Community Security and Arms Control End of Project Evaluation

Report Cover Image
Evaluation Plan:
2016-2018, South Sudan
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
03/2017
Completion Date:
09/2017
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
30,000

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Title Community Security and Arms Control End of Project Evaluation
Atlas Project Number: 00064257
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2018, South Sudan
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 09/2017
Planned End Date: 03/2017
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Crisis Prevention & Recovery
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 2.4. Frameworks and dialogue processes engaged for effective and transparent engagement of civil society in national development
  • 2. Output 5.5. Policy frameworks and institutional mechanisms enabled at the national and sub-national levels for the peaceful management of emerging and recurring conflicts and tensions
  • 3. Output 6.4. Recovery processes reinforce social cohesion and trust and enable rapid return to sustainable development
SDG Goal
  • Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
SDG Target
  • 16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
Evaluation Budget(US $): 30,000
Source of Funding: DFID, Sweden
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 30,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Sean Mc Gearty Mr smcgearty@gmail.com>
Phillip Deng Mr dengajang@yahoo.com
GEF Evaluation: No
Key Stakeholders: Bureau for Community Security and Arms Control, South Sudan Peace and Reconciliation Commission
Countries: SOUTH SUDAN
Comments:

Evaluation was succesfully completed

Lessons
1.
  • Importance of integrating Transitional Justice in community security interventions. Transitional Justice is a core element of the Peace agreement and will be critical to reconciliation and the future stability of South Sudan. CSAC can build on its work with the Peace Commission and at local level to support this process in the coming years.
  • In peace processes there is always a need for dialogue and value in keeping channels of communication open. The support for the NPPR and the creation of space for civil society and other actors to engage with and to input into discussion on the peace negotiations was important at a time when there was little or no opportunity for this to happen. This brought in women and youth to the process and helped built some relationships between the different stakeholders. 
  • In volatile situation where the government’s presence and influence is compromised, more transformative results can be generated by working at the local level, as opposed to focusing at the national level. The Peace Commission struggled to make progress at national level and as a result of outcomes are disappointing and the overall legacy of this work is weak. However a lot was achieved at county level and through the establishment of the national platform for peace and reconciliation. NPPR. The work of the Commission and the NPPR and the lessons learned will be very important in the development of the proposed National Dialogue process and all stakeholders should reflect on this learning and integrate it into the design process.

Findings
1.

Relevance

The focus on community level initiatives and on strengthening conflict resolution structures and processes at local and county level was the most appropriate response both before and after the 2013 crises. Efforts to introduce arms control, to build a peace infrastructure and support wider engagement in the peace process through the NPPR were all relevant and timely. 

Effectiveness

The Project was effective in a number of key areas. At local level it has increased people sense of security, Improved inter group relationships, helped create more resilient communities and strengthened the peace infrastructure at local level. The project has also facilitated the engagement and empowerment of women through capacity building, increased engagement in conflict resolution and peacebuilding and through livelihoods interventions including ones which specifically targeted marginalised women.

The CSO component has been significant and was an effective mechanism to extend the reach of the project and to strengthen sustainability.  However the short term nature of the support provided to  these NGOs limits effectiveness and CSAC should extend the support provided and should also strengthen links and synergies between these NGOs

The evaluation identified a number of issues relating to the CSAC theory of change. The project was designed when the   international community  was focusing its efforts on state building,  extending the reach of the GoSS,  and creating a “peace dividend” and CSAC  was aligned with this overarching  national and international strategy. However there are questions over the validity of this approach and the analysis which underpinned it on the basis that it was not addressing  the critical issues  of  power  and ethnic divisions at  national level. As a result the CSAC theory of change was not sufficiently geared to the core  conflict drivers  and this reduced the overall effectiveness of the project.

Impact

The evaluation has found that CSAC interventions have contributed to peace and security at a local level by increasing peoples sense of security, improving inter group relationships and by building more resilient communities which are better able to resist violence and provocation. This work has also strengthened the peace infrastructure at local level, built the capacity of local government and strengthened the social contract in these states. The project made significant progress and has established a useful platform for scaling up and taking these approach to a national level. However the project was not of sufficient scale to make a significant impact at state and national level and the ongoing political and security crises has eroded earlier gains in several states.  

