Strengthening climate service and early warning systems in The Gambia

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Evaluation Plan:
2017-2021, Gambia
Evaluation Type:
Project
Planned End Date:
04/2018
Completion Date:
01/2020
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
20,000

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Title Strengthening climate service and early warning systems in The Gambia
Atlas Project Number: 00083699
Evaluation Plan: 2017-2021, Gambia
Evaluation Type: Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 01/2020
Planned End Date: 04/2018
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.4. Scaled up action on climate change adaptation and mitigation across sectors which is funded and implemented
SDG Goal
  • Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  • Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
SDG Target
  • 12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
  • 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
Evaluation Budget(US $): 20,000
Source of Funding: GEF
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 32,500
Joint Programme: No
Joint Evaluation: No
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Stephen Ndiboi consultant sndiboi@sdafrica_consulting.co.ke KENYA
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: Strengthening climate service and early warning systems in The Gambia
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Biodiversity
Project Type: MSP
GEF Phase: GEF-5
GEF Project ID: 83699
PIMS Number: 5156
Key Stakeholders:
Countries: GAMBIA
Lessons
1.
  1. It is very easy to forget developing a contingency plan of an Early Warning System (EWS). This is because, designers, developers and implementers of an EWS might wrongly take that they are geared towards implementing a system which by itself is to manage emergencies and create capacity to respond.

     

    However, during the review of the EWSP 2, it was evident that an EWS should be supported by implementation of a well thought out Contingency Plan that factors aspects of people, technology and processes. The Contingency Plan of an EWS should focus on how to ensure financial sustainability, insuring the equipment installation, managing aspects of technological obsolescence (that is when ICT or other equipment become obsolete or outdated and no longer used), equipment maintenance, testing and calibration, as well as continuous training and capacity building on the EWS technological and operational aspects.

     

  1. An effective EWS should be buttressed with an integrated weather, climate, environmental, hydrological and meteorological data and information management system (mostly GIS enabled) that can be both centralised and decentralised. Continued research would also strengthen the EWS.

     

     

  1. In order to implement an effective and robust EWS, the key stakeholders and experts should understand the following:

     

    1. Apart from a small number of NHMS agencies, essentially, early warning systems are non-structural disaster mitigation measures designed to save human lives by enabling local authorities and the communities to plan and to act accordingly in the event of a disaster. For example, if an EWS is applied to the flood hazard, such an early warning would require facilities to measure rain data and upstream catchment and river behaviour so that timely warnings from a possible flood can be provided to the downstream communities. Hence, the design of the early warning system on flood should adopt a river basin or a watershed approach to essentially account for the upstream, midstream and downstream aspects of the basin. Hence, within the framework of disaster management system, emphasis should be made on "self-reliance", "self-help" and "mutual assistance" at the local level, particularly in the utilization of resources. It is against this backdrop that for example a community-based flood early warning system (CBFEWS) can be developed and anchored on the existing local disaster

      coordinating council that is inherent in the institutional set-up of every local government unit (LGU).

       

    2. The EWS implementation would need people, technological and operational capability that would provide impact-based forecasting and risk-based warnings, in particular for secondary hazards such as coastal flooding and flash floods. As the EWS implementation progress, there is an increasing demand to create capacities and standardizing the operational procedures between NMHSs and disaster risk management institutions. In addition, there would be a need to ensuring that the EWS information dissemination can reach those that need them the most in a manner that leads to effective action.


Findings
Recommendations
1

Meteorological, hydrological, environmental and climate information / services do support disaster risk reduction (DRR) and early warning systems (EWS) in Gambia and hence a contingency / continuity plan for these essential services should be developed to ensure functioning of EWS at all times.

2

EWSP2  financing  and  implementing  partners  should consider a third phase of the EWSP in order to enable a smooth transition of the EWS from the formative stage that it is now to a more mature stage when key agencies shall be semi-autonomous (generating some incomes from the products and services they offer) and well supported by the government.

3

The EWS agencies that should be established by the law should be supported in becoming specific service focused institutions / Agencies (SFA) with inbuilt self-sustaining capabilities through income generation from services and products they provide. Private and public sectors players should be widely consulted on the income generation proposals by the EWS agencies.

4

Farafenni post graduate diploma programme should be upgraded to provide Bachelors and Master degrees in hydrology and meteorology, as well as other related areas

in order to create sustainable local human resource for the EWS  in  the  Gambia.  A  target  of  training  at  least  4 bachelors and 3 master degree students before project

ends should be realised.

5

Some of the critical mobility impediments for key agencies and beneficiaries should be considered (e.g. giving motor bikes or a few motor vehicles). Areas to be considered

include  Project’s  outcome  inspection  capability  e.g. meteorology and hydrology stations and installations.

