00083160 Reducing Releases of Polybromodiphenyl Ethers (PBDE) in Indonesia GEF Terminal Evaluation

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Evaluation Plan:
2016-2020, Indonesia
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
03/2021
Completion Date:
05/2021
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
35,000

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Title 00083160 Reducing Releases of Polybromodiphenyl Ethers (PBDE) in Indonesia GEF Terminal Evaluation
Atlas Project Number: 00083160
Evaluation Plan: 2016-2020, Indonesia
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 05/2021
Planned End Date: 03/2021
Management Response: Yes
UNDP Signature Solution:
  • 1. Sustainable
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2018-2021)
  • 1. Output 1.4.1 Solutions scaled up for sustainable management of natural resources, including sustainable commodities and green and inclusive value chains
SDG Goal
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
SDG Target
  • 12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
Evaluation Budget(US $): 35,000
Source of Funding: PBDE project
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 35,000
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: Yes
  • Joint with Ministry of Industry
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Dinesh Aggarwal International Consultant dinesh.a@rediffmail.com INDIA
Ari Wijanarko National Consultant ari.adipratomo@gmail.com
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: GEF Terminal Evaluation: Reducing Releases of Polybromodiphenyl Ethers (PBDE) in Indonesia
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Persistent Organic Pollutants
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-5
GEF Project ID: 5052
PIMS Number: 5073
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: INDONESIA
Lessons
1.

Some of the lessons learned that can be applied to future UNDP-supported GEF-financed interventions in the focal area of ‘Management of Chemicals and Waste’ are as follows;

  1. For the project design, it would help if the indicators like reduction in the emission of POPs have a target value to be achieved, during the implementation of the project and post project implementation.
  2. The project design and implementation missed out on one of the important stakeholders, that is the cement kilns (or other places for safe disposal of plastic waste), where PBDE containing plastic waste and non-recyclable plastic waste can be disposed on in a manner which doesn’t lead to emission of PBDE and UPOPs. It is recommended that for the projects directed towards the destruction of POPs, it would help to take on board the stakeholders which would eventually take up the task of safe disposal.
  3. The project design has not provided any incentive (or making good the potential loss) for the plastic waste collector to take/handover any PBDE containing plastic waste for disposal at a designated place for safe disposal of PBDE containing plastic waste. Considering that any plastic waste collected by a waste picker/recycler, is a mean of livelihood for them and their preference would be to sell it to the recycling industry to recover the cost of collection and some earnings. It is recommended that any project designed for the elimination of POPs/POPs containing material, provision is for the cost of collection and safe disposal of the material.
  4. Management of the waste in a given urban area is the responsibility of the Urban Local Body (ULB). To ensure effective implementation of management of waste-related projects, the local governing bodies (ULB/municipal corporation/provincial government/ other local governing bodies) may be included in the administrative set up for implementation of the project. The representative of such local bodies, where the pilot projects/actions are planned may be included in the ‘Project Board’ as members. 
  5. The process of formation of UPOPs and POPs (other than UPOPs) are different. Although, the emissions pathways to the environment may at times be common (e.g., management of waste). The techniques required to address the emissions of UPOPs, and POPs are different. For example, in the case of UPOPs the emphasis is on avoidance of formation, whereas, in the case of POPs the emphasis needs to be on destruction. It is recommended that for the projects that aim to reduce the emission of both POPs and UPOPs, the set of components/outcomes of the project should be separate for POPs and UPOPs

Findings
1.

Some of the barriers identified at the PPG stage, by the project towards addressing the release of UPOPs and PBDE in Indonesia include absence of regulations; Lack of institutional capacity; Lack of Professional and Technical limitations; lack of expertise and experience in dealing with chemicals and POPs management; lack of technical capacity (such as national laboratories). The project successfully led to reduction in the release of UPOPs by addressing some of these barriers.

The efforts towards reduction in the release of PBDE were not that successful. The practice which did not work in the case of the project was the regulations towards limiting the use of PBDE in the products. This was not a very cost-effective solution, as PBDE is not produced in any part of the world since 2004, thus, the possibility of its use in the products was restricted to the use of old recycled plastic, which possibly may contain PBDE. Although, the project successfully created some of the regulations, the impacts were not significant. For avoidance of the release of PBDE the approach required to be followed should have been aligned to destruction of existing inventory. Destruction of existing inventory is the approach which is typically followed for the POPs (e.g., PCB)

One of the best practices out of the project was the use of the concept of mini-depots for management of plastic waste. This worked well for addressing the emissions of UPOPs, in one of the major sources of such emissions and releases, i.e., disposal of non-recyclable plastic waste. This was achieved by facilitating the collection and aggregation and value addition at mini depots. The plastic waste that is recyclable and has economic value is collected and recycled at its own, if the volumes of waste at a given location are sufficient to justify commercial operations. The non-recyclable plastic waste, which comprises of Multi-layered packaging, thin blown films, small pieces of plastic, don’t get collected and is littered. These non-recyclable plastics at times get used as fuel or are burnt as a disposal method. Open burning of non-recyclable plastics is one of the primary sources of dioxins emissions to the atmosphere. 