Efforts to bring about change at the national level have been frustrated by the lack of progress on implementation of the peace agreement, a lack of political will, and institutional weaknesses and despite a significant investment the overall outcomes are disappointing. Despite this the evaluation has found that this was the right strategy and that SCAC played an important role in supporting and sustaining a national peace infrastructure at a difficult time. This provides a basis for further work when the space opens up for national dialogue and possible disarmament.  There are lessons for CSAC on how to work in this arena which can inform their approach to the planned National dialogue process. 

Sustainability

The ongoing conflict and the devastating impact on communities have limited the sustainability of some of CSAC work particularly early conflict sensitive development projects. However some elements have reasonable potential to be sustained in particular the work at community level on resource based conflicts, establishing and/or strengthening dispute resolution mechanisms and the interdependencies projects. The work with local government also has some potential for sustainability especially the peace structures at county level.  CSAC needs to main its focus on sustainability and also needs to ensure that all projects remain conflict sensitive.


Recommendations
1

Chapter 5 of the peace Agreement (Transitional Justice, accountability, reconciliation and healing) will be a core element of any sustainable peace process in South Sudan and CSAC should engage with and support this process through a twin track approach; building grassroots initiatives and engaging strategically at the national level.

2

CSAC should put in place strategies to ensure that there is ongoing support, and mentoring of projects implemented in this phase to ensure that they are sustainable, that that they remains conflict sensitive and that there is ongoing support for gender equality and empowerment.

3

CSAC should examine how it can expand the public dialogue element of the project and increase the geographic reach, the level of engagement and the range of issues being researched and debated.

4

CSAC should develop strategic partnerships with INGOs/ institutions involved in transitional justice and national dialogue to strengthen its capacity and to ensure that it can effectively engage in and support the National Dialogue and Transitional Justice efforts.

5

CSAC should strengthen its capacity in political analysis, transitional justice reconciliation and dialogue to enable it to effectively operate at the national level and contribute to the implementation of the agreement.

1. Recommendation:

Chapter 5 of the peace Agreement (Transitional Justice, accountability, reconciliation and healing) will be a core element of any sustainable peace process in South Sudan and CSAC should engage with and support this process through a twin track approach; building grassroots initiatives and engaging strategically at the national level.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2017/09/15]

Going forward, the Peace and community cohesion project is anchored in chapter 5 of the peace agreement with particular focus facilitating local and community reconciliation; facilitating the national dialogue and working with rule of law colleagues to support the Commission for Truth, Reconciliation and Healing.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Support
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager, CTA 2018/12 Completed Community dialogue and peace conferences conducted in 5 conflict clusters History
Support local initiatives to facilitate reconciliation and healing with particular focus on women, youth and IDPs
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager 2018/12 Completed local initiatives to facilitate reconciliation and healing with particular focus on women, youth and IDPs were supported History
Support the national dialogue process
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager, Chief Technical Advisor 2018/12 Completed national dialogue process supported History
Coordinate with Rule of Law project to support the commission for Truth, Reconciliation and Healing
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager 2019/12 Completed Successor project - PaCC collaborates with Access to Justice project on support the commission for Truth, Reconciliation and Healing History
2. Recommendation:

CSAC should put in place strategies to ensure that there is ongoing support, and mentoring of projects implemented in this phase to ensure that they are sustainable, that that they remains conflict sensitive and that there is ongoing support for gender equality and empowerment.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2017/09/15]

