évaluation finale du projet ACCE : (Adaptation de la gestion des ressources en eau aux changements climatiques).

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Evaluation Plan:
2015-2019, Comoros
Evaluation Type:
Final Project
Planned End Date:
05/2017
Completion Date:
09/2017
Status:
Completed
Management Response:
Yes
Evaluation Budget(US $):
40,000

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Title évaluation finale du projet ACCE : (Adaptation de la gestion des ressources en eau aux changements climatiques).
Atlas Project Number: 00060498
Evaluation Plan: 2015-2019, Comoros
Evaluation Type: Final Project
Status: Completed
Completion Date: 09/2017
Planned End Date: 05/2017
Management Response: Yes
Focus Area:
  • 1. Environment & Sustainable Development
  • 2. Others
Corporate Outcome and Output (UNDP Strategic Plan 2014-2017)
  • 1. Output 1.4. Scaled up action on climate change adaptation and mitigation across sectors which is funded and implemented
Evaluation Budget(US $): 40,000
Source of Funding: GEF : 62160 ; PNUD : 04000
Evaluation Expenditure(US $): 40,000
Joint Programme: No
Mandatory Evaluation: No
Joint Evaluation: Yes
  • Joint with UN Agencies
  • Joint with UNEP
Evaluation Team members:
Name Title Email Nationality
Thorbjorn Waagstein Consultant International tw@pem.dk
GEF Evaluation: Yes
GEF Project Title: PIMS 4188 : Comoros Adapting Water Resource Management
Evaluation Type: Terminal Evaluation
Focal Area: Climate Change
Project Type: FSP
GEF Phase: GEF-4
GEF Project ID: 3857
PIMS Number: 4188
Key Stakeholders: Direction Générale de l’Environnement et des Forêts (DGEF) • Agence Nationale de l'Aviation Civile et de la Météorologie (ANACM) • Mamwe (Société Nationale de l'Eau et Electricité) • Union des Comités de l'Eau d'Anjouan (UCEA) • Union des Comités de l'Eau de Mohéli (UCEM) • Communautés des sites d'intervention de Mbatse/Hoani ; Lingoni/Pomoni ; Nyumakele-bas ; Bandasamilini
Countries: COMOROS
Comments:

Cette evaluation etait prevue etre prise en charge par le PNUE selon les arrangements entre PNUE et PNUD  mais celui ci n'a pas pu recruter le consultant qu'en fin d'année et n'est disponible à commencer qu'en mars 2017

Lessons
1.

L1. The project carried out a participatory process to select the communities and the involvement of the communities from the very beginning of the project planning. It is considered that this has been a crucial factor for increasing the community ownership, which appears to be relatively high for at least some of the pilot projects. This is potentially a good point of departure for setting up a sustainable management of the schemes (which for other reasons have not happened). It is a relatively simple element to include in project planning, but is often omitted for time reasons or other inconveniences. This is a positive lesson learnt, widely applicable elsewhere.

L2. Water quality is a major concern in the Comoros as Anjouan and Mohéli are dependent on surface water for the water supply systems. The introduction of slow filters in two of the community water supply schemes is an interesting innovation to improve water quality, often ignored in community projects. Potentially there is a lesson learnt which can be used for upscaling. However, for that to be the case, the experience needs first to be properly documented. In particular, it has to be documented whether the water quality has actually improved, and whether the required operation and management is suitable for community schemes.

L3. When planning the pilot water supply schemes, little attention was paid to the issue of the operation and management of the water supply schemes, except for supporting the setting up of water management committees and providing these with some training. This has proved to be insufficient. Another challenge has been that the projects, due to budget constraints, have only addressed some of the deficiencies in the existing systems, while others have not been addressed. This is in particular the case for the existing distribution networks, which have not been rehabilitated, implying that there continues to be substantial water losses in the systems. Furthermore, no meters have been installed. This has made the water supply schemes difficult to manage, and when the schemes are not working properly, people are less willing to pay for the service. The lesson learnt is that when a water supply scheme is planned, the issue of operation and management should be included from the very project design. Failure to do so puts the future sustainability of the investment at risk. Furthermore, it is important that the project scope include the whole system, including the distribution network and the meters. If the project does not include these elements, it is very difficult to put into place a sustainable management of the scheme. This is not a new lesson learnt, as this is well-known from many other similar projects, but it has once again been confirmed by the present project.

L4. The community water supply schemes constructed by the project are rather big. They are managed by water management committees, and the task of operating the schemes clearly surpass what can be expected from this type of management, so the infrastructures are not properly operated and maintained. The lesson learnt is that water supply schemes over a certain size can not be managed informally by a community water committee. The operation and management has to be formalised and paid for, independently of the organisational setup chosen (community operated or outsourced to a private operator). Again, this is not a new lesson learnt, as this is well-known from many other similar projects, but is has once again been confirmed by the present project.