One of the objectives of the project was to demonstrate and promote best practices and techniques for non-recyclable plastic waste which at the same time can reduce the emission of UPOPs and reduce risks to the workers in the plastic waste collection and recycling facilities. The project has partially achieved this objective. The shortcomings were there as an arrangement to dispose of non-recyclable plastic waste in a safe manner (e.g., by co-incineration in a cement kiln) could not be made in a timely manner.

The other objective of the project was to address the emissions/release of PBDE due to recycling and/or disposal or PBDE containing plastic waste. Once again, this was to be achieved by promotion and demonstration of best practices for PBDE containing plastic waste. The PBDE part of the project had limitations due to absence of cost-effective and practical methods for the identification of PBDE containing plastic waste. However, the project successfully overcame this issue by providing Br. Detecting equipment to the recyclers.

To achieve cooperation from the national counterparts in Indonesia, the global environmental objectives of the project were linked with the effectiveness of the waste management in the country. The rationale of the project was that best practices for waste management leads to improvement in the local environment. Training and capacity building was one of the major efforts of the project. Training and capacity building were carried out across various stakeholders, rating from the government officials, waste pickers, recycling industry, trade association, and NGOs.  

 


Recommendations
1

Creation and successful operation of the mini depot has been one of the achievements of the project. During the project, the mini depots were supported by the project. To ensure the sustainability of the operations and to facilitate replication, it would help if a proper administrative and business model for the operation and management of the mini depot is prepared and implemented. Proper representation of women in the management structure needs to be ensured.  Also, a detailed case study of the concept of mini depot, its financial viability, followed by wider dissemination of the case study, would attract investment for the establishment of the more mini depot.

2

Based on the success of the project to demonstrate management of plastic waste and reduction of the emissions of UPOPs using the concept of segregation of different types of plastic waste by the waste pickers and preliminary processing at the mini depot level, a follow up project may be taken up to replicate the concept of mini depots (implemented by private sector). Donor funds can be utilized for information dissemination, study tour to the successful mini depots, development of the business model, organizing the workshops for the entrepreneurs to take up establish the mini depots.

3

To increase participation and sustainable community support, it would be beneficial if a component of the younger generation was involved. An example of a best practice can be seen at the Mini Depot in Cirebon, where Karang Taruna was actively engaged and succeeded in garnering full support from the community. The involvement of youth organizational units such as youth organizations and the Scout Movement certainly has great potential to increase support from the wider community.

4

To ensure the effectiveness/impacts of the projects relating to elimination/emission reductions of POPs (other than UPOPs), it would help to have a detailed assessment of the baseline line situation regarding the presence of the targeted POPs in the country where the project is going to be implemented. It would also help, if such a baseline assessment considers the status of the targeted POP in the Stockholm Convention and the status of production/use of the POP internationally. It would be useful to include this information in the Project Document, as it would help and provide some guidance to the team implementing the project document, as it would help and provide some guidance to the team implementing the project..

5

Most of the Mini-Depots created under the project are running successfully. However, in case of one of the depots supported by the project for plastic waste management, the operations of the mini depot and the MSW are carried out by the same organization wherein the administrative set up and the financials are not segregated. Although, the operation of mini depots for plastic waste is financially viable on its own, difficulties are being faced in its operations, as the earnings from the sale of plastic get utilized for the operation of the MSW part of the operations. It is recommended that to ensure sustainability, the operations of mini depots for plastic waste should be kept administratively and financially separate from the MSW management

1. Recommendation:

Creation and successful operation of the mini depot has been one of the achievements of the project. During the project, the mini depots were supported by the project. To ensure the sustainability of the operations and to facilitate replication, it would help if a proper administrative and business model for the operation and management of the mini depot is prepared and implemented. Proper representation of women in the management structure needs to be ensured.  Also, a detailed case study of the concept of mini depot, its financial viability, followed by wider dissemination of the case study, would attract investment for the establishment of the more mini depot.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/05/10]

UNDP is taking this lesson for other future initiatives that require similar support. Meanwhile, it is important to understand that  the project management unit (PMU) had an intensive communication with relevant parties to assure the sustainability prior to the facility development and machine (equipment) installation. Gender equality has been considered successful in the project  implementation. It is the 1st project to address chemicals and waste (environmental pollution) in UNDP Indonesia to integrate gender equality in its activities. The project has strengthened relevant parties to adopt relevant policies on the importance of gender equality in such industries. Although it has not been written officially, the concept of mini depo has actually invited several donors to share its support. To name two of them were Dow Chemicals and Nippon Closures Co. (NCC).