6

The meteorology services capability should be aimed at having  all  the  15  traditional  meteorology  centres  be equipped  with  both  Intellisense  (as  standby)  and Automatic Weather Stations. All the conventional weather stations should be faced out before end of year 2020 in order to comply with mercury instrument discontinuation by Minamata Convention on Mercury.

7

establish an integrated and GIS enabled environmental information system (EIS) platform and to be hosted by NEA or any other agency the stakeholders will identify as most suitable. The EIS should also plug in institutions like research agencies (e.g. climate change institute at the UTG. The EIS should also be a driving lever for the EWS.

1. Recommendation:

Meteorological, hydrological, environmental and climate information / services do support disaster risk reduction (DRR) and early warning systems (EWS) in Gambia and hence a contingency / continuity plan for these essential services should be developed to ensure functioning of EWS at all times.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/01/08]

Ministries of Environment and Agriculture and Depatment of Water Affairs will need in defining contingency planning for EWS noting the importance to agriculture.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Development of contingency plans at regional level as part of disaster risk mitigation planning.
[Added: 2020/01/08]
Government of the Gambia with support of UN and other partners 2021/11 Not Initiated
2. Recommendation:

EWSP2  financing  and  implementing  partners  should consider a third phase of the EWSP in order to enable a smooth transition of the EWS from the formative stage that it is now to a more mature stage when key agencies shall be semi-autonomous (generating some incomes from the products and services they offer) and well supported by the government.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/01/08]

Recommendation is noted, however financing agreements fruition is beyond the scope of partners to commit to and is subject to the fromulation of a relevant proposal and vetting thereof.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Undertake discussions with key partners and financing stakeholders on funding for 3rd phase of EWS>
[Added: 2020/01/08]
Ministry Of Environment and Ministry of Agriculture. 2021/11 Not Initiated
3. Recommendation:

The EWS agencies that should be established by the law should be supported in becoming specific service focused institutions / Agencies (SFA) with inbuilt self-sustaining capabilities through income generation from services and products they provide. Private and public sectors players should be widely consulted on the income generation proposals by the EWS agencies.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/01/08]

Recommendation is noted. For the immediate period; these agenies will continue to be housed in existing ministries and agencies and those functions strengthened.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
ensure the functional strengthen of EWS roles within existing ministries and agencies to ensure subject to definition of a national mutli-sector EWS approach
[Added: 2020/01/08]
Ministry of Agriculture; Ministry of Environment, Department of Water 2021/09 Not Initiated
4. Recommendation:

Farafenni post graduate diploma programme should be upgraded to provide Bachelors and Master degrees in hydrology and meteorology, as well as other related areas

in order to create sustainable local human resource for the EWS  in  the  Gambia.  A  target  of  training  at  least  4 bachelors and 3 master degree students before project

ends should be realised.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/01/08]

Recommendation noted. Given that poject ends in 2020, target recommended cannot be realised within given timeline. In consultation with the University , discussion of specialization at underraduate level in hydrology in the first instance will be undertaken.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Engage University of Gambia on requirements of augmenting Farafeni diploma course to a specialization as Bachelors level.
[Added: 2020/01/08]
Department of Water Affairs, University of Gambia 2021/11 Not Initiated
5. Recommendation:

Some of the critical mobility impediments for key agencies and beneficiaries should be considered (e.g. giving motor bikes or a few motor vehicles). Areas to be considered

include  Project’s  outcome  inspection  capability  e.g. meteorology and hydrology stations and installations.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/01/08]

Vehicular support to installation will be taken up by the Government of the Gambia.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Procure at least 2 vehicles and 3 motorcycles through national budget
[Added: 2020/01/08]
Department of Water Affairs and UNDP 2021/09 Not Initiated
6. Recommendation:

The meteorology services capability should be aimed at having  all  the  15  traditional  meteorology  centres  be equipped  with  both  Intellisense  (as  standby)  and Automatic Weather Stations. All the conventional weather stations should be faced out before end of year 2020 in order to comply with mercury instrument discontinuation by Minamata Convention on Mercury.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/01/08]

Recommendation noted. However due to resource constraints, trasntional period will need to be longer and phased.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Equip all the 15 traditional meteorology centres with both Intellisense (as standby) and Automatic Weather Stations.
[Added: 2020/01/08]
Department of Water Affairs 2023/12 Not Initiated
7. Recommendation:

establish an integrated and GIS enabled environmental information system (EIS) platform and to be hosted by NEA or any other agency the stakeholders will identify as most suitable. The EIS should also plug in institutions like research agencies (e.g. climate change institute at the UTG. The EIS should also be a driving lever for the EWS.

Management Response: [Added: 2020/01/08]

The medium term aim of national stakeholders is to establish an EIS platform as per specification recommended herein.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Seek expert support to define specification scope and needs and costing of an EIS
[Added: 2020/01/08]
Department of Water Affairs 2021/11 Not Initiated

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