sexes.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/19] [Last Updated: 2017/05/23]

Le PNUD reconnait la pertinence de cette recommandation et a déjà mis un accent sur la prise en compte systématique des questions de genre et d’autres préoccupations transversales afin de réduire les inégalités homme-femme lors de la révision du cadre de résultats du cycle de coopération actuel (2013-2017) et la formulation du CPD 2018 – 2020.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
4.3 : Procéder à l’exercice « Gender Seal » au sein du bureau pays.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR M&E Expert Genre 2021/12 Initiated History
4.4 : Faire le suivi de la mise en œuvre des recommandations issues du « Gender seal »
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR M&E 2021/12 Initiated History
4.1 : Renforcer les capacités du bureau afin de développer et mettre en œuvre une stratégie genre au sein du bureau pays.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2020/02/13]
DRR M&E 2019/12 Completed Une stratégie genre ainsi qu’un plan d’action ont été élaborés. La stratégie est actuellement mise en œuvre avec l’appui de l’expert en genre recruté. Elle a entre autres tâches de veiller à l’intégration de markeurs genre dans les projets du bureau. Une équipe genre a été mise sur pied au sein du bureau . La feuille de route du label sur l’égalité des genres au Cameroun a été élaborée et est mise en œuvre. History
4.2 : Veiller à la prise en compte des questions de genre et des préoccupations des groupes vulnérables dans tous les programmes et projets du nouveau CPD 2018 – 2020 et les programmes conjoints contribuant à l’UNDAF 2018-2020.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2020/02/13]
DRR ARR M&E 2019/12 Completed Les documents de programmes et de projets soumis sont revus pour évaluer la prise en compte des aspects liés au Genre. Des staffs sont formés et des formations sont dispensée pour la prise en compte du genre dans tous les processus de programmation. Toutes les discussions sont menées sous la supervision de l'Expert genre qui a été recrutée. Le volet du genre est pris en compte dans tous les ProDocs en tenant compte des spécificités du Bureau. History
4.3 : Utiliser l'exercice du « Project Quality Assurance » (PQA) pour examiner le niveau de prise en compte des question de genre dans les programmes et projets et , le cas échéant, faire des suggestions de modification aux comités de pilotage des projets concernés
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR M&E 2020/12 Completed PQA exercice utilisé pour examiner la prise en compte du Genre dans le projet intitulé "Supporting community peace mechanisms and youth inclusion in cross border areas of Chad and Cameroon" soumis au UNPBSO pour accéder au PB Fund History
5. Recommendation:

Le PNUD doit mettre à jour sa stratégie de partenariat et de mobilisation de ressources. Il doit aussi renforcer son plaidoyer auprès du Gouvernement en vue d’augmenter la contribution nationale au programme de pays, en lui rappelant que le PAPP 2013-2017 prévoyait une contribution du Gouvernement à la hauteur de celle du PNUD, ou, le cas échéant, exposer clairement ce que le PNUD peut ou non financer. En même temps, le PNUD doit prendre des mesures afin d’améliorer son efficience et d’orienter ses ressources vers des activités programmatiques prioritaires. 

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/19] [Last Updated: 2017/05/23]

Le PNUD prend bonne note de cette recommandation et des actions ont déjà été prises notamment l’actualisation de la stratégie de partenariat et de mobilisation des ressources en 2017. Par ailleurs, le bureau poursuit le plaidoyer pour la mobilisation et le transfert des contributions du Gouvernement pour l’exécution des programmes de coopération.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
5.1 : Mettre régulièrement à jour la stratégie de partenariat et de mobilisation de ressources afin de s’assurer de mobiliser les fonds nécessaires à la mise en œuvre du CPD 2018-2020.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR EA ARR-G/ARR-DD 2021/12 Initiated Le projet d'appui à la mise en œuvre du CPD (PAMPPa) prévoit l'élaboration et la mise en œuvre d'une stratégie de mobilisation des ressources History
5.2 : Actualiser et mettre en œuvre le plan d’action pour opérationnaliser la Stratégie de PMR
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR EA ARR-G/ARR-DD M&E 2021/12 Initiated History
5.3: Poursuivre les échanges avec le gouvernement en matière de mobilisation des contributions financières.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2018/01/19]
DRR ARR-G/ARR-D M&E 2017/12 Completed - Séances de travail tenues avec le MINEPAT (DGCOOP/DPIP) pour contextualiser et finaliser la "Lettre d'Accord" pour le transfert des fonds de contrepartie du Gouvernement - Montant des fonds de contrepartie pour la mise en oeuvre du CPD 2018 - 2020 dévoilée - Processus de signature de la Lettre d'Accord en cours par le Gouvernement et le PNUD. Lettre d'Accord signé par le Gouvernement et le PNUD. Le Gouvernement mettra a la disposition du PNUD 4 millions USD pour la mise en oeuvre du CPD 2018-2020 History
6. Recommendation:

Le PNUD doit renforcer ses activités de suivi et d’évaluation, en mettant l’accent sur les changements induits par ces activités, ainsi que sur les progrès dans la réalisation des effets escomptés. Le PNUD doit aussi structurer son bureau en fonction de la concentration géographique de sa programmation, en affectant plus de personnel à l’Extrême-Nord pour renforcer la coordination et le suivi.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/04/19] [Last Updated: 2017/05/23]