L5. The pilot project in Moroni is support to a rather big city water supply system. However, as the management of the system is the responsibility of an institution (Ma-Mwe) dedicated mainly to the provision of energy, the management of the water supply is not prioritised and the funds for maintaining the system are way below what is needed. Furthermore, the cost recovery is extremely low. This was known when the project was planned, but even so the question of operation and management was not addressed as part of the project, except for some training in the issue of cost recovery. The sustainability of the Moroni water system is therefore very low. The lesson learnt is that support to city water supply systems should include as a clear condition that the management of the system is separated out in an autonomous water company, public or private, and that tariffs should make it possible to cover at least operation and management. If the tariffs are insufficient to cover operation and management, then is should be clearly defined how and by whom it will be subsidized, and the likelihood for this to happen should be assessed. Again, this is not a new lesson learnt, as this is well-known from many other similar projects, but it has been confirmed by the present project.

L6. The project has supported reforestation on communal lands but the survival of the trees is very low. The reason for the areas being deforested in the first place have not been analysed during the project planning, so this is not surprising. It is understood, that there are many reasons for the deforestation, including pressure from agriculture, lack of clarity on the ownership for these communal lands, agricultural fires etc. The lesson learnt is that when reforestation is planned, the causes of deforestation should be analysed thoroughly. If the factors causing the deforestation are not addressed, the reforestation is likely to be unsuccessful.

L7. The present project promoting climate change adaptation has included activities in a variety of fields: Institutional development at national, island and community level, development of the policy framework for the sector, advocacy for inclusion of climate change into the sector policy, improvement of potable and agricultural water supply in selected communities, promotion of protection of water sources and promotion of water and soil conservation in agriculture. All these issues are important for climate change adaptation, however, the result is that the investments have been spread out thinly, the management burden has been heavy and the impacts are difficult to discern. The lesson learnt is that when planning a climate change adaptation project, it is important to avoid attempting to do everything, as the risk is that the investments will be spread out too thinly, that it will be difficult to manage and that the impact in each area will be small. It is therefore important to maintain a focus for the project and only include in the project issues outside the focus area of the project, when these are absolutely necessary for success, and it is unlikely that they will be covered by other actors. 


Tag: Adaptation

Findings
Recommendations
1

R1. It is therefore recommended to the Ministry of Production and its partners, particularly UNDP and UNEP, to urgently search for additional funds to complement the investments made in the five pilot projects. It is further recommended that these additional funds be conditioned on the putting into place of a formalised management of the community pilot schemes.

 

 

 

2
1. Recommendation:

R1. It is therefore recommended to the Ministry of Production and its partners, particularly UNDP and UNEP, to urgently search for additional funds to complement the investments made in the five pilot projects. It is further recommended that these additional funds be conditioned on the putting into place of a formalised management of the community pilot schemes.

 

 

 

Management Response: [Added: 2018/01/04] [Last Updated: 2018/09/08]

Mobilisation des ressources auprès du LDCF/GEF/GCF pour la mise en oeuvre d'un nouveau programme d'adaptation de la gestion de l'eau aux changements climatiques. 

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Mener des actions de mobilisation des ressources auprès du GEF et du GCF pour la levée de fonds additionnels pour un nouveau programme.
[Added: 2018/09/08]
Youssouf, MBECHEZI, Karim ALI AHMED, Mohamed LIHADJI 2019/01 Initiated
2. Recommendation:
Management Response: [Added: 2018/01/04]

MR1. All theses recommendations have been taken into account in while elaboratin the new project that is meant at upscaling all these pilot interventions, within this ACCE project. This project is a full size project willing to Ensure sustainable and climate resilient water supplies in the Comoros Islands, and submitted for funding (51,000,000 USD) to the Green Climate Fund in December 2017.  The project is targetting 64% of population (hence 450.000 hab) on the three islands of Moheli, Anjouan, and Grande Comore inculding Moroni and will address both domestic and agricultral water supply.

Key Actions:

Key Action Responsible DueDate Status Comments Documents
Intégrer les éléments de consolidation des actions du projet ACCE dans le nouveau projet en cours d'élaboration pour soumission au GCF.
[Added: 2018/09/08] [Last Updated: 2018/10/11]
Youssouf MBECHEZI, Karim ALI AHMED, Mohamed LIHADJI 2018/10 Completed Les éléments de consolidation des actions du projet ACCE ont été intégrés dans la nouveau projet portant "Assurer un approvisionnement en eau résilient au climat en Union des Comores", soumis pour approbation au Conseil d'Administration du GCF, qui se tiendra du 17 au 21 octobre 2021.

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