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Programme personnel (UNDP CO) will work with the Ministry of Industry (MoI) and other relevant stakeholders at national and sub national levels to incorporate the lessons-learned in knowledge sharing activities (discussions, webinar, seminar, etc.), and other relevant project implementation
[Added: 2021/05/10] [Last Updated: 2021/08/19]
UNDP CO 2021/09 Completed The activities are completed. History
2. Recommendation:

Based on the success of the project to demonstrate management of plastic waste and reduction of the emissions of UPOPs using the concept of segregation of different types of plastic waste by the waste pickers and preliminary processing at the mini depot level, a follow up project may be taken up to replicate the concept of mini depots (implemented by private sector). Donor funds can be utilized for information dissemination, study tour to the successful mini depots, development of the business model, organizing the workshops for the entrepreneurs to take up establish the mini depots.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/05/10]

UNDP is taking this lesson for other future initiatives that require similar support.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Programme personnel (UNDP CO) will work with relevant stakeholders at national and sub national to incorporate lessons-learned in knowledge sharing activities at national and even international levels
[Added: 2021/05/10] [Last Updated: 2021/08/19]
UNDP CO 2021/09 Completed The activities are completed. History
3. Recommendation:

To increase participation and sustainable community support, it would be beneficial if a component of the younger generation was involved. An example of a best practice can be seen at the Mini Depot in Cirebon, where Karang Taruna was actively engaged and succeeded in garnering full support from the community. The involvement of youth organizational units such as youth organizations and the Scout Movement certainly has great potential to increase support from the wider community.

Management Response: [Added: 2021/05/10]

UNDP is taking this lesson for other future initiatives that require similar support.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
During the project implementation, in coordination with the UNDP CO Communication Unit and other relevant partners, the project has been working with the Youth (and even inviting young actress) to beat plastic pollutions (2018): https://www.id.undp.org/content/indonesia/en/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2018/5/creative-or-lazy--everyone-can--beatplasticpollution-together.html. However, the programme personnel (UNDP CO) will keep on working with Youth groups and other UN agencies to share and incorporate the lessons learned in knowledge sharing activities (discussions, webinar, seminar, etc.) and other relevant activities. In 2019 Social Good Summit, the project promoted the danger of unsound plastics waste management to the Youth: https://www.id.undp.org/content/indonesia/en/home/Social-Good-Summit-2019.html
[Added: 2021/05/10] [Last Updated: 2021/08/19]
UNDP CO 2021/09 Completed The activities are completed . History
4. Recommendation:

To ensure the effectiveness/impacts of the projects relating to elimination/emission reductions of POPs (other than UPOPs), it would help to have a detailed assessment of the baseline line situation regarding the presence of the targeted POPs in the country where the project is going to be implemented. It would also help, if such a baseline assessment considers the status of the targeted POP in the Stockholm Convention and the status of production/use of the POP internationally. It would be useful to include this information in the Project Document, as it would help and provide some guidance to the team implementing the project document, as it would help and provide some guidance to the team implementing the project..

Management Response: [Added: 2021/05/10] [Last Updated: 2021/05/10]

Stockholm Convention does not stipulate deadline to eliminate PBDEs-contained-in-plastics inventory (differently from PCBs), so this type of activity is not included in the project and is not eligible by GEF. Moreover, this would require a major intervention much beyond the project (forcing all Indonesians that have EEE products to replace their products, create a great collection system and then separated contaminated plastics).

In a perfect world, without further effects of a large replacement of this would cause (meaning new products would need to be bought by these people to replace old EEE) this would have been the best solution, but it would not be feasible to be done. So the Evaluators may wish to better explain this recommendation with all "caviats" and putting into the proper perspective or disclaimers. cause this statement entails an oversimplification of the issue, entails that SC demands this replacement of inventory, and entails that this activity is eligible by the GEF and could have been done by the project with no further implications.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
The lessons-learned will be considered in the next project concept/ initiative
[Added: 2021/05/10] [Last Updated: 2021/08/19]
UNDP , BRH /RTA 2021/09 Completed The activities are completed. History
5. Recommendation:

Most of the Mini-Depots created under the project are running successfully. However, in case of one of the depots supported by the project for plastic waste management, the operations of the mini depot and the MSW are carried out by the same organization wherein the administrative set up and the financials are not segregated. Although, the operation of mini depots for plastic waste is financially viable on its own, difficulties are being faced in its operations, as the earnings from the sale of plastic get utilized for the operation of the MSW part of the operations. It is recommended that to ensure sustainability, the operations of mini depots for plastic waste should be kept administratively and financially separate from the MSW management

Management Response: [Added: 2021/05/10]

UNDP is taking this lesson for other future initiatives that require similar support.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
UNDP CO and PMU have shared the challenging aspects with relevant partners in the fields.
[Added: 2021/05/10]
UNDP CO 2021/03 Completed The activities have been completed via online and offline hand over witnessed by relevant stakeholders at national and subnational

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