Dans le cadre du nouveau programme de coopération 2018-2020, le PNUD s’est engagé à renforcer sa présence dans l’Extrême Nord tout en tenant compte de la tendance baissière des ressources régulières.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
6.2 : Elaborer un dispositif intégré de suivi évaluation du CPD 2018-2020 arrimé au dispositif de suivi-évaluation de l’UNDAF 2018-2020
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR M&E 2021/07 Overdue-Initiated Partiellement mis en œuvre . Une matrice qui illustre l'évolution vers les cibles définies a été élaborée. Elle sert de base de travail pour les différentes revues du programme. Des réflexions doivent être engagées pour la conception d'un PISE qui prendra en compte les projets , leurs contributions au CPD et la contribution du CPD à UNDAF. Ce PISE pourra être fonctionnel pour le prochain cycle. Une application digitale qui intégre les aspects de suivi des résultats conjointement avec la partie nationale est en cours 'élaboration . Elle va intégrer les éléments du PISE , faire un mapping des projets mis en œuvre et fera un suivi des résultats du programme. Un accent sera mis sur toutes les évidences permettant de fournir les résultats . History
6.1 : Identifier les sources de financement durables pour le renforcement de l’Equipe dans l’Extrême nord.
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2020/02/13]
DRR ARR-G/ARR-DD 2019/12 Completed Des fonds supplémentaires ont été mobilisés pour implémenter des activités dans les régions du Nord et de l’Extrême Nord Cameroun, notamment dans les localités de Mayo Oulo et Mayo Tiyel. De nouveaux projets à savoir Regional Stabilisation Facility (RSF), Prévention de l’Extrémisme Violent (PVE) ont été élaborés et sont en cours de mise en œuvre. Dans le même, sens les ressources humaines ont été renforcées et on compte pour le projet Prévention de l’Extrémisme Violent (PVE) un peu plus de 9 staffs dont 2 internationaux et pour le projet Stabilisation un peu plus de 11 Staffs déployés. History
6.3 : Renforcer le mécanisme de suivi et évaluation des plans opérationnels du CPD 2018-2020 en mettant l’emphase sur le suivi des indicateurs d’effets et en lien avec les indicateurs du plan stratégique du PNUD Assurer une capture régulière des progrès dans le « corporate planning system »
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
M&E DRR 2020/12 Completed Programme Tree Approuvé History
6.4 : Accentuer les missions de supervision des interventions sur le terrain et prendre des mesures de suivi requises
[Added: 2017/05/23] [Last Updated: 2021/03/31]
DRR ARR-G/ARR-DD M&E PMSU 2020/12 Completed Des missions de terrains sont organiser pour suivre et évaluer les résultats des différentes interventions du PNUD. Ces visites sont effectuées conjointement avec la partie gouvernementale et les rapports fournissent des recommandations qui permettent au senior management de prendre des actions programmatiques appropriées. Dans le cadre de HACT , des visites programmatiques sont effectuées trimestriellement auprès des partenaires de mise en œuvre afin d'apprécier l'évolution des projets vers les résultats et de relever les défis ainsi que les leçons apprises. History
7. Recommendation:

Recommendation 1. UNDP should concentrate more on results, strengthen its strategic positioning and cultivate its image. To achieve this, it should identify a limited number of areas where, given its mandate or its experience, it has comparative advantages. It should then define ambitious yet realistic outcomes and design and implement interventions, while at the same time achieving a good balance between targeted actions that are likely to rapidly-produce concrete results, and interventions that address deeper problems. It must communicate on its positioning and its role.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/01]

Key Actions:

8. Recommendation:

Recommendation 2. UNDP must consider reinvesting in the subjects that have been identified as the greatest challenges facing the country and where, as a result of its neutrality as well as its experience internationally and in Cameroon, it has a comparative advantage: strengthening democratic processes and the rule of law

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/01]

Key Actions:

9. Recommendation:

Recommendation 3. UNDP should continue to concentrate its efforts on the poorest and most vulnerable municipalities in the country, while striking a balance between upstream interventions (of a political or strategic nature) and downstream work (with target populations). It should avoid becoming confined to the role of an implementing agency for rapid recovery projects.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/01]

Key Actions:

10. Recommendation:

Recommendation 4. UNDP should continue to work to reduce gender inequalities and promote the empowerment of women, as well as the reduction of other forms of inequality and exclusion. The participation of vulnerable groups and consideration of their needs must be integrated into all programmes. A separate programme addressing cross-cutting issues is not recommended. The country office must strengthen its gender expertise and strive to satisfy the Gender Equality Seal benchmarks

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/01]

Key Actions:

11. Recommendation:

Recommendation 5. UNDP should update its partnership and resource mobilization strategy. It should also strengthen its advocacy with the Government in order to increase the national contribution to the country programme, reminding the Government that the 2013–2017 CPAP envisaged a contribution matching that of UNDP; if this is not possible, UNDP should clearly outline what it can and cannot finance. At the same time, UNDP should take measures to improve its efficiency and direct its resources towards priority programme activities.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/01]

Key Actions:

12. Recommendation:

Recommendation 6. UNDP should strengthen its monitoring and evaluation activities, placing the accent on the changes brought about by these activities, as well as on the progress made in achieving the intended outcomes. UNDP should also structure its office according to the geographic concentration of its programming, allocating more staff to the Far North to strengthen coordination and monitoring.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/02/01]

Key Actions:

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