Going forward, the PACC project project will have an in built capacity strengthening component through twining of national CSOs with International NGOs. Also communities will be equipped with skills and knowledge to address root and trigger causes of conflicts and how to manage conflict triggers to minimize violent conflict in the society.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Undertake and Audit of facilities established. Hand over these infrastructure to government and develop a sustainability plan for their use
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager 2018/12 Completed completed structures were handed over History
Undertake community dialogue and assessment before community interdependent infrastructure and developed
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager 2019/12 Completed All interdependence projects are informed by community assessments History
Support for infrastructure for peace at the national level will focus on reform as demanded by the peace agreement rather than heavy infrastructure support.
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project manager, Chief Technical Advisor 2019/12 Completed Support for infrastructure for peace at the national level focussing on enabling implementation of the revitalised agreement History
Deploy technical and policy advisory services to national counterparts
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Senior UNDP Management 2019/12 Completed Technical support provided to naitonal institutions on an ongoing and need basis History
Build in conflict management and resolution structures into livelihood and interdependent infrastructure
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager 2019/12 Completed Peace building aspects included in all livelihood projects implemented under hte PaCC portfolio History
3. Recommendation:

CSAC should examine how it can expand the public dialogue element of the project and increase the geographic reach, the level of engagement and the range of issues being researched and debated.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/09/15]

The dialogue will be expanded to cover some of the 5 identified conflict clusters in the PACC project, including the community dialogues that will feed into the national dialogue

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Community dialogue will be undertaken in 50 communities
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager, CTA 2019/12 Completed Community dialogues conducted,and reached over 20,000 people History
Provide support to the national dialogue process, including conducting of peace conference in conflict hot spots and warring communities
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager, CTA 2018/12 Completed ND consultations around the country History
4. Recommendation:

CSAC should develop strategic partnerships with INGOs/ institutions involved in transitional justice and national dialogue to strengthen its capacity and to ensure that it can effectively engage in and support the National Dialogue and Transitional Justice efforts.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/09/15]

This recommendation is central to managing risk and leveraging the project to optimise impact. Going forward, through the PACC project, more robust partnerships will be developed with diverse partners including INGO

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Improve and maintain the monthly engagement and conversation with the peace actors and particularly encourage the participation of INGOs
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager 2019/12 Completed Engagement of communities on peace conducted on an ongoing basis, especially through inclusive peace committees History
Facilitate the convening of a peacebuilding working group (development partners involved in peacebuilding).
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project manager 2018/12 Completed Development partners engaged through joint field visits, board meetings History
Maintain strong relations with the Steering Committee and Secretariat of the national dialogue, presidential advisors, local administrators, traditional and religious leaders
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager, Chief Technical Advisor 2018/12 Completed The CO has unfettered access to ND secretariat, and the peace architecture of the country. PaCC has maintained strong engagement with office of the vice president, presidential adviser on security, local authorities, traditional leaders and CSOs History
Use the national dialogue task force and working groups meetings to strengthen and expand existing partnerships
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
project manager, chief technical advisor 2019/12 Completed There is an increasing number of partners expressing interest in supporting the ND History
5. Recommendation:

CSAC should strengthen its capacity in political analysis, transitional justice reconciliation and dialogue to enable it to effectively operate at the national level and contribute to the implementation of the agreement.

Management Response: [Added: 2017/09/15]

Conflict and political economic analysis will form the basis of our intervention, the actors to engage, the intervention area and the result we seek to achieve. These analysis will also help inform our engagement and advocacy

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The implementation of certain strategic and sensitive activities will be preceded by assessment and conflict analysis. For example facilitating local dialogue in some communities will be preceded by a robust analysis.
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager 2019/12 Completed All dialogues conducted by UNDP are preceded by indepth assessments History
Increase collaboration with UNMISS, UN AFP and other relevant actors to better develop a shared understanding of the context.
[Added: 2017/09/15] [Last Updated: 2019/11/17]
Project Manager, Chief Technical Advisor 2018/12 Completed UNMISS and UNDP are co-chairs of the UN working group in ND. There is an ongoing strong joined-up analysis and actions between UNMISS, IOM, UNwomen, UNESCO and UNDP on support to the ND and local peacebuilding. A peacebuilding plan has been developed to coordinate and harmonise UN support to local peacebuilding